Antiochene Theology, Theodoret安提阿神学

General Information一般信息

A theologian of the Antiochene school, Theodoret, b.一个学校的安提阿学派,Theodoret湾神学家Antioch, c.安提阿角393, dc 458, was a monk of Apamea and bishop of Cyrus, Syria (423).393,直流458,是一个和尚的阿帕米亚赛勒斯和主教,叙利亚(423)。 A friend of Nestorius, he became embroiled in the controversy with Saint Cyril of Alexandria, whose views, he held, implied a confusion of the divine and human natures of Christ .阿聂斯脱里的朋友,他成为卷入在其意见的争论,与圣西里尔亚历山大,他认为, 混乱意味着基督的神性和人性Cyril's successor, the powerful Dioscorus, accused (448) Theodoret of dividing Christ into two natures, and although Theodoret insisted on the unity, he was anathematized. The Robber Synod of Ephesus (449), defending Cyril's theology, deposed Theodoret and forced him into exile for a year.西里尔的继任者,强大的Dioscorus,被告(448)性质Theodoret的两分基督到,虽然Theodoret坚持团结的,他是诅咒。作者以弗所强盗主教(449),保卫西里尔的神学,废黜Theodoret,强迫他到流亡一年。 At the Council of Chalcedon (451), Theodoret was identified with the Nestorian opposition, but he was persuaded to renounce Nestorius and was recognized as orthodox.在安理会的卡尔西(451),theodoret被确定与景教反对,但他被说服放弃nestorius和被承认为正统。

Theodoret's surviving writings are fine expressions of the Antiochene school of interpretation.Theodoret的著作,是解释尚存罚款表达安提阿学派的学校。

Meletius, d.Meletius,四381, bishop of Antioch and representative of the Antiochene tradition in theology, was appointed to the see in 360.381,神学主教安提安提阿学派和代表的传统,在被任命为见360。Although a moderate in the controversy over Arianism, he immediately offended the Arian emperor Constantius II and was exiled.虽然阿里乌教派温和多的争论,他马上得罪了阿里安帝王士坦提乌斯二世和被放逐。In his absence the supporters of Eustathius, a former bishop of Antioch, consecrated (362) Paulinus as bishop, creating a schism.在他缺席安提阿,前者的支持者欧斯塔修斯主教的祝圣(362)作为主教保林,营造出分裂。Meletius returned in 363 but was exiled twice again (365 - 66 and 371 - 78) under Emperor Valens. Meletius返回363,但再次被流放两次66和371 - 78)下皇帝瓦伦斯(365 - 。In the meantime the schism and controversy continued.在此期间,分裂和争论仍在继续。The bishops of Rome and Alexandria sided with Paulinus, whom they regarded as more orthodox than Meletius; the latter's principal supporter was Saint Basil.罗马主教和亚历山大站在保林,他们认为随着越来越多的人比Meletius正统,后者的主要支持者是圣巴西尔。Finally restored to his diocese in 378, Meletius was presiding over the First Council of Constantinople when he died.终于恢复了在378到他的教区,Meletius是主持第一届理事会君士坦丁堡时就死了。

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Theologians of the Antiochene school emphasized the humanity of Jesus Christ, the Alexandrian his deity . 学校神学家的安提阿学派强调人类的神耶稣基督,他的亚历山大Theodore of Mopsuestia held that Christ's human nature was complete but was conjoined with the Word by an external union.摩普绥提亚西奥多认为,基督是人类的本性是连体字完成,但通过与外部的结合。Nestorius, Theodore's pupil, took up his teacher's position after his death.聂斯脱里,西奥多的学生,拿起位置在他死后他的老师的。

Nestorius was condemned by the Council of Ephesus (431), which was convened specifically to settle the dispute.聂斯脱里谴责了理事会以弗所(431),这是召开专门解决这一争端。There the Theotokos was officially affirmed and orthodox doctrine on the nature of Jesus Christ clarified: Christ was pronounced true God and true man, as having two distinct natures in one person - a position that was reaffirmed by the Council of Chalcedon (451).在那里,圣母被正式确认并澄清了正统教义基督耶稣的本质:基督是真正的上帝和真正的发音人,在一人具有两种截然不同的性质-这是一个位置)重申了安理会卡尔西(451。

A biblical commentator and bishop of Mopsuestia (mahp - soo - es' - chuh) in Cilicia, Theodore, c.圣经评论家-主教的Mopsuestia(mahp -洙上课' -妻)在基利家,西奥多角350-428, was a representative of the Christology of the Antiochene school.350-428,是一所学校代表安提阿学派的基督的。 He was born at Antioch and there studied rhetoric, literature, and biblical exegesis with his friend Saint John Chrysostom.他出生在安提阿和苦读,修辞学,文学,圣经注释和约翰金口圣与他的朋友。Ordained a priest about 383, he was consecrated bishop of Mopsuestia in 392.晋约383牧师,他被祝圣主教的在392摩普绥提亚。

In his interpretation of Scripture, Theodore employed a critical and scientific approach, taking a historical rather than an allegorical approach to Genesis and the Psalms.在他的经文解释,西奥多雇一个关键和科学的态度,采取历史的,而不是一个寓言办法创世记和诗篇。Theodore's Christology, although it contributed to Nestorianism, anticipated the formula adopted at the Council of Chalcedon (451) on the dual but united natures of Christ.西奥多的基督,但它有助于景教,预计基督的天性的公式在联合国安理会通过的chalcedon)对偶,但(451。 His views were nevertheless condemned at the Councils of Ephesus and Constantinople (553).但他的观点在谴责553)安理会的以弗所和君士坦丁堡(。

Bibliography 书目
RA Greer, Theodore of Mopsuestia (1961); RA Norris, Manhood and Christ (1963); JJ Delaney and JE Tobin, Dictionary of Catholic Biography (1961); J Quasten, Patrology (1950). A Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition (1975); R Loofs, Nestorius and His Place in the History of Christian Doctrine (1914); J Pelikan, The Christian Tradition, v.1, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition 100 - 600 (1971).类风湿性关节炎格里尔,摩普绥提亚西奥多(1961年);类风湿性关节炎诺里斯,壮年和基督(1963);杰杰德莱尼和乙脑托宾)天主教传记辞典(1961年; J Quasten,Patrology(1950)。阿格里尔迈尔,基督在基督教传统( 1975)与r卢夫斯,nestorius和他的)将在1914年历史的基督教教义(; J伯利坎,在基督教传统,五.1,100的出现,天主教传统- 600(1971)。


Antiochene Theology安提阿学派神学

Advanced Information先进的信息

The book of Acts indicates that the term "Christian" was first used at Antioch and that there was a church there at the time of the early ministry of the apostle Paul (11:26).书的行为表明,所谓“基督教”最早是在安提阿,并有1 11:26)教会有(使徒保罗在一次早期的部。It was from Antioch that Paul began his three missionary journeys.这是从安提阿,保罗开始了他的三个传教之旅。It might be called the nearest approach which he had to a headquarters base.它可以被称为最接近的办法,他只好一个总部基地。The decisions of the Apostolic Council at Jerusalem were published there (Acts 15:30 - 31).使徒在耶路撒冷的决定发表会的有(徒15:30 - 31)。

The first monarchical bishop to secure notice was Ignatius of Antioch.第一君权主教获得通知伊格安提的。He held the post in the early second century.他认为,在公元二世纪初的职位。In his seven epistles he shows himself to be a man eager to defend the full deity and full humanity of Christ.他在他的7书信显示自己是一个人急于捍卫充分神和基督的完全的人性。He particularly warns against docetism, and here appears an emphasis which is increasingly to characterize the school of Antioch. God came into flesh, was born of the Virgin Mary.他特别警告不要幻影说,这里出现了越来越多的重点是表征安提阿学派。 上帝来到肉,是玛丽出生的圣母。 Christ died to deliver men and women from ignorance and from the devil.基督死提供男子和妇女从无知和魔鬼。 He rose again from the dead for us.他再次上升,从我们死了。The believer is not only in Christ, he is also christophoros.信徒不仅是在基督里,他也是赫里斯托福罗斯。The Supper is the flesh and blood of Christ, though there is no suggestion of substantial change. 晚饭是基督的血和肉,虽然没有实质性改变的建议。Brotherly love is a cardinal emphasis in Ignatius.兄弟的爱是伊格枢机强调。

Theophilus of Antioch, in the latter part of the second century, developed the Logos doctrine, referring to the logos prophorikos brought forth to create.西奥菲勒斯安提世纪,后者在第二部分,理论发展的标志,指的是标志prophorikos带来了创造。The word trias is used to apply to the Godhead first by Theophilus.这个词是用来特里亚斯适用于由西奥菲勒斯神性第一。

Three quarters of a century later Paul of Samosata occupied the episcopal throne in Antioch.四分之三个世纪之后占领了萨莫萨塔保罗在安提阿主教宝座。The emphasis on the human nature of Christ that was to characterize the later Antioch makes a clear appearance. With a monarchian stress, he found the Logos, a divine force, part of the mind of the Father, dwelling in Jesus from his birth, but apart from the Virgin. He manifested himself as energeia. Jesus was not to be worshipped though his enduement with the Logos was quantitatively unusual.外观强调了人类对自然基督是表征后来安提阿作出明确的压力凭借上帝一体,他发现的标志,一个神圣的力量,但部分中,我想起了父亲居住在耶稣从他的出生除了处女。energeia他表现自己的。 耶稣并没有被不寻常的崇拜虽然他enduement与标志进行了定量。His unity with God is one of purpose, of will, of love.他与团结的目的之一是上帝的意志,对,爱。While it is possible for Paul to speak of one prosopon of God and the Logos, and to use the term homoousios of Christ and the Father, yet the Logos and the Son were not by any means identical.虽然它有可能为保罗谈论的一个标志prosopon神和,并使用与父一词homoousios基督,但图案和儿子并没有以任何方式相同。 Paul was excommunicated and, after the Roman recapture of Antioch, well - nigh completely lost his influence.保罗被逐出教会,并在罗马收复安提阿,以及-几乎成了完全失去了他的影响力。Paul's opponents did not approve the term homoousios, later to become a touchstone of orthodoxy.保罗的对手并没有批准这一术语homoousios,后来成为一个正统的试金石。

Shortly after Paul's fall from power a schoolmaster, Lucian, came to prominence in Antioch.不久后,保罗的校长下台一,吕西安,到了安提阿突出研究。Lucian conceived of Christ on a higher plane than did Paul.卢西安构思保罗基督在一个更高的飞机比。Whether he considered him as equal with the Father in his deity is questionable.他是否认为他是平等的父亲在他的神是一个疑问。 His work on the text of the Greek Bible was extensive, and he favored the historical and critical interpretation of the Scriptures.他的圣经希腊文的工作是广泛的, 他赞成解释圣经的历史和批判。

In the decades following the Council of Nicaea, Antioch exhibited wide differences of opinion on the Arian question, but in this atmosphere John Chrysostom grew to maturity with his extraordinary ability as a preacher.在几十年后的尼西亚会议,安提阿问题上展出的阿里安广泛不同的意见,但在这种气氛牧师约翰金口增长1至成熟,与他的非凡能力。 Emphasizing the moral values of Christianity, he continued the stress on historical exegesis.强调基督教的道德价值观,他继续强调对历史的注释。One of Chrysostom's teachers, the presbyter Diodorus, became in due course Bishop of Tarsus and was recognized as a "normal" theologian by the Council of Constantinople in 381. But he did not find an adequate expression for the relationship between the divine and human natures of Christ. There seemed almost to be a dual personality in his conception.,一个金口的教师,长老狄奥多罗斯成为在适当的时候塔尔苏斯主教,并于381确认为“正常”的神学家理事会君士坦丁堡的。 但他还没有找到和人类本性充分神圣表达式之间的关系基督。似乎有几乎是他的构想双重人格。Another presbyter, Theodore, later Bishop of Mopsuestia, developed historical criticism much further.另一位长老,西奥多,后来摩普绥提亚主教,发展的历史的批评更多。

He failed to find the doctrine of the Trinity in the OT, and he minimized the messianic intimations in the Psalms.他没有发现催产素学说的三位一体的,他的诗篇中最小的救世主的暗示。But he put heavy stress upon the importance of textual and historical study as a basis for exegesis.但他提出的注释沉重压力的基础的重要性的文字和历史研究。Theodore emphasized the difference between God and man.西奥多强调神与人之间的差异。The Logos humbled himself and became man.该标识自己卑微成为人。The prosopon of the man is complete and so is that of the Godhead.该名男子prosopon的是完整的,所以就是神性。His disciple, the church historian Theodoret, carried on his work.他的弟子,教会历史学家Theodoret,进行他的工作。Theodoret's exegesis is in the best historical tradition, his apologetic writing clear and well organized. Theodoret的注释传统是在历史上最好,他的歉意,字迹清晰且有条理。He stressed the infinite difference between God and man.他强调了无限的上帝和人之间的差异。His Christological views were unquestionably influenced by his friend Nestorius, the most prominent representative of the Antiochene school.毫无疑问,他的基督论观点的影响,他的朋友聂斯脱里,在学校的安提阿学派最突出的代表。Impetuous, self confifident full of energy, Nestorius was not a scholar.浮躁,充满活力的自我confifident,聂斯脱里是不是一个学者。He emphasized the humanity of Jesus, but it is reasonably clear that what he intended to express was not a view that is heretical.他强调耶稣的人性,但它是相当清楚,就是他想表达的是不是认为是异端邪说。

The union of Godhead and manhood in Christ is voluntary, but it can be said that there is one prosopon of Jesus Christ.基督神性联盟在与男子气概是自愿的,但可以说是一个基督耶稣prosopon。 Nestorius campaigned against the term Theotokos as applied to the Virgin Mary, yet he agreed that, if properly understood, the term was unobjectionable.聂斯脱里竞选对适用于长期圣母圣母玛利亚,但他同意,如果正确地理解,这个词是无可非议的。It was the violence of his emphases, with their stress on the separateness of the human and the divine in Christ, which was dangerous.这是他的重点暴力,胁迫其危险是对人类的独立性和神圣的基督。

Justinian's Edict of the Three Chapters in 543 was unfair to the School of Antioch in its condemnations of the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia and of Theodoret.查士丁尼的543敕三章在安提阿是不公平的学校在其摩普绥提亚的theodoret和谴责的著作西奥多。The Council of Constantinople of 553, called the Fifth Ecumenical, condemned writings of the Antioch school, but on the basis of falsified and mutilated quotations.理事会的553君士坦丁堡,被称为第五合一,谴责学校著作的安提阿,但虚假的基础上报价和肢解。

The separation from the imperial church of the bishops who led the Nestorian schism and the capture of Antioch in 637 by the rising power of Islam checked the further distinctive development of the School of Antioch.伊斯兰教分离功率的帝国教会的捕捉在安提阿的主教由637上升谁领导和景教分裂检查学校安提进一步鲜明的发展。Its Aristotelian emphasis on rationality, on ethical quality, and on man's free agency was not popular.亚里士多德强调其合理性,在道德品质,以及人的自由球员并不流行。Yet it is to be valued for its stress on the genuine continuance in the Second Person of the properties of each nature and for its insistence upon the importance of grammaticohistorical exegesis.然而,要重视其性质应力对每个人真正的性能继续在第二和坚持后,其重要性grammaticohistorical注释。

P Woolley P伍利
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
CC Richardson, The Christianity of Ignatius of Antioch; G Bardy, Paul de Samosate and Recherches sur saint Lucien d'Antioche et son ecole; F Loofs, Paulus von Samosata and Nestorius and His Place in the History of Christian Doctrine; H deRiedmatten, Les Actes du proces de Paul de Samosate; R Devreesse, Essai sur Theodore de Mopsueste; JF Bethune Baker, Nestorius and His Teaching; AR Vine, An Approach to Christology; RV Sellers, Two Ancient Christologies.消委会理查森,在安提阿的伊格基督教; Ğ巴迪,保罗德曼Samosate和勘探河畔圣吕西安蒂奥什等儿子伊科尔,女卢夫斯,保卢斯和冯萨莫萨塔nestorius和他放在历史的基督教学说; Ĥ deRiedmatten,莱斯Actes杜审判中德保罗德Samosate与r Devreesse,Essai河畔西奥多德Mopsueste;樱白求恩贝克,nestorius和他的教学;铁藤,一个基督方法;房车卖家,两部古代Christologies。


Antiochene Liturgy安提阿学派礼仪

Catholic Information天主教信息

The family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch begins with that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then follow that of St. James in Greek, the Syrian Liturgy of St. James, and the other Syrian Anaphorus.最初的礼仪家庭中使用的安提阿主教开始与宪法,该使徒;然后按照詹姆斯在希腊的圣,圣雅各福群叙利亚的礼仪,以及其他叙利亚Anaphorus。 The line may be further continued to the Byzantine Rite (the older Liturgy of St. Basil and the later and shorter one of St. John Chrysostom), and through it to the Armenian use.该生产线可以进一步持续到拜占庭成年礼(亚美尼亚使用旧礼仪的圣巴索以及后来的圣短1约翰金口),并通过它向。But these no longer concern the Church of Antioch.但这些已经不再关注安提阿的教会。

I. THE LITURGY OF THE APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS一,宪法礼仪中的使徒

The oldest known form that can be described as a complete liturgy is that of the Apostolic Constitutions.已知最古老的礼仪形式,可以说是一个完整的是,在使徒宪法。It is also the first member of the line of Antiochene uses.这也是安提阿学派的第一个成员行的用途。The Apostolic Constitutions consist of eight books purporting to have been written by St. Clement of Rome (died c. 104).使徒宪法包括8本意图书已被写入圣克莱门特的罗马(死于角104)。The first six books are an interpolated edition of the Didascalia ("Teaching of the Apostles and Disciples", written in the first half of the third century and since edited in a Syriac version by de Lagarde, 1854); the seventh book is an equally modified version of the Didache (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, probably written in the first century, and found by Philotheos Bryennios in 1883) with a collection of prayers.前六个是典籍和弟子插版的Didascalia使徒(“教学的”,写于公元三世纪上半叶的1854年以来在编辑拉嘉德,一个由叙利亚文版本的);第七本书是一个同样修改后的版本12使徒的牧羊人(教学的,可能写在第一世纪,发现于1883年由Philotheos Bryennios)与祈祷收集。The eighth book contains a complete liturgy and the eighty-five "Apostolic Canons".第八本书包含一个完整的礼仪和85“使徒大炮”。There is also part of a liturgy modified from the Didascalia in the second book.也有书的第二部分修改的一个礼仪从Didascalia研究。It has been suggested that the compiler of the Apostolic Constitutions may be the same person as the author of the six spurious letters of St. Ignatius (Pseudo-Ignatius).有人建议说,宪法的编译器可能是使徒,伊格同一人伪作为作者伊格(六杂散信圣)。In any case he was a Syrian Christian, probably an Apollinarist, living in or near Antioch either at the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century.在任何情况下,他是叙利亚基督教,可能是Apollinarist,安提阿住在或接近或者在本世纪结束的第四或第五次开始的。 And the liturgy that he describes in his eighth book is that used in his time by the Church of Antioch, with certain modifications of his own.和礼仪,他在书中描述他的第八个是他所用的时间由安提阿教会自己,他与某些修改。 That the writer was an Antiochene Syrian and that he describes the liturgical use of his own country is shown by various details, such as the precedence given to Antioch (VII, xlvi, VIII, x, etc.); his mention of Christmas (VIII, xxxiii), which was kept at Antioch since about 375, nowhere else in the East till about 430 (Duchesne, Origines du culte chrétien, 248); the fact that Holy Week and Lent together make up seven weeks (V, xiii) as at Antioch, whereas in Palestine and Egypt, as throughout the West, Holy Week was the sixth week of Lent; that the chief source of his "Apostolic Canons" is the Synod of Antioch in encœniis (341); and especially by the fact that his liturgy is obviously built up on the same lines as all the Syrian ones.这是一个作家叙利亚和安提阿学派,他描述了自己的国家礼仪使用他的是,表现出不同的八细节,如优先考虑到安提阿(七,四十六,x,等等),他提到的圣诞(八,三十三),这是一直以来在安提约375东,无处可在至约430(德雷珀,Origines杜culte克雷蒂安,248);圣周的事实,还借给一起组成了7个星期(五,13)为在安提阿,而在巴勒斯坦和埃及,在整个西方,圣周是四旬期的第6周,这是341)的主要来源,他的“使徒大炮”安提阿主教会议是在encœniis(;,特别的是,显然他的礼仪是建立在叙利亚的同一行所有。 There are, however, modifications of his own in the prayers, Creed, and Gloria, where the style and the idioms are obviously those of the interpolator of the Didascalia (see the examples in Brightman, "Liturgies", I, xxxiii-xxxiv), and are often very like those of Pseudo-Ignatius also (ib., xxxv).有,但是,自己修改他在祈祷,信仰,和格洛丽亚,那里的风格和成语是对那些明显Didascalia的插的(见布莱曼的例子,“礼仪”,我,三十三,三十四)和伊格往往甚喜欢那些伪也(ib.第,三十五)。 The rubrics are added by the compiler, apparently from his own observations.添加的量规由编译器,显然是从自己的意见。

The liturgy of the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions, then, represents the use of Antioch in the fourth century.礼仪的宪法第八的使徒书,那么,代表世纪使用的安提阿在第四位。Its order is this: First comes the "Mass of the Catechumens".它的顺序是这样的:首先是在慕道者“大众的”。After the readings (of the Law, the Prophets, the Epistles, Acts, and Gospels) the bishop greets the people with II Cor., xiii, 13 (The grace of Our Lord Jesus Christ and the charity of God and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all).经过书信,行为的读数(法律,先知的,和福音)主教迎接二肺心病的人士。,13,13(恩典的基督我们的主耶稣和上帝的慈善和通信圣灵与你同在所有)。 They answer: "And with thy spirit"; and he "speaks to the people words of comfort."他们回答:“有了你”的精神,以及他“讲的话来安慰的人。”There then follows a litany for the catechumens, to each invocation of which the people answer "Kyrie eleison"; the bishop says a collect and the deacon dismisses the catechumens.然后接下来的一慕道一连串的,为每次调用其中的人回答“凯里eleison”主教说,一个收集和执事解雇的慕道者。 Similar litanies and collects follow for the Energumens, the Illuminandi (photizómenoi, people about to be baptized) and the public penitents, and each time they are dismissed after the collect for them.类似的祷文并收集遵循的Energumens的Illuminandi(photizómenoi,受洗的人将要)和公众忏悔者,每一次他们都被解雇后,收集它们。 The "Mass of the Faithful" begins with a longer litany for various causes, for peace, the Church, bishops (James, Clement, Evodius, and Annianus are named), priests, deacons, servers, readers, singers, virgins, widows, orphans, married people, the newly baptized, prisoners, enemies, persecutors, etc., and finally "for every Christian soul".信徒们“”群众的,一开始一连串的各种原因较长,和平,教会,主教(詹姆斯,克莱门特,Evodius和Annianus命名),神父,执事,服务器,读者,歌手,处女,寡妇,孤儿,已婚的人,新的洗礼,囚犯,敌人,迫害等,最后“为每一个基督徒的灵魂”。 After the litany follows its collect, then another greeting from the bishop and the kiss of peace.之后,一连串遵循其收集,然后再从和平问候主教的吻和。Before the Offertory the deacons stand at the men's doors and the subdeacons at those of the women "that no one may go out, nor the door be opened", and the deacon again warns all catechumens, infidels, and heretics to retire, the mothers to look after their children, no one to stay in hypocrisy, and all to stand in fear and trembling.前奉献的执事站在男子的门,执事的和修士在那些妇女“,任何人不得外出,也没有门被打开”,再次警告所有的慕道者,异教徒和异端退休,母亲照顾自己的孩子,没有人留在虚伪,和所有站在恐惧和颤抖。 The deacons bring the offerings to the bishop at the altar.执事使祭祀主教在祭坛。The priests stand around, two deacons wave fans ('ripídia) over the bread and wine and the Anaphora (canon) begins.祭司站在一旁,两个执事波迷('ripídia)对面包和酒,和照应(佳能)开始。The bishop again greets the people with the words of II Cor., xiii, 13, and they answer as before: "And with thy spirit".主教再次迎接二肺心病的话的人使用。,13,13,和以前一样,他们回答:“有了你的精神”。He says: "Lift up your mind."他说:“抬起你的心。”R. "We have it to the Lord."河说:“我们已经到了主。”V. "Let us thank the Lord."五,“让我们感谢上帝。”R. "Right and just."河“的权利和公正的。”He takes up their word: "It is truly right and above all just to sing to Thee, Who art truly God, existing before all creatures, from Whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named.…" and so the Eucharistic prayer begins.他占据了他们的话:“这是真正的权利以及一切只是为了唱歌你,谁的艺术真正的上帝,在所有现有的生物,从谁所有在天堂的父亲和在地球上被命名为。 ”等圣体祈祷开始。 He speaks of the "only begotten Son, the Word and God, Saving Wisdom, first born of all creatures, Angel of thy great counsel", refers at some length to the Garden of Eden, Abel, Henoch, Abraham, Melchisedech, Job, and other saints of the Old Law.他讲的“唯一的儿子,上帝的话语,节能智慧,第一个”生于天地万物,你的天使律师,长度是指在一些就业伊甸园,阿贝尔,过敏性,亚伯拉罕,Melchisedech,与旧法的其他圣人。 When he has said the words: "the numberless army of Angels … the Cherubim and six-winged Seraphim … together with thousands of thousand Archangels and myriad myriads of Angels unceasingly and without silence cry out", "all the people together say: 'Holy, holy, holy the Lord of Hosts, the heaven and earth are full of His glory, blessed forever, Amen.'" The bishop then again takes up the word and continues: "Thou art truly holy and all-holy, highest and most exalted for ever. And thine only-begotten Son, our Lord and God Jesus Christ, is holy …"; and so he comes to the words of Institution: "in the night in which He was betrayed, taking bread in His holy and blameless hands and looking up to Thee, His God and Father, and breaking He gave to His disciples saying: This is the Mystery of the New Testament; take of it, eat. This is My body, broken for many for the remission of sins. So also having mixed the cup of wine and water, and having blessed it, He gave to them saying: Drink you all of this. This is My blood shed for many for the remission of sins. Do this in memory of Me. For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you announce My death until I come."当他说的话:“无数的天使 军队的基路伯和六翼天使 ”一起出来的数千万元无数无数天使和天使不断哭泣没有沉默,“所有的人一起说:'圣,神圣的,神圣的上帝的主机,天上和地上满是他的荣耀,祝福永远,阿门。“主教然后再次占据了字,并继续说:”你是真正的圣洁,全圣,最高和最崇高的永远。与你的唯一,独生儿子,我们主耶稣基督的神,是神圣的 “等他说到制度的话:”在晚上出卖了他,以他的神圣的面包和无可指责手和仰视你,他的神,父,并打破他给他的弟子说:这是新约圣经之谜,利用它,吃。这是我的身体,打破了很多罪减免的。因此,也有混合的水和一杯葡萄酒,并具有得天独厚的,他给他们说:你喝这一切的。这是我的血的罪流下了很多的减免。我做这个内存中。对于作为常常因为你吃这饼,喝这杯,你宣布我死亡,直到我来。“

Then follow the Anamimnesis ("Remembering therefore His suffering and death and resurrection and return to heaven and His future second coming …"), the Epiklesis or invocation ("sending Thy Holy Spirit, the witness of the sufferings of the Lord Jesus to this sacrifice, that He may change this bread to the body of thy Christ and this cup to the blood of thy Christ …"), and a sort of litany (the great Intercession) for the Church, clergy, the Emperor, and for all sorts and conditions of men, which ends with a doxology, "and all the people say: Amen."然后按照Anamimnesis(“记住,因此他的苦难和死亡和复活,回到天上,他今后的第二次来 ”),本Epiklesis或调用(“送你的圣灵,见证主耶稣的苦难对这一牺牲,那他可能会改变这种面包的基督的身体,这对你的血液在你的杯子基督 “),以及一连串的排序(大调解)为教会,神职人员,天皇,和种种男人条件,其中三一颂结束了,“所有的人说:阿门。” In this litany is a curious petition (after that for the Emperor and the army) which joins the saints to living people for whom the bishop prays: "We also offer to thee for ('upér) all thy holy and eternally well-pleasing patriarchs, prophets, just apostles, martyrs, confessors, bishops, priests, deacons, subdeacons, readers, singers, virgins, widows, laymen, and all those whose names thou knowest."在这一长串是一个奇怪的请愿书军(后,为皇帝和),其中加入圣徒生活主教为他们祈祷:“我们也愿意为你('upér)所有你的神圣和永恒满意的元老,先知,只是使徒,烈士,师,主教,神父,执事,修士,读者,歌手,处女,寡妇,行内人,以及所有那些名字你知道。“ After the Kiss of Peace (The peace of God be with you all) the deacon calls upon the people to pray for various causes which are nearly the same as those of the bishop's litany and the bishop gathers up their prayers in a collect.吻后和平(和平的神,你与所有)执事呼吁祈祷在收集了他们的人祈祷祷文收集各种原因,其中包括几乎相同的那些主教的和主教。 He then shows them the Holy Eucharist, saying: "Holy things for the holy" and they answer: "One is holy, one is Lord, Jesus Christ in the glory of God the Father, etc."然后,他显示了他们的圣体圣事,他说:“神圣的圣物”,他们回答:“一个是圣洁的,一个是主,基督耶稣的荣耀,在神的父亲,等等” The bishop gives the people Holy Communion in the form of bread, saying to each: "The body of Christ", and the communicant "answers Amen".主教给人民圣餐中的面包形式,每说:“在基督的身体”,以及圣餐“答案阿门”。 The deacon follows with the chalice, saying: "The blood of Christ, chalice of life."执事如下的圣杯,他说:“在基督的血,生命的圣杯。”R. "Amen."河“阿门。”While they receive, the xxxiii Psalm (I will bless the Lord at all times) is said.当他们接收的三十三诗篇(我会祝福所有在时代的主)说。After Communion the deacons take what is left of the Blessed Sacrament to the tabernacles (pastophória).经过圣餐执事采取什么是圣左侧有福的住棚(pastophória)。There follows a short thanksgiving, the bishop dismisses the people and the deacon ends by saying: "Go in peace."有如下一个短感恩,主教驳回人民和执事说结束了:“平平安安的去吧。”

Throughout this liturgy the compiler supposes that it was drawn up by the Apostles and he inserts sentences telling us which Apostle composed each separate part, for instance: "And I, James, brother of John the son of Zebedee, say that the deacon shall say at once: 'No one of the catechumens,'" etc. The second book of the Apostolic Constitutions contains the outline of a liturgy (hardly more than the rubrics) which practically coincides with this one.在整个礼仪的编译器假设,这是制定了由使徒,他告诉我们哪些句子插入使徒每个单独的组成部分,例如:“我,詹姆斯,约翰的兄弟西庇太的儿子,说,执事会说在一次:'没有慕道者之一,'“等使徒宪法的第二本书包含一纲一礼仪(即很难超过表)本几乎都是一致的。 All the liturgies of the Antiochene class follow the same general arrangement as that of the Apostolic Constitutions.所有类礼仪的安提阿学派遵循同样的使徒宪法的一般性的安排。Gradually the preparation of the oblation (Prothesis, the word also used for the credence table), before the actual liturgy begins, develops into an elaborate service.渐渐地,开始准备的祭品(假体的信任,对这个词也被用来表礼仪),之前的实际,发展成为一个精心的服务。The preparation for the lessons (the little Entrance) and the carrying of the oblation from the Prothesis to the altar (the great Entrance) become solemn processions, but the outline of the liturgy: the Mass of the Catechumens and their dismissal; the litany; the Anaphora beginning with the words "Right and just" and interrupted by the Sanctus; the words of Institution; Anamimnesis, Epiklesis and Supplication for all kinds of people at that place; the Elevation with the words "Holy things to the holy"; the Communion distributed by the bishop and deacon (the deacon having the chalice); and then the final prayer and dismissal–this order is characteristic of all the Syrian and Palestinian uses, and is followed in the derived Byzantine liturgies.假体准备的经验教训(小高考)和账面从祭品到祭坛(大门口)成为庄严的游行,但礼仪纲要:他们解雇的慕道者和群众,在一长串;照应开头的单词“正确和公正的”,并桑克蒂斯中断了;院校的话; Anamimnesis,Epiklesis与祈求人们在那个地方所有种;对高程改为“圣物圣”,中共融的主教和分发的执事(执事具有圣杯),然后在最后的祈祷和解雇,这种秩序的特点是使用所有的叙利亚和巴勒斯坦人,其次是礼仪在派生拜占庭。 Two points in that of the Apostolic Constitutions should be noticed.宪法在两个点的使徒,是应该被注意。No saints are mentioned by name and there is no Our Father.没有提到圣人的名字,也没有我们的父亲。The mention of saints' names, especially of the "All-holy Mother of God", spread considerably among Catholics after the Council of Ephesus (431), and prayers invoking her under that title were then added to all the Catholic liturgies.提到圣人的名字',特别是“全神圣的上帝之母”,大大天主教徒之间传播后,理事会以弗所(431),并祈祷她援引标题下加入对当时所有的天主教礼仪。 The Apostolic Constitutions have preserved an older form unchanged by the development that modifies forms in actual use.使徒宪法仍保留旧形式使用不变的发展,实际修改的形式研究。The omission of the Lord's Prayer is curious and unique.遗漏的祷告主的好奇和独特的。It has at any rate nothing to do with relative antiquity.它在任何速度无关,相对古代。In the "Teaching of the Twelve Apostles" (VIII, ii, 3) people are told to pray three times a day "as the Lord commanded in his Gospel: Our Father", etc.在“教学的十二使徒”(第八,二,三)人被告知每天三次祈祷“作为神吩咐他的福音:我们的父亲”等

II.二。THE GREEK LITURGY OF ST. ST段希腊礼仪。JAMES涂谨申

Of the Antiochene liturgies drawn up for actual use, the oldest one and the original from which the others have been derived is the Greek Liturgy of St. James.安提阿学派礼仪的制定,为实际使用的最古老的一个,并从中派生的其他原已是圣雅各福群希腊礼仪的。The earliest reference to it is Canon xxxii of the Quinisextum Council (II Trullan AD 692), which quotes it as being really composed by St. James, the brother of Our Lord.最早提到它是佳能(三十二的Quinisextum理事会第二Trullan公元692),这是我们作为主报价被真正的兄弟组成的圣詹姆斯的。 The Council appeals to this liturgy in defending the mixed chalice against the Armenians.安理会呼吁这一礼仪捍卫亚美尼亚混合圣杯反对。St. Jerome (died 420) seems to have known it.圣杰罗姆(死于420)似乎已经知道它。At any rate at Bethlehem he quotes as a liturgical form the words "who alone is sinless", which occur in this Liturgy (Adv. Pel., II, xxiii).在任何伯利恒率他援引一个礼仪形式的话:“谁才是无罪的”,这。发生在这个礼仪(Adv.贝利,二,二十三)。The fact that the Jacobites use the same liturgy in Syriac shows that it existed and was well established before the Monophysite schism.事实上,使用的詹姆斯党在叙利亚同礼仪表明,它的存在而被分裂之前建立良好的基督一性。The oldest manuscript is one of the tenth century formerly belonging to the Greek monastery at Messina and now kept in the University library of that city.最古老的手稿是一个世纪前的第十届属于希腊修道院在墨西拿,现在保存在该城市的大学图书馆。The Greek Liturgy of St. James follows in all its essential parts that of the Apostolic Constitutions.圣雅各福群是按照希腊礼仪的重要部件,其所有的使徒宪法。It has preparatory prayers to be said by the priest and deacon and a blessing of the incense.它的筹备祷告会香说,由神父和执事和祝福的。Then begins the Mass of the Catechumens with the little Entrance.然后开始与小入口的慕道者的弥撒。The deacon says a litany ('ekténeia), to each clause of which the people answer "Kyrie eleison".一连串的执事说,1('ekténeia),每个条款,其中的人回答“凯里eleison”。Meanwhile the priest is saying a prayer to himself, of which only the last words are said aloud, after the litany is finished.与此同时,牧师的祈祷是对自己说,其中只有最后一句话是大声说,经过一长串完成。The singers say the Trisagion, "Holy God, holy Strong One, holy Immortal One, have mercy on us."歌手说Trisagion,“神圣的神,圣洁的强,神圣的不朽之一,我们有怜悯。”The practice of the priest saying one prayer silently while the people are occupied with something different is a later development.不同的实践的东西,神父说一个默默祈祷,而与人占用1日后的发展。The Lessons follow, still in the older form, that is, long portions of both Testaments, then the prayers for the catechumens and their dismissal.遵循的教训,仍然在旧的形式,即长两部分圣经,那么他们解雇的慕道者和祈祷。Among the prayers for the catechumens occurs a reference to the cross (lift up the horn of the Christians by the power of the venerable and life-giving cross) which must have been written after St. Helen found it (c. 326) and which is one of the many reasons for connecting this liturgy with Jerusalem.其中慕道的祈祷发生的交叉引用(抬起基督徒的权力角的古老和赋予生命的交叉),其中必须有书面发现它后圣海伦(公元前326),哪个这是耶路撒冷1礼仪与连接的许多原因。 When the catechumens are dismissed the deacon tells the faithful to "know each other", that is to observe whether any stranger is still present.当慕道被驳回执事告诉忠实于“互相了解”,即是观察是否有陌生人仍然存在。 The great Entrance which begins the Mass of the Faithful is already an imposing ceremony.伟大的入口开始,群众的忠实的实施已经是一个仪式。The incense is blessed, the oblation is brought from the Prothesis to the altar while the people sing the Cherubikon, ending with three Alleluias.幸运的是香,带来的祭品是从假体的祭坛,而人民唱Cherubikon,Alleluias截至3。(The text is different from the Byzantine Cherubikon.) Meanwhile the priest says another prayer silently. (文本是Cherubikon不同于拜占庭。)同时,牧师说,另一个默默祈祷。The creed is then said; apparently at first it was a shorter form like the Apostles' Creed. The Offertory prayers and the litany are much longer than those in the Apostolic Constitutions.的信条,然后说,显然这是一个最初的信条较短的形式,如使徒。奉献祈祷的祷文和使徒更长得多的宪法相比,在。 There is as yet no reference to an Iconostasis (screen dividing the choir or place of the clergy).但目前还没有(参考1圣象屏幕除以合唱团或神职人员的地方)。The beginning of the "Anaphora" (Preface) is shorter.开始越短的“照应”(序)是。The words of Institution and Anamimnesis are followed immediately by the Epiklesis; then comes the Supplication for various people.该学会的词语和Anamimnesis遵循Epiklesis立即遭到;然后是各种人祈求。The deacon reads the "Diptychs" of the names of the people for whom they pray; then follows a list of Saints beginning with "our all-holy, immaculate and highly praised Lady Mary, Mother of God and ever-virgin."执事读取圣徒开始与“名单Diptychs”的名字的人,他们又为他们祈祷,遵循了“我们的全是圣洁的,完美无暇的高度赞扬和夫人玛利亚,天主之母和不断处女。” Here are inserted two hymns to Our Lady obviously directed against the Nestorian heresy.这里有两个赞美诗插入到圣母明显针对景教异端。The Lord's Prayer follows with an introduction and Embolismos.主祷文如下的介绍和Embolismos。The Host is shown to the people with the same words as in the Apostolic Constitutions, and then broken, and part of it is put into the chalice while the priest says: "The mixing of the all-holy Body and the precious Blood of Our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ."主机是证明使徒宪法的市民,在相同的字,然后破碎,它的一部分,是圣杯投入而牧师说:“身体搅拌全圣的,我们的宝贵的血液主,上帝和救主耶稣基督。“ Before Communion Psalm xxxiii is said.圣餐前诗篇三十三说。The priest says a prayer before his Communion.祭司说,一个礼拜之前,他的圣餐。The deacon communicates the people.执事沟通的人。There is no such form as: "The Body of Christ"; he says only: "Approach in the fear of the Lord", and they answer "Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord."有没有这样的形式为:“基督的身体”,他只说:“”方法对主敬畏的,他们回答“谁是有福的,他在上帝的名义来的。”What is left of the Blessed Sacrament is taken by the deacon to the Prothesis; the prayers of thanksgiving are longer than those of the Apostolic Constitutions.什么是左边的是假体圣体所采取的执事来,感恩节的祈祷使徒宪法再比对。The Liturgy of St. James as it now exists is a more developed form of the same use as that of the Apostolic Constitutions. The prayers are longer, the ceremonies have become more elaborate, incense is used continually, and the preparation is already on the way to become the complicated service of the Byzantine Prothesis.圣詹姆斯礼仪,因为它现在存在的一个较发达的使徒宪法的形式作为相同的使用。祈祷是更长的时间,仪式变得更加精美,香火不断使用,并已在准备方式成为拜占庭假体复杂的服务。 There are continual invocations of saints; but the essential outline of the Rite is the same.有圣人不断调用,但礼的基本轮廓的是相同的。Besides the references to the Holy Cross, one allusion makes it clear that it was originally drawn lup for the Church of Jerusalem.除了提到的圣十字架,一个典故很清楚,这本来是耶路撒冷的土地利用规划的教会。The first supplication after the Epiklesis is: "We offer to thee, O Lord, for Thy holy places which Thou hast glorified by the divine appearance of Thy Christ and by the coming of Thy holy Spirit, especially for the holy and illustrious Sion, mother of all churches and for Thy holy Catholic and apostolic Church throughout the world."第一祈求后Epiklesis是:“我们提供给你,锡安,耶和华和杰出母亲,为你神圣的地方,由祢祢的荣耀基督神圣的外观和神圣的到来,你的圣灵,特别是对于所有教堂和你的神圣天主教和使徒教会在世界各地。“ This liturgy was used throughout Syria and Palestine, that is throughout the Antiochene Patriarchate (Jerusalem was not made a patriarchal see till the Council of Ephesus, 431) before the Nestorian and Monophysite schisms.这个礼仪是用于整个叙利亚和巴勒斯坦,耶路撒冷是整个安提阿学派主教(不是由和monophysite以弗所,景教431)分裂前,直到看到一个家长会。 It is possible to reconstruct a great part of the use of the city of Antioch while St. John Chrysostom was preaching there (370-397) from the allusions and quotations in his homilies (Probst, Liturgie des IV. Jahrh., II, i, v, 156, 198).很可能要重建一个伟大的安提阿市的部分使用的,而圣约翰金口的说教有(370-397)的典故和。报价在他的颂歌(普罗布斯特,Liturgie德四。Jahrh,二,我,五,156,198)。 It is then seen to be practically that of St. James: indeed whole passages are quoted word for word as they stand in St. James or in the Apostolic Constitutions.这是被看成是几乎在圣雅各福群:事实上整个段落是逐字逐句地引述了宪法的立场,因为他们在圣雅各福群或使徒。

The Catechisms of St. Cyril of Jerusalem were held in 348; the first eighteen are addressed to the Competentes (photizómenoi) during Lent, the last six to the neophytes in Easter week.耶路撒冷要理问答的圣西里尔举行了348,第一18顷给Competentes(photizómenoi四旬期)在,在过去6周来的复活节新手英寸 In these he explains, besides Baptism and Confirmation, the holy liturgy.在这些他解释说,除了洗礼和确认,神圣的礼仪。The allusions to the liturgy are carefully veiled in the earlier ones because of the disciplina arcani; they became much plainer when he speaks to people just baptized, although even then he avoids quoting the baptism form or the words of consecration.礼仪典故的精心arcani掩盖这些disciplina在前面的,因为,他们变得更为清楚不过当他谈到对人民的正义洗礼,虽然即使在那时,他就避免引用的洗礼形式或奉献的话。 From these Catechisms we learn the order of the liturgy at Jerusalem in the middle of the fourth century. Except for one or two unimportant variations, it is that of St. James (Probst, op. cit., II, i, ii, 77-106).从这些学习的世纪,我们要理问答中第四次的顺序在耶路撒冷的礼仪。除一两个无关紧要的变化,这是同圣雅各福群(普罗布斯特。前。,二,一,二,77 -106)。This liturgy appears to have been used in either language, Greek at Antioch, Jerusalem, and the chief cities where Greek was commonly spoken, Syriac in the country.这个礼仪似乎已经被用在两种语言,国家希腊在安提阿,耶路撒冷,并在希腊的主要城市,是叙利亚的常用口语。The oldest form of it now extant is the Greek version.它的现存最古老的形式现在是希腊的版本。Is it possible to find a relationship between it and other parent-uses?是否有可能找到一个使用它与其他关系的家长?There are a number of very remarkable parallel passages between the Anaphora of this liturgy and the Canon of the Roman Mass. The order of the prayers is different, but when the Greek or Syriac is translated into Latin there appear a large number of phrases and clauses that are identical with ours. It has been suggested that Rome and Syria originally used the same liturgy and that the much-disputed question of the order of our Canon may be solved by reconstructing it according to the Syrian use (Drews, Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Kanons).有一个祷告的人数的秩序非常显着的平行通道之间的照应马萨诸塞州本礼仪和罗马佳能的是不同的,但是当希腊和叙利亚是拉丁文翻译成a和条文有出现大量的短语这与我们是一致的。有人建议,罗马和叙利亚最初使用相同的礼仪,而且为了我们的佳能备受争议的问题可能是Kanons解决重建它根据叙利亚使用(德鲁兹,祖尔Entstehungsgeschichte德)。 Mgr.经理。Duchesne and most authors, on the other hand, are disposed to connect the Gallican Liturgy with that of Syria and the Roman Mass with the Alexandrine use (Duchesne, Origines du culte chrétien, 54).德雷珀和大多数作家,另一方面,处置连接,54岁)的高卢礼仪与克雷蒂安认为culte叙利亚和罗马的亚历山大用质谱(德雷珀,Origines杜。

III.三。THE SYRIAC LITURGIES叙利亚文礼仪

After the Monophysite schism and the Council of Chalcedon (451) both Melchites and Jacobites continued using the same rite.基督一分裂后会和卡尔西(451)都Melchites和詹姆斯党继续使用相同的仪式。But gradually the two languages became characteristic of the two sides.但两种语言逐渐成为双方的两个特点。The Jacobites used only Syriac (their whole movement being a national revolt against the Emperor), and the Melchites, who were nearly all Greeks in the chief towns, generally used Greek.在詹姆斯党只用叙利亚文(他们的整个运动是一个民族反抗皇帝)和Melchites,谁是希腊人在几乎所有的主要城镇,一般使用希腊文。 The Syriac Liturgy of St. James now extant is not the original one used before the schism, but a modified form derived from it by the Jacobites for their own use.圣雅各福群叙利亚礼仪目前现存的并不是原来使用过的一个分裂的,但经修订后由它派生自用詹姆斯党对他们的。The preparation of the oblation has become a still more elaborate rite.在祭品的准备,已成为一个更加详细的仪式。The kiss of peace comes at the beginning of the Anaphora and after it this Syriac liturgy follows the Greek one almost word for word, including the reference to Sion, the mother of all churches.和平的吻说到在开始后的照应,这叙利亚文礼仪如下希腊一几乎逐字逐句,包括锡安参考,教会母亲所有。But the list of saints is modified; the deacon commemorates the saints "who have kept undefiled the faith of Nicæa, Constantinople and Ephesus"; he names "James the brother of Our Lord" alone of the Apostles and "most chiefly Cyril who was a tower of the truth, who expounded the incarnation of the Word of God, and Mar James and Mar Ephraim, eloquent mouths and pillars of our holy Church."但是,圣人清单修改;执事纪念圣人“是谁一直没有玷污的以弗所信仰尼西亚,君士坦丁堡和”,他的名字“雅各的兄弟我们的主”单独的使徒和“最谁是主要西里尔塔的真理,谁阐述了神的化身的单词,03月和03月詹姆斯和以法莲,雄辩的嘴和教会的支柱,我们神圣的。“ Mar James is Baradaï, through whom they have their orders, and from whom their name (543).詹姆斯巴拉达伊3月,他们通过他们的订单,并从他们自己的名字(543)。Is Ephraim the Patriarch of Antioch who reigned there from 539-545, but who was certainly not a Monophysite? The list of saints, however, varies considerably; sometimes they introduce a long list of their patrons (Renaudot, Lit. Orient. Col., II, 101-103).以法莲是安提阿主教是谁在位539-545从那里,但肯定不是一个谁是基督一性呢?圣徒名单,但是,有很大的差别,有时又引进。上校一长串的顾客(勒诺多,点亮。东方,二,101-103)。 This liturgy still contains a famous clause.这礼仪中仍包含一个著名的条款。Just before the lessons the Trisagion is sung.就在教训Trisagion是做不到的。That of the Greek rite is: "Holy God, holy Strong one, holy Immortal one, have mercy on us."这仪式在希腊是:“神圣的上帝,圣强,圣仙一,我们有怜悯。”The Syriac rite adds after "holy Immortal one" the words: "who wast crucified for us."仪式的叙利亚后加“神圣的神仙”之一的话:“谁废为我们钉在十字架上。”This is the addition made by Peter the Dyer (gnaphe&ús, fullos) Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch (458-471), which seemed to the Orthodox to conceal Monophysite heresy and which was adopted by the Jacobites as a kind of proclamation of their faith.这是彼得的除代尔(gnaphe与我们富略斯)基督一牧安提(458-471),这似乎掩盖了东正教和基督一异端信仰是通过他们所宣布詹姆斯党作为一类。 In the Syriac use a number of Greek words have remained.在叙利亚使用字数希腊依然。The deacon says stômen kalôs in Greek and the people continually cry out "Kurillison", just as they say "Amen" and "Alleluia" in Hebrew.执事说,在希伯来文stômen卡洛斯在希腊和人民“,不断大叫”Kurillison“,正如他们说”阿门“和”哈利路亚。 Short liturgical forms constantly become fossilized in one language and count almost as inarticulate exclamations.短礼仪形式不断成为化石的一种语言和计数几乎口齿不清的感叹词。The Greek ones in the Syriac liturgy show that the Greek language is the original.叙利亚原来希腊的礼仪表明,在希腊的语言。 Besides the Syriac Liturgy of St. James, the Jacobites have a large number of other Anaphoras, which they join to the common Preparation and Catechumen's Mass. The names of sixtly-four of these Anaphoras are known.除了叙利亚礼仪中的圣雅各福群中,詹姆斯党有这些Anaphoras大量其他Anaphoras,他们加入到共同的制备及慕道四个弥撒的地名的sixtly是已知的。 They are attributed to various saints and Monophysite bishops; thus, there are the Anaphoras of St. Basil, St. Cyril of Alexandria, St. Peter, St. Clement, Dioscurus of Alexandria, John Maro, James of Edessa (died 708), Severus of Antioch (died 518), and so on.他们是由于各种圣人和monophysite主教,因此,还有一些(Anaphoras的圣巴索,埃德萨圣西里尔的亚历山德里亚,圣彼得,圣克莱门特,Dioscurus的亚历山德里亚,詹姆斯约翰马罗,死亡708),安提(塞维鲁死亡518),等等。 There is also a shortened Anaphora of St. James of Jerusalem.还有一个照应缩短耶路撒冷的圣雅各福群。Renaudot prints the texts of forty-two of these liturgies in a Latin translation.勒诺打印拉丁美洲翻译- 2的这些礼仪中的案文40。They consist of different prayers, but the order is practically always that of the Syriac St. James Liturgy, and they are really local modifications of it.它们由不同的祈祷,但该命令实际上总是认为叙利亚文圣雅各福群礼仪,他们的修改,切实本地。A letter written by James of Edessa (c. 624) to a certain priest named Timothy describes and explains the Monophysite Liturgy of his time (Assemani, Bibl. Orient., I, 479-486).角624(阿信写的埃德萨詹姆斯),以一个祭司名叫提摩太描述和解释。东方礼仪他的基督一时间(Assemani,Bibl。,我,479-486)。 It is the Syrian St. James.这是叙利亚圣雅各福群。The Liturgy of the Presanctified of St. James (used on the week days of Lent except Saturdays) follows the other one very closely.在(礼仪詹姆斯使用该presanctified圣周六的日子,除了每周的四旬期)如下另一个非常密切。 There is the Mass of the Catechumens with the little Entrance, the Lessons, Mass of the Faithful and great Entrance, litanies, Our Father, breaking of the Host, Communion, thanksgiving, and dismissal.入口有慕道与小群众的,教训,群众的忠实的伟大入口,连篇累牍地谈,我们的父亲感恩,打破主机共融,并解雇。 Of course the whole Eucharistic prayer is left out–the oblations are already consecrated as they lie on the Prothesis before the great Entrance (Brightman, op. cit., 494-501).当然整个弥撒祈祷是左外敬奉已经献身的,他们假体趴在大门口前(布莱曼,同前。前。,494-501)。

IV.四。THE PRESENT TIME对当前

The Jacobites in Syria and Palestine still use the Syriac Liturgy of St. James, as do also the Syrian Uniates.詹姆斯党的叙利亚和巴勒斯坦仍然在使用的圣雅各福群叙利亚礼仪一样,也是叙利亚Uniates。The Orthodox of the two Patriarchates, Antioch and Jerusalem, have forsaken their own use for many centuries.耶路撒冷东正教牧首的二,安提阿和,舍弃了其数百年的使用。Like all the Christians in communion with Constantinople, they have adopted the Byzantine Rite.像所有的基督徒在君士坦丁堡共融,他们采用了拜占庭仪式。This is one result of the extreme centralization towards Constantinople that followed the Arab conquests of Egypt, Palestine, and Syria.这是一个叙利亚结果,并走向极端集中埃及,巴勒斯坦,阿拉伯君士坦丁堡之后征服的。The Melchite Patriarchs of those countries, who had already lost nearly all their flocks through the Monophysite heresy, became the merest shadows and eventually even left their sees to be ornaments of the courts at Constantinople.异端的基督一Melchite这些国家的始祖,谁通过了他们的羊群已经失去了几乎所有,成为微薄的阴影,最终甚至离开他们认为是法院在君士坦丁堡的装饰品。 It was during that time, before the rise of the new national churches, that the Byzantine Patriarch developed into something very like a pope over the whole Orthodox world.正是在那个时候,在教会的兴起新的国家,是拜占庭牧首非常喜欢的东西发展成一个世界教皇在整个东正教。And he succeeded in foisting the liturgy, calendar, and practices of his own patriarchate on the much older and more venerable sees of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.他成功地强加于礼仪,日历和东正教的做法对自己的老得多,更古老的耶路撒冷看到亚历山大,安提阿和。It is not possible to say exactly when the older uses were forsaken for that of Byzantium.它不是可以说正是时候使用了拜占庭抛弃旧的那个。Theodore Balsamon says that by the end of the twelfth century the Church of Jerusalem followed the Byzantine Rite.西奥多Balsamon说,通过在耶路撒冷结束的12世纪的教会遵循的拜占庭仪式。By that time Antioch had also doubtless followed suit.到那时安提阿也无疑效仿。There are, however, two small exceptions.有,但是,两个小例外。In the island of Zakynthos and in Jerusalem itself the Greek Liturgy of St. James was used on one day each year, 23 October, the feast of St. James the "brother of God".在扎金索斯岛本身在耶路撒冷和圣雅各福群希腊礼仪上使用的是有一天,每年10月23日,詹姆斯节日圣“上帝的兄弟”。It is still so used at Zakynthos, and in 1886 Dionysios Latas, Metropolitan of Zakynthos, published an edition of it for practical purposes.它仍然习惯在扎金索斯,并于1886年狄奥尼拉塔斯,Zakynthos的大都会,它的目的实际出版一个版本的。 At Jerusalem even this remnant of the old use had disappeared.在耶路撒冷,甚至使用这种旧的残余已经消失了。But in 1900 Lord Damianos, the Orthodox Patriarch, revived it for one day in the year, not 23 October but 31 December.但是,1900年主Damianos,东正教主教,恢复它在一天中的一个年份,而不是10月23日,但12月31日。 It was first celebrated again in 1900 (on 30 December as an exception) in the church of the Theological College of the Holy Cross.这是首次在1900年再次庆祝(12月30日作为一个例外)在圣十字教堂的神学院。Lord Epiphanios, Archbishop of the River Jordan, celebrated, assisted by a number of concelebrating priests.主Epiphanios,约旦大主教河,庆祝,神父共祭,协助一个数字的。The edition of Latas was used, but the Archimandrite Chrysostomos Papadopoulos has been commissioned to prepare another and more correct edition (Echos d'Orient, IV, 247, 248).该拉塔斯版采用,但修士赫里索斯托莫斯普洛斯已委托编写另一个更正确的版本(回声报德东方,四,247,248)。It should be noted finally that the Maronites use the Syrian St. James with a few very slight modifications, and that the Nestorian, Byzantine, and Armenian Liturgies are derived from that of Antioch.最后应当指出的马龙派教徒使用一些很轻微的改动,叙利亚与圣雅各福群,而景教,拜占庭,亚美尼亚和礼仪是从安提阿所得。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息福特斯丘写阿德里安。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录由WGKofron。With thanks to Fr.随着神父感谢。 John Hilkert, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.约翰Hilkert,俄亥俄州阿克伦的天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

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TRANSLATIONS.翻译。–THUSAIS: liturgiæ sive missæ SS.- THUSAIS:liturgiæ sive弥撒程序的SS。patrum Iacobi apostoli & fratris Domini, Basilii magni, Joannis Chrysostomi (Paris, 1560), reprinted in the Bibliotheca SS. patrum雅各比阿波斯托利&fratris多米尼,Basilii马尼,若阿尼斯Chrysostomi(巴黎,1560年),重印在藏书的SS。 Patrum (Paris, 1577), etc.; RENAUDOT, Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio (2nd ed., Frankfort, 1847), II (Syriac St. James, 1-44, Shorter St. James, 126-132, other Anaphoras, 134-500); BRETT, A Collection of the Principal Liturgies (London, 1720); NEALE, History of the Holy Eastern Church (London, 1850) I, 531-701; NEALE AND LITTLEDALE, The Liturgies of SS. Mark, James, Clement, Chrysostom and Basil and the Church of Malabar translated (London, 1868); Antenicene Christian Library (Edinburgh, 1872), XXIV; PROBST, Liturgie der drei ersten christlichen Jahrhunderten (Tübingen, 1870), 295-318; STORFF, Die griechischen Liturgien der hl. Patrum(巴黎,1577)等;勒诺多,Liturgiarum Orientalium系列(第二版。,法兰克福,1847年),二(叙利亚文圣雅各福群,1-44,更短的圣雅各福群,126-132,其他Anaphoras,134 - 500);布雷特,A)的征收,1720年的首席礼仪(伦敦,尼尔,教会历史的圣东区(伦敦,1850)我,531-701;尼尔和利特,SS的礼仪的。马克,詹姆斯,克莱门特,金口和罗勒和翻译的马拉巴教会(伦敦,1868); Antenicene基督教图书馆(爱丁堡,1872年),第24条;普罗布斯特,Liturgie明镜德赖埃斯ersten christlichen Jahrhunderten(蒂宾根,1870年),295-318;斯托夫,模具griechischen Liturgien德升。Jakobus, Markus, Basilius, und Chrysostomus (Kempten, 1877), 30-78. Jakobus,马库斯,巴齐里乌斯,北达科克里索斯托(肯普滕,1877),30-78。

DISSERTATIONS.论文。–Besides, the introductions and notes in RENAUDOT, PROBST, BRIGHTMAN, NEALE, STORFF (op. cit.), FUNK, Die apostolischen Konstitutionen (Rottenburg, 1891); ALLATIUS, Epistoli ad Bartholdum Nihusium de liturgiâ Iacobi in Summiktá (Cologne, 1653), 175-208, an attempt to prove that the liturgy really was written by St. James; BONA, Rerum liturgiarum libri duo (Turin, 1747), I, 129 sqq.; LIGHTFOOT, Disquisitio de St. Iacobi Liturgiâ f(op. posthuma, 1699); PALMER, Origines liturgica (4th ed., London, 1845), 15-44; TROLLOPE, The Greek Liturgy of St. James (Edinburgh, 1848); PROBST, Liturgie des IV. ,此外,引进和CIT注意到勒诺多,普罗布斯特,布莱曼,尼尔,斯托夫(业务。),放克,模具apostolischen Konstitutionen(罗滕堡,1891年); Epistoli广告Bartholdum Nihusium德liturgiâ雅各比在Summiktá ALLATIUS(科隆,1653 ),175-208,试图证明确实是詹姆斯书面礼仪圣;博纳,Rerum liturgiarum利博利二人(都灵,1747),我,129时12 sqq。;娜莱,圣雅各比Liturgiâ Disquisitio德楼(运。Posthuma着,1699年);帕尔默,Origines liturgica(第四版。,伦敦,1845),15-44;特罗洛普,1848年)希腊礼仪圣雅各福群(爱丁堡;普罗布斯特,Liturgie德四。 Jahrhunderts und derem Reform (Münster, 1893); DUCHESNE, Origines du culte chrétien (2nd ed., Paris, 1898), 55-67; DREWS, Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Kanons in der römischen Messe (Tübingen, 1902). Jahrhunderts北达科derem改革(明斯特,1893年);杜欣,Origines杜culte克雷蒂安(第二版。,巴黎,1898),55-67;德鲁兹,祖尔Entstehungsgeschichte德Kanons在德römischen展览(蒂宾根,1902年)。


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