Counter - Reformation反宗教改革

General Information一般信息

The Counter - Reformation was the movement within the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th and 17th centuries that tried to eliminate abuses within that church and to respond to the Protestant Reformation. Until recently, historians tended to stress the negative and repressive elements in this movement, such as the Inquisition and the Index of Forbidden Books, and to concentrate their attention on its political, military, and diplomatic aspects. 反-改革是宗教改革运动在罗马天主教教会在16世纪和17世纪,试图消除滥用在该教堂和新教最近回应。之前,历史学家往往强调镇压的元素在这一运动的消极,如宗教裁判所和书籍指数紫禁城,并把注意力集中在外交方面的政治,军事和。 They now show greater appreciation for the high level of spirituality that animated many of the leaders of the Counter - Reformation.现在他们表现出更大的改革赞赏水平高灵性的动画许多领导人的反- 。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
The century before the outbreak of the Reformation was marked by increasing and widespread dismay with the venality of the bishops and their involvement in politics, with the ignorance and superstition of the lower clergy, with the laxity of religious orders, and with the sterility of academic theology. Movements for a return to the original observances within religious orders and the activity of outspoken critics of the papacy like Girolamo Savonarola were symptomatic of the impulses for reform that characterized sectors of the Catholic church during these years.世纪宗教改革的爆发前的特点是普遍增加和政治不安与唯利是图的参与和他们的主教,神职人员的无知和迷信的降低,与宗教的命令松弛,并与不育学术神学。变动一在宗教纪念活动订单返回到原来的萨沃纳罗拉活动一样吉罗拉莫教皇的直言不讳的批评者的症状是在这几年的冲动的天主教教堂部门改革的特点。

Not until Paul III became pope in 1534 did the Roman Catholic church receive the leadership it needed to coordinate these impulses and meet the challenge of the Protestants.直到1534年教皇保罗三世成为当时在罗马天主教会的领导收到它需要协调这些冲动和迎接挑战的新教徒。This pope approved new religious orders like the Jesuits, and he convoked the Council of Trent (1545 - 63) to deal with the doctrinal and disciplinary questions raised by the Protestant reformers.这教宗批准的耶稣像新的宗教命令,他召集了安理会的遄达的(1545 - 63),以处理所提出的新教改革者问题的理论和纪律。The decrees of that council formulating belief and practice dominated Roman Catholic thinking for the next four centuries.和实践的法令,行政会议制定的信仰罗马天主教占主导地位的世纪思考未来四年。Paul III, as well as his successors, also committed papal resources to military action against the Protestants.保罗三,以及他的继任者,还承诺向新教徒教皇资源军事行动对付。

The Counter - Reformation was activist, marked by enthusiasm for the evangelization of newly discovered territories, especially in North and South America; for the establishment of religious schools, where the Jesuits took the lead; and for the organization of works of charity and catechesis under the leadership of reformers like Saint Charles Borromeo.反-改革是积极分子,主要标志是领土的积极性,为发现新的福传美国,尤其是在北方和南方,为率先建立宗教学校,那里的耶酥会宣读,并为理组织和慈善根据工程保路米奥领导像圣查尔斯的改革者。 Somewhat paradoxically, there was also a renewed enthusiasm for contemplation, and the era produced two of the greatest representatives of Mysticism - Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross.有点矛盾的,也有一个重新思考的热情,神秘主义和时代产生的两个最大的代表-修女的阿维拉的交叉和约翰。

John W O'Malley约恩W奥马利

Bibliography 书目
AG Dickens, The Counter Reformation (1969); HO Evennett, The Spirit of the Counter Reformation (1970); AD Wright, Counter Reformation (1982).公司狄更斯,反改革(1969年);何文尼特的)精神反改革(1970年;公元赖特,反改革(1982年)。


Counter-Reformation反宗教改革

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Counter-Reformation was the label for the Roman Catholic revival of the sixteenth century. It emphasizes that the reaction to the Protestant challenge was the dominant theme of contemporary Catholicism.反改革的标签是本世纪的罗马天主教复兴的16。委员会强调,挑战的反应,是当代天主教新教占主导地位的主题。 The movement is also labeled the Catholic Reformation and the Catholic renaissance, since elements of Catholic reform and revival predated the Protestant Reformation and were, like Protestantism, a response to the widespread aspiration for religious regeneration pervading late fifteenth century Europe.该运动还标示,因为元素的天主教改革和振兴的复兴天主教改革和天主教和新教改革早了,像新教,1至15世纪欧洲的反应普遍愿望后期宗教再生弥漫。 It is now better understood that the two reformations, Protestant and Catholic, though believing themselves to be in opposition, had many similarities and drew on a common past: the revival of preaching exemplified in the great pre - Reformation preachers like Jan Hus, Bernardino of Siena, and Savonarola; the Christ - centered, practical mysticism of the Devotio Moderna; the movement for ecclesistical reform headed by Cardinal Ximenez de Cisneros in Spain but also well represented by reforming bishops in France and Germany.现在是更好地理解这两个教育改革,新教和天主教的反对,但相信自己的存在,过去有许多相似之处,并借鉴了一个共同的:即复兴宣扬体现在大前,圣贝纳迪诺-改革传教士像扬胡斯锡耶纳和萨沃纳罗拉;基督-为本,Devotio莫德纳实际神秘主义的,是西班牙运动西斯内罗斯为ecclesistical改革中枢机主教为首的希梅内斯德也代表以及德国和改革主教在法国。

The Counter - Reformation is sometimes described as a Spanish movement.反-改革是有时被称为西班牙的运动。Over three thousand mystical works are known to have been written in sixteenth century Spain, suggesting that mysticism was a popular movement.超过3000神秘的作品是被称为西班牙已写在16世纪,这意味着神秘主义是一种流行的运动。 But the dominant Spanish mystics were three aristocrats: Teresa of Avila (1515 - 82), John of the Cross (1542 - 91), and Ignatius of Loyola (1491 - 1556). Two of the three great instruments of the Counter - Reformation stemmed from Spain, namely the Society of Jesus and the Inquisition. The third was the Council of Trent, which was finally convened in 1545 after constant pressure from the Emperor Charles V, grandson of Spain's great reforming monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella.但西班牙神秘主义者三个主导贵族:修女的阿维拉(1515 - 82), 柜台约翰的十字架(1542年至1591年),和依纳爵罗耀拉(1491年至1556年)。 两名三大工具-改革源于来自西班牙,即耶稣的宗教裁判协会和。第三是伊莎贝拉安理会的遄达,这是在1545年召开的最后费迪南德和恒压后从皇帝,查尔斯五世,孙子西班牙最伟大的改革君主。

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits), incorporated in 1540, was the most remarkable of the new orders of reformed priests (clerks regular) who lived among the faithful rather than withdrawing into monasteries.耶稣学会(耶稣),成立于1540,是到寺庙最显着的,而不是取消,新订单改革祭司)(办事员经常谁住忠实之间。 Other orders included the Theatines (1524), Somaschi (1532), and Barnabites (1534).其他命令,包括Theatines(1524),索马斯基(1532),和Barnabites(1534)。The founder of the Jesuits, Ignatius of Loyola, sought to prepare his followers for a life of triumphal service and heroic self - sacrifice through his Spiritual Exercises, a series of practical meditations.耶稣会创始人,依纳爵罗耀拉的,准备寻求自我的英雄,他的追随者的生活服务和凯旋-通过他的牺牲精神冥想练习,实践的一系列。 The Jesuits ministered to the poor, educated boys, and evangelized the heathen.邦的耶稣服事穷人,教育孩子们,并且扩大。 Francis Xavier (1506 - 52) a Spanish Jesuit, traveled to Goa, South India, Ceylon, Malaya, and Japan on his amazing missionary journeys.弗朗西斯泽维尔(1506至1552年)西班牙耶稣会,前往果阿,南印度,锡兰,马来西亚,日本对他的惊人的传教旅程。 When Ignatius died, the society had around 1,000 members administering 100 foundations.当伊格去世后,社会发生了大约1,000名成员管理100基础。A century later there were over 15,000 Jesuits and 550 foundations, testifying to the sustained vitality of the Counter - Reformation.一个世纪后全球有超过15000名耶稣会士和550的基础,证明了反持久的生命力-改革。

The Roman Inquisition was established in 1542 by Pope Paul III to suppress Lutheranism in Italy.罗马宗教裁判所成立于1542年在意大利由教皇保罗三路德教压制。Cardinal Caraffa, its Inquisitor General, later Pope Paul IV (1555 - 59), directed that heretics in high places should be dealt with most severely, "for on their punishment, the salvation of the classes beneath them depends." The Roman Inquisition reached its peak during the pontificate of the saintly zealot Pius V (1566 - 72), systematically extirpating Italian Protestants and securing Italy as a base for a counteroffensive on the Protestant north.红衣主教加拉法,其砂锅一般,后来教皇保罗四世(1555年至1559年),指示,异教徒在高的地方应该是最严厉的处理,“他们对他们的处罚,下方的救赎类而定。”罗马宗教裁判所达成其全盛时期的教皇庇护五世的圣洁的狂热分子(1566年至1572年),系统地摘除意大利新教徒和确保意大利北部的基地作为新教的一个反攻的。

The corrupt hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church was dramatically reformed in the wake of the Council of Trent.天主教教会腐败层次的罗马是在特伦托大幅改革后的安理会。Dioceses mushroomed in areas where there was felt to be a particular Protestant threat. Bishops carried out frequent visitations of their dioceses and established seminaries for the training of clergy.教区威胁的地区如雨后春笋般在那里被认为是一个有益的新教徒。主教和神职人员进行了建立神学院的培训经常探访他们的教区。 The number of church buildings and clergy increased markedly.神职人员数目显着增加建筑物和教堂。The most vigorous of the reforming popes, Sixtus V (1585 - 90), established fifteen "congregations" or commissions to prepare papal pronouncements and strategy.本),最具活力的改革教皇,西斯五(1585年至1590年建立15个“教会”或佣金准备教皇的言论和策略。Some Protestant gains were reversed under the direction of such theologians as Robert Bellarmine (1542 - 1621) and Peter Canisius (1521 - 97).一些新教涨势逆转下)方向- 97这种神学家罗伯特贝拉明(1542年至1621年)和彼得卡尼西斯(1521。The Counter - Reformation in general, and the Council of Trent in particular, strengthened the position of the pope and the forces of clericalism and authoritarianism.反-一般改造,以及特别是安理会的遄达,加强了教皇的位置,并和权威的教权主义的力量。The genuinely spiritual foundations of these developments should not be denied.这些事态发展的基础,真正的精神不应该被剥夺。

FS Piggin财政司司长Piggin
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
H Daniel - Rops, The Catholic Reformation; J Delumeau, Catholicism Between Luther and Voltaire; AG Dickens, The Counter - Reformation; P Dudon, St. Ignatius of Loyola; HO Evennett, The Spirit of the Counter - Reformation; BJ Kidd, The Counter - Reformation, 1550 - 1600; The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, tr. Ĥ丹尼尔-滚翻保护结构,天主教改革; J Delumeau,天主教与路德和伏尔泰;公司狄更斯,反-改革; P Dudon,圣依纳爵罗耀拉,何文尼特,计数器的精神-改革;北京基德的反-改革,1550至1600年,在圣依纳爵神操,文。A Mottola; MR O'Connell, The Counter - Reformation 1559 - 1610.阿默特莱;议员奥康内尔,反-改革1559年至1610年。


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html