John Calvin约翰卡尔文

General Information一般信息

French theologian John Calvin, b.法国神学家约翰卡尔文湾July 10, 1509, d. 1509年7月10日,四May 27, 1564, was, after Martin Luther, the guiding spirit of the Protestant Reformation. If Luther sounded the trumpet for reform, Calvin orchestrated the score by which the Reformation became a part of Western civilization. Calvin studied in Paris, probably from 1521 to 1526, where he was introduced to humanistic scholarship and to appeals for reform of the church. 1564年5月27日,是后,马丁路德的新教改革的指导精神。 如果路德吹响改革号角的,卡尔文策划评分,其中改造成为西方文明的卡尔文研究可能巴黎,从1521年1部分到1526年,在那里他被介绍给人文学术研究和教会的呼吁改革。 He then studied law at his father's bidding from about 1525 to 1530.然后,他从法律的学习在他父亲的出价约1525至1530年。 When his father died in 1531, Calvin turned immediately to his first love - study of the classics and theology.当他的父亲1531年去世,他立即转身卡尔文初恋-神学研究的经典。Between 1526 and 1531, he experienced a distinctly Protestant conversion. "God," he wrote much later, "at last turned my course in another direction by the secret rein of his providence."1526年和1531年之间, 他经历了一个明显的新教转换。“上帝”,他写道晚得多,“终于把他的秘密发挥普罗维登斯。我的课程,在另一个方向”Calvin's first published work was a commentary on Seneca's De Clementia (1532).卡尔文的第一次发表的作品是一)评注塞涅卡的德克莱芒(1532。A profusion of influential commentaries on books of the Bible followed.圣经丰富的书籍上有影响力的评论之后。

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His position in France became precarious when in 1533 his friend Nicholas Cop, rector of the University of Paris, gave a public address supporting reform.他在法国的立场变得不稳定时,在1533年他的朋友尼古拉斯警探,巴黎大学的校长,给了一个公共地址支持改革。Eventually Calvin was forced to flee in 1535 to Basel, Switzerland.最终卡尔文是被迫逃亡到1535巴塞尔,瑞士。There he produced a small book about his new reformed beliefs.在那里,他制作了改革的信念对他的新的小书。It was designed to offer a brief summary of essential Christian belief and to defend French Protestants, who were then undergoing serious persecution, as true heirs of the early church.它的目的是提供一个简要介绍基督教的基本信仰和捍卫法国新教徒,谁当时经历严重的迫害,因为早期教会的真正继承人。 This first edition of Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) contained only six brief sections.这简短的章节第一版加尔文基督教研究院 (1536)中只有6个。By the last edition (1559), it had grown to 79 full chapters. The Institutes presents with unmatched clarity a vision of God in his majesty, of Christ as prophet, priest, and king, of the Holy Spirit as the giver of faith, of the Bible as the final authority, and of the church as the holy people of God. Its doctrine of Predestination is Calvin's deduction from his belief in human sinfulness and God's sovereign mercy in Christ.到了最后一版(1559年),它已发展到79个完整的章节。 研究院提出的一个无与伦比的清晰的眼光,在陛下上帝基督,作为先知,祭司,和王灵,圣为送礼者的信心,对圣经作为最终的权威,上帝教会的圣民作为。及其学说的宿命是基督在卡尔文的扣除怜悯他的信念,人类罪恶的主权和神。

After the publication of the Institutes, Calvin fully intended to devote his life to further study.出版后,研究所的,卡尔文充分准备献身进一步研究。On a trip to Strasbourg in July 1536, however, he was forced to detour through Geneva where he hoped to stay only one night.一名在1536年7月前往斯特拉斯堡,然而,他被迫绕道通过日内瓦,他希望在那里停留一晚。The fiery Guillaume Farel, who had labored long for the reform of that city, had other plans.火热纪尧姆惹勒,谁辛苦了城市久的改革,有其他的计划。

Threatening Calvin with a curse from God, Farel persuaded him to remain.卡尔文威胁与诅咒上帝,惹勒劝说他留下来。The next 2 years were difficult, as Calvin's rigorous plans for reform of church and city clashed with Geneva's long - standing moral indifference.未来2年是困难的,因为-站在道德冷漠卡尔文长期的严格计划的日内瓦教会改革和城市发生冲突的。In 1538, Calvin and Farel were expelled from the city.在1538年,卡尔文和法尔被驱逐出城。Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg where he spent the most enjoyable years of his life as pastor of the city's French congregation.卡尔文前往斯特拉斯堡,他花了城市的法国众的最愉快的几年,他生活的牧师。While in Strasbourg, Calvin produced an influential commentary on the Book of Romans, oversaw the preparation of a liturgy and a psalm book that he would use later in Geneva, and married the widow Idelette de Bure.虽然在斯特拉斯堡,卡尔文产生了影响力的罗马人评论书上,监督的礼仪编写一本书和诗篇,他将使用后在日内瓦,娶寡妇Idelette去布雷。 When friends of Calvin gained control of the Geneva council in 1541, they asked him to return, and he reluctantly agreed.当朋友的卡尔文1541年获得控制理事会在日内瓦,他们要求他返回,他勉强同意。During the next 14 years his reforms met stiff resistance. Some Genevans then, and many critics later, considered Calvin's morality absurdly severe, with its banning of plays and its attempt to introduce religious pamphlets and psalm singing into Geneva's taverns.在未来14年的改革遇到顽强的抵抗。 有些Genevans当时,许多批评后,认为卡尔文的道德荒谬严重,其禁止的戏剧和歌唱的尝试引入到日内瓦的酒馆宗教小册子和诗篇。

Others have admired the courage of his conviction that all of life should glorify God.也有人佩服他的勇气,信念,生命的所有应该赞美上帝。Finally, the libertines blundered in 1553 by offering backhanded support to the heretic Michael Servetus.最后,在1553年的浪子失误提供反手支持邪教迈克尔塞尔维特。Servetus was condemned to death by burning, and by 1555 the city belonged to Calvin. The Presbyterian church order that he instituted established a principle of lay involvement that had great impact throughout Europe.塞尔维特被判处死刑的燃烧,由1555年的城市属于卡尔文。 基督长老教会,以便他提起建立一个世俗原则的参与,这在整个欧洲产生巨大影响。

During Calvin's last years, Geneva was home to many religious refugees who carried away the desire to implement a Genevan reform in their own countries.在卡尔文的最后几年,许多日内瓦在家自己国家宗教难民谁带走了他们的愿望在改革实施日内瓦人。His personal letters and published works reached from the British Isles to the Baltic. The Geneva Academy, founded in 1559, extended the circle of his influence.他的个人信件和出版作品达到从不列颠群岛到波罗的海。日内瓦学院,成立于1559年,延长了他的影响圈。His lucid use of French promoted that language much as Luther's work spread the influence of German.他清晰地使用这种语言的法语促进高达路德的德国传播工作的影响。By the time he died, Calvin, in spite of a reserved personality, had generated profound love among his friends and intense scorn from his enemies. His influence, which spread throughout the Western world, was felt especially in Scotland through the work of John Knox.他死的时候,卡尔文个性,但保留了一个,他的敌人产生了深刻的爱在他的朋友和激烈的蔑视。 他的影响力,这在整个西方世界的传播,尤其是在苏格兰认为通过诺克斯工作的约翰。

Mark A Noll标志着诺尔

Bibliography 书目
WJ Bousma, Calvin (1987); Q Breen, John Calvin: A Study in French Humanism (1968); J Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1559 ed.; HJ Forstman, Word and Spirit: Calvin's Doctrine of Biblical Authority (1962); THL Parker, John Calvin: A Biography (1975); R Stauffer, The Humanness of John Calvin (1971); F Wendel, Calvin: The Origin and Development of His Religious Thought (1963). WJ通讯公司Bousma,卡尔文(1987年); Q布林,约翰卡尔文:a)研究在法国人文主义(1968; J卡尔文,研究所的基督教宗教,1559年版。;黄建忠Forstman,Word和精神:卡尔文的1962学说圣经管理局( );门THL帕克,约翰卡尔文:一个生平(1975)与r斯托弗,该)思辨约翰卡尔文(1971年,女温德尔,卡尔文:起源和)发展他的宗教思想(1963年。


John Calvin (1509 - 1564)约翰加尔文(1509至1564年)

Advanced Information先进的信息

John Calvin is considered the father of Reformed and Presbyterian doctrine and theology. Calvin was born in Noyon, Picardie. 约翰加尔文神学的父亲被认为是改革和长老会的教义和。卡尔文是皮卡出生于努瓦永。His father was a notary who served the bishop of Noyon, and as a result Calvin, while still a child, received a canonry in the cathedral which would pay for his education.他的父亲是一名公证人谁担任主教的努瓦永,并因此卡尔文,而仍然是一个孩子,受教育的一个牧师会会员在教堂将支付。 Although he commenced training for the priesthood at the University of Paris, his father, because of a controversy with the bishop and clergy of the Noyon cathedral, now decided that his son should become a lawyer, and sent him to Orleans, where he studied under Pierre de l'Etoile.虽然他的律师开始训练的神职人员在巴黎大学,他的父亲,因为成为一个争议与主教和神职人员应努瓦永大教堂,现在决定,他的儿子,送他到新奥尔良,在那里他师从皮埃尔戴高乐广场。 Later he studied at Bourges under the humanist lawyer Andrea Alciati.后来,他就读于布尔根据以人为本的律师安德烈阿尔恰蒂。It was probably while in Bourges that he became a Protestant.这可能是同时在布尔日,他成为一名新教徒。

On his father's death Calvin returned to Paris, where he became involved with the Protestants there and as a result had to leave, eventually spending some time in Italy and in Basel, Switzerland.在他父亲去世卡尔文回到巴黎,在那里他成为新教徒参与了那里,结果不得不离开,最终花一些时间在意大利和瑞士巴塞尔。 In the latter city he published the first edition of the Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536).在后者的城市,他出版的1536年)第一版(该研究所的基督教宗教。After wandering around France, he decided to go to Strasbourg, a Protestant city, but while stopping overnight in Geneva he was approached by William Farel, who had introduced the Protestant movement there.继法国之后到处漂泊,他决定去斯特拉斯堡,新教的城市,但同时阻止日内瓦他在那里过夜走近威廉法惹勒,谁介绍了新教运动。 After considerable argument Calvin was persuaded to stay and help.经过大量的论点卡尔文被说服留和帮助。Calvin and Farel, however, soon ran into strong opposition and were forced out of the city, Calvin going to Strasbourg, where he stayed for three years (1538 - 41), ministering to a French Protestant refugee congregation.卡尔文和法惹勒,不过,很快陷入强烈反对,被迫离开城市,卡尔文前往斯特拉斯堡,他在那里(呆了三年,1538年至1541年),一家法国新教服事难民聚集。 Called back to Geneva in 1541, he remained there for the rest of his life as the leader of the Reformed Church.所谓1541年回到日内瓦,他在那里停留了其余归正教会他的生命作为领袖。

While Calvin was the pastor of the Eglise St. Pierre and spent much of his time preaching, his greatest influence came from his writings.虽然卡尔文是牧师的埃格斯皮埃尔圣,花了他的说教多时间,他的最大影响来自他的著作。Both his Latin and his French were clear and his reasoning lucid. He wrote commentaries on twenty - three of the OT books and on all of the NT except the Apocalypse. In addition he produced a large number of pamphlets, devotional, doctrinal, and polemical.他的拉美和他的法国人清楚,他的推理清晰。 评论对他说20 -三城市旅游局的书籍和启示新台币对所有的除外。此外,他制作一,理论大量小册子,虔诚,和论辩。But most important of all, his Institutes went through five editions, expanding from a small book of six chapters to a large work of seventy - nine chapters in 1559.但最重要的,他的机构经历了五个版本,扩大从6章一本小书来的70大工作-在1559年9章。Calvin also translated the original Latin versions into French.卡尔文还翻译成法文版本拉丁原始。All these works were widely distributed and read throughout Europe.所有这些作品广为散发,并在整个欧洲的阅读。

Not only was Calvin's influence widespread in his own day through his writings, but his impact on the Christian church has continued down to the present day. His works have been translated into many different languages, one of the most recent being the translation of the Institutes into Japanese. 不仅是卡尔文的影响力天普遍在自己通过他的著作,但他的教会影响的基督教一直延续到今天。他的作品已被院校翻译成许多不同的语言,其中最译本最近作为成日文。 The result has been that his theological teachings as well as his political and social views have wielded a strong influence on both Christians and non - Christians since the Reformation.该结果是和他的神学教义社会见解以及他的政治高悬一个强大的影响力和非基督徒都-改革以来的基督徒。

WS Reid为里德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
THL Parker, John Calvin; WS Reid, ed., John Calvin: His Influence on the Western World; GE Duffield, ed., John Calvin; J Cadier, The Man God Mastered; TB Van Halsema, This Was John Calvin; G Harkness, John Calvin, the Man and His Ethics; J Moura and P Louvet, Calvin: A Modern Biography; BB Warfield, Calvin and Augustine; R Stauffer, The Humanness of John Calvin; F Wendel, Calvin.门THL帕克,约翰卡尔文,是里德,编辑。,约翰加尔文:他对西方世界的影响,通用电气杜菲尔德,编辑。约翰卡尔文; J卡迪耶,该名男子上帝掌握;结核病凡霍尔塞马,这是约翰卡尔文; Ğ哈克尼斯约翰卡尔文,人与他的道德; J莫拉和P卢韦,卡尔文:一个现代传记; BB心跳沃菲尔德,卡尔文和奥古斯丁; R斯托弗,约翰卡尔文思辨,女温德尔,卡尔文。


John Calvin约翰卡尔文

Catholic Information天主教信息

This man, undoubtedly the greatest of Protestant divines, and perhaps, after St. Augustine, the most perseveringly followed by his disciples of any Western writer on theology, was born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564.这名男子,无疑是最大的新教神学家,也许以后圣奥古斯丁,最持之以恒其次是他的弟子们对西方神学作家的任何出生于努瓦永在皮卡第,法国,1509年7月10日,日内瓦去世,享年,1564年5月27日。

A generation divided him from Luther, whom he never met.阿代划分从路德,他从来没有见过他的人。 By birth, education, and temper these two protagonists of the reforming movement were strongly contrasted.因出生,教育和锻炼的这两个主角的改革运动的强烈对比。Luther was a Saxon peasant, his father a miner; Calvin sprang from the French middle-class, and his father, an attorney, had purchased the freedom of the City of Noyon, where he practised civil and canon law.路德是一个撒克逊农民,他的父亲是一个矿工;卡尔文源于法国的中产阶级,和他的父亲,一个律师,已经购买了他的自由,实行城市的努瓦永,在公民和教会法。 Luther entered the Order of Augustinian Hermits, took a monk's vows, was made a priest and incurred much odium by marrying a nun.路德进入订购奥古斯丁隐士,采取了和尚的誓言,是一名牧师和修女招致许多憎恨的结婚。Calvin never was ordained in the Catholic Church; his training was chiefly in law and the humanities; he took no vows.卡尔文从来没有被祝圣的天主教教会,他的训练主要是在法律和人文,他没有采取任何誓言。Luther's eloquence made him popular by its force, humour, rudeness, and vulgar style. Calvin spoke to the learned at all times, even when preaching before multitudes. His manner is classical; he reasons on system; he has little humour; instead of striking with a cudgel he uses the weapons of a deadly logic and persuades by a teacher's authority, not by a demagogue's calling of names.路德的口才使他粗鲁广泛被它的力量,幽默,和庸俗作风。卡尔文发言的教训在任何时候,甚至当众人说教面前。他的态度是经典,对系统,他的理由,他已很少幽默;而不是打击与一棒子,他使用致命武器的逻辑和权力说服由教师,而不是由一个蛊惑人心的政客的名字调用。 He writes French as well as Luther writes German, and like him has been reckoned a pioneer in the modern development of his native tongue.他写道,法国以及德国路德写道,和他一样一直忽视的舌头在他的家乡先锋现代发展。Lastly, if we term the doctor of Wittenberg a mystic, we may sum up Calvin as a scholastic; he gives articulate expression to the principles which Luther had stormily thrown out upon the world in his vehement pamphleteering; and the "Institutes" as they were left by their author have remained ever since the standard of orthodox Protestant belief in all the Churches known as "Reformed."最后,如果我们长期的维滕贝格的一个神秘的医生,我们可以总结为一个学术卡尔文,他给阐明表达了编制小册子原则路德曾气呼呼的抛出后,世界在他的强烈,而“学院”,因为他们是笔者离开其改革以来一直保持“标准被称为正统基督教的信仰的一切。” His French disciples called their sect "the religion"; such it has proved to be outside the Roman world.他的弟子称为法国的教派“宗教”,因此它已被证明是罗马以外的世界。

The family name, spelt in many ways, was Cauvin latinized according to the custom of the age as Calvinus.这家人的名字,在很多的方式拼写,是考温latinized根据Calvinus随着年龄的习俗。For some unknown reason the Reformer is commonly called Maître Jean C. His mother, Jeanne Le Franc, born in the Diocese of Cambrai, is mentioned as "beautiful and devout"; she took her little son to various shrines and brought him up a good Catholic.对于一些不明原因的改革者通常称为贝耶让长他的母亲珍妮乐法郎,出生在康布雷教区,是提到“美丽和虔诚”,她把她的小儿子各殿堂和他带来了一个好天主教徒。 On the father's side, his ancestors were seafaring men.在父亲的身边,他的祖先是航海的男子。His grandfather settled at Pont l'Evêque near Paris, and had two sons who became locksmiths; the third was Gerard, who turned procurator at Noyon, and there his four sons and two daughters saw the light.他的祖父定居在巴黎附近的蓬勒韦克,并有两个儿子谁成为锁匠,第三是杰拉德,谁把检察努瓦永在,还有他的四个儿子和两个女儿看到了光。 He lived in the Place au Blé (Cornmarket).他住在广场康马基特)金竹叶提取物(。Noyon, a bishop's see, had long been a fief of the powerful old family of Hangest, who treated it as their personal property.努瓦永,一个主教看到,长期以来一直是Hangest封地家庭强大的老,谁把它作为其个人财产。But an everlasting quarrel, in which the city took part, went on between the bishop and the chapter.但是,一个永恒的争吵,在该城市参加,继续与主教之间的篇章。Charles de Hangest, nephew of the too well-known Georges d'Amboise, Archbishop of Rouen, surrendered the bishopric in 1525 to his own nephew John, becoming his vicar-general.查尔斯德Hangest,侄子的太知名的乔治德阿姆博斯,鲁昂大主教,交出了1525年的主教,他自己的侄子约翰,成为他的副主教秘书长。 John kept up the battle with his canons until the Parliament of Paris intervened, upon which he went to Rome, and at last died in Paris in 1577.约翰不断的巴黎议会与他的战斗的大炮,直到干预后,他去了罗马,最后死在巴黎在1577年。This prelate had Protestant kinsfolk; he is charged with having fostered heresy which in those years was beginning to raise its head among the French.这已新教主教亲属,他是法国人被控有树立异端而在这些年已开始提高其头部之间。Clerical dissensions, at all events, allowed the new doctrines a promising field; and the Calvins were more or less infected by them before 1530.文书纠纷,在所有的事件,使新的理论有希望的领域,以及卡尔文1530年之前是由他们或多或少地受到感染。

Gerard's four sons were made clerics and held benefices at a tender age.杰拉德的四个儿子分别是在年幼神职人员和举行benefices。The Reformer was given one when a boy of twelve, he became Curé of Saint-Martin de Marteville in the Vermandois in 1527, and of Pont l'Eveque in 1529.该重整给予1时12男孩,他成了治疗马丁代马特维尔在韦尔芒杜瓦圣在1527年,与杜邦勒韦克在1529年。Three of the boys attended the local Collège des Capettes, and there John proved himself an apt scholar.男孩的三个参加了当地大学德Capettes,还有约翰证明了自己是一个非常恰当的学者。But his people were intimate with greater folk, the de Montmor, a branch of the line of Hangest, which led to his accompanying some of their children to Paris in 1523, when his mother was probably dead and his father had married again.但他的人体内有更大的民俗,德Montmor,以领导的分支线Hangest,陪同他的一些儿童在他们的巴黎1523年,当他的母亲很可能已经死亡,他的父亲再次结婚。 The latter died in 1531, under excommunication from the chapter for not sending in his accounts.后者在1531年去世罚下,从他的账户章不发送英寸The old man's illness, not his lack of honesty, was, we are told, the cause.这位老人的病情,而不是他缺乏诚信,是我们被告知,该事业。 Yet his son Charles, nettled by the censure, drew towards the Protestant doctrines.然而,他的儿子查尔斯,急了谴责,提请对新教教义。He was accused in 1534 of denying the Catholic dogma of the Eucharist, and died out of the Church in 1536; his body was publicly gibbeted as that of a recusant.他被指控在1534年圣体否认了天主教教义,并熄灭了教会在1536年,他的尸体被公开recusant gibbeted作为认为。

Meanwhile, young John was going through his own trials at the University of Paris, the dean or syndic of which, Noel Bédier, had stood up against Erasmus and bore hard upon Le Fèvre d'Etaples (Stapulensis), celebrated for his translation of the Bible into French.与此同时,年轻的约翰正在经历他自己的审判在巴黎大学的院长或理事,其中,诺埃尔贝迪耶,已经站起来对伊拉斯谟和孔硬后莱费弗里德埃塔普勒(Stapulensis)的,为庆祝他的翻译圣经成法文。 Calvin, a "martinet", or oppidan, in the Collèege de la Marche, made this man's acquaintance (he was from Picardy) and may have glanced into his Latin commentary on St. Paul, dated 1512, which Doumergue considers the first Protestant book emanating from a French pen. Another influence tending the same way was that of Corderius, Calvin's tutor, to whom he dedicated afterwards his annotation of I Thessalonians, remarking, "if there be any good thing in what I have published, I owe it to you".卡尔文的“马蒂”,或oppidan马尔凯,在Collèege代拉,使这名男子的熟人(他是从皮卡),并可能有,看了看他的圣保罗,在日期1512年拉丁美洲的评论,认为这杜梅格新教的第一本书产生于法国的笔。另一个影响趋于相同的方式是,认为Corderius,卡尔文的导师的人,他专门事后他本人诠释帖,发表意见,“如果有任何已出版的好事在我,我有责任向你“。 Corderius had an excellent Latin style, his life was austere, and his "Colloquies" earned him enduring fame. Corderius有很好的拉丁风格,他的生活简朴,他的“学术讨论会”为他赢得了持久的名声。But he fell under suspicion of heresy, and by Calvin's aid took refuge in Geneva, where he died September 1564.但他属于异端的怀疑,以及卡尔文的援助避难了1564年在日内瓦,在那里他死于9月。A third herald of the "New Learning" was George Cop, physician to Francis I, in whose house Calvin found a welcome and gave ear to the religious discussions which Cop favoured.第三个先驱的“新学”是弗朗西斯本人,在其家卡尔文发现乔治警察,医生给了耳朵欢迎和青睐,向缔约方会议讨论的宗教。 And a fourth was Pierre-Robert d'Olivet of Noyon, who also translated the Scriptures, our youthful man of letters, his nephew, writing (in 1535) a Latin preface to the Old Testament and a French one -- his first appearance as a native author -- to the New Testament.和一个第四名的是皮埃尔罗伯特德信奥利韦的努瓦永,谁也翻译圣经,我们的年轻男子,他的侄子,写作(在1535)1拉丁前言旧约和一名法国1 -他第一次出现的一个土生土长的作者-新约。

By 1527, when no more than eighteen, Calvin's education was complete in its main lines.到1527年,当时并没有超过18,卡尔文的教育是在完成其主要线路。He had learned to be a humanist and a reformer.他学会了一个人道主义者和改革者。The "sudden conversion" to a spiritual life in 1529, of which he speaks, must not be taken quite literally. “突然转换”到精神生活在1529年,其中他谈到,绝不能采取毫不夸张地说。He had never been an ardent Catholic; but the stories told at one time of his ill-regulated conduct have no foundation; and by a very natural process he went over to the side on which his family were taking their stand.他从来不是一个殷切天主教,但故事告诉一时间,他的病进行调节的有没有基础,并很自然的过程中,他走到一边对他的家人正在采取的立场。 In 1528 he inscribed himself at Orléans as a law student, made friends with Francis Daniel, and then went for a year to Bourges, where he began preaching in private.在1528年他亲自题写的学生在奥尔良的法律作为,作出与弗朗西斯丹尼尔的朋友,然后为一至一年过去了布尔,在那里他开始鼓吹的私人研究。 Margaret d'Angoulême, sister of Francis I, and Duchess of Berry, was living there with many heterodox Germans about her.玛格丽特德昂古莱姆,我姐姐的弗朗西斯,和贝里公爵夫人,是生活在那里的德国人对她的许多异端。

He is found again at Paris in 1531.他发现在1531年再次在巴黎。Wolmar had taught him Greek at Bourges; from Vatable he learned Hebrew; and he entertained some relations with the erudite Budaeus.Wolmar曾教他希腊在布尔,从Vatable他得知希伯来语;他博学布多伊斯招待一些关系的。 About this date he printed a commentary on Seneca's "De Clementiâ".关于这个日期,他对印塞涅卡的“德克莱芒”的评论。It was merely an exercise in scholarship, having no political significance.它只是一个奖学金行使,具有任何政治意义。 Francis I was, indeed, handling Protestants severely, and Calvin, now Doctor of Law at Orléans, composed, so the story runs, an oration on Christian philosophy which Nicholas Cop delivered on All Saints' Day, 1532, both writer and speaker having to take instant flight from pursuit by the royal inquisitors.弗朗西斯,我的确,处理新教徒严重,和Calvin,现在的法学博士在奥尔良,组成的,因此运行的故事,一来致辞基督教哲学,尼古拉斯警探后发表的诸圣日,1532年,这两个作家和扬声器从追求由皇家调查者即时航班。 This legend has been rejected by modern critics.这个传说已经拒绝了现代的批评。Calvin spent some time, however, with Canon du Tillet at Angoulême under a feigned designation.卡尔文花了一些时间,但是,在一个指定假装与佳能杜蒂莱在昂古莱姆。In May, 1534, he went to Noyon, gave up his benefice, and, it is said, was imprisoned.今年5月,1534年,他前往努瓦永,放弃了采邑,而且,这是说,被监禁。But he got away to Nerac in Bearn, the residence of the Duchess Margaret, and there again encountered Le Fèvre, whose French Bible had been condemned by the Sorbonne to the flames.但他没来的贝亚恩到内拉奇,玛格丽特居留公爵夫人,有一次遇到莱费弗里,其法文圣经谴责了索邦大学向火焰。His next visit to Paris fell out during a violent campaign of the Lutherans against the Mass, which brought on reprisals, Etienne de la Forge and others were burnt in the Place de Grève; and Calvin accompanied by du Tillet, escaped -- though not without adventures -- to Metz and Strasburg.他的下一个访问巴黎期间下降了报复带来了一场激烈的lutherans对其中质量,艾蒂安德拉热和其他被烧死在广场德格雷沃;和卡尔文蒂莱陪同杜,逃脱-尽管不无冒险 - 向梅斯和斯特拉斯堡。In the latter city Bucer reigned supreme.在后一种城市布塞珥的天下。The leading reformers dictated laws from the pulpit to their adherents, and this journey proved a decisive one for the French humanist, who, though by nature timid and shy, committed himself to a war on paper with his own sovereign.领先的法律改革者支配讲坛从他们的追随者,这旅程证明是决定性的一为法国人文主义者,谁,但本质上胆怯和害羞,致力于自己主权的战争,他自己在纸上。 The famous letter to Francis I is dated 23 August, 1535.著名的信我是弗朗西斯月1535年8月23日。It served as a prologue to the "Institutes", of which the first edition came out in March, 1536, not in French but in Latin.它曾作为序幕的“研究所”,其中第1版,并非在3月,1536年,在法国,但在拉丁美洲。Calvin's apology for lecturing the king was, that placards denouncing the Protestants as rebels had been posted up all over the realm.卡尔文的道歉的讲学国王,这标语牌谴责新教徒作为叛军已张贴在所有领域。Francis I did not read these pages, but if he had done so he would have discovered in them a plea, not for toleration, which the Reformer utterly scorned, but for doing away with Catholicism in favour of the new gospel.弗朗西斯我没有看过这些网页,但如果他这样做,他会发现在他们的认罪,而不是容忍,而改革者完全蔑视,但这样做福音远新与天主教赞成。 There could be only one true Church, said the young theologian, therefore kings ought to make an utter end of popery.只能有一个真正的教会说,年轻的神学家,因此,国王应该作出的popery彻底结束。(For an account of the "Institutes" see CALVINISM.) The second edition belongs to 1539, the first French translation to 1541; the final Latin, as revised by its author, is of 1559; but that in common use, dated 1560, has additions by his disciples. (对于加尔文帐户的“研究所”看。)第二版属于1539年,第一个法语翻译到1541年,最后的拉丁语,后经修改的作者,是1559年,但在共同使用,日期1560年,已经由他的弟子补充。 "It was more God's work than mine", said Calvin, who took for his motto "Omnia ad Dei gloriam", and in allusion to the change he had undergone in 1529 assumed for his device a hand stretched out from a burning heart. “这是多神”的工作比我说,卡尔文,谁“花了他的座右铭”广告计划广告棣gloriam,在针对他的心改变燃烧在经历了1529年承担了从他的一只手伸了设备。

A much disputed chapter in Calvin's biography is the visit which he was long thought to have paid at Ferraro to the Protestant Duchess Renée, daughter of Louis XII.一个很大的争议传记章第十二访问卡尔文是他被长期认为费拉罗在付出了新教蕾妮路易公爵夫人,女儿。Many stories clustered about his journey, now given up by the best-informed writers.很多关于他的故事旅程集群,现已获得由作家最好的情况。All we know for certain is that the Reformer, after settling his family affairs and bringing over two of his brothers and sisters to the views he had adopted undertook, in consequence of the war between Charles V and Francis I, to reach Bale by way of Geneva, in July, 1536.我们所知道的,是一定的改革者,他的家庭事务解决后,我把弗朗西斯两年多的他和他的兄弟姐妹们的意见V采用了查尔斯之间进行,在后果的战争,以达到巴莱方式日内瓦7月,1536年。 At Geneva the Swiss preacher Fare, then looking for help in his propaganda, besought him with such vehemence to stay and teach theology that, as Calvin himself relates, he was terrified into submission.在日内瓦的瑞士传教士票价,然后寻找宣传工作的帮助他,恳求他如此激烈留下来任教神学,作为卡尔文关乎自己,他害怕被提交到。 We are not accustomed to fancy the austere prophet so easily frightened.我们不习惯于花式严峻先知这么容易害怕。But as a student and recluse new to public responsibilities, he may well have hesitated before plunging into the troubled waters of Geneva, then at their stormiest period.但作为一个学生,隐士新的公共责任,他很可能在日内瓦暴跌犹豫不安水域进入,然后在他们的暴风雨时期。No portrait of him belonging to this time is extant.没有人像他属于这个时间是现存的。Later he is represented as of middle height, with bent shoulders, piercing eyes, and a large forehead; his hair was of an auburn tinge. Study and fasting occasioned the severe headaches from which he suffered continually.后来,他是代表作为中等高度,用弯曲的肩膀,刺穿眼睛,大额头,他的头发色彩是一个红褐色。研究和空腹引起的严重头痛,他遭受不断。 In private life he was cheerful but sensitive, not to say overbearing, his friends treated him with delicate consideration.在私人生活中他是乐观的,但敏感的,并不是说霸道,他的朋友对待他考虑与微妙。His habits were simple; he cared nothing for wealth, and he never allowed himself a holiday.他的习惯,很简单,他关心什么财富的,他决不允许自己的假期。His correspondence, of which 4271 letters remain, turns chiefly on doctrinal subjects.他的信件,其中4271信仍然存在,原来主要是对理论科目。Yet his strong, reserved character told on all with whom he came in contact; Geneva submitted to his theocratic rule, and the Reformed Churches accepted his teaching as though it were infallible.然而,他坚强,保留字符告诉所有与他接触过的;日内瓦提交给他的神权统治,并接受了他的归正教学虽然它是不会犯错误的。

Such was the stranger whom Farel recommended to his fellow Protestants, "this Frenchman", chosen to lecture on the Bible in a city divided against itself. Geneva had about 15,000 inhabitants.这就是陌生人法尔建议他的同胞新教徒,“这个法国人”,选择圣经讲座上英寸日内瓦分歧本身就是一种对城市有大约15 000名居民。Its bishop had long been its prince limited, however, by popular privileges.其主教已久的王子有限的,然而,流行的特权。The vidomne, or mayor, was the Count of Savoy, and to his family the bishopric seemed a property which, from 1450, they bestowed on their younger children.该vidomne,或市长,是萨伏依伯爵和他的家庭主教似乎是一个孩子的财产,从1450年,年轻的他们赋予他们的。 John of Savoy, illegitimate son of the previous bishop, sold his rights to the duke, who was head of the clan, and died in 1519 at Pignerol.约翰的萨沃伊,以前主教私生子的,卖掉了他的权利,公爵,谁是族长的,并于1519年死于皮涅罗尔。Jean de la Baume, last of its ecclesiastical princes, abandoned the city, which received Protestant teachers from Berne in 1519 and from Fribourg in 1526.让德拉波美,去年其教会的王子,被遗弃的城市,获得1519年和弗里堡新教的教师从伯尔尼在1526年。In 1527 the arms of Savoy were torn down; in 1530 the Catholic party underwent defeat, and Geneva became independent.在1527年萨伏伊的武器被推倒,在1530年的天主教党经历了失败,日内瓦成为独立。It had two councils, but the final verdict on public measures rested with the people.它有两个议会,但最终的裁决公共措施对市民休息用的。These appointed Farel, a convert of Le Fevre, as their preacher in 1534.这些任命的法惹勒,一热夜之转换勒1534年,在他们的牧师。 A discussion between the two Churches from 30 May to 24 June, 1535 ended in victory for the Protestants.阿两个教会之间的讨论从5月30日至1535年6月24日胜利结束的新教徒。The altars were desecrated, the sacred images broken, the Mass done away with.该神坛被亵渎,神圣的形象破碎,地下取消。Bernese troops entered and "the Gospel" was accepted, 21 May, 1536. This implied persecution of Catholics by the councils which acted both as Church and State.伯尔尼部队进入和“福音”被接受,1536年5月21日。暗示,这与国家的天主教徒的迫害教会的议会采取行动既是。Priests were thrown into prison; citizens were fined for not attending sermons.神父被扔进监狱;公民说教罚款没有参加会议。At Zürich, Basle, and Berne the same laws were established. Toleration did not enter into the ideas of the time.在苏黎世,巴塞尔和伯尔尼建立了同样的法律。宽容没有进入的时间观念。

But though Calvin had not introduced this legislation, it was mainly by his influence that in January, 1537 the "articles" were voted which insisted on communion four times a year, set spies on delinquents, established a moral censorship, and punished the unruly with excommunication.不过,虽然卡尔文还没有推出这项立法,它主要是由他的影响力,在今年1月,1537年的“文章”被否决的共融坚持一年四次,设置罪犯间谍上,建立了道德审查,并处罚违规用逐出教会。 There was to be a children's catechism, which he drew up; it ranks among his best writings.有是一个儿童的教义,他起草了,而是他的著作中排名最好的。The city now broke into "jurants" and "nonjurors" for many would not swear to the "articles"; indeed, they never were completely accepted.这座城市现在闯入“jurants”和“nonjurors”,“为许多人发誓不向”的文章,事实上,他们从来没有被完全接受。 Questions had arisen with Berne touching points that Calvin judged to be indifferent.问题出现了伯尔尼感人的冷漠点,卡尔文判定为。He made a figure in the debates at Lausanne defending the freedom of Geneva.他在日内瓦的自由辩论,这个数字在洛桑捍卫。 But disorders ensued at home, where recusancy was yet rife; in 1538 the council exiled Farel, Calvin, and the blind evangelist, Couraud.但随后疾病在家里,在那里躲避国教尚未盛行,在1538年,Couraud流亡议会法惹勒,卡尔文,和盲人传播者。 The Reformer went to Strasburg, became the guest of Capito and Bucer, and in 1539 was explaining the New Testament to French refugees at fifty two florins a year.前往斯特拉斯堡的重整,成为客户的卡皮托和布塞珥,并在1539年被解释法国的难民在52金币的新约一年。Cardinal Sadolet had addressed an open letter to the Genevans, which their exile now answered. Sadolet urged that schism was a crime; Calvin replied that the Roman Church was corrupt.枢机Sadolet已解决了一封公开信向Genevans,现在,他们的流亡回答。Sadolet敦促分裂是一种犯罪;卡尔文回答说,罗马教会是腐败。 He gained applause by his keen debating powers at Hagenau, Worms, and Ratisbon.他获得了他敏锐的蠕虫的掌声,辩论的权力在哈格瑙和拉蒂斯邦。But he complains of his poverty and ill-health, which did not prevent him from marrying at this time Idelette de Bure, the widow of an Anabaptist whom he had converted.但他抱怨他的贫困和健康欠佳,这并不妨碍他这个时间在Idelette从结婚去布雷,转换寡妇的人,他有一个再洗礼派。 Nothing more is known of this lady, except that she brought him a son who died almost at birth in 1542, and that her own death took place in 1549.没有更多人知道这位女士,除了她带来了一个儿子1542年去世,几乎谁在出生时,和她自己的死亡了1549名的成绩。

After some negotiation Ami Perrin, commissioner for Geneva, persuaded Calvin to return.经过一番谈判阿美族佩林,日内瓦专员,说服卡尔文返回。He did so, not very willingly, on 13 September, 1541.他这样做,不是很乐意,9月13日1541。His entry was modest enough.他的条目被足够谦虚。The church constitution now recognized "pastors, doctors, elders, deacons" but supreme power was given to the magistrate.教堂的宪法现在公认的“牧师,医生,长老,执事”,但最高权力交给了法官。Ministers had the spiritual weapon of God's word; the consistory never, as such, wielded the secular arm Preachers, led by Calvin, and the councils, instigated by his opponents, came frequently into collision.部长们在的话精神武器的神的康西斯托从来没有,因此,挥舞手臂世俗传教士,卡尔文领导和议会,煽动他的对手,来经常到碰撞。 Yet the ordinances of 1541 were maintained; the clergy, assisted by lay elders, governed despotically and in detail the actions of every citizen.然而,1541年的条例继续维持下去;神职人员,公民协助长者奠定管辖,专制和在每一个细节的行动。A presbyterian Sparta might be seen at Geneva; it set an example to later Puritans, who did all in their power to imitate its discipline.斯巴达的长老会被视为在日内瓦,它树立了榜样后来清教徒,谁也都在他们的权力,以模仿的纪律。The pattern held up was that of the Old Testament, although Christians were supposed to enjoy Gospel liberty.该模式是,举行了旧约,虽然基督徒理应享受福音的自由。In November, 1552, the Council declared that Calvin's "Institutes" were a "holy doctrine which no man might speak against."去年11月,1552年,安理会宣布,卡尔文的“研究所”是一个“神圣的学说没有人会发言反对。”Thus the State issued dogmatic decrees, the force of which had been anticipated earlier, as when Jacques Gouet was imprisoned on charges of impiety in June, 1547, and after severe torture was beheaded in July. Some of the accusations brought against the unhappy young man were frivolous, others doubtful.因此,国家发行的教条式的法令,部队,其中早先预计的当雅克古埃是不虔诚的收费监禁6月,1547年,经过严重的酷刑是7月被斩首英寸一些年轻人不满的指控提起了是琐碎的,别人怀疑。 What share, if any, Calvin took in this judgment is not easy to ascertain.什么股票,如果有的话,卡尔文判断参加了这次是不容易确定。 The execution of however must be laid at his door; it has given greater offence by far than the banishment of Castellio or the penalties inflicted on Bolsec -- moderate men opposed to extreme views in discipline and doctrine, who fell under suspicion as reactionary.然而,门的执行必须在他的敷设,它已作出更大的罪行远远超过Bolsec放逐卡斯泰利奥造成点球或-温和的男人反对极端的观点是反动的纪律和学说的怀疑,根据谁下跌。 The Reformer did not shrink from his self-appointed task.该重整没有畏缩,他自封的任务。Within five years fifty-eight sentences of death and seventy-six of exile, besides numerous committals of the most eminent citizens to prison, took place in Geneva.五年内58句流亡的死亡和70个,除了众多杰出公民的大部分侦讯的监狱,在日内瓦举行英寸The iron yoke could not be shaken off. In 1555, under Ami Perrin, a sort of revolt was attempted.铁的枷锁无法摆脱。在1555年,根据阿美族佩林,一个试图反抗的排序。No blood was shed, but Perrin lost the day, and Calvin's theocracy triumphed.没有血棚,但佩林失去了一天,卡尔文的神权政治胜利。

"I am more deeply scandalized", wrote Gibbon "at the single execution of Servetus than at the hecatombs which have blazed in the autos-da-fé of Spain and Portugal". “我更深刻地震惊”,说长臂猿“在葡萄牙”单一执行塞尔维特比,并在已开辟的hecatombs在汽车达铁西班牙。He ascribes the enmity of Calvin to personal malice and perhaps envy. The facts of the case are pretty well ascertained.他赋予了敌意的卡尔文个人恶意,甚至嫉妒。案件的事实是不错的确定。Born in 1511, perhaps at Tudela, Michael Served y Reves studied at Toulouse and was present in Bologna at the coronation of Charles V. He travelled in Germany and brought out in 1531 at Hagenau his treatise "De Trinitatis Erroribus", a strong Unitarian work which made much commotion among the more orthodox Reformers.出生于1511图德拉,也许在,曾任迈克尔Ÿ列韦斯在图卢兹研究,并于五,目前在查尔斯加冕博洛尼亚在他前往德国和提出1531年在他的论文在哈格瑙“德Trinitatis Erroribus”,一个强大统一的工作这使许多正统的改革者骚动中越。He met Calvin and disputed with him at Paris in 1534, became corrector of the press at Lyons; gave attention to medicine, discovered the lesser circulation of the blood, and entered into a fatal correspondence with the dictator of Geneva touching a new volume "Christianismi Restitutio," which he intended to publish.他会见了卡尔文和有争议的在巴黎与他在1534年,成为里昂的校正在记者;注意了药物,发现了血液流通较小,体积和Christianismi进入“一个致命的新的通信与独裁者的日内瓦感人一恢复原状“,他打算发表。 In 1546 the exchange of letters ceased.在1546年的信件交换停止。The Reformer called Servetus arrogant (he had dared to criticize the "Institutes" in marginal glosses), and uttered the significant menace, "If he comes here and I have any authority, I will never let him leave the place alive."所谓的改革者塞尔维特傲慢(他敢于批判“学院”在边缘掩盖),并说出了重大威胁,“如果他来到这里,我有什么权力,我永远不会让他离开的地方活着。” The "Restitutio" appeared in 1553.在“恢复原状”出现在1553年。Calvin at once had its author delated to the Dominican inquisitor Ory at Lyons, sending on to him the man's letters of 1545-46 and these glosses.卡尔文在其曾经撰文delated奥里多米尼加砂锅在里昂的,发送到他1545年至1546年,这些粉饰的人的信的。 Hereupon the Spaniards was imprisoned at Vienne, but he escaped by friendly connivance, and was burnt there only in effigy.于此西班牙人被监禁在维埃纳省,但他纵容逃脱友好,仅被烧毁的肖像有研究。Some extraordinary fascination drew him to Geneva, from which he intended to pass the Alps.一些特殊的魅力吸引他到日内瓦,从他打算通过阿尔卑斯山。He arrived on 13 August, 1553.他来到1553年8月13日。The next day Calvin, who had remarked him at the sermon, got his critic arrested, the preacher's own secretary coming forward to accuse him.第二天卡尔文,谁曾说过他在布道,得到了影评人被捕,牧师自己的秘书站出来指责他。 Calvin drew up forty articles of charge under three heads, concerning the nature of God, infant baptism, and the attack which Servetus had ventured on his own teaching.卡尔文制定了三个头40岁以下的文章,关于上帝的性质,婴儿的洗礼,教学攻击的塞尔维特自己都敢于对他。The council hesitated before taking a deadly decision, but the dictator, reinforced by Farel, drove them on. In prison the culprit suffered much and loudly complained.该委员会之前犹豫采取致命的决定,但独裁者,加强了法惹勒,将它们的。在监狱里的罪犯遭受很大,大声抱怨。 The Bernese and other Swiss voted for some indefinite penalty.瑞士的伯尔尼和其他一些投票无限期刑罚。But to Calvin his power in Geneva seemed lost, while the stigma of heresy; as he insisted, would cling to all Protestants if this innovator were not put to death.但是,为了他的加尔文在日内瓦的权力似乎失去了,而耻辱的异端,因为他坚持,坚持将所有的新教徒如果这个创新不是处死。 "Let the world see" Bullinger counselled him, "that Geneva wills the glory of Christ." “让世界看到”布凌格辅导他,“日内瓦遗嘱的基督荣耀。”

Accordingly, sentence was pronounced 26 October, 1553, of burning at the stake. "Tomorrow he dies," wrote Calvin to Farel.因此,判决宣告1553年,燃烧时的股份10月26日。“明天他死了,”说卡尔文向法尔。When the deed was done, the Reformer alleged that he had been anxious to mitigate the punishment, but of this fact no record appears in the documents.当契约是做,改革者声称,他已急于减轻处罚,但这一事实没有任何记录文件出现在。He disputed with Servetus on the day of execution and saw the end.他与塞尔维特有争议的执行日,看到了结束。A defence and apology next year received the adhesion of the Genevan ministers.阿国防和道歉明年收到部长粘连的Genevan。Melanchthon, who had taken deep umbrage at the blasphemies of the Spanish Unitarian, strongly approved in well-known words.梅兰希顿,谁采取了西班牙语寻道深刻的树荫在亵渎,强烈批准著名词。But a group that included Castellio published at Basle in 1554 a pamphlet with the title, "Should heretics be persecuted?"但一组,包括所有权卡斯泰利奥发表于1554年在巴塞尔的一个小册子的,“应该受到迫害异端?”It is considered the first plea for toleration in modern times.它被认为是近代第一个认罪的容忍。Beza replied by an argument for the affirmative, couched in violent terms; and Calvin, whose favorite disciple he was, translated it into French in 1559.贝萨回答了一个方面的肯定激烈争论,在措辞和卡尔文,他的得意门生,1559年它翻译成法文研究。The dialogue, "Vaticanus", written against the "Pope of Geneva" by Castellio, did not get into print until 1612.这次对话,“Vaticanus”,书面反对“日内瓦教皇”以卡斯泰利奥,打印不进入,直至1612年。Freedom of opinion, as Gibbon remarks, "was the consequence rather than the design of the Reformation."意见自由,因为长臂猿言论,“是改革的结果,而不是设计的。”

Another victim to his fiery zeal was Gentile, one of an Italian sect in Geneva, which also numbered among its adherents Alciati and Gribaldo.另一个受害者,他火热的热情是詹蒂莱,格里巴尔多一个阿尔恰蒂和意大利的一个教派信徒在日内瓦举行,这也编号之间的。 As more or less Unitarian in their views, they were required to sign a confession drawn up by Calvin in 1558.由于或多或少统一在他们的意见,他们被要求在1558年签署了招供制定一个卡尔文。Gentile subscribed it reluctantly, but in the upshot he was condemned and imprisoned as a perjurer.詹蒂莱订阅它勉强,但在作伪证结果他被谴责和被监禁的。He escaped only to be twice incarcerated at Berne, where in 1566, he was beheaded.他只逃脱被砍头两次被关押在伯尔尼,凡在1566年,他是。Calvin's impassioned polemic against these Italians betrays fear of the Socinianism which was to lay waste his vineyard.卡尔文的慷慨激昂的背叛意大利的恐惧对这些争论的Socinianism这是奠定浪费他的葡萄园。Politically he leaned on the French refugees, now abounding in the city, and more than equal in energy -- if not in numbers -- to the older native factions.政治上,他俯身对法国的难民,现在城市中丰富和能源多于平等-如果不是在数字-到旧本土派系。Opposition died out.反对党熄灭。His continual preaching, represented by 2300 sermons extant in the manuscripts and a vast correspondence, gave to the Reformer an influence without example in his closing years.他不断鼓吹,通信为代表的2300布道现存的手稿和广阔,给了改革者1年结束没有影响他的例子。He wrote to Edward VI, helped in revising the Book of Common Prayer, and intervened between the rival English parties abroad during the Marian period.他写信给爱德华六世,帮助修改共同祈祷的书,和国外干预当事人之间的英国对手在玛丽安时期。In the Huguenot troubles he sided with the more moderate.在胡格诺麻烦,他片面与较温和。His censure of the conspiracy of Amboise in 1560 does him honour.他阿姆博斯谴责的阴谋在1560年没有他的荣誉。One great literary institution founded by him, the College, afterwards the University, of Geneva, flourished exceedingly.一个伟大的文学机构由他创办的学院,大学后,日内瓦,蓬勃发展极。The students were mostly French.这些学生大多是法国人。When Beza was rector it had nearly 1500 students of various grades.当贝萨它是校长年级的学生近1500多种。

Geneva now sent out pastors to the French congregations and was looked upon as the Protestant Rome.现在日内瓦发出了向法国教会牧师,被视为新教罗马。Through Knox, "the Scottish champion of the Swiss Reformation", who had been preacher to the exiles in that city, his native land accepted the discipline of the Presbytery and the doctrine of predestination as expounded in Calvin's "Institutes".通过诺克斯,“宗教改革”苏格兰冠军,瑞士,谁曾牧师以流亡者在这个城市,他的家乡接受了长老会的纪律和宿命主义所阐明的卡尔文的“研究所”。 The Puritans in England were also descendants of the French theologian.在英格兰的清教徒神学家后人也对法国。His dislike of theatres, dancing and the amenities of society was fully shared by them.他不喜欢的剧院,舞蹈和社会设施完全赞同他们。The town on Lake Leman was described as without crime and destitute of amusements.莱蒙湖上的小镇被形容为没有犯罪和贫困的娱乐活动。 Calvin declaimed against the "Libertines", but there is no evidence that any such people had a footing inside its walls The cold, hard, but upright disposition characteristic of the Reformed Churches, less genial than that derived from Luther, is due entirely to their founder himself.卡尔文慷慨陈词反对“浪子”,但没有任何证据表明这些人都很难立足的墙壁内冷,但和煦的正直性格特征比对归正教会少,来自路德,完全是由于他们的创始人自己。 Its essence is a concentrated pride, a love of disputation, a scorn of opponents.其实质是一个集中的骄傲,爱争论的,一个蔑视对手。 The only art that it tolerates is music, and that not instrumental.唯一的艺术,它容忍是音乐,而不是工具。It will have no Christian feasts in its calendar, and it is austere to the verge of Manichaean hatred of the body.它将在其日历没有基督教节日,它是严峻的身体边缘的摩尼教仇恨。When dogma fails the Calvinist, he becomes, as in the instance of Carlyle, almost a pure Stoic.当教条,失败的加尔文主义,他成为,如凯雷的实例,几乎是纯粹的斯多葛。"At Geneva, as for a time in Scotland," says JA Froude, "moral sins were treated as crimes to be punished by the magistrate."“在日内瓦,作为一个在苏格兰的时间,说:”司法机构政务长佛洛德,“道德罪被裁判视为犯罪的将被处以”。 The Bible was a code of law, administered by the clergy.圣经是一法代码,由神职人员管理。Down to his dying day Calvin preached and taught.到他死的那一天卡尔文宣扬和教导。By no means an aged man, he was worn out in these frequent controversies.绝不是一中年男子,他穿在这些频繁的争议。On 25 April, 1564, he made his will, leaving 225 French crowns, of which he bequeathed ten to his college, ten to the poor, and the remainder to his nephews and nieces. 4月25日1564年,他提出他的意愿,离开法国225克朗,而他留给他的10个学院,10个穷人,和他的侄子侄女其余部分和。His last letter was addressed to Farel.他的最后一封信是写给法尔。He was buried without pomp, in a spot which is not now ascertainable.他没有隆重安葬,在现场查明这是不是现在。In the year 1900 a monument of expiation was erected to Servetus in the Place Champel.在1900年1赎罪纪念碑被竖立在广场尚佩尔塞尔维特。Geneva has long since ceased to be the head of Calvinism.日内瓦早已不再是加尔文头。It is a rallying point for Free Thought, Socialist propaganda, and Nihilist conspiracies.这是一个虚无主义者阴谋凝聚点思想自由,社会主义的宣传和。But in history it stands out as the Sparta of the Reformed churches, and Calvin is its Lycurgus.但在历史上它突出的斯巴达为教会的改革,是其莱克格斯卡尔文。

Publication information Written by William Barry.出版信息巴里写威廉。Transcribed by Tomas Hancil. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.转录由托马斯汉奇尔。天主教百科全书,第三卷。Published 1908.1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat 11月1,1908。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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