Anabaptists, Rebaptizers再洗礼派

General Information一般信息

Anabaptists, or rebaptizers, were members of a variety of 16th - century religious groups that rejected infant baptism. Since they believed that only after an adult had come to faith in Christ should he or she be baptized, they taught that converts who had been baptized in infancy must be rebaptized. Anabaptists的,或rebaptizers,被第16个成员的一个品种-世纪婴儿洗礼宗教团体的拒绝。由于他们认为,只有成年后已经到了基督信仰,他或她应该接受洗礼,他们告诉我们,谁被洗礼转换在婴儿期必须rebaptized。

Anabaptists held the church to be the congregation of true saints who should separate themselves from the sinful world. Their theology was highly eschatological, and they claimed direct inspiration by the Holy Spirit.再洗礼派教堂举行的是世界教会真正的圣人谁应单独自己从罪恶的。他们高度末世论神学,并表示圣灵直接启示的。The Anabaptists refused to take oaths, opposed capital punishment, and rejected military service.的Anabaptists拒绝宣誓,反对死刑,并拒绝服兵役。Their beliefs made them appear subversive and provoked persecution.他们的信仰使他们似乎颠覆和挑起的迫害。Many of the Reformers disclaimed them, regarding them as fundamentally opposed to the ideas of the reformation.改革者的许多否认他们,认为它们从根本上反对改革的意见的。

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In Zurich, Conrad Grebel performed the first adult baptism on Jan.在苏黎世,康拉德格雷贝尔成人洗礼表现在1月的第一个21, 1525, when he rebaptized Georg Blaurock in the house of Felix Manz. 21日,1525年,当他rebaptized曼茨格奥尔格布劳罗克菲利克斯在家里。Anabaptism spread to southwest Germany, Austria, Moravia, along the Danube, and down the Rhine to the Netherlands. Numbering less than 1 percent of the population, the Anabaptists were for the most part of humble social origin. Anabaptism蔓延到德国西南部,奥地利,摩拉维亚,沿多瑙河,莱茵河,下到荷兰。编号姊的人口不到1人的anabaptists为社会出身最卑微的一部分。 Among their leaders were Balthasar Hubmaier, Hans Denck, Jacob Hutter, and Hans Hut.在他们的领导人巴尔塔萨Hubmaier,汉斯Denck,雅各布胡特尔和汉斯必胜客。

In 1534, militant Anabaptists, inspired by radical Melchior Hofmann , seized control of the city of Munster.1534年,激进Anabaptists,灵感来自激进梅尔基奥尔霍夫曼 ,缴获蒙斯特控制的城市。Led by Bernt Knipperdollinck, Jan Mathijs, and Jan Beuckelson, better known as John of Leiden (c. 1509 - 36), they drove out all Protestants and Roman Catholics. 36贝恩特Knipperdollinck带领下,1月的Mathijs,和扬- Beuckelson,更好地称为约翰的莱顿(公元前1509年),他们驱逐了所有新教和罗马天主教。John set up a theocracy, became king, and established polygamy and communal property.约翰成立了一个政教合一,成为国王,并建立一夫多妻制和公有财产。After a 16 month siege, the bishop of Munster recaptured the city and executed the rebels. Menno Simons, a Dutchman, restored the reputation of the Anabaptists through his moderate and inspired leadership.经过16个月的围困,在明斯特主教收复城市和执行的反政府武装。 门诺西门子,一个荷兰人,恢复了他的温和,激发了领导声誉的anabaptists通过。His followers have survived and are known as Mennonites .他的追随者已经存活,是被称为门诺派The Hutterian Brethren are descendants of the group led by Hutter.胡特尔的Hutterian弟兄子孙的领导小组。

Lewis W Spitz刘易斯W施皮茨

Bibliography 书目
CP Clasen, Anabaptism: A Social History, 1525 - 1618 (1972); W Estep, The Anabaptist Story (1975); GF Hershberger, ed., The Recovery of the Anabaptist Vision (1957); FH Littell, Origins of Sectarian Protestantism (1964); GH Williams, The Radical Reformation (1962); GH Williams and A Mergal, eds., Spiritual and Anabaptist Writers (1957).处长克拉森,Anabaptism:一个社会历史,1525年至1618年(1972年); W埃斯特普,再洗礼派的故事(1975年);绿赫什伯格,编辑。,该)回收的再洗礼派远景(1957年;跳频利特尔,新教教派的起源( 1964年);生长激素威廉姆斯,激进改革(1962年);生长激素威廉姆斯和A玛格利塔梅尔加尔合编。,精神和1957年)再洗礼派作家(。


Anabaptists再洗礼派

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Greek ana, again, and baptizo, baptize; rebaptizers).(希腊全日空,再次,baptizo,洗礼; rebaptizers)。

A violent and extremely radical body of ecclesiastico-civil reformers which first made its appearance in 1521 at Zwickau, in the present kingdom of Saxony, and still exists in milder forms.阿目前的王国萨克森州的暴力和极端激进的身体ecclesiastico公务员最早的改革者这使得其在外观在茨维考,在1521,仍然存在着温和的形式。

I. NAME AND DOCTRINAL PRINCIPLES一,名称和理论原则

The name Anabaptists, etymologically applicable, and sometimes applied to Christian denominations that practise re-baptism is, in general historical usage, restricted to those who, denying the validity of infant baptism, became prominent during the great reform movement of the sixteenth century.再洗礼派的名称,词源适用,有时适用于基督教教派的做法重新洗礼,是使用,对一般历史,仅限于那些谁,否认婴儿洗礼的有效性,成为突出的在本世纪16伟大的改革运动。 The designation was generally repudiated by those to whom it was applied, as the discussion did not centre around the question whether baptism can be repeated, but around the question whether the first baptism was valid.该指定普遍否定了那些人,它被应用,因为讨论没有围绕反复洗礼是否可以,但围绕是否第一次洗礼是有效的。The distinctive principles upon which Anabaptists generally agreed were the following:独特的普遍同意的原则赖以Anabaptists的有:

They aimed at restoring what they claimed to have been primitive Christianity. This restoration included the rejection of oaths and capital punishment and the abstention from the exercise of magistracy.他们的目标是恢复他们声称已经原始基督教。这种恢复包括裁判法院拒绝宣誓和死刑和弃权的行使。

In a more consistent manner than the majority of Protestant reformers, they maintained the absolute supremacy and sole sufficiency of the canonical Scriptures as a norm of faith.在一个更一致的方式比大多数新教改革者,他们保持了绝对的优势和信仰的唯一准则作为一个自给自足的圣经规范。However, private inspiration and religious sentiment played an important role among them.然而,私人的灵感和宗教感情发挥了重要作用其中。

Infant baptism and the Lutheran doctrine of justification by faith alone were rejected as without scriptural warrant.婴儿的洗礼和信仰的理由仅仅由路德学说被拒绝,因为即使不圣经的手令。

The new Kingdom of God, which they purposed to found, was to be the reconstruction, on an entirely different basis, of both ecclesiastical and civil society.对发现新的天国,他们的依据,是要重建,在一个完全不同的基础上,无论是教会和民间社会。Communism, including for some of them the community of women, was to be the underlying principle of the new state.共产主义,其中包括一些妇女的社区,是为新的国家基本原则的。

II.二。ORIGIN AND HISTORY由来与沿革

The question of the validity of baptism appears in two great phases in ecclesiastical history.洗礼的有效性的问题出现在两个教会的伟大历史阶段研究。The first controversy raged at an early date (third and fourth centuries) and regarded the minister of the sacrament (baptism conferred by heretics).第一个争论激烈早日(第三和第四世纪),并认为异端部长圣礼(由洗礼授予)。It was at a much later date that the second discussion originated, in which the subject of infant baptism was the point controverted.这是在更晚的日期,第二次讨论起源,其中婴儿的洗礼主题是一点有争议。In the eleventh and twelfth centuries the Petrobrusians rejected infant baptism and they and many subsequent medieval heretics (Henricians, Waldenses, Albigenses, and Bohemian Brethren) held views resembling in some respects the tenets of Anabaptists.在第十一届和第十二届世纪Petrobrusians拒绝婴儿的洗礼,他们和许多后来的中世纪异教徒(Henricians,瓦勒度派,阿尔比派,和波希米亚弟兄)举行类似的意见再洗礼派在某些原则的尊重。 There is, however, little if any historical connection between the Anabaptists and those earlier sects.有,但是,几乎没有任何早期教派之间的历史联系的anabaptists和那些。Luther's principles and examples exercised more influence over the new movement.路德的原则和实行新的例子在运动影响更大。Private interpretation of the Scriptures, however, and inward teaching by the Holy Ghost could be claimed by any individual, and logically led to the extreme Anabaptist views.民营解释圣经,然而,外来教学圣灵可以索赔的任何个人,在逻辑上导致了极端的再洗礼派的看法。

(a) Anabaptism in Saxony and Thuringia (1521-25)(在萨克森州和图林根州)Anabaptism(1521年至1525年)

Nicholas Storch, a weaver (d. 1525) and Thomas Münzer, a Lutheran preacher (c. 1490-1525), together with the other self-styled "Prophets of Zwickau" made, at the Reformation, the first attack on infant baptism.尼古拉斯斯托奇,一个织布工(草1525)和托马斯闵采尔,一个路德牧师(公元前1490年至1525年),连同其他自称为“先知的茨维考”提出,在改革,对婴儿的第一次进攻的洗礼。 The doctrines of the absolute equality of all men and complete community of goods and the resulting disturbances soon brought them into conflict with the civil authorities of Zwickau.造成干扰的理论和绝对平等的男人和所有完整的社区的商品很快就使他们的茨维考到冲突的民事当局。Storch, before any repressive measures were taken against him, left with two associates for Wittenberg (1521), where he continued his preaching. Carlstadt was soon gained over to the cause.斯托奇措施之前,任何对他采取了镇压,Carlstadt的只剩下两个同伙的维滕贝格(1521),他在那里继续他的说教。很快掌握了这一事业。 The combined agitation of Carlstadt and Storch at Wittenberg, and Carlstadt's iconoclastic proceedings forced Luther to leave the Wartburg and appear on the scene.激动的和斯托奇结合的Carlstadt的在维滕贝格,并Carlstadt的的反传统的诉讼路德被迫离开瓦特堡和出现在现场。 He preached against the new apostles with such vehemence that they had to leave the city.他鼓吹对与城市的新使徒这样激烈,他们不得不离开。Storch until his death at Munich travelled through Germany, spreading his doctrines, especially in Thuringia (1522-24) where he was one of the principal instigators of the Peasants' War.斯托奇直到他死在德国慕尼黑穿越,传播他的学说,特别是在图林根州(1522年至1524年),他是战争一农民的主要煽动者的。 Münzer rejected infant baptism in theory, but retained it in practice.闵采尔拒绝在理论上婴儿的洗礼,但保留实践研究。He was expelled from Zwickau (1521) and went to Bohemia, where he had but little success as a propagandist.他被开除茨维考(1521),前往波西米亚,他在那里,但收效甚微的一个宣传员。In 1525 he came as preacher to Alstedt (Electoral Saxony) and married a former nun.在1525年他作为传教士到Alstedt(选举萨克森州)和结婚前尼姑。He was soon surrounded by a large following, introduced a German religious service and attacked Luther as well as the then existing order of things.他很快就被包围了一大以下,介绍了德国的宗教服务,攻击路德以及当时的现有秩序的事情。His sojourn at Mühlhausen (Thuringia), which was interrupted by a journey through the south of Germany, was equally successful.他逗留在米尔豪森(图林根州),这是一个旅程中断通过德国南部,也同样成功。Henry Pfeifer, an apostate monk, who became his co-labourer at Mühlhausen, had prepared the ground for the new gospel.亨利普法伊费尔,一个变节的和尚,谁成为他的联合劳动者在米尔豪森,编写了新的福音地面的。Münzer and Pfeifer became absolute masters of the city, and crowds of peasants and burghers who, discontented with prevailing conditions, flocked around them, pillaged and devastated the surrounding country.闵采尔和普法伊费尔成为城市绝对的主人,农民群众和自由民,谁,与当时的条件不满,他们聚集周围,掠夺和破坏了周边国家。 To quell the insurrectionary movement John, the Elector of Saxony, Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, and Henry, Duke of Brunswick, united their forces and attacked the peasants, led by Münzer at Frankenhausen (1525).为了平息叛乱运动的约翰,,萨克森选,菲利普,兰格雷夫黑森州和亨利,不伦瑞克公爵团结的力量和攻击农民,闵采尔领导在弗兰肯豪森战役(1525年)。 The insurgents were utterly defeated.在反叛分子被彻底打败。After the battle Münzer was discovered at Frankenhausen in a bed in which he had hidden, and was delivered up to the executioner.战斗结束后闵采尔在弗兰肯豪森战役中被发现隐藏在床上,他已经,并交付到刽子手。He received the sacraments of the Catholic Church before his death, while his associate Pfeifer, still impenitent, underwent the death penalty (1525).他得到他去世的天主教教会的圣礼之前,而他的副普法伊费尔,仍不知悔改,经历了死刑(1525年)。

(b) The Swiss Anabaptist Movement (1523-25)(二)瑞士再洗礼派运动(1523至1525年)

Like Luther, Zwingli, the originator of the Reformation in Switzerland, soon found more radical competitors.像路德,茨温利,瑞士在改革发端,很快就发现更激进的竞争者。In 1525 some of his associates separated from him and preached rebaptism and communism.在1525年他的一些同伙分开,他和鼓吹rebaptism和共产主义。The party found two capable leaders in John Denk and Balthasar Hubmaier.党发现了两个巴尔塔萨Hubmaier能干的领导人约翰登克和。 Its following, recruited especially from the working classes, became considerable, not only in Switzerland, but also in southern Germany and Austria.它的下面,招募特别是从工人阶级,成为相当大,不仅在瑞士,而且在德国南部和奥地利。Augsburg, Nuremberg, and, at a later date, Strasburg became the chief centres of the movement.奥格斯堡,纽伦堡,并在稍后的日期,斯特拉斯堡成为该运动的主要中心。Resistance to its spread came from two sources.抗其蔓延来自两个来源。The Anabaptists' teaching added substantially to the causes of the Peasants' War which broke out (1524) in the very territory where the Anabaptists had carried on their propaganda.再洗礼派的教学大大增加战争的原因而爆发的农民在他们的宣传(1524)在自己的领土已在那里进行的anabaptists。 As a consequence the defeat of the peasants (1525) meant, to a great extent, the dispersion of the Anabaptists. On the other hand, some town councils as that of Zürich (1526) decreed the severest penalties against their adherents.作为结果的,失败的农民(1525年),在很大程度上意味着,在分散的anabaptists。另一方面,有些甚至是苏黎世市议会(1526)下令对信徒的严厉处罚。 Still in spite of defeat and constant repression, the sect continued to live.尽管仍然在镇压和不断的失败,该教派继续生活。

(c) The Anabaptists in Münster (1533-35)(三)在明斯特的anabaptists(1533年至1535年)

The spread of the Anabaptists in lower Germany and the Netherlands must largely be ascribed to the activity of Melchior Hofmann, a widely travelled furrier.德国传播较低的anabaptists和荷兰必须在很大程度上是归因于皮货商活动的梅尔基奥尔霍夫曼,一个见多识广。 The arrival of some of his disciples (Melchiorites) at Münster in Westphalia (1533-34) marks the beginning of the most extraordinary period in the history of the Anabaptists and the city of Münster.该Melchiorites抵港(他的一些弟子)明斯特在明斯特在威斯特伐利亚(1533年至1534年)的标志,在历史的开端时期最不平凡的anabaptists城市和地区。 In the latter, Bernard Rothmann a chaplain, and Knipperdollinck a cloth-merchant, had already succeeded in diffusing Lutheran ideas.在后者,伯纳德Rothmann一个牧师,Knipperdollinck一个布商,已经成功地扩散路德的想法。They joined the Anabaptist movement, of which John Matthys or Matthiessen, a former baker, and John Bockelsohn or Bockold, a Dutch tailor (more generally known as John of Leyden), became two great local representatives.他们加入了再洗礼派运动,其中约翰Matthys或马蒂亚森,前贝克,约翰Bockelsohn或Bockold,荷兰裁缝(通常莱顿已知的约翰),成为两个伟大的地方代表。 Knipperdollinck was elected burgomaster (February, 1534) and the city passed under the complete and unrestricted control of the partisans of rebaptism. Knipperdollinck当选镇长(2月,1534年)和游击队的rebaptism城市无限制控制下完成传递。Münster, instead of Strasburg, was to become the centre of the projected conquest of the world, the "New Jerusalem", the founding of which was signalized by a reign of terror and indescribable orgies.明斯特斯特拉斯堡,而不是,是成为,该中心预计征服世界的“新耶路撒冷”,在狂欢的创始是难以形容的灯号,并以恐怖统治。 Treasures of literature and art were destroyed; communism, polygamy, and community of women were introduced.文学和艺术珍宝被摧毁;共产主义,一夫多妻制,妇女社区介绍。Rothmann took unto himself four wives and John of Leyden, sixteen.Rothmann了你们自己的妻子和四个约翰的莱顿,16。The latter was proclaimed King of the "New Sion", when Francis of Waldeck, Bishop and temporal lord of the city, had already begun its siege (1534).后者被宣布,国王“新锡安”当城市弗朗西斯的瓦尔德克,主教和时间的主人,已经开始进行围攻(1534年)。In June, 1535, the defence became more and more hopeless, and John, as a last means of escape, determined upon setting fire to the city.今年6月,1535年,国防变得越来越绝望,和约翰,作为最后的手段,逃避,市政府确定后纵火。 His plan was frustrated by the unexpected capture of the town by the besiegers (24 June, 1535).他的计划被挫败的1535)意外捕获时,当地的围攻(6月24日。The King, his lieutenant Knipperdollinck, and his chancellor Krechting were seized, and after six months' imprisonment and torture, executed.国王,他的副手Knipperdollinck,和他的校长Krechting被查获,并在6个月的监禁和酷刑,处决。 As a terrible warning, their bodies were suspended in iron cages from the tower of St.作为一个可怕的警告,他们的尸体被暂停在铁笼从圣塔Lambert's church.兰伯特教堂。

III.三。RESULTS结果

The Anabaptists in England在英国的anabaptists

Along with the fanatic element, there was always in the Anabaptist party a more pacific current represented especially by its Swiss adherents.随着狂热的元素,有党始终在一个更加和平的再洗礼派教徒,特别是代表目前由瑞士人。The effect of the fall of Münster and of the determined repression of Anabaptists by Catholics, Lutherans, and Zwinglians alike, was the very pronounced and ultimately complete elimination of the violent features of the movement.在明斯特影响的秋季和,路德决心镇压再洗礼派的天主教徒,和Zwinglians一样,是非常显着,并最终彻底消除运动特征的暴力。 Menno Simonis, formerly a Catholic priest, who joined the party in 1536, exercised a beneficient influence in that direction.门诺西蒙尼斯,曾任天主教神父,谁在1536年加入党,行使一个方向beneficient影响研究。The very name Anabaptists was superseded by others, particularly that of Mennonites.这个名字再洗礼派被他人所取代,尤其是门诺认为。It is under the latter designation that the Anabaptists exist today, principally in Holland, Germany, and the United States. Another result of the capture of Münster seems to have been the appearance of the Anabaptists in England, where they come into frequent notice shortly after this time and continue to be mentioned during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.正是在后者的职衔的Anabaptists今天存在,主要是在荷兰,德国和美国。另一个明斯特的结果似乎已被捕获的通知后不久出现在英格兰的anabaptists来,在那里他们将频繁这个时候,继续提到在16世纪和17世纪。 Their following there was in all probability largely composed of Dutch and German refugees.他们在德国有以下所有难民和概率主要由荷兰人。The penalties of death and banishment enforced against them prevented the sect from acquiring importance.对他们的刑罚强迫流放死亡和阻止收购的重要性,从该教派。The Anabaptists' teaching respecting infant baptism was adopted by the English and American Baptists.再洗礼派的教学尊重婴儿的洗礼通过了英语和美国浸礼会。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息韦伯写不适用。Transcribed by Robert H. Sarkissian. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.萨尔基相转录由罗伯特H。天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

Kerssenbroch, Anabaptistici furoris monasterium inclitam Westphaliae metropolim evertentis historica narratio, ed.克森布罗赫,Anabaptistici furoris monasterium inclitam Westphaliae metropolim evertentis史馆narratio,编辑。Detmer (Münster, 1899, 1900); Cornelius, Geschichte des m nsterischen Aufruhrs (Leipzig, 1855, 1860); Janssen, Geschichte des deutschen Volkes (Freiburg and St. Louis, Mo., 1897) II, 231-238, 394-416, 557-571, III, 109-121, 326-351, tr.德默(明斯特,1899年,1900年);科尼利厄斯,历史馆万米nsterischen Aufruhrs(莱比锡,1855年,1860年),扬森,历史馆万deutschen Volkes(弗赖堡和圣路易斯,密苏里州,1897年)二,231-238,394 - 416,557-571,三,109-121,326-351,文。Hist.历史。of the German People (St. Louis, Mo., and London, 1900, 1903), III, 256-263, IV, 87-117, 217-222, 291-310, V, 150-165, 449-485; Newman, A History of Anti-Pedobaptism from the Rise of Pedobaptism to AD 1609 (Philadelphia, 1897), with extensive bibliography, 395-406; Idem, A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States (New York, 1894), in Amer. Church Hist.德国人(圣路易斯,密苏里州,和伦敦,1900年,1903年),三,256-263,四,87-117,217-222,291-310,五,150-165,449-485;纽曼,阿Pedobaptism历史反Pedobaptism从兴起到公元1609年(费城,1897年),具有广泛的书目,395-406;同上,纽约,1894年)历史的浸信教会在美国(在阿米尔。教会组织胺。 Series, II, 1-56; Bax, Rise and Fall of the Anabaptists (London, 1903); Burrage, A History of the Anabaptists in Switzerland (Philadelphia, 1905); Tumbult, Die Wiedert ufer (Leipzig, 1899).系列,二,1-56;)Bax的,1903年上升和下降的anabaptists(伦敦;伯雷奇,A)的历史再洗礼派在瑞士(费城,1905年; Tumbult,模具Wiedert博爱团结运动(莱比锡,1899年)。



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