Great Schism大分裂

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General Information一般信息

The term Great Schism is used to refer to two major events in the history of Christianity: the division between the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman) churches, and the period (1378 - 1417) during which the Western church had first two, and later three, lines of popes.大分裂一词是用来指两件大事在基督教历史:教会司之间的东区(东正教)和西区(罗马),以及期间(1378至1417年)期间,西方教会了前两个,后来三,教皇行。

Eastern Schism东方教会分裂

The schism between the Eastern and Western churches is traditionally dated to 1054, although the precise point at which the split became a fixed and lasting reality is difficult to determine.教会分裂之间的东部和西部是传统追溯到1054年,虽然精确点而分裂成为一个固定的和持久的现实是难以确定。 Many causes contributed to the growing misunderstanding and alienation between the two groups.许多原因促成了越来越多的误解和群体之间的隔阂。Partly these were differences of philosophical understanding, liturgical usage, language, and custom, but political rivalries and divisions were also involved.部分原因是这些人的语言差异的哲学理解,礼仪的使用,和自定义,但政治争斗和分歧也参与。Occasions of friction, hostility, and open division on doctrinal questions as well as matters of discipline and daily practice had occurred long before 1054 - for example, the Photian schism of the 9th century.敌意场合摩擦,以及公开组的理论问题,以及纪律事项和日常实践中出现了很久以前1054 -例如,9世纪Photian分裂的。

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In the West the Latin church and especially the papacy took on many activities and powers in default of other authority, but this action was often regarded as usurpation by the East, where a different relationship existed between emperor and church.在西方的拉丁教会,特别是教皇了许多活动和其他权力机关在默认的,但这一行动经常教会认为,作为篡夺了东,凡皇帝之间存在着不同的关系。 The heated disputes over such matters as the ecclesiastical calendar, the use of leavened or unleavened bread, or additions to the Creed (notably the filioque clause) reached a climax in 1054, when Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other.教会日历激烈争议事项等,其他使用或无酵酵面包,filioque或增加的信条(特别的条文)的高潮中达到1054,当教皇利奥九和宗主教迈克尔Cerularius驱逐每个。 Technically, only a few people were affected by this action, but the tone had been set and the direction fixed.在技术上,只有少数人受到影响通过这一行动,但语气已定,方向固定。

Later attempts to reunite the churches foundered on local feeling, and mutual hatred grew through selfish acts on both sides during some parts of the Crusades; the low point was the sacking of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade.稍后尝试重新统一教会沉没于当地的感情,相互仇恨长大自私的行为,通过双方的十字军东征期间的一些地区,低一点在1204年第四次十字军东征时的君士坦丁堡的洗劫。 The schism continues to the present, but recently serious attempts at mutual understanding have offered the hope of reconciliation.的分裂一直持续到现在,但在最近严重的相互了解提供了和解的尝试,希望。

Western Schism西方教会分裂

The Western Schism began in the events after the death of Pope Gregory XI in March 1378.西方教会分裂始于1378年3月的事件中,死亡后的罗马教皇格雷戈里十一。The people of Rome were determined not to allow the papacy - which had been absent at Avignon for 70 years and dominated by French influence - to leave Rome upon the election of the new pope.罗马的人民都决心不让教皇-这已经缺席70年在阿维尼翁和影响占主导地位的法国-离开罗马教皇选举后,新的。The result was a loud and controversial conclave with cries for a Roman or at least an Italian pope.其结果是一个响亮的呼声和争议的一个秘密会议,或至少是罗马教皇意大利。The man chosen, Urban VI, was not a cardinal, but he had served in the curia.该名男子选择,市区六,是不是一个大是大非,但他在担任教廷。

Soon the cardinals realized the mistake that they had made in electing Urban.不久,枢机主教实现了城市的错误,他们选举了项。He disdained the advice of others, could be ruthless if opposed or questioned, and was committed to reform through an extreme reduction of the powers of the cardinals, who for decades had been almost corulers with the popes in Avignon. The result of this clash was tragedy for the church.他鄙视别人的意见的,可无情的,如果反对或质疑,并致力于冲突是通过这一改革的结果是一个极端的减少枢机主教的权力,几乎,几十年来,谁的corulers与阿维尼翁的教皇研究。悲剧的教堂。

Led by the French, the majority of cardinals gradually withdrew from the papal court.法国的带领下,枢机主教多数逐渐退出了教皇法庭。They met at Anagni and declared Urban's election null and void because, they alleged, their votes had been made under pressure and fear for their lives.他们会见了在阿纳尼并宣布城市的选举无效,因为他们声称,他们的选票已经在压力下作出他们的生活和恐惧的。They then elected one of their own as Pope Clement VII.然后,他们自己选出的教皇克莱门特七世。For the next three decades the church was divided along national, political, and religious lines between the papal claimants - the Roman line of Urban VI, Boniface IX, Innocent VII, and Gregory XII, and the Avignon line of Clement VII and Benedict XIII - until, after various proposals and repeated failures, the cardinals from both obediences abandoned their claimants out of despair of getting any cooperation from them toward unity.在接下来的三十年,教会本笃十三分沿民族,政治第七,和宗教之间的无辜第七教皇索赔-罗马线市区六,博尼法斯九,第十二和格雷戈里的克莱门特和阿维尼翁线-直到各种建议后,反复的失败,都obediences枢机主教从放弃索赔了绝望的团结合作,获得他们对任何。

The Conciliar Epoch, which led eventually to the healing of the schism, began in 1409 when the cardinals called the Council of Pisa.而大公会议时代,这最终导致了分裂医治,始于1409年,当枢机主教呼吁安理会的比萨。The council deposed both Gregory XII and Benedict XIII and then elected a third claimant, Alexander V (to be succeeded shortly afterward by the medieval John XXIII).该委员会同时废黜格雷戈里第十二和第十三笃,然后选出三分之一索赔,亚历山大五(将接替约翰二十三世在不久的中世纪)。 The Pisan claimants received the support of most of Latin Christendom, but the schism continued until the Council of Constance (1414 - 18) removed all three claimants and elected the one pope accepted by just about all - Martin V - on Nov. 11, 1417.该皮萨恩人领取了基督教支持拉丁美洲大部分,但分裂一直持续到康斯坦茨理事会(1414 - 18)删除了所有三个索赔人并选举产生了1教宗接受只是所有-马丁五世1417年- 11月11日, 。At the Council of Basel (1431 - 49) another schism occurred with the election of "Antipope" Felix V. He abdicated, however, in 1449.在巴塞尔委员会(1431年至1449年)再分裂的发生与选举“对立教宗”费利克斯诉他放弃,然而,在1449年。

Thomas E Morrissey托马斯E莫里西

Bibliography 书目
CH Dawson, The Dividing of Christendom (1971); F Dvornik, The Photian Schism (1948); EF Jacob, Essays in the Conciliar Epoch (1963); S Runciman, The Eastern Schism (1955); JH Smith, The Great Schism (1970); RN Swanson, Universities, Academies, and the Great Schism (1979); W Ullmann, The Origins of the Great Schism (1972).甲烷道森,在基督教的划分(1971年),女Dvornik,Photian分裂(1948年);英法雅各大公小品的时代(1963年)中,S朗西曼,东部分裂(1955年); JH史密斯,大分裂( 1970年);注册护士斯旺森,大学院校,以及大分裂(1979年); W乌尔曼,1972年)起源的大分裂(。


The Great Schism大分裂

Advanced Information先进的信息

(1054) (1054)

The first permanent severing of the Christian community.第一个永久性切断的基督教社区。 Its beginnings lay in the division of the Roman Empire at the end of the third century.它的起源在于分工的罗马帝国在本世纪结束时的三分之一。Thereafter, the Greek (Eastern) and Latin (Western) sections of the Roman world were administered separately.此后,希腊(东区)和拉丁美洲(西方)世界部分的罗马人分开管理。Their cultural and economic differences intensified.他们的文化和经济差异加剧。When the political institutions of the Latin empire collapsed in the fifth century, the Greek empire, centered in Constantinople, continued to flourish.当五世纪的帝国崩溃在拉美的政治机构,希腊帝国,君士坦丁堡为中心的,持续蓬勃发展。

The sustaining institution during this period was the Christian church.该机构在此期间维持了基督教教堂。Its theology dominated all forms of though in both the united East and the disintegrating West.它的神学统治一切形式虽然在美东,西瓦解。Important issues, even worldly ones, were transposed into theological questions.重要的问题,甚至世俗的,被转化为神学问题。

Two fundamental differences between the Latin Catholic and Greek Orthodox traditions developed during the early Middle Ages.两个中世纪的根本分歧,拉丁美洲天主教和东正教的传统,早在希腊期间开发。 The first was the Petrine Doctrine, absolute in the West, resisted in the East.首先是伯多禄的学说,在西方绝对,东抗拒的。 And the second was a Western addition to the Nicene Creed which provoked the filioque controversy.第二个是西方除了尼西亚信条是引起争议的filioque。Other divisive issues such as the celibacy of the priesthood, use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, episcopal control over the sacrament of confirmation, and priestly beards and monkish tonsures were the source of conflict but not schism.其他的神职人员独身分歧的问题,例如,tonsures使用未经发酵的面包monkish在圣体圣事,对主教的控制确认,胡须和祭司是冲突的根源,但不是分裂。

Of all the institutions that the medieval Christian empire shared, the political was the first to collapse.在所有的共享机构,中世纪基督教帝国,政治是第一个崩溃。In the West during the fifth century imperial authority fell before invading barbarian kings.在西方,在第五个世纪的皇权下跌野蛮入侵前国王。Increasingly the Roman patriarch, the pope, filled the power vacuum left by retreating politicians.越来越多的罗马元老,教宗,填补了权力真空的政治家留下的撤退。The lines between secular and ecclestical authority were hopelessly blurred. ecclestical权威与世俗之间的界线模糊了绝望。On the other hand, in Constantinople, where imperial power was still strong, Christian emperors continued to preside over an integrated Christian society.另一方面,在君士坦丁堡,在那里皇权仍然强劲,基督教皇帝继续主持一个综合基督教社会。As heirs of Constantine, Byzantine emperors dominated the administration of church and state in the style still known as caesaropapism.作为继承人君士坦丁,拜占庭皇帝统治了caesaropapism风格仍然是被称为国家在管理和教堂。

Theology in the East was speculative, with important decisions submitted to a collegial - concilliar system in which all the patriarchs, the bishops of Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Rome, played an important role.东神学的是投机性,具有重要作用的重要决定,提交给一个合议- concilliar制度,使所有的耶路撒冷,元老,主教,君士坦丁堡,安提阿,亚历山大,罗马,发挥了。It was fully acknowledged that the bishop of Rome had pride of place and certain rights of review over the other four.它充分承认罗马主教有四个某些权利的其他审查过的地方和自豪。As early as the pontificate of Leo I (440 - 61), however, Roman patriarchs demanded more power.早在教皇利奥我(440 - 61),但是,罗马元老要求更多的权力。Matters were made more difficult by the rise of Islam and new barbarian attacks in the seventh and eighth centuries.事项作了更为困难的伊斯兰的崛起和第八世纪和新的野蛮袭击的第七位。The West became even more isolated, and when contacts between Rome and Constantinople were resumed the gulf between East and West had widened.西方变得更加孤立,当罗马和君士坦丁堡之间的联系恢复了西方和东方之间的差距已经扩大。

The filioque controversy seems to have originated in sixth century Visigothic Spain where the Arian heresy was endemic.争议的filioque似乎起源于6世纪西班牙西哥特如阿里安异端十分猖獗。 The Arians claimed that the first and second persons of the Trinity were not coeternal and equal.在白羊座的人声称,三位一体的第二首,并没有为永远平等的。In an effort to enforce traditional theology, Spanish churchmen added a phrase to the Nicene Creed, "ex Patre Filioque," which amended the old form to state that the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Son as well as from the Father.为了执行传统的神学,西班牙牧师加了尼西亚信条,“当然帕特雷Filioque,”修改了旧的形式声明,圣灵从儿子出发,以及从父。 However, it had been agreed in the fourth century that no change in the wording of the creed, except by conciliar consent, was possible.不过,它已同意在第四世纪,没有信仰改变措辞的同意,除非大公,是可能的。To the theologically sophisticated East, the filioque phrase seemed to challenge not only the universal creed, but also the official doctrine of the Trinity.对于复杂的神学东的filioque词组似乎面临的挑战不仅是普遍的信仰,而且官方学说的三位一体。When the issue was raised during the reign of Charlemagne (768 - 814), the papacy seemed to agree. Pope Leo III, while approving the spirit of the filioque, warned against any alteration in the wording of the creed.当这个问题)在位期间提出的查理曼(768 - 814,教皇似乎都同意。教皇利奥三世,而批准的filioque精神的,信仰警告反对任何改变中的作用的措词。

It was the fusion of the filioque controversy with the rise of papal power that created the great crisis of 1054.这是1054融合危机伟大的filioque争议与教皇的兴起创造了力量。The "reform" papacy of the eleventh century established itself on the right of the pope, as apostolic heir of Peter, to absolute power over all Christian people and institutions. “改革”11世纪的教皇教皇本身就建立正确的,因为使徒彼得的继承人,绝对的权力,所有的基督教人士和机构。Such claims had been rejected by the early church councils.这种索赔被驳回了早期教会理事会。To Eastern patriarchs Christ's charge to Peter in Matt. 16:18 - 19 was shared by all the apostles and their spiritual heirs, the bishops.东区元老基督的主管马特彼得。16:18 - 19继承人共同所有的使徒和他们的精神,主教们。 In 1054 Pope Leo IX (1048 - 54) sent a delegation headed by Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida to discuss the problems between the papacy and Constantinople.1054年教皇利奥九(1048 - 54)发送和君士坦丁堡的主教为首的代表团亨伯特席尔瓦念珠菌教皇之间讨论的问题。Disaster followed.灾难之后。 The Patriarch of Constantinople.在君士坦丁堡牧首。Michael Cerularius, rejected both papal claims and the filioque.迈克尔Cerularius,否决了要求和教皇的filioque。The Western legates accused Constantinople of having altered the Nicene Creed.西方使节指责信条君士坦丁堡有改变了尼西亚。In the end, Cardinal Humbert deposited a Bull of Excommunication against Michael Cerularius on the altar of the Hagia Sophia, and the Great Schism was official.最后,枢机主教安贝尔交存牛市绝罚对迈克尔Cerularius祭坛上的哈吉亚索菲亚和大分裂是官方的。

Thereafter, efforts were made at reunion.此后,作出了努力,在团聚。As the Muslim Turks advanced on the Byzantine Empire in the high Middle Ages, Eastern Christians were in desperate need of relief from their Western brethren.作为穆斯林土耳其人时代先进的高,中拜占庭帝国在东方的基督徒人急需救济从他们的西方兄弟。However, all such hopes ceased when, in 1204, an army of crusading knights from the West sacked Constantinople.然而,所有这些希望停止时,在1204年,一个西方的十字军骑士军队从君士坦丁堡被解职。Eastern Christians never recovered from this outrage.东部基督徒从来没有收回这一暴行。In recent years effort to reconcile the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches have failed.在近几年的努力调和罗马天主教和希腊东正教教堂都失败了。In 1965, Pope Paul VI lifted the ban of excommunication against Michael Cerularius. 1965年,教皇保罗六世解除禁令的Cerularius迈克尔罚反对。However, the problem of papal rule has been rendered more difficult by nineteenth century Roman declarations of papal infallibility.但是,该规则问题的教皇已经变得更加困难了19世纪犯错误罗马教皇的声明。The wording of the creed has not been settled.措辞的信条是没有得到解决。

CT Marshall马歇尔的CT
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
F Dvornik, Byzantium and the Roman Primacy; J Pelikan, The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600 - 1700); S Runciman, The Eastern Schism; P Sherrad, The Greek East and the Latin West; T Ware, The Orthodox Church.F Dvornik,拜占庭和罗马的首要地位; J伯利坎,本)东基督教精神(600 - 1700中,S朗西曼,东部恩怨; P谢拉德,希腊东和拉丁美洲西; T波,东正教堂。


The "Eastern Church"“东方教会”

Advanced Information - Catholic Perspective先进的信息-天主教视角

(Editor's Note: The linked article from the Catholic Enecyclopedia does not meet the usual standards that BELIEVE sets for included articles. The tone of the article is substantially biased toward the Catholic Church and against the Orthodox Church and all other Churches, which would normally eliminate it from consideration. However, the Great Schism was and is such a large event in the history of Christendom, that we felt the need to present both the Catholic and Orthodox perspectives. Our hope is to enable a reader to be able to read and ponder both sides of this important issue, even though both sides' presentations are very biased.) Eastern Church (编者注:天主教Enecyclopedia联系文章从不满足通常消除通常的标准,相信集包括文章的。为主色调的文章是大幅偏向天主教教会和对东正教教堂和所有其他教会,这将它从考虑。然而,大分裂过去和现在都是这样的基督教历史的大型活动,我们感到有必要现在无论是天主教和东正教的观点。我们的希望是使读者能够阅读和思考双方均对这一重要问题,即使双方的发言都非常偏颇。) 东方教会


The Great Schism of the Ecumenical Church该普世教会大分裂

Advanced Information - Orthodox Perspective先进的信息-东正教视角

(Editor's Note: The following article does not meet the usual standards that BELIEVE sets for included articles. The tone of the article is substantially biased toward the Orthodox Church and against the Catholic Church, which would normally eliminate it from consideration. However, the Great Schism was and is such a large event in the history of Christendom, that we felt the need to present the Orthodox perspective. As we understand it, any actual scholarly Orthodox works on this subject have never been yet translated into English. Our hope is to enable a reader to be able to read and ponder both sides of this important issue, which will hopefully soon be resolved by the two Churches.) (编者注:下面的文章不符合从考虑通常的标准,相信这一点规定了包括文章的。为主色调的文章是大幅偏向东正教教堂,反对天主教教会,这将它通常消除。然而,大分裂是和是这么大的基督教历史的事件,我们认为有必要提交的东正教的观点。据我们了解,在实际工程学术正统英国就这一问题还没有被纳入翻译。我们的希望是使读者能够阅读,思考两个教会双方对这一重要问题,相信能很快解决的。)

Unity of the Churches统一教会

The movement toward the unity of the Christian Churches today demands a knowledge of the beliefs of others as well as of one's own beliefs, in order to provide a climate for unity through a better understanding of each other's faith.基督教教会的运动对今天的统一的要求1,知识的信仰自己的信念的人,以及一个人的,以便提供一个统一的气候通过的信心更好地了解对方。 A blind acceptance of the teachings and beliefs of any Church with which unity is sought, or an indifference toward one's own beliefs and teaching will not be a solid basis for unity among the Christian Churches.阿盲目接受任何教会的教义和信仰的团结与寻求,或教学冷漠的对自己的信念,不会成为一个坚实的基础基督教教会之间的团结。

A Christian interested in the unity of the Churches should oppose both bigotry and indifference.一个基督教教会的团结感兴趣的都应该反对偏见和冷漠。He ought to study his own faith and the beliefs of others in the past and in the present with humbleness and sympathy; to invoke the grace of God to guide his understanding of both views; to distinguish between divine truths for salvation and the customs and practices of his Church and of the various other Churches.他应该学习他自己的信仰和过去其他人的信仰和同情,在目前的谦逊和;援引上帝的恩典,引导他的观点的理解都;在真理区分神的救赎和风俗习惯他的教会和其他各教会。

If a unity is sought between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, it is indispensable that the reasons and causes for separation between these Churches be carefully studied in the light of the circumstances and personalities of the time when the separation took place.如果一个团结,是教会之间寻求东正教和罗马天主教,这是必不可少的原因和教会之间的分离导致这些场所进行仔细研究了光的分离情况和人物的时候。

When the Church was One and Undivided, proclaiming the same beliefs and having the same type of administration, the Eastern branch protested against the Western because of the latter's innovations, which were foreign to the beliefs and practices set forth by the Seven Ecumenical Synods of the first eight centuries. The claim of the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, which later resulted in the proclaiming of his infallibility, is considered the main cause of separation of the Western branch from the Eastern.当教会是一个和不可分割的,宣布同样的信念和具有行政管理同一类型,东区分局抗议西方,因为后者的创新,这是外国的信仰和做法提出了七个合一主教会议前8世纪。声称他在犯错误的首要地位的主教罗马宣布,这导致了后来,被认为是导致东部主要来自西方分支分离的。

A concise study of the events and incidents of this separation - called the Great Schism - is presented in the following pages in order to furnish facts necessary for a better understanding and eventual answer for the unity of these Churches in the future.一本简明的分离研究的事件和事件-所谓的大分裂-载于以下网页,以便提供必要的事实,未来更好地理解中,并最终统一教会回答这些。 Innovations formulated by the Roman Catholic Church after the Schism are innumerated.创新办法,由罗马天主教教会的分裂后的innumerated。

The Real Motives of the Great Schism在大分裂的真正动机

The Early Period of the Church教会初期

Although the Bishops of the undivided Church were (and are) equal to each other in the administration of the liturgical rites and the teaching, they began to differ in rank according to the valuation of the places where their Sees were located.虽然不可分割的教会主教的人(和)礼仪和礼仪教学等于彼此的管理情况,他们开始在不同职级根据位于估值是他们看到的地方。 Rome, Alexandria and Antioch were prominent cities, Metropolis, in those days.罗马,亚历山大和安提了突出的城市,大都市,在那些日子里。Their Bishops were Metropolitans, and the Bishop of Rome was given the honorary precedence only because Rome was then the political capital of the world.他们的主教是大都市,和罗马主教被授予名誉优先不仅是因为罗马是当时世界政治资本。Later, the Bishops of the capitals of all political Provinces were called Archbishops. When the Emperor moved his Seat from Rome to Constantinople, the Archbishop of latter was given equal reverence with that of Rome "because Constantinople was the 'King's city' "; later in 587, the honorary title of "Ecumenical" was bestowed on him, too.后来,政治省份的所有主教的首都被称为大主教。当皇帝提出他的罗马座椅从君士坦丁堡,后者大主教给予罗马同样的崇敬的“,因为君士坦丁堡是'国王的城市'”,后来在587,荣誉称号的“合一”是赋予他了。 By 451 the Bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem were called Patriarchs, of whom only two remained free after the inroads of the Moslems (7th century): that of Rome in the West, and Constantinople in the East, both equal in rank and reverence.由451主教罗马,君士坦丁堡,亚历山大,安提阿和耶路撒冷被称为始祖,其中只有2仍然存在:免费世纪)的侵蚀后的穆斯林(第7次是罗马在西方,在东方的君士坦丁堡,都等于在等级和崇敬。 Later, the attempted abolishment of the equal rank status of both Seats was the main cause of the Great Separation.后来,两个座位企图取消职级的地位是平等的大分离的主要原因。

The Claims Of The Bishops Of Rome在罗马的主教们的索赔

The Bishop of Rome, even today in the 20th century, insists that he has a primacy of jurisdiction over all Churches, including the Patriarchs of the East.罗马主教,甚至在20世纪的今天,坚持说他有一个至高无上的所有教会的管辖权,包括东方的始祖。He claims they should be subject to him since "he is not only Bishop of Rome and the Patriarch of the West but also the Vicar of Christ on Earth, the successor of St. Peter, and the Supreme Pontiff".他声称,他们应该是他并不受他的,因为“只有主教罗马和西方宗主教的,而且地球上的基督的牧师,圣彼得的继承人,和教宗”。 Pope Pius XII in 1955 called upon the "Uniat" Church to use its utmost to bring the Orthodox Churches to the "fold".教皇皮亚斯十二世在1955年呼吁“Uniat”教会使用它的最大努力,使东正教教会的“倍”。The Eastern Orthodox is told that it would not be necessary to change any of the teachings or customs of the Orthodox Church but to submit himself under the Pope's jurisdiction; that is, to lose every right of freedom and independence.东正教是说,它不会需要任何改变教会的教义东正教或海关提交的,而是自己管辖下的教皇的,也就是说,每一个失去自由和独立的权利。 In other words, unconditional surrender under the Pope's yoke is asked.换句话说,在无条件投降教宗的枷锁是问。But the principles of the democratic government of the Eastern Orthodox Church is its very foundation.但东正教教会的原则东部的民主政府是它的基础。The "Conscience of the Church" is its supreme authority and the infallible guidance to proclaim the truth of Salvation, as was the case for centuries for the Western Church, too. “教会”良知是其最高权力机构和犯错的指导宣告救国真理,正如西方教会案件数百年的,太。The question as to the supremacy of the Pope was the main cause of the separation of the Eastern and Western Churches.教宗问题,对至高无上的地位,是西方教会的主要原因和分离东部。Is it a true claim?它是一个真正的说法?How and when did the Popes start to claim such authority?如何以及何时教皇开始要求这种权力?

The Development Of The Pope's Claims To Supremacy在教宗的声称至上发展

The roots of the claim of supremacy of the Bishop of Rome over the political and ecclesiastical leaders are to be found in the traditions of pagan Rome here the Emperor was the supreme Pontiff.教会领袖的根源和索赔的至高无上的罗马主教在政治上要找到传统异教的罗马在这里的皇帝是至高无上的教宗。

Millions of early Christians were persecuted and slaughtered because they refused to worship the Emperor as God.早期以百万计的基督徒遭到迫害和屠杀,因为他们拒绝崇拜天皇是神。Their precious sacrifice did not destroy the super-throne; it was used merely to replace the pagan Emperor with the Christian Pope.他们的牺牲并没有破坏珍贵的超级宝座,它只是被用来取代基督教的异教皇帝与教皇。

Thus, with that background, some of the bishops of Rome invented and manufactured fictitious theories of the pope's "divine right" to govern the affairs of State as well as of the Church. The claims thereby divided the Church, which by nature and principle was meant to be One; the bishops waged wars, created inquisitions, forced on the West the Great Protest, and finally, developed theories as to infallibility, and all of these in the name of God!因此,在这种背景下,罗马的一些主教的发明和生产的教会虚构理论的教皇的“神圣权利”的事务来治理国家,以及。索赔从而分裂了教会的原则,这自然和是意味着是一个;主教曾经发动过战争,创建宗教裁判,抗议被迫在西大,最后,以理论为发展犯错误,上帝的名字所有的这些!

These fictitious theories, which were destined to be accepted as true for some centuries, though later recognized distinctly as the most cleverly manufactured falsehoods are three: The Pseudo-Clementines, the Pseudo-Isidorian Decrees, and the Pseudo-Constantine Donation.这些虚构的理论,这是注定要被接受为真正的数百年,但后来确认捐赠的最明显巧妙地制造谎言有三:伪橘,伪Isidorian法令,以及伪君士坦丁。

The Pseudo-Clementine Writings该伪克莱门汀创作

The Attempt To Elevate Peter And The Seat Of Rome To Supremacy.彼得的尝试提升和罗马席位至上。

The Pseudo-Clementine writings are false "Homilies" (discourses) falsely attributed to the Bishop of Rome Clement (93-101), which attempted to restate the life of Apostle Peter.该伪克莱门汀的著作是假的“颂歌”(话语)错误地归因于彼得的罗马主教克莱门特(93-101),其中试图重申使徒的生活。 The purpose was one: the elevation of Peter over the other Apostles, especially Apostle Paul, and the elevation of the Seat of Rome over any other Bishop's Seat "Peter", it was claimed, "who was the most able of all (the others)' was called to illuminate the West, the darkest place of the Universe."其目的是1:使徒海拔彼得比其他,特别是使徒保罗,和其他“主教彼得座位”,仰角的座椅罗马对任何,据称,“谁是最有能力的所有(其他)'被称为照亮西方,宇宙中最黑暗的地方。“

The "Homilies" were written to fit the misleading interpretation of Matthew 16:18,19, that "You art Peter, and on this rock I will build my church . and I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven ".在“颂歌”被写入适合马修16:18,19误导性解释,即“你的艺术彼得,这块石头上我要建立我的教会 我会给你天上的王国的钥匙” 。It is misleading because the word "rock" does not refer to Peter, but to the faith that "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God" (v. 16).这是误导,因为这个词“岩石”并不是指彼得,但对信仰,“你是基督,是永生神的儿子”(五16)。There is not one sign of the primacy of Peter over the other Apostles mentioned in the Bible, and if a primacy was intended, a decision of such importance and magnitude certainly would have been mentioned in the Bible in unambiguous language.没有一个迹象至高无上的彼得在以上提及的其他圣经使徒,如果一个至高无上的用意,一个规模如此重要的决定,肯定会被提及在圣经中毫不含糊的语言。 In many cases the opposite is true; Paul wrote to Galatians, "I withstood him, (Peter) to the face, because he was to be blamed" (2:11); besides, it is well known that Peter thrice denied Christ.在许多情况下,事实正好相反,保罗写信给加拉太书,“我顶住他(彼得)的脸,因为他被指责”(2:11);此外,众所周知,彼得三次否认基督。 Peter did not found the Church of Rome; he actually remained in Antioch for many years before reaching Rome.彼得没有发现的罗马教会,他其实还停留在安提阿多年才到达罗马的。To say that as Christ reigns in Heaven, Peter and his successors, the popes, govern the Earth, is a statement alien to the spirit of the Gospel and the understanding of the early Church.如果说,作为教皇,基督教统治在天堂,彼得和他的继任者,该管的地球,是一个声明的精神格格不入的福音和教会的了解早期。 Christ was and is the cornerstone and the Head of the Church, consisting of all members of His Body. (cf. Col.1:24).基督是基石,是头和身体在他的教会的成员组成的。(参见Col.1:24)。

The Pseudo-Isidorian Decrees And The Pseudo-Constantian Donation该伪Isidorian法令和伪Constantian捐赠

The Attempt To Legitimatize the Papacy.在企图合法化的罗马教皇。

These Decrees are a collection, arranged in the 9th century, consisting of canons of synods as well as the Pope's false decrees, which were added later.这些法令是一个集合,安排在9世纪,其中包括主教会议的大炮以及教宗的虚假法令,这又增加了以后。For these decrees it is said that "No other illegitimacy in the history of the world was made with such cleverness, and no other forgery has such results", as a great historian wrote.对于这些法令是说“没有世界其他非法性在历史上写了这样聪明,并没有其他伪造的结果”等,作为一个伟大的历史学家说。 The illegitimacy lies in the skilled counterfeiting of canonical sources in such a way that the supremacy of the Pope was its concrete results.该方法是不合法的具体成果是其至高无上的教皇在规范熟练假冒来源在这样一个。 The Priesthood, they concluded, is above political authority; and the head of the Priesthood is the Pope; the Pope then is the "Head of the Universe" ( caput totius orbis ).神职人员,他们的结论,是超越政治权威,祭司团长,是教皇,教皇又是宇宙的“头”( 按额津贴托蒂厄斯奥比斯 )。 This "conclusion" was supported by another clever forgery that Constantine the Great left to the Pope the political power of his position in Rome as a Donation to him!这个“结论”是伟大的支持,另一个聪明的伪造的君士坦丁留给教皇对他的政治权力地位,他在罗马捐赠作为一个!

These highly skilled pieces of forgery only awaited a master to enforce them - Pope Nicholas I. Pope Nicholas I (858-867), a strong-willed personality, called them "ancient monuments" and imposed them upon the bishops and political authorities of the West.熟练件伪造这些高度只有等待主执行他们-教宗尼古拉斯一教皇尼古拉一世(858-867),一个意志坚强的性格,称他们为“古迹”古老而施加的他们在当局的主教和政治西。 It was said of him that "Nicholas made himself Emperor of all the world."有人说他是“世界皇帝尼古拉把自己的所有。”After the period of ill fame of the popes and clergy these forgeries became the official rules for the new reform and moral uprightness of the clergy.之后,这些伪造的时期神职人员虐待名利的教皇,成为正式的神职人员的道德规则,新的改革和正气。Thus the Pseudo-Isidorian decrees had prevailed and established the "primacy" of the Pope. Historians as well as Catholic scholars recognize that these "Decrees" have been proven as forgeries; but nevertheless they were used as the foundation for the supremacy of the Pope. How long will the popes themselves continue to believe in the strength of their house without a solid foundation?因此,伪Isidorian法令已占了上风,并成立了“教皇至高无上”的。历史学家以及天主教学者承认,这些“法令”已被证明是伪造的,但他们被教皇作为基础为优势。多久教皇本身继续相信他们的房子的强度没有稳固的基础? The popes continue attempting to conquer all churches and especially the Eastern Orthodox Church by using a new instrument: the Uniat Church.教皇继续企图征服所有的教堂和仪器:教会的Uniat特别是东正教教会使用一个新的。"Return back to the fold" is a plea which is heard time and again.“返回到折叠”是再次呼吁是听到不少。Possibly it results from a religious inferiority complex as far as the trust and historical facts are concerned. The Eastern Church is "the pillar and bulwark of the truth " which has been preserved by it "everywhere, anytime" against the undue claims or encroachments by the See of the West.其结果可能是从宗教的自卑就历史事实的信任和关心。东部教会是“它的支柱和堡垒的真相”已被保存下来“无处不在,随时”对过分的要求或侵占在见西方。 The "fold" is where the "truth" is taught; where the One only Shepherd is recognized as its Head, Jesus Christ.在“倍”,是“真”是教导,那里的人们只承认基督是牧人为团长,耶稣。To that "fold" the Western Church is called to join by abolishing the "innovations" and the pretext of supremacy of the Pope at the expense of the "fold".为了实现这一“倍”西方教会呼吁取消了参加“创新”和教宗的费用在至高无上的借口是“倍”。

Actual Events that led to the Schism实际事件导致的分裂

Synopsis Of The Events Of The Great Schism故事大纲在这大分裂事件

Four separations between the Eastern and Western parts of the Undivided Church took place without an official statement of schism, and they lasted from 15 to 50 years until the churches resumed their union again.四教会分离东部之间的分割,西部地区发生了分裂没有一个正式的声明,他们历时15至50年,直到教会重新恢复他们的结合。 The great and last schism resulted from a chain of events between the Western and Eastern parts of the Church which lasted for approximately two hundred years (863-1054).伟大的和最后的分裂造成1)链863-1054年之间的事件(西部和东部地区100对教会历时约2。At the beginning and the end there were some acts of excommunications on both sides.在开始和结束有excommunications双方都有一些行为。During this period of silence, indifference and hatred dominated both sides, ruining the last fortress of the Union.在此期间,沉默,冷漠和仇恨支配双方,断送了联盟的最后堡垒。

The Election Of Patriarch Of Constantinople Photius在君士坦丁堡牧首选举Photius

Photius, a prominent layman, the chief Secretary of State, whose "virtue, wisdom and competence were universally acknowledged", was appointed and elected (875) as Patriarch of Constantinople straight from the rank of layman, replacing Patriarch Ignatius. Pope Nicholas, seeing a favorable opportunity for interfering in Eastern affairs, appointed himself as judge over two conflicting parties by his own authority and rejected the election of Photius. He asserted on the one hand that Photius had been made Patriarch without his approval, an unprecedented claim, and on the other hand that he had been raised within a single week from a mere layman, to the rank of Archbishop. Photius,一个突出的门外汉,国家首席秘书,他的“德,智慧和能力是举世公认的”,是委任和民选君士坦丁堡牧首(如875)直接从门外汉秩,取代主教伊格。教皇尼古拉斯,看到一个自己的权威有利时机东事务的干涉法官两年多,任命自己为冲突各方通过他和拒绝Photius选举。他提出的索赔,一方面是Photius作出了前所未有的主教未经他同意,1,和另一方面,他已经提出一个星期内从一个单纯的门外汉,职级的大主教。 Of course, Pope Nicholas had no right to interfere in such an affair; therefore, the election was valid, as was the case with Ambrose, a bishop of Milan, and many other laymen who had been raised to high rank in the Church.当然,教皇尼古拉斯无权干涉这样的事,因此,这次选举是有效的,因为是教会的情况与刘汉铨,米兰的主教,在其他许多普通人谁具有较高的职级提高到。

Synod Repudiates Pope's Claim主教会议否定教宗的索赔

Four years later, in 861, at a Synod in Constantinople both parties, Photians and Ignatians, decided in favor of Photius in the presence of the Pope's delegates. 4年后,在861,在君士坦丁堡主教在双方,Photians和Ignatians,决定在Photius赞成的代表出席了在罗马教皇的。Pope Nicholas, who was furious because the Eastern Church did not submit slavishly to his arbitrary demands, convened a Synod of his own in Rome in 863 and "excommunicated" Photius, the Patriarch of Constantinople. The Church ignored this additional provocation.教皇尼古拉斯,谁是愤怒,因为东部教会没有提交他任意盲目的要求,召开了他自己在罗马的主教在863和“驱逐”Photius,在君士坦丁堡牧首。教会忽略了这一额外的挑衅。

Photius' Encyclical Against The Pope's Innovationsphotius的谕反对教宗的创新

Pope Nicholas, by the same arbitrary authority, attempted to detach the young Church of Bulgaria, which was founded by the Church of Constantinople and by Photius himself, from its allegiance to its Mother Church.教皇尼古拉斯权力,由同一个武断的,试图分离Photius自己年轻的教会,保加利亚,这是成立由君士坦丁堡教会和效忠,从它的母亲教会。 Because of this anti-canonical activity of Pope Nicholas, Photius sent out in 867 his famous encyclical to the Patriarchs of the East accusing the Pope:由于这项活动教皇尼古拉斯反典型,Photius发出了他著名的通谕,以867东方始祖的指责教宗:

  1. of inserting into the Creed the word " filoque ", meaning that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only from the Father but "and from the Son" as well;的信条插入单词“filoque”,即圣灵的收益不仅来自父亲,但“从儿子”,以及;
  2. for intervening in the newly founded Church of Bulgaria by repeating the sacrament of Chrismation, to the Bulgarian Christians on the pretext that they had previously been baptized by married priests from Constantinople;对于新成立的干预保加利亚教会圣礼的重复Chrismation来,到祭司从君士坦丁堡保加利亚基督徒结婚的借口,通过他们以前被洗礼;
  3. for dominating the churches of the West; and为主导的西方教会,以及
  4. for interfering in disputes outside his own jurisdiction.他在自己的管辖范围以外的纠纷干扰。

Photius Dethroned And Later VindicatedPhotius颠覆了,后来平反

Pope Adrian II, possessed by the same pride and ambition as his predecessor, exploited a psychological moment in Eastern affairs to achieve what Pope Nicholas could not.教皇阿德里安二,实现由具有相同的自豪感和野心,他作为一个心理时刻事务的前任,利用在东区什么教皇尼古拉不能。Emperor Basil, who was refused Holy Communion by Photius because he murdered his foster father, Emperor Michael, in 867 deposed Photius from his throne and brought back Ignatius.皇帝罗勒,谁被拒绝由photius圣餐,因为他杀害,皇帝迈克尔,废黜Photius从他的宝座,他在867养父带回伊格。 Pope Adrian II took advantage of this situation and demanded from Basil the condemnation of Photius, the common enemy.亚德二世利用了这一形势要求和photius由巴西尔的谴责,共同的敌人。Emperor Basil convened a synod in 869, and by coersion brought the bishops to condemn Photius. Adrian's delegates and Basil forcibly and falsely obtained the acknowledgment that the Pope is the "supreme and absolute head of all the Churches, superior even to ecumenical synods".皇帝巴西尔召开869 1主教,以及coersion带来的主教谴责Photius。阿德里安的代表和罗勒强行虚假得到承认,教宗是“至高无上和绝对的,头部全教会上级甚至基督教主教会议”。 This so-called eighth ecumenical synod (by the Western Church) has never been recognized by the Eastern Church, but after 10 years it was unanimously denounced by a great Synod in Constantinople, in 879, by Ignatians as well as Photians.这种所谓的十八合一主教(由西方教会)从来没有被教会承认由东区,但10年后,大家一致谴责了一个伟大的主教在君士坦丁堡,公元879年,由Ignatians以及Photians。 This synod acknowledged the full justification of Photius and his manly stand against the Roman despotism.这主教承认的充分理由的photius和他的罗马专制男子汉站在反对。Photius is considered the unmovable rock against which all the heavy waves of slavery and domination have been broken.photius是不可移动岩石认为对所有奴役和统治的大风浪的被打破。The Church thanks the Lord, its Head, for the inspiration of this great man by "whom the Eastern Church has managed to preserve intact both faith and freedom".教会感谢这个伟大的启示人的上帝的,它的头,以“人在东方教会已设法保存完好都信仰和自由”。

Period Of Cold Silence (879-1054)沉默冷战时期(879-1054)

Nevertheless, no official schism was pronounced by either Church until 1054.不过,没有正式的任何一方被宣告分裂教会,直到1054年。During this period of approximately two hundred years a chill of silence prevailed.这期间,大约两百年的沉默中普遍存在寒气。 Six generations were not sufficient to expel this evil element from the Church.六代都不足以驱逐这一邪恶元素的教会。The arbitrariness of human administration dominated fellowship and love, which are considered the substance and fruit of Christ's divine work and message.行政部门任意支配的人力和爱金,这被认为是物质和信息水果基督的神圣工作。

The Final Break (1054)最后歇(1054)

The seal of separation which was placed on paper in 1054, dividing the Church into East and West, was brought to a head by an innocent act by the Patriarch Michael Cerularius.在1054封分离于纸张放在,分割和西进东教会,被带到一个头由迈克尔Cerularius无辜行为的主教。 He wrote a letter to Bishop John of Trania in Italy enumerating the innovations which had been introduced by the Roman Church, and he begged him to give this letter a wide hearing in order that the truth might prevail.他写了意大利主教在信中列举的Trania教会的创新技术已被介绍了罗马,他恳求他给本信一,以广泛听取,真相可能会占上风。 This act apparently witnesses the fact that the Patriarch did not accept any sort of schism yet.这种行为显然是证人的事实,即主教没有接受任何分裂样的呢。Pope Leo IX sent a sharp reply, severely rebuking the author of the letter.教皇利奥九发出尖锐答复,严厉斥责了该信的作者。

The Emperor of Constantinople, Constantine Monomathus, facing a threat of his political interest in Italy, had need of the Pope's help, and he sent a conciliatory reply asking him to send delegates to restore friendly relations.这,君士坦丁堡皇帝,君士坦丁Monomathus面临威胁意大利在他的政治利益,有需要帮助的教宗,他发出了和解的答复,请他派代表来恢复友好关系。 The Pope sent Cardinal Humbert with a different mission, which he fully executed.教宗的枢机主教发出全面执行亨伯特与一个不同的任务,这是他。Humbert did not meet the Emperor or the Patriarch, but he laid on the altar of the Church of Saint Sophia in Constantinople a bull of excommunication against the Eastern Church, attempting to stigmatize it as "the repository of all the heresies of the past", and then hastily disappeared.亨伯特不符合皇帝的主教,但他并于君士坦丁堡的圣教会祭坛的索菲亚教堂在东一对公牛的禁教,企图诬蔑“它作为”过去的仓库的所有歪理邪说的,然后匆匆消失。 The Patriarch in turn drew up a sentence of excommunication against the Western Church, signed jointly by the other Patriarchs.宗主教又制定了反对教会在西方一个句子的禁教,共同签署了由其他始祖。And thus the black seal kept closed the gates of the bridges between East and West.黑色的印章,从而保持关闭和西东大门之间的桥梁。

The Main Cause Of Separation在分离的主要成因

The ambition of the Popes (as we respectfully call the Bishops of Rome) was to subordinate the Eastern Church under their supremacy.教皇野心的(我们恭敬地呼吁罗马主教)是在其下属的东方教会的优势。The See of Rome was ancient and apostolic.罗马看到的是古老的使徒。Its bishops could, without any more interference from the Emperor, exercise a kind of political authority, too.它的主教可以,没有任何更多的干涉皇帝,行使政治权力种也。They began very early to appear as a court of appeal, in the West, to which all problems should be submitted for solution.他们很早就开始出现作为一个上诉法院,在西方,这是所有问题都应提交的解决方案。They found a pretext for their intrusion in the domestic quarrels at Constantinople during the 9th century in order to invade and dominate the entire Eastern Church.他们发现的入侵世纪,在国内的争吵在君士坦丁堡第九借口他们在为侵略和统治整个东部教会。

A Catholic scholar states that:天主教学者指出:

" the Papacy, from and after the ninth century, attempted to impose, in the name of God, upon the universal Church a yoke unknown to the first eight centuries". “ 罗马教皇,从9世纪后,企图强加在上帝的名义,呼吁普世教会的一个未知的枷锁前8世纪。”

The same attempt is in process today with the letter issued (1955) by Pope Pius XII, urging the Uniates to convert the Orthodox people and bring them under the Pope's rule.同样的尝试是在过程中发出的信今天教宗碧岳十二(1955),敦促Uniates转换东正教统治人民,使他们在教皇的。

Reunion Sought留尼汪征询

The Crusades and Forced "Reunion"十字军东征和强迫“大团圆”

Later, the Crusaders from the West forced the Greek Patriarchs of Antioch and Jerusalem to abandon their Sees and for sixty years imposed their cruel government on Constantinople (1204-1261), pillaging its resources and causing its eventual downfall. An effort at "reunion" was really an attempt to enslave the Eastern Church at the Pseudo-Synod of Ferrara-Florence (1438) where the representatives of the Eastern Church, by force, signed a statement of reunion.后来,西方十字军从安提阿和耶路撒冷强行希腊放弃他们的始祖,并认为60年实施的政府君士坦丁堡的残酷(1204年至1261年),掠夺其资源,并最终导致其倒台。一个团聚的努力,在“”真是一个企图奴役声明团聚东部教会在伪主教费拉拉,佛罗伦萨(1438)对教会的代表在东部,以武力签署。 Although it was proclaimed on July 6, 1439, it was never approved by the Church as a whole and was later denounced by a synod in Constantinople in 1451.虽然它被宣布于1439年7月6日,这是从来没有批准由教会作为一个整体,后来君士坦丁堡主教谴责了在1451年。Orthodoxy has suffered more from the Christian West than from the Moslem East.东正教受到了更多的来自西方基督教比从穆斯林地区。 The downfall of Constantinople in 1453 put a tragic end to any effort at reunion.在1453年下台,君士坦丁堡在提出一个悲惨的结局在任何团聚的努力。

The Possibility Of Reunion And The Honorary Position Of The Pope团圆的可能性和教宗的名誉地位

For approximately one thousand years the Eastern and Western Churches were united, without at least any open attempt of one to subordinate the other.大约一千年的东方和西方教会的团结,没有任何一个至少开放企图从属于其他。The Eastern Church never has raised such a demand.东部教会从来没有提出这样的要求。It has always respected the Holy See of Rome and its Bishop, who was considered to be "the first among equals". He abolished this brotherly relation with the other leaders of the Church and separated himself and the Western Church from the Eastern.它一向尊重中首个罗马教廷和主教,谁被认为是“等于”。他已取消教会兄弟的其他领导人的关系与西方教会和失散自己从东欧和。 The Eastern Orthodox Church did not accept the claim of the Pope and his attempt at supremacy because for hundreds of years the undivided Church never considered such a claim.东正教不接受教会声称教宗和他的数百名企图在多年的优势,因为从来没有考虑这样一个不可分割的索赔。There is hope and a possibility of reunion.有一个团聚的希望和可能性。It depends upon the Leaders rather than the people of both Churches and especially upon the Holy Father of Rome.它取决于领导人,而不是罗马的人民都教会,特别是教宗呼吁。The Separation took place in 1054 not because of a false dogma as was the case with heretics.分居了一个异教徒的地方,不是因为在1054年虚假的教条作为案例是。Both Sees and Churches exist up till today.双方认为和教会存在,直至今日。That which has made the situation more difficult after the separation is that besides the stronger ambition of the Popes for their supremacy, the Western Church has created a new type of government and many "innovations" and dogmas, some of which can be considered as local customs.这已使情况更加困难视为本地后,分离是教皇,胸有大志的,除了加强对他们的霸权,西方新政府和类型的许多“创新”和教条,教会创造了一些有可习俗。 Both Churches should accept the principles of affiliation and the Truths of faith which the one undivided Church knew in the first thousand years of our Lord.这两个教会应该接受从属关系的原则和不可分割的教会真理的信仰的人知道在第一1000年,我们的主。


The Innovations的创新

Although the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church are closer to the beliefs of the Orthodox Church than are those of any other churches, it is necessary to list a few of the innovations added by the Roman Church after the separation of the Western from the Eastern Church.虽然天主教教会的信仰罗马更接近东正教的信仰是教会,比任何其他人,有必要列出一个创新的几个教会添加罗马教会分离后,西部从东部。 Also, it is necessary to mention that the attitude of the Western section of the One Church, even before the Schism, was not free from arbitrariness.此外,有必要提及的是,教会的态度,一个西方的一段分裂,甚至之前,并没有摆脱随意性。The Western branch tended to centralize administrative power, a characteristic inherited from the early Roman political tendencies toward a totalitarian government.西方分行倾向于集中行政权力,极权政府的一个特征继承倾向对早期罗马的政治。Following is the list of innovations.以下为创新名单。

Primacy至高无上

The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the Pope, who is called the Vicar of Christ (a title of the Roman pontiff dating from the 8th century) expresses his claim to universal jurisdiction and implies that the other bishops are not equal to him, but subordinate to him as his representatives - a claim that is foreign to the ancient Church.最高世纪)主教管辖范围内的教皇,谁是所谓的副主教基督 (标题从约会的罗马教皇8日表示,他主张普遍管辖权,暗示其他主教是不等同于他,但他的下属作为他的代表-一个声称是外国的古老教堂。

Infallibility犯错误

In 1870 the Roman Catholic Church, at the Vatican Council, declared that infallibility (the inability to err in teaching the revealed truth) was attached to the definition of the Pope in matters of faith and morals, apart from the consent of the Church. The Vatican Council declared: 1870年罗马天主教教会,在梵蒂冈会议,宣布犯错误(无法在教学中犯错误揭示真理)是隶属的信仰和道德的定义事项的教宗,教会除了同意。所梵蒂冈会议宣布:

"Jesus Christ has three existences. His personal existence, which Arius denied; His mystical existence in the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, which Calvin denied; and His other existence, which completes the first two and through which He lives constantly, namely His authority in the person of His Vicar on Earth. The Council, maintaining this third existence, assures the world that it possesses Jesus Christ." “耶稣基督的存在有三个。他个人的存在,阿里乌斯否认,他的卡尔文否认存在,在神秘的圣圣体圣事,以及他的其他存在,完成了前两个是他的生命,通过不断地,即他的权力在他的牧师的人在地球上。安理会,维持这个第三的存在,保证了它拥有世界耶稣基督。“

Herein, the Synods were abolished.在此,在主教会议被取消。

The Procession of the Holy Spirit在游行的圣灵

The insertion of the phrase filoque , meaning "and the son", in the eighth article of the Nicene Creed, to read that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only from the Father but also from the Son as well, perverts the theological teaching of the Gospel and the Undivided Church (John 15,26; Acts 2,33).filoque插入一句,意思是“与子”,在第八条的尼西亚信经读,圣灵的收益不仅来自父亲,但儿子也从为好,枉法裁决的福音神学教学和不可分割的教会(约翰15,26;行为2.33)。

Purgatory and indulgences炼狱和宽容

Purgatory is an intermediate state where souls are made clean for paradise by expiatory suffering, according to the Roman Church.炼狱是一种中间状态下的灵魂是干净的赎罪作出痛苦的天堂,根据罗马教会。It is a place or state for penitent souls departing this life cleansed from venial sins and temporal punishment due to remitted mortal sins.这是一个地方或国家减免致命的罪过,由于惩罚灵魂忏悔离开这个生活清洗从venial罪孽和时间。In the Roman Church, indulgences are a remission by those authorized of the temporary punishment still due to sin after sacramental absolution either in this world or in purgatory.在罗马教会,宽容是一种炼狱或减免这些授权的临时处分或者在这个世界上仍然因罪赦免后圣。

The Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary作者:圣母玛利亚无原罪

In 1854 a council of the Vatican pronounced the new teaching that the Virgin Mary was born without original sin, a statement not found either in the Holy Scriptures or in Sacrad Tradition. (The Undivided Church taught and teaches the virgin birth of Jesus Christ only) The Orthodox Church honors highly the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos, the unique personality chosen by God to serve the highest mission toward the salvation of mankind in the Incarnation of Jesus Christ.在1854年1梵蒂冈会议的突出新的教学圣母玛利亚出生罪无正本,声明没有发现无论是在圣经或Sacrad传统。(不可分割的教会教导和教导耶稣基督诞生的处女只)东正教教会荣誉化身耶稣基督高度的圣母玛利亚为圣母,独特的个性选择在神对人类服务的最高使命迈向得救。

Assumption of the Virgin Mary圣母升天的圣母

The assumption (bodily ascension) of the Virgin Mary was pronounced as a dogma in 1952 by the Pope of the Rome Church.假设(身体阿森松玛丽)的圣母教堂是罗马教条发音为1952年由教宗。This belief is not found in the Scriptures nor is it found in the Sacred Tradition.这种信念是没有发现在圣经也不是传统的发现在圣。

(EDITOR'S NOTE: that date might actually be 1950.)(编者注:该日期可能实际上是1950年。)

Baptism洗礼

Baptism, which originally was an immersion of the body of the faithful in the water, was replaced during the 14th century in the Roman Church by sprinkling.洗礼,原本是一水浸泡的身体在忠实,改为由洒在14世纪的罗马教会。

Invocation调用

The invocation, or epiklesis , which is a prayer offered at the time of the change of the Holy Gifts (bread and wine), is omitted by the Roman Church, which uses only the scriptural words, "Take, eat "该调用,或epiklesis,这是吃 ,祈祷以提供在“时间的更改的圣礼物(面包和酒),是由罗马教会省略,仅使用了圣经的话,” and "Drink ye all of it "和“你们喝的这一切 ”

Unleavened Bread除酵

Unleavened bread is used by the Roman Church instead of leavened bread, which was the tradition of the Undivided Church.未经发酵的面包所用的酵的面包,而不是罗马教会,这是教会传统的隔膜。

Holy Communion圣餐

Holy Communion in the Roman Church is given to the layman only from the sanctified bread and not from the sanctified wine, which now is restricted to the clergy.圣教会的共融,在罗马是考虑到一般人只是从神圣的面包和神职人员不是从神圣的葡萄酒,现在被限制到。

Holy Unction圣目的职能

Holy Unction is offered as last rites to the sick, an innovation of the eleventh century.圣目的职能是提供作为11世纪最后的仪式,以病患者,一创新。

Divorce离婚

Divorce is not granted to the faithful in the Roman Church, which the Undivided Church issued.离婚是不给予忠实的发行在罗马教会,而不可分割的教会。

Clergy's Marital Status神职人员的婚姻状况

Marriage of the clergy is prohibited, a restriction imposed in the later centuries against the decision of the First Ecumenical Synod (325 AD).婚姻的神职人员是禁止的,公元)325 1基督教主教会议(第一所施加的限制在以后的几个世纪所针对的决定的。


HOPE FOR "UNITY OF FAITH"为“希望信仰合一”

An historic event of great magnitude took place on Jan. 5, 1964, when Patriarch Athenagoras I and Pope Paul VI met in Jerusalem. Their "embrace of peace" and declaration of reconciliation was the first official act by the two churches since the Schism in 1054.一个规模巨大的历史事件的发生耶路撒冷1月5日举行,1964年,当主教哥拉我和教皇保罗六世举行。它们的“怀抱”和平与和解宣言是第一个官方的分裂行为,因为这两个教会1054。 Then in 1965 both churches lifted the anathemas and excommunications placed against one another in 1054.然后在1965年取消了这两个教会anathemas和1054年1 excommunications放在对另一研究。 These great events however have not changed the actual status of each church, for the Schism still remains.然而,这些伟大的事件并没有改变各教会的实际状况,为的分裂依然存在。In addition, the unprecedented journeys of the Patriarch and the Pope to one another's See were the result of the lifting of historical obstacles.此外,牧首前所未有的行程和教皇彼此的结果看是历史的障碍解除了。 This has led to dialogue between the two churches for the first time in 900 years.这导致两个教会之间的对话为900年来首次研究。These historical events are hopeful signs to resolving the problems of the Great Schism.这些历史事件是有希望的迹象,以解决大分裂的问题的。

Hope For Unity Of The Christian Churches希望统一的基督教教堂

Pure Faith is a living faith for all the members of the Mystical Body of Christ.纯洁的信仰是基督信仰生活的神秘机构所有的成员。It is not the Faith of the technical theologian nor of the narrow minded faithful.这不是神学信仰的技术,也不是狭隘的忠诚。 The Christian Faith does not require knowledge of geometry as was the case with Plato's philosophy.基督徒的信仰并不需要几何知识作为案件是与柏拉图哲学的。The theologian who is supposed to be more versed in the Divine Revelation is not a teacher of his original theories but rather an instructor of Truths, which have already been revealed and can be accepted by all people on faith.谁的启示神学家应该是神圣的更多精通理论教师是不是他的原教练,而是一个信仰的真理,这已被发现,可以对所有的人所接受。

The Christian faith is not a theory or erudition but a living element working in every sincere Christian.基督徒的信仰不是一种理论或博学,而是活生生的元素在每一个真诚的基督徒工作。The technical theological controversies are only for the "pleasure of knowledge" of a very few people, but not for the members of the Mystical Body of Christ.神学争论的技术只为少数人“非常快乐的知识”的一个,但不是为基督奥体的成员。They are rather the personal presuppositions of learned men, who have become entangled in the net they have woven, from which they Cannot set themselves free.他们是相当有梭织,个人预设的有学问的人,纠缠谁已成为净他们从他们无法为自己的自由。Some technical theologians and others with a talented and dynamic personality, on occasions of strong disagreement or in an assumption of a new movement, have separated themselves or led their followers out of the Mystical Body of Christ, the Undivided and Ecumenical Church.神学家和其他一些技术与人才的个性和充满活力的运动,新的场合或人的强烈反对,在一个假设的,有自己的分离或导致其追随者走出基督教教会的基督奥体的隔膜和。

Their followers have never understood the, deep theological arguments involved; they never have followed such a leader with a sound conviction of keeping the venerable Faith intact.他们的追随者从未理解,深刻神学涉及的论点,他们从来没有遵循这样一个完整的领导者,一个古老的信仰信念保持良好。 They have followed him because of human motives and superficial justifications.他们都跟随他的理由,因为人类的动机和肤浅的。 Neither the leaders nor the followers have stood united in the very Mystical Body of Christ to fight, if necessary, for the restoration of any faulty direction or corruption of the other fellow members of the one Body.无论是领导还是追随者已经站在团结在基督的身体对抗非常神秘,如果有必要,恢复身体的任何一个错误的方向或腐败成员的其他成员。 Instead they left and are disunited, constituting what they believe to be a "new" faith.相反,他们离开,并处于分裂状态,构成了他们认为是一个“新”的信念。But from such new groups others have left also for a more "pure" faith, and so on.但是,从这些新团体也为其他人留下一个更“纯粹”的信念,等等。

All the churches of Christ today first must return to the Truths of the Undivided Church, the Ecumenical Church, with humbleness and repentance to restore the pure faith - "the unity of faith"; without a rigid conformity as far as customs and rites are concerned.所有基督的教会今天首先必须返回不可分割的教会的真理,在基督教教会,与谦卑和忏悔,恢复纯洁的信仰- “信仰的统一”,没有一个硬性尽可能符合海关和礼仪方面。

The first five centuries of the Christian era was the period during which the foundation of the Church was established by the blood of its martyrs and the teaching and works of its great Fathers.首五个世纪的基督教时代是神父时期,伟大的基础,教会成立了由血液中的烈士和教学工作。By the end of the 10th century the separation of the One Church took place because of the human weakness of the Church leaders in the administration and customs rather than from its disagreement over the redemptive Truths of the Church. By the end of the 15th century the movement began against the discrepancies of the current leaders of the Western Church, but it went far beyond the anticipations of its leaders.由教会结束的10世纪的一个分离了教会的地方,因为对真理的人性弱点的救赎,教会领导人在行政结束,从海关,而不是分歧。到了15世纪结束运动开始对西方教会的领导人对目前的差异,但它远远超出其领导人的预研究。 Can we hope that at least by the close of the 20th century we will complete the Hegelian trilogy of synthesis, ie the unity of all churches?难道我们希望至少由合成接近20世纪,我们将完成对黑格尔三部曲,即教会的统一呢? For the Church of Christ was meant to be one:对于基督教会的意思是一个:

"There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of us all, who is above all and in all" (Eph. 4:5-6). “有一个机构和一个精神,正如你被称为一个希望属于您的电话,一主,一信,一洗,一神,”我们所有的父亲,谁高于一切,在所有的 (弗。4:5-6)。

We pray and we hope.我们祈祷,我们的希望。

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America希腊东正教大主教管区的美

(Editor's Note: Other branches of the Orthodox Church hold differing views on many of these issues. In some cases, they even consider the date of the Great Schism to not be 1054 AD but 1204 AD when the Catholic Crusades sacked Constantinople.) (编者注:东正教教会其他分行对这些问题有很多不同的意见。在某些情况下,他们甚至考虑的分裂日期大不被公元1054年公元1204年,但天主教十字军东征时被解职君士坦丁堡。)


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