Jansenism詹森主义

General Information一般信息

The theological position known as Jansenism was probably the single most divisive issue within the Roman Catholic church between the Protestant Reformation and the French Revolution. The doctrine took its name from the Flemish theologian and bishop of Ypres, Cornelius Jansen (1585 - 1638), who summarized his ideas on Grace and free will in his posthumously published treatise, the Augustinus (1640). 詹森主义的神学立场被称为可能是一个最分裂教会内发出的罗马天主教之间的宗教改革和法国大革命。发生的学说),它的名字从1638年神学家和佛兰芒主教伊普尔,科尼利厄斯詹森(1585 -谁总结1640年)的论文,奥古斯丁(他的思想对恩典与自由意志,在他死后出版。Relying on the strictest possible interpretation of one aspect of Saint Augustine's philosophy, Jansen argued in favor of absolute Predestination, in which humans are perceived as incapable of doing good without God's unsolicited grace and only a chosen few are believed to receive Salvation. In this respect, the doctrine closely resembled Calvinism, although the Jansenists always vigorously proclaimed their attachment to Roman Catholicism.哲学依托奥古斯丁尽可能严格圣解释的一个方面, 詹森认为在宿命赞成绝对的,在这种人类拯救认为接收能力行善没有上帝的不请自来的宽限期只有选择了少数人相信。在这方面,非常相似,加尔文的学说,虽然詹森教徒一向积极宣布他们的依恋罗马天主教。

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As Jansenism was elaborated in France, especially by Jansen's friend Jean Duvergier de Hauranne, the abbot of Saint - Cyran, and by the latter's protege Antoine Arnauld, it also entailed an austere form of piety and a rigorously puritanical morality. From the 1640s, the spiritual center of Jansenism became the convent of Port - Royal - des - Champs (near Paris) where numerous nobles, parlementarians, and intellectuals favorable to the movement made religious retreats.由于詹森主义是法国阐述了它,特别是詹森的朋友让Duvergier撤销Hauranne住持,圣-齐兰,并由后者的门生安托万Arnauld,也引起了虔诚严峻的形式和严格的清教徒式的道德。从17世纪40年代时,詹森主义的精神中心,成为修道院的港口-皇家-德-香榭丽舍(巴黎附近)在众多的贵族,parlementarians和知识分子的运动作出了有利于宗教静修。

Almost from the beginning, the Jansenists aroused the hostility both of the Jesuits, who opposed the theology and moral teachings of the group, and of the French royal government, who associated the Jansenists with the opposition "Devout party" and with the rebellions of the Fronde (1648 - 53).几乎从一开始,詹森教徒引起双方的敌意组的耶稣会士,谁反对神学教义和道德,和法国王室政府,谁对相关的詹森教徒反对“与党的虔诚”的反叛与投石党运动(1648至1653年)。 As early as 1653, five propositions supposedly found in the Jansenist position were condemned by Pope Innocent X. In 1713, under intense pressure from King Louis XIV, Pope Clement XI issued the bull Unigenitus condemning 101 propositions in a treatise by another French Jansenist, Pasquier Quesnel (1634 - 1719).早在1653年的五点主张所谓的位置被发现在简森派十谴责诺森1713年,席发出强烈的压力,国王路易十四,教皇克莱门特在牛市Unigenitus谴责,帕斯基耶尔101命题的论文由另一家法国简森派奎斯内尔(1634年至1719年)。 The French king closed Port - Royal - des - Champs in 1709 and had it razed to the ground in 1710.法国国王封闭港口-皇家-德- 1709年在香榭丽舍它夷为平地,并在1710年到地面。

During the 18th century, Jansenism acquired a much broader following among the lower French clergy and spread to other areas of Europe, notably Spain and Italy.在18世纪,詹森获得了较低的法国教士一间更广泛的下面蔓延到其他地区和欧洲,尤其是西班牙和意大利。The Jansenists increasingly allied themselves with the Gallicans in the French Parlements in an effort to force the calling of an ecclesiastical council to reconsider the pope's condemnation (Gallicanism).越来越多的詹森主义者联盟)与法国的Gallicans自己在Parlements,努力迫使教会调用的一局,重新考虑教皇的谴责(Gallicanism。 The greatest triumph of the Jansenists came in the 1760s when the parlements forced the suppression of the Jesuits in France.詹森主义者的最大的胜利是在1760年代来到时parlements迫使法国镇压在耶稣会士。But thereafter the movement declined in importance.但此后该运动的重要性下降。Only a small group of Jansenists survived into the 19th century.只有一小群幸存下来的詹森教徒到19世纪。

T Tackett Ŧ塔克特

Bibliography 书目
NJ Abercrombie, The Origins of Jansenism (1936); R Clark, Strangers and Sojourners at Port Royal (1972); A Sedgwick, Jansenism in Seventeenth - Century France (1977); D Van Kley, The Jansenists and the Expulsion of the Jesuits from France (1975).阿伯克龙比新泽西州的詹森主义的起源(1936年); R克拉克,陌生人和索乔纳斯在皇家港(1972年);阿塞奇威克,詹森主义在第十七-世纪的法国(1977年); Ð凡克利,詹森教徒和传教士驱逐从法国(1975年)。


Cornelius Otto Jansen科尼利厄斯奥托詹森

Advanced Information先进的信息

(1585 - 1638).(1585年至1638年)。Flemish Catholic theologian.佛兰芒语天主教神学家。Jansen was born at Accoi, near Leerdam in southern Holland, and educated first at Louvain and then at Paris, where he received his doctorate in 1617. Shortly thereafter he was appointed director of the Saint Pulcherie Seminary in Louvain and professor of exegesis at the university.詹森出生于Accoi,南部靠近利尔丹荷兰和比利时鲁汶首先在教育,然后在巴黎,在那里他获得了1617年他的博士学位。皮尔谢神,并在比利时鲁汶大学教授训诂学在此后不久,他被任命为主任的圣。 In 1630 he was named Regius Professor of Sacred Scripture, and in 1635 was University Rector. 1630年他被任命为雷吉乌什圣经教授神圣的,是在1635年大学校长。Next year he was consecrated Bishop of Ypres, where he died of the plague in 1638.明年,他1638年被祝圣主教伊普尔,凡在他死于鼠疫。

After Jansen's death some of the commentaries which he had written for his academic lectures on biblical books were published.经过詹森去世发表了一些评论的是他写的书籍,他的学术讲座上的圣经。 More significant, however, was his major treatise on Augustine.更为重要的,然而,他对奥古斯丁的主要论文。Jansen had been interested in Augustine's religious thought since student days.詹森一直以为感兴趣奥古斯丁的宗教自学生时代。In the early 1620s, coming to believe that Augustine's theology of efficacious predestinating grace was being threatened by the humanitarian tendencies of the Jesuit theologians of the Counter - Reformation, he embarked on an intensive study of Augustine's works, particularly his anti - Pelagian writings.早在1620年代,开始相信,奥古斯丁的恩典神学有效predestinating正在受到威胁的柜台上的耶稣会神学家的人道主义倾向的-改革,他开始了一项作品深入研究奥古斯丁,尤其是他的反-伯拉纠著作。 The massive treatise which resulted from this work, entitled Augustinus, was published posthumously in 1640.该论文的奥古斯丁导致大量的工作,有权得到这一点,在1640年去世后出版。Its three parts presented Augustine's theology of grace in a systematic and continuous synthesis.它的三个部分介绍了系统的综合和持续的奥古斯丁的神学的恩典研究。Part I described the Pelagian and semi - Pelagian heresies which Augustine sought to refute; Part II expounded Augustine's interpretation of man's original state of innocence and his subsequent fall; and Part III set forth his doctrine of salvation through God's redeeming grace in Jesus Christ.第一部分介绍了伯拉纠和半-伯拉纠异端邪说而奥古斯丁试图反驳;第二部分阐述了奥古斯丁的解释人的无罪原始状态和随后下降;和第三部分提出了他的救恩学说通过上帝的耶稣基督救赎恩典研究。

The publication of this work touched off a heated controversy in Roman Catholic circles in European countries, particularly in France.本刊物的工作引发了欧洲国家在罗马天主教界的激烈争论,尤其是在法国。Jansen's theology encountered strong opposition both from the ecclesiastical establishment and from the civil power.詹森的神学中遇到的民事权力的强烈反对,无论从教会的成立和从。In 1635 five propositions, allegedly derived from Jansen, were condemned by Pope Innocent X in his bull Cum Occasione.1635年的五点主张,据称来自詹森,是X谴责诺森在牛市暨Occasione。These propositions, related to predestination, maintained that without God's enabling grace man cannot fulfill the divine commands and that the operation of God's grace, bestowed on his elect, is irresistible. Despite such official opposition, however, Jansenism, because it sought to defend traditional orthodoxy, to deepen personal piety, and to foster ascetic rigor in moral conduct, enlisted the support of certain notabilities.这些主张,与宿命,认为没有上帝的授权宽限期人不能履行神圣的命令和宽限期运作上帝的,选出赋予他的,是不可抗拒的。尽管有这样的反对党,但是,詹森主义,因为它试图捍卫传统正统,深化个人的虔诚,并促进在严格的道德操守苦行,邀请了一些名流的支持。 One of them was Blaise Pascal, whose Povincial Letters is one of the classic documents of this controversy.其中之一是布莱斯帕斯卡,其Povincial字母一个文件,这个争议的经典之作。Other supporters included the theologian and philosopher Antoine Arnauld and his sister Jacqueline, abbess of the convent of Port Royal, which became an important center of Jansenist influence.其他支持者包括神学家和哲学家安托万Arnauld和他的妹妹杰奎琳,住持的修道院皇家港口简森派的影响而成为一个重要中心。

But in 1709 Port Royal was closed down and its occupants dispersed; and in 1713 Pope Clement XI, in his bull Unigenitus, officially condemned certain propositions attributed to Pasquier Quesnel, a leading Jansenist theologian.但1709年在皇家港口关闭,其居民分散,以及在1713年教皇克莱门特十一,在他的公牛Unigenitus正式谴责某些主张,归因于帕斯基耶尔奎斯内尔领先简森派神学家。 Though the movement in France was thus seriously damaged, in 1723 the Jansenists of the Netherlands nominated a schismatic archbishop of Utrecht as their ecclesiastical leader, and this group has maintained its existence down to the present day, becoming in the later nineteenth century part of the Old Catholic Church.虽然法国运动因此受到严重破坏荷兰,在1723年乌得勒支的詹森教徒教会领袖提名作为一个分裂的大主教,而这一群体保持其存在下降到目前的一天,成为19世纪后期的一部分旧天主教教会。

NV Hope内华达州的希望

Bibliography 书目
N Abercrombie, The Origins of Jansenism; RA Knox, Enthusiasm; E Romanes, The Story of Port Royal; A Sedgwick, Jansenism in Seventeenth Century France. ñ阿伯克龙比,詹森主义的起源;类风湿性关节炎诺克斯,热情,电子商务罗马尼斯,皇家港的故事,一个塞奇威克,詹森主义在法国17世纪。


Jansenius and JansenismJansenius和詹森主义

Catholic Information天主教信息

Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres (Cornelius Jansenius Yprensis), from whom Jansenism derives its origin and name, must not be confounded with another writer and bishop of the same name Cornelius Jansenius Gandavensis (1510-1576), of whom we possess several books on Scripture and a valuable "Concordia Evangelica."科尼利厄斯扬森,主教伊普尔(科尼利厄斯Jansenius Yprensis),从其中詹森主义源自它的起源和名称,不得混淆与另一作家的书籍和主教的同名科尼利厄斯Jansenius Gandavensis(1510至76年),其中我们所拥有的数圣经和一种宝贵的“协和Evangelica。”

I. LIFE AND WRITINGS一,生活及写作

The subject of this article lived three-quarters of a century later than his namesake.文章题目本居住3个世纪,四分之三不迟于他同名。He was born 28 October, 1585, of a Catholic family, in the village of Accoi, near Leerdam, Holland; died at Ypres, 6 May, 1638.他出生于1585年10月28日家庭,天主教,在Accoi村附近利尔丹,荷兰,1638年去世,享年伊普尔,5月6日。 His parents, although in moderate circumstances, secured for him an excellent education.他的父母,尽管在温和的情况下,他获得了一个很好的教育。They sent him first to Utrecht.他们送他首先乌得勒支。In 1602 we find him at the University of Louvain, where he entered the College du Faucon to take up the study of philosophy.在1602年我们发现他在哲学的鲁汶大学,在那里他进入大学学习杜提前计入Faucon会有采取了。Here he passed two years, and at the solemn promotion of 1604 was proclaimed first of 118 competitors.在这里,他通过两年,并于1604年晋升为庄严宣布第一个118的竞争对手。To begin his theological studies he entered the College du Pape Adrien VI, whose president, Jacques Janson, imbued with the errors of Baius and eager to spread them, was to exert an influence on the subsequent course of his ideas and works.开始他的神学思想,他进入了教皇阿德里安六世书院,其总裁雅克汉松,Baius充满错误,并渴望与传播他们的作品被施加影响的想法和随后的过程中他的。 Having hitherto been on amicable terms with the Jesuits, he had even sought admission into their order.迄今有耶稣会士被条件与友好,他甚至要求把他们的顺序入场。The refusal he experienced, the motives of which are unknown to us, seems not to be altogether unrelated to the aversion he subsequently manifested for the celebrated society, and for the theories and practices it championed.拒绝他的经历,其中的动机,我们不知道,似乎并没有被完全无关的社会反感,他后来表现为庆祝,并为它倡导理论与实践。 He was also associated with a young and wealthy Frenchman, Jean du Verger de Hauranne, who was completing his course of theology with the Jesuits, and who possessed a mind subtile and cultured, but restless and prone to innovations, and an ardent and intriguing character.他也与一个年轻和富有的法国人,让杜韦尔热德Hauranne,谁是完成他的神学课程与耶稣会士,谁拥有一个心灵微妙和培养,但容易产生不安和创新,以及热情和迷人的性格。 Shortly after his return to Paris towards the end of 1604, du Verger was joined there by Jansenius, for whom he had secured a position as tutor.不久后,他返回巴黎结束的1604年对杜韦尔热一同那里Jansenius,对他们来说,他已经获得了导师的立场。About two years later he attracted him to Bayonne, his native town, where he succeeded in having him appointed director of an episcopal college.大约两年后,他巴约纳吸引他,他的家乡,在那里他成功地在大学他有一主教任命董事。 There, during eleven or twelve years of studies ardently pursued in common, on the Fathers and principally on St. Augustine, the two friends had time to exchange thoughts and to conceive daring Projects.目前,在11或12年的共同研究的热烈追求,在父亲和主要的圣奥古斯丁,这两个朋友有时间来交流思想,并大胆设想的项目。 In 1617, while du Verger, who had returned to Paris, went to receive from the Bishop of Poitiers the dignity of Abbot of St-Cyran, Jansenius returned to Louvain, where the presidency of the new College de Sainte Pulcherie was confided to him.在1617年,而杜韦尔热,谁已返回巴黎,去接受来自齐兰主教的普瓦捷,圣尊严的住持,Jansenius返回鲁汶,那里的皮尔谢主席的新学院德圣是向他倾诉。 In 1619 he received the degree of Doctor of Theology, and afterwards obtained a chair of exegesis. 1619年他获得了神学学位的博士,后来又获得了注释主持。The commentaries which he dictated to his pupils, as well as several writings of a polemical nature, brought him in a short time a deserved renown.他的评注的支配他的学生,以及一些论战性的著作,他带来了名声在很短的时间,是当之无愧的。

These writings of Jansenius were not at first intended for publication, in fact they did not see the light until after his death.这些著作的Jansenius起初不被用于出版,其实他们并没有看到他的光,直到去世后。They are concise, clear and perfectly orthodox in doctrine.他们是简明,清晰和完美主义的正统研究。The principal ones are "Pentateuchus, sive commentarius in quinque libros Mosis" (Louvain, 1639), "Analecta in Proverbia Salomonis, Ecclesiasten, Sapientiam, Habacuc et Sophoniam" (Louvain, 1644); "Tetrateuchus, seu commentarius in quatuor Evangelia" (Louvain,1639).主要的有“Pentateuchus,sive commentarius在西洋参利夫罗斯莫西斯”(鲁汶,1639),“Analecta在Proverbia Salomonis,Ecclesiasten,Sapientiam,Habacuc等Sophoniam”(鲁汶,1644),“Tetrateuchus,东南大学commentarius在quatuor Evangelia”(鲁汶,1639)。Some of these exegetical works have been printed more than once.其中一些作品已印制训诂不止一次。Among his polemical works are "Alexipharmacum civibus Sy vaeducensibus propinatum adversus ministrorum fascinum" (Louvain 1630); then, in reply to the criticism of the Calvinist Gisbert Voet, "Spongia notarum quibus Alexipharmacum aspersit Gisbertus Voetius" (Louvain, 1631).在他的论战作品是“Alexipharmacum civibus施vaeducensibus propinatum adversus ministrorum fascinum”(鲁汶1630),然后,在回答)的批评,加尔文希斯韦特沃耶特,“斯波notarum quibus Alexipharmacum aspersit Gisbertus Voetius”(鲁汶,1631。Jansenius published in 1635, under the pseudonym of Armacanus, a volume entitled "Alexandri Patricii Armacani Theologi Mars Gallicus seu de justitia armorum regis Galliae libri duo".在1635年发表了一份题为Jansenius,根据体积的Armacanus笔名,一个“Alexandri Patricii Armacani Theologi火星Gallicus armorum东南大学代尤斯蒂蒂娅雷吉斯Galliae利博利二人”。This was a bitter and well-merited satire against the foreign policy of Richelieu, which was summed up in the odd fact of the "Most Christian" nation and monarchy constantly allying themselves with the Protestants, in Holland, Germany, and elsewhere, for the sole purpose of compassing the downfall of the House of Austria.这是一个政策的黎塞留,这是惨痛的,值得讽刺良好反对外国总结了奇怪的事实和君主制的“多数的基督教的”国家结成联盟,不断与自己的新教徒,在荷兰,德国和其他地方,为唯一的目的罗盘奥地利下台的众议院。

The same author has left us a series of letters addressed to the Abbot of St-Cyran, which were found among the papers of the person to whom they were sent and printed under the title: "Naissance du jansenisme decouverte, ou Lettres de Jansénius à l'abbé de St-Cyran depuis l'an 1617 jusqu'en 1635" (Louvain, 1654). It was also during the course of his professorate that Jansenius, who was a man of action as well as of study, journeyed twice to Spain, whither he went as the deputy of his colleagues to plead at the Court of Madrid the cause of the university against the Jesuits; and in fact, through his efforts their authorization to teach humanities and philosophy at Louvain was withdrawn.同一作者给我们留下了一连串的信件给该人住持圣,齐兰,而被找到的文件中向他们发送和打印的标题下:“诞生杜jansenisme decouverte,欧纯文学德Jansénius拉贝德圣,齐兰depuis l' 1 1617 jusqu'en 1635“(鲁汶,1654)。也正是在他的professorate当然是Jansenius,谁是一个人的行动,以及为研究,起行两次西班牙,何处,他的同事去为他的副申辩法院在马德里的耶稣会事业的大学反对;而事实上,通过他的努力,他们的授权,教导在人文科学和哲学鲁汶被撤回。 All this, however, did not prevent him from occupying himself actively and chiefly with a work of which the general aim, born of his intercourse with St-Cyran, was to restore to its place of honour the true doctrine of St. Augustine on grace, a doctrine supposedly obscured or abandoned in the Church for several centuries. He was still working on it when, on the recommendation of King Philip IV and Boonen, Archbishop of Mechlin, he was raised to the See of Ypres.所有这一切,但是,并没有阻止他从积极占领自己和齐兰主要是与该工作的总体目标,生于圣与他的交往,是为了恢复其优雅的地方真正的圣奥古斯丁的教义荣誉,一种学说所谓模糊或遗弃在教会的几个世纪。他仍然伊普雷斯它工作时,对建议国王腓力四世和大主教博南,梅克林,他被提升到了教廷。 His consecration took place in 1636, and, though at the same time putting the finishing touches to his theological work, he devoted himself with great zeal to the government of his diocese.他奉献了1636年发生的,而且,尽管在同一时间做最后的整理工作涉及到他的神学,他以极大的投入教区自己的热情,他的政府。 Historians have remarked that the Jesuits had no more cause to complain of his administration than the other religious orders. He succumbed to an epidemic which ravaged Ypres and died, according to eyewitnesses, in dispositions of great piety.历史学家们说,没有更多的耶稣会造成行政抱怨他比其他宗教命令。他死于一种流行病的肆虐伊普雷斯死亡,根据目击者的虔诚,对伟大的气质。 When on the point of death he confided the manuscript which he cherished to his chaplain, Reginald Lamaeus, with the command to publish it after taking counsel with Libert Fromondus, a professor at Louvain, and Henri Calenus, a canon of the metropolitan church.当在死亡点他吐露他的手稿珍惜他的牧师,雷金纳德Lamaeus命令,与它出版后,教堂都会采取律师与利伯特Fromondus教授,在比利时鲁汶,和亨利Calenus的,佳能的。 He requested that this publication be made with the utmost fidelity, as, in his opinion, only with difficulty could anything be changed.他要求本刊物作出了最大的保真度,如认为,在他的,唯一的困难是可以改变任何东西。"If, however," he added, "the Holy See wishes any change, I am an obedient son, and I submit to that Church in which I have lived to my dying hour. This is my last wish." The editors of the "Augustinus" have been wrongly accused of having intentionally and disloyally suppressed this declaration, it appears plainly enough on the second page in the original edition. “但是,如果”他补充说,“罗马教廷希望改变的话,我是一个听话的儿子,我会向这一个小时中,我已活到我死去。这是我最后的心愿。”的编辑们“奥古斯丁”被错误地宣告被控故意disloyally抑制这一点,看来显然不够的原版第二页中。 On the other hand its authenticity has been contested by means of external and internal arguments, founded notably on the discovery of another will, dated the previous day (5 May), which says nothing regarding the work to be published.另一方面,其真实性一直有争议的论点内部和外部的手段,特别是关于成立将发现的另一日的前一天(5月5日),这方面的工作,说什么要出版。 But it is quite conceivable that the dying prelate was mindful of the opportunity to complete his first act by dictating to his chaplain and confirming with his seal this codicil which, according to the testamentary executors, was written only half an hour before his death.但是这是可以想象的垂死的主教是死亡铭记的机会,向他口述完成他的第一个行动,并确认了他的牧师与他的遗嘱,密封此之前,据遗嘱执行人只有半小时,写。 It has been vainly sought, a priori, to make the fact appear improbable by alleging that the author was in perfect good faith as to the orthodoxy of his views.据妄图寻求,先验,使不可能出现的事实,撰文,指在他的看法是完美的正统,以真诚的。Already, in 1619, 1620, and 1621, his correspondence with St-Cyran bore unmistakable traces of a quite opposite state of mind; in it he spoke of coming disputes for which there was need to prepare; of a doctrine of St. Augustine discovered by him, but little known among the learned, and which in time would astonish everybody, of opinions on grace and predestination which he dared not then reveal "lest like so many others I be tripped up by Rome before everything is ripe and seasonable".目前,1619年,1620年和1621年,他的信件与孔圣,齐兰在明确无误的痕迹相当的心理状态相反的,在它的未来,他准备发言纠纷而有需要,一个圣奥古斯丁的学说发现由他,但有点“知名度,经验教训,并及时将每个人都感到惊讶和季节性,在宽限期的意见和宿命的时机已经成熟,他不敢再透露”我是怕像这样的许多人被绊倒由罗马之前一切。 Later, in the "Augustinus" itself (IV, xxv-xxvii), it is seen that he scarcely disguises the close connection of several of his assertions with certain propositions of Baius, though he ascribes the condemnation of the latter to the contingent circumstances of time and place, and he believes them tenable in their obvious and natural sense.后来,在“奥古斯丁”本身(四,二十五,二十七),可以看出,他几乎没有伪装的Baius密切联系的某些主张,他主张几个,虽然他归咎于后者谴责对队伍的情况时间和地点,他相信他们自然感明显,在其成立的。

Nothing, therefore, authorized the rejection of the famous declaration, or testament, of Jansenius as unauthentic.没什么,因此,拒绝授权非真实的著名宣言,或遗嘱Jansenius,研究。 But neither is there any authorization for suspecting the sincerity of the explicit affirmation of submission to the Holy See which is therein contained.但也不是没有任何怀疑载有授权的诚意,明确肯定了提交给罗马教廷是其中。The author, at the time of his promotion to the doctorate in 1619, had defended the infallibility of the pope in a most categorical thesis, conceived as follows: "The Roman Pontiff is the supreme judge of all religious controversies, when he defines a thing and imposes it on the whole Church, under penalty of anathema, his decision is just, true, and infallible."笔者在1619年,在他的时间晋升到了博士学位,曾在论文中捍卫一个最明确的犯错误的教皇,设想如下:“罗马教皇是最高法官的宗教争议的是,当他定义了一个东西并规定它在整个教会诅咒,根据处罚,他的决定是公正,真实和可靠的。“ At the end of his work (III, x, Epilogus omnium) we find this protestation perfectly parallel with that of his testament: "All whatsoever I have affirmed on these various and difficult points, not according to my own sentiment, but according to that of the holy Doctor, I submit to the judgment and sentence of the Apostolic See and the Roman Church, my mother, to be henceforth adhered to if she judges that it must be adhered to, to retract if she so wishes, to condemn and anathematize it if she decrees that it should be condemned and anathematized. For since my tenderest childhood I have been reared in the beliefs of this Church; I imbibed them with my mother's milk; I have grown up and grown old while remaining attached to them; never to my knowledge have I swerved therefrom a hair's-breadth in thought, action or word, and I am still firmly decided to keep this faith until my last breath and to appear with it before the judgment-seat of God."在月底,他的工作(第三十,Epilogus Omnium公司),我们觉得这是抗议他与完美的证明平行认为:“所有任何困难和自己的观点,不是按照自己的情绪,我肯定对这些不同,但根据该神圣医生,我服从判决,并判决的使徒见与罗马教会,从今以后我的母亲是坚持,如果她向法官,它必须坚持,如果她收回意愿,并谴责和诅咒但如果她的法令,它应该受到谴责和诅咒的教会。对于因为我的温柔的童年我有这种被信念饲养的,我吸胀奶他们与我的母亲,我已经长大了,变老,而其余的重视他们,永远就我所知,我已经越过由此一hair's -广度在思想,行动或文字,我仍然坚定地决定保留这个信念,直到最后一刻我和它似乎与之前的判断,上帝的宝座。“Thus Jansenius, although he gave his name to a heresy, was not himself a heretic, but lived and died in the bosom of the Church.因此Jansenius,虽然他给了他的名字是异端邪说,是不是他自己一个异教徒,但生活和教会死在怀里的。 In view of the fact that he consciously and deliberately aimed at innovation or reforming, it would certainly be difficult to exculpate him entirely or declare that his attitude was in no wise presumptuous and rash; but impartial history may and should take into account the peculiar atmosphere created about him by the still smouldering controversies on Baianism and the widespread prejudices against the Roman Curia.鉴于改革的事实,他自觉地,故意旨在创新,它肯定是难以开脱他完全或宣称,他的态度是在任何明智的历史专横和皮疹,但公正的可能,并应考虑到的特殊气氛由他创建的有关争论就Baianism闷烧仍然与罗马教廷的普遍反对偏见。 To determine the extent to which these and similar circumstances, by deluding him necessarily diminished his responsibility, is impossible, that is the secret of God.要确定在何种程度上这些和类似的情况下,他所迷惑一定减少他的责任,是不可能的,那是上帝的秘密。

II.二。THE "AUGUSTINUS" AND ITS CONDEMNATION在“奥古斯丁”及其谴责

After the death of Jansenius, the internuncio Richard Aravius vainly endeavoured to prevent the printing of his manuscript; this undertaking, actively furthered by the friends of the dead man, was completed in 1640.后Jansenius死亡,该公使理查德Aravius妄图力图阻止他的手稿印刷,这承诺,积极推动了死亡男子的朋友,是1640年完工。 The folio volume bore the title: "Cornelii Jansenii, Episcopi Yprensis, Augustinus, seu doctrina S. Augustini de humanae naturae sanitate, aegritudine, medicina, adversus Pelagianos et Massilienses".开本量孔的标题:“Cornelii Jansenii,Episcopi Yprensis,奥古斯丁,单粒子翻转doctrina南奥古斯蒂尼德humanae naturae萨尼塔特,aegritudine,梅迪奇纳,adversus Pelagianos等Massilienses”。It was divided into three volumes, of which the first, chiefly historical, is an exposition in eight books of Pelagianism; the second, after an introductory study on the limitations of human reason, devotes one book to the state of innocence or the grace of Adam and the angels, four books to the state of fallen nature, three to the state of pure nature; the third volume treats in ten books of "the grace of Christ the Saviour", and concludes with "a parallel between the error of the Semipelagians and that of certain moderns", who are no other than the Molinists.它分为三册,其中第一,主要是历史,是一佩拉纠博览会在8书籍;第二,人类的理性介绍后,研究的局限性,致力于一书的国家或无罪的恩典亚当与天使,四本书的性质状态下降,3个国家的性质纯粹;第三卷对待救世主“十书”恩典的基督,而最后以“一个平行之间的误差Semipelagians,而某些现代人“,谁没有Molinists以外。 The author, if we are to accept his own statement, laboured for twenty years on this work, and to gather his materials he had ten times read the whole of St. Augustine and thirty times his treatise against the Pelagians.笔者,如果我们要接受他自己的声明,辛勤工作,为这项已有20年,并收集他的材料,他曾10次阅读的pelagians整个圣奥古斯丁和第三次对他的论文。 From these readings emerged a vast system, whose identity with Baianism neither skilful arrangement nor subtile dialectic could disguise.从这些数据中出现一个庞大的系统,其Baianism身份,既不娴熟安排或微妙的辩证可以伪装。

His fundamental error consists in disregarding the supernatural order, for Jansenius as for Baius, the vision of God is the necessary end of human nature; hence it follows that all the primal endowments designated in theology as supernatural or preternatural, including exemption from concupiscence, were simply man's due.其根本错误在于无视超自然秩序Baius,为Jansenius作为,视力神是人的本性必要结束,因此可以认为,一切的原始禀赋超自然神学所指定或超自然的,包括concupiscence豁免被只是人的款项。 This first assertion is fraught with grave consequences regarding the original fall, grace, and justification.这首充满恩典的说法是与原来的严重后果就秋天,和理由。As a result of Adam's sin, our nature stripped of elements essential to its integrity, is radically corrupt and depraved.作为一种罪过结果亚当的,剥夺了我们的本性不可或缺的要素的完整性,是从根本上腐败和堕落。Mastered by concupiscence, which in each of us properly constitutes original sin, the will is powerless to resist; it has become purely passive.所掌握concupiscence罪,这在我们每个妥善构成正本,将是无力抵抗,它已成为纯粹的被动。It cannot escape the attraction of evil except it be aided by a movement of grace superior to and triumphant over the force of concupiscence. Our soul, henceforth obedient to no motive save that of pleasure, is at the mercy of the delectation, earthly or heavenly, which for the time being attracts it with the greatest strength.它不能逃脱concupiscence部队的吸引力超过恶除凯旋它是借助于运动的恩典和大于此数。我们的灵魂,从此服从没有动机节省那快乐,天堂是在慈悲的欢乐,属地或,而暂时吸引它以最大的力量。 At once inevitable and irresistible, this delectation, if it come from heaven or from grace, leads man to virtue; if it come from nature or concupiscence, it determines him to sin.在一次不可避免的和不可抗拒的,这欢乐,如果它是来自天上或宽限期,导致男人的美德;若concupiscence或来自大自然,它决定了他的罪恶。 In the one case as in the other, the will is fatally swept on by the preponderant impulse.在优势冲动一案在另一方面,该会是由致命席卷。The two delectations says Jansenius, are like the two arms of a balance, of which the one cannot rise unless the other be lowered and vice versa.这两个delectations说Jansenius,相反是降低,像两副武器的平衡,其中一个不能上升,除非其他应。 Thus man irresistibly, although voluntarily, does either good or evil, according as he is dominated by grace or by concupiscence; he never resists either the one or the other.因此,人不可抗拒的,尽管自愿,是否是好或邪恶的,因为他是根据concupiscence宽限期或占主导地位的,他从来不抵制任何一方或另一方。 In this system there is evidently no place for purely sufficient grace; on the other hand it is easy to discern the principles of the five condemned propositions (see below).在这个系统中有恩典的地方显然是没有足够的纯粹;另一方面,很容易辨别谴责命题原则五(见下文)。

In order to present this doctrine under the patronage of St. Augustine, Jansenius based his argument chiefly on two Augustinian conceptions: on the distinction between the auxilium sine quo non granted to Adam, and the auxilium quo, active in his descendants; and on the theory of the "victorious delectation" of grace.以目前Jansenius这一学说奥古斯丁的赞助下,圣他的理由主要是基于两个奥古斯丁概念:对现状的auxilium区别非正弦给予亚当和auxilium现状,活跃在他的后裔,并在理论的“胜利的欢乐宽限期”的。 A few brief remarks will suffice to make clear the double mistake.简短的几句话就足以说明了双重错误。In the first place the auxilium sine quo non is not, in the idea of Augustine, "a grace purely sufficient", since through it the angels persevered; it is on the contrary a grace which confers complete power in actu primo (ie the ability to act), in such a way that, this being granted, nothing further is needed for action.摆在首位的auxilium非正弦现状不是,在奥古斯丁思想,“一个纯粹的恩典足够的”,因为通过它的使者坚持,它的能力,相反是一个恩典ACTU的普里莫赋予完整的权力(即采取行动)授予,而在这样的方式,这一点,没有什么需要进一步采取行动。 The auxilium quo, on the other hand, is a supernatural help which bears immediately on the actus secundus (ie the performance of the action) and in this grace, in so far as it is distinguished from the grace of Adam, must be included the whole series of efficacious graces by which man works out his salvation, or the gift of actual perseverance, which gift conducts man infallibly and invincibly to beatitude, not because it suppresses liberty, but because its very concept implies the consent of man.该auxilium现状,另一方面,是一种超自然的帮助,熊(立即行为致secundus即行动的执行情况),并在这恩典,只要它是区别于亚当的宽限期,必须包括:整个系列的beatitude,有效的青睐,其中男子救了他的作品,或实际毅力的礼物,这礼物进行男子无误和不败的,并不是因为它抑制了自由,但由于其本身的概念,意味着人的同意。 The delectation of grace is a deliberate pleasure which the Bishop of Hippo explicitly opposes to necessity (voluptas, non necessitas); but what we will and embrace with consenting pleasure, we cannot at the same time not will, and in this sense we will it necessarily.宽限期欢乐的是一种蓄意的乐趣河马主教明确反对的必要性(voluptas,非necessitas),但我们的意志和拥抱同意的乐趣,我们不能在同一时间不会,并在此意义上,我们将它未必。 In this sense also, it is correct to say, "Quod amplius nos delectat, secundum id operemur necesse est" (ie in acting we necessarily follow what gives us most pleasure).在这个意义上说也是,这是正确的说,“狴amplius数delectat,孔型编号operemur necesse预测”(即在演戏的,我们很高兴必然遵循最让我们)。Finally, this delight is called victorious, not because it fatally subjugates the will, but because it triumphs over concupiscence, fortifying free will to the point of rendering it invincible to natural desire.最后,这是所谓的胜利的喜悦,不是因为它致命subjugates的意愿,而是因为它战胜concupiscence,强化它的自由意志来渲染点无敌自然的愿望。 It is thus clear that we can say of men sustained by and faithful to grace, "Invictissime quod bonum est velint, et hoc deserere invictissime nolint".由此可见,我们可以说“男人持续的和忠实的宽限期,”Invictissime狴博纳姆预测velint,特别deserere invictissime nolint等。

The success of the "Augustinus" was great, and it spread rapidly throughout Belgium, Holland, and France.成功的“奥古斯丁”是伟大的,并迅速蔓延整个法国比利时,荷兰和。A new edition, bearing the approbation of ten doctors of the Sorbonne, soon appeared at Paris.一个新版本,同时认可的索邦大学的10名医生,很快出现在巴黎。On the other hand, on 1 August, 1641, a decree of the Holy Office condemned the work and prohibited its reading; and the following year Urban VIII renewed the condemnation and interdiction in his Bull "In eminenti".另一方面,1641年8月1日,一项法令,谴责罗马办公室的工作,并禁止其阅读,以及下一年的新城市第八的公牛“在eminenti的谴责和禁止在他的”。 The pope justified his sentence with two principal reasons: first, the violation of the decree forbidding Catholics to publish anything on the subject of grace without the authorization of the Holy See; second, the reproduction of several of the errors of Baius.教宗正当的理由:他的两个主要的句子与第一,;违反该法令禁止天主教徒见受公布任何关于未经授权的恩典圣第二,Baius繁殖的几个错误。 At the same time, and in the interests of peace, the sovereign pontiff interdicted several other works directed against the "Augustinus".在同一时间,在和平的利益,主权教宗停职针对其他一些工程的“奥古斯丁”。Despite these wise precautions the Bull, which some pretended was forged or interpolated, was not received everywhere without difficulty.尽管这些明智的预防措施,或插公牛,一些假装是伪造的,并没有收到任何地方均没有困难。In Belgium, where the Archbishop of Mechlin and the university were rather favourable to the new ideas, the controversy lasted for ten years.在比利时,其中梅克林大主教和大学较为有利的新观念,争论持续了十年。 But it was France which thenceforth became the chief centre of the agitation.但是,这是法国此后成为搅拌行政中心。At Paris, St-Cyran, who was powerful through his relations besides being very active, succeeded in spreading simultaneously the doctrines of the "Augustinus" and the principles of an exaggerated moral and disciplinary rigorism, all under the pretence of a return to the primitive Church.在巴黎,圣,齐兰,谁是强大的,除了通过他的关系是非常积极的,同时成功地在传播理论中的“奥古斯丁”和rigorism夸大的道德原则和纪律,所有的伪装下,以返回原始教会。 He had succeeded especially in winning over to his ideas the influential and numerous family of Arnauld of Andilly, notably Mère Angélique Arnauld, Abbess of Port-Royal, and through her the religious of that important convent.特别是在他成功地赢得了他的想法Arnauld家庭和影响力的昂迪伊多,尤其是现代形成协调安赫利奎Arnauld,皇家住持的港口,并通过她的修道院宗教很重要。 When he died, in 1643, Doctor Antoine Arnauld quite naturally succeeded him in the direction of the movement which he had created.当他1643年去世,在博士,安托万Arnauld很自然地在他成功地创建了方向,他的运动的。The new leader lost no time in asserting himself in startling fashion by the publication of his book "On Frequent Communion", which would have been more correctly entitled "Against Frequent Communion" but which, as it was written with skill and a great display of erudition, did not a little towards strengthening the party.新领导人不失时机的时间,但令人吃惊的表白自己在时尚“在出版他的著作”论频繁共融“,这将有共融更正确的题为”反对频繁,因为它是写的技能和一个伟大的显示器博学,没有一点对加强党。

Although the Sorbonne had accepted the Bull "In eminenti", and the Archbishop of Paris had, in 1644 proscribed the work of Jansenius, it continued to be spread and recommended, on the pretext that authority had not rejected a single well-determined thesis.虽然已接受了在索邦eminenti公牛“”,和巴黎大主教已经1644年,在禁止的Jansenius工作,它继续蔓延,并建议为借口,在这一权力并未拒绝了单井确定的论文。 It was then (1649) that Cornet, syndic of the Sorbonne, took the initiative in a more radical measure; he extracted five propositions from the much-discussed work, two from the book "On Frequent Communion", and submitted them to the judgment of the faculty.这在当时(1649年)的短号,理事的索邦大学,采取激进的措施,以更主动;,二体“从书”在提取的5点主张,他经常讨论工作从备受,并提交他们的判断该学院。 This body, prevented by the Parlement from pursuing the examination it had begun, referred the affair to the general assembly of the clergy in 1650.这个机构,Parlement阻止从追求它已开始审查,提到此事向广大神职人员在1650年大会。The greater number considered it more fitting that Rome should pronounce, and eighty-five bishops wrote in this sense to Innocent X, transmitting to him the first five propositions.数字越大认为,应该更合适,罗马发音,和85主教在这个意义上说,以诺森十,传输给他的第一个5点主张。 Eleven other bishops addressed to the sovereign pontiff a protest against the idea of bringing the matter to trial elsewhere than in France.其他11名主教给教宗一主权抗议法国在思想此事提请审判以外的地方。They demanded in any case the institution of a special tribunal, as in the "De auxiliis" affair, and the opening of a debate in which the theologians of both sides should be allowed to submit their arguments.他们要求在任何情况下的一个特别法庭的机构,如“德auxiliis”事件,并开放其论据辩论神学家,其中双方应允许提交。 The decision of Innocent X was what might have been expected: he acceded to the request of the majority, keeping in view as far as possible the wishes of the minority.决定对无辜者的X是什么可能被期望:他加入了多数的要求,认为维持在尽可能少数人的愿望。A commission was appointed, consisting of five cardinals and thirteen consultors, some of whom were known to favour acquittal.任命一个委员会,以5无罪释放13名枢机主教和咨,其中一些人是已知的青睐。Its laborious examination lasted two years: it held thirty-six long sessions, of which the last ten were presided over by the pope in person.它费力的考试持续了2年:举行了36届长,其中近10人分别主持了在罗马教皇。 The "Augustinus" which, as has been said, had friends on the bench, was defended with skill and tenacity.该“奥古斯丁”,正如人们所说的,有朋友板凳上,是同辩护技巧和坚韧。Finally its advocates presented a table of three columns, in which they distinguished as many interpretations of the five propositions: a Calvinistic interpretation, rejected as heretical, a Pelagian or Semipelagian interpretation, identified by them with the traditional doctrine, also to be cast aside, and lastly, their interpretation, the idea of St. Augustine himself, which could not but be approved.最后提出了其主张的3列的表,他们在尽可能多的理解与杰出的5点主张:一加尔文的解释,拒绝邪教作为一个伯拉纠或Semipelagian解释,他们确定了与传统理论,也被抛弃,最后,他们的解释,获批准的想法圣奥古斯丁自己,这只能是。 This plea, skilful as it was could not avert the solemn condemnation, by the Bull "Cum occasione" (31 May, 1653), of the five propositions, which were as follows:这个呼吁,娴熟的,因为它是无法避免的严正谴责,被公牛“暨occasione”(1653年5月31日)的,在五点主张,其中如下:

Some of God's commandments are impossible to just men who wish and strive (to keep them) considering the powers they actually have, the grace by which these precepts may become possible is also wanting;有些神诫命的人是不可能只是谁的愿望和努力(使他们)在考虑其实际拥有的权力,宽限期,以使这些戒律也可能是想成为可能;

In the state of fallen nature no one ever resists interior grace;在倒下的性质没有一个国家内部不断抗拒的恩典;

To merit, or demerit, in the state of fallen nature we must be free from all external constraint, but not from interior necessity,值得,或记过处分的性质,在下跌的状况,我们必须从所有外部约束的自由,但不能从内部的必要性,

The Semipelagians admitted the necessity of interior preventing grace for all acts, even for the beginning of faith; but they fell into heresy in pretending that this grace is such that man may either follow or resist it;该semipelagians承认行为的必要性为宽限期内所有预防,即使是信仰的开端,但他们陷入异端在假装这恩典是这样的人可能要么跟上或抗拒;

To say that Christ died or shed His blood for all men, is Semipelagianism.如果说,基督为他的去世或棚所有的人的血液,是Semipelagianism。

These five propositions were rejected as heretical, the first four absolutely, the fifth if understood in the sense that Christ died only for the predestined. All are implicitly contained in the second, and through it, all are connected with the above-mentioned erroneous conception of the state of innocence and the original fall.这5点主张得到邪教拒绝为,前4个绝对,只有第五名的理解在这个意义上说,基督死亡的命中注定。都是隐式包含在第二位,通过它,所有的连接与上述错误观念在无罪状态和原始下降。 If it be true that fallen man never resists interior grace (second proposition), it follows that a just man who violates a commandment of God did not have the grace to observe it.如果它是真实的堕落的人从来没有抗拒内部宽限期(第二命题),因此,一个正直的人谁违反了戒律的神的恩典没有遵守它。That he therefore transgresses it through inability to fulfil it (first proposition).因此他逾越)无力履行它通过它(第一命题。If, however, he has sinned and thus demerited, it is clear that, to demerit, the liberty of indifference is not requisite, and what is said of demerit must also be said of its correlative, merit (third proposition).但是,如果他犯了罪,因此记过,很明显,为了记过,冷漠的自由是没有必要的,哪些是必须记过说,也可以说及其相关,值得(第三命题)。 On the other hand, if grace is often wanting to the just, since they fall, it is wanting still more to sinners; it is therefore impossible to maintain that the death of Jesus Christ assured to every man the graces necessary for salvation (fifth proposition).另一方面,如果宽限期通常是想要的正义,因为它们下跌,但仍希望更多的罪人,这是不可能的,因此认为,基督耶稣的死亡,以保证每个人的青睐必要的救赎(第五次命题)。 If this be so, the Semipelagians were in error in admitting the universal distribution of a grace which may be resisted (fourth proposition).如果是这样,该semipelagians在承认错误的命题)普遍分布第四届一个宽限期可能抵制(。

III.三。RESISTANCE OF THE JANSENISTS阻的詹森教徒

Well received by the Sorbonne and the General Assembly of the Clergy, the Bull "Cum occasione" was promulgated with the royal sanction.深受索邦大学和皇家制裁大会的神职人员,在牛市“暨occasione的”颁布的。This should have opened the eyes of the partisans of Jansenius.这应该已经打开了游击队的Jansenius的眼睛。They were given the alternative of finally renouncing their errors, or of openly resisting the supreme authority. They were thrown for the moment into embarrassment and hesitation, from which Arnauld extricated them by a subtlety: they must, he said, accept the condemnation of the five propositions, and reject them, as did the pope, only, these propositions were not contained in the book of the Bishop of Ypres, or if they were found therein, it was in another sense than in the pontifical document; the idea of Jansenius was the same as that of St. Augustine, which the Church neither could, nor wished to, censure.他们获得的权力替代的最终放弃他们的错误,或公然对抗最高。抛出他们时刻为使尴尬和犹豫,从中Arnauld由他们摆脱微妙:他们要,他说,接受该谴责五点主张,并拒绝他们一样,教皇只,这些主张并没有包含在其中发现书中的主教伊普尔,或者如果他们成功了,它是在另一意义上的文件比在宗座;的Jansenius思想是的,因为这同样的圣奥古斯丁,教会也不能,也不希望,谴责。 This interpretation was not tenable; it was contrary to the text of the Bull, no less than to the minutes of the discussions which had preceded it, and throughout which these propositions were considered and Presented as expressing the sense of the "Augustinus".这种解释是站不住脚的,它违背了牛的纯文字,没有比它少了之前的这几分钟的讨论,以及整个被认为这些主张和主办的表达意义上的“奥古斯丁”。 In March, 1564, thirty-eight bishops rejected the interpretation, and communicated their decision to the sovereign pontiff, who thanked and congratulated them.今年3月,1564年,38主教拒绝了解释,并通报其决定主权教宗,谁感谢,并祝贺他们。The Jansenists persisted none the less in an attitude opposed alike to frankness and to logic.詹森教徒坚持在一个较低的无反对都能坦诚的态度和逻辑。The occasion soon arrived for them to support this with a complete theory.这个日子很快就来了,他们支持这一理论具有完整。The Duc de Liancourt, one of the protectors of the party, was refused absolution until he should change his sentiments and accept purely and simply the condemnation of the "Augustinus".在德代利扬库尔,党之一的保护者,直到被拒绝赦免他应该改变自己的情绪,接受纯粹只是谴责的“奥古斯丁”。 Arnauld took up his pen and in two successive letters protested against any such exaction. Arnauld拿起笔,在连续两个字母苛求任何抗议。Ecclesiastical judgments, he said, are not all of equal value, and do not entail the same obligations; where there is question of the truth or falsity of a doctrine, of its revealed origin or its heterodoxy, the Church in virtue of its Divine mission is qualified to decide; it is a matter of right.教会的判决,他说,不是所有的价值相等,并且不产生同样的义务,其中有理论问题的真理或谬误的使命,其来源或透露其异端,神圣的教会在凭借其有资格来决定,这是一个权利的问题。 But if the doubt bears upon the presence of this doctrine in a book, it is a question of purely human fact, which as such does not fall under the jurisdiction of the supernatural teaching authority instituted in the Church by Jesus Christ.但如果事关一书无疑是对这一学说的存在,它是一个纯粹的人的基督的问题事实,因此不属于管辖范围内的耶稣超自然的建立教学权威,在教会。 In the former case, the Church having pronounced sentence, we have no choice but to conform our belief to its decision; in the latter, its word should not be openly contradicted it claims from us the homage of a respectful silence but not that of an interior assent.在前者情况下,教会已宣判的刑期,我们没有选择,只能以符合我们的信念,其决定;在后者,其词不应该公开反驳声称从我们的敬意的沉默,但不是一个尊重的内地同意。 Such is the famous distinction between right and fact, which was henceforth to be the basis of their resistance, and through which the recalcitrants pretended to remain Catholics, united to the visible body of Christ despite all their obstinacy.这就是著名的抵抗权利和事实之间的区别,这是今后的基础上,通过该recalcitrants假装继续天主教徒,基督的身体,尽管他们的固执都团结到可见。 This distinction is both logically and historically the denial of the doctrinal power of the Church.这种区别是逻辑上和历史上都拒绝了教会的教义的力量。For how is it possible to teach and defend revealed doctrine if its affirmation or denial cannot be discerned in a book or a writing, whatever its form or its extent?至于怎么可能教和学说辩护透露,如果它的肯定或否定也不能成为看出在书或书面形式或任何其程度?In fact, from the beginning, councils and popes have approved and imposed as orthodox certain formulas and certain works, and from the beginning have proscribed others as being tainted with heresy or error.事实上,从一开始,议会和教皇批准和实施作为正统作品和某些特定的公式,并从一开始就已经被禁止的错误他人或正在染上异端。

The expedient contrived by Arnauld was so opposed to both fact and reason that a number of Jansenists who were more consistent in their contumacy, such as Pascal, refused to adopt it or to subscribe to the condemnation of the five propositions in any sense.权宜之计Arnauld人为由如此既反对事实和理由,一个帕斯卡数詹森教徒谁是更一致的contumacy等,拒绝采纳或订阅命题的意义上谴责在任何五个。 The greater number, however, took advantage of it to mislead others or deceive themselves.数字越大,但是,把它利用误导或欺骗他人的自己。All of them, moreover, through personal intercourse, preaching, or writing, displayed extraordinary activity in behalf of their ideas.所有这些,而且,通过个人交往,传道,或文字,展示了他们非凡的活动的想法代表。They aimed especially, following the tactics inaugurated by St-Cyran, at introducing them into religious orders, and in this way they were in a measure successful, eg with the Oratory of Berulle.特别是针对他们,下面,齐兰圣战术揭幕,命令他们在引进到宗教,并以这种方式在他们贝吕勒措施的论辩成功,例如有。 Against the Jesuits, in whom from the first they had encountered capable and determined adversaries, they had vowed a profound antipathy and waged a war to the death.对耶稣会士,在他们从一开始他们遇到的对手有能力和决心,他们发誓深刻的反感和发动战争的死亡。This inspired the "Provinciales" which appeared in 1656.这启发了“Provinciales”的1656年出现在德国。These were letters supposedly addressed to a provincial correspondent.据称这些信件给记者一个省。Their author Blaise Pascal, abusing his admirable genius, therein lavished the resources of a captivating style and an inexhaustible sarcastic humour to taunt and decry the Society of Jesus, as favouring and propagating a relaxed and corrupt moral code.其作者布莱斯帕斯卡,滥用他的令人钦佩的天才,其中慷慨风格的迷人资源和不竭的讽刺幽默的嘲讽和谴责的耶稣会的宣传,如赞成和轻松和腐败的道德准则。 To this end the errors or imprudences of some members, emphasized with malicious exaggeration, were made to appear as the official doctrine of the whole order.为此,错误或轻率的一些成员,强调了恶意夸张,提出了显示为整个秩序的官方学说。The "Provinciales" were translated into elegant Latin by Nicole disguised for the occasion under the pseudonym of Wilhelmus Wendrochius.该“Provinciales”被翻译成优雅的威廉默斯Wendrochius化名拉丁由妮可掩饰的机会。 They did a great deal of harm.他们做了很大的伤害。

However, the Sorbonne, again declaring itself against the faction, had, by 138 votes against 68, condemned the latest writings of Arnauld, and, on his refusal to submit, it dismissed him, together with sixty other doctors who made common cause with him.然而,索邦大学,再次宣布对派本身,已经68岁,反对138票,谴责对Arnauld的最新著作,并提交,他的拒绝,它解雇他,与他一起60其他医生共同的事业作出了谁。 The assembly of bishops in 1656 branded as heretical the unfortunate theory of right and of fact, and reported its decision to Alexander VII, who had just succeeded Innocent X. On 16 October the pope replied to this communication by the Bull "Ad sanctam Beati Petri sedem". 1656年大会的主教实际上打成邪教和不幸的理论正确,并报告其决定亚历山大第七,谁刚刚成功地在10月16日,教皇英诺森十答复了公牛本沟通“广告sanctam贝亚蒂的Petri sedem“。He praised the clear-sighted firmness of the episcopate and confirmed in the following terms the condemnation pronounced by his predecessor: "We declare and define that the five propositions have been drawn from the book of Jansenius entitled 'Augustinus', and that they have been condemned in the sense of the same Jansenius and we once more condemn them as such."他赞扬了坚定的主教明确的远见,在以下方面证实了他的前任谴责宣判:“我们声明并定义的5点主张已被'来自题为Jansenius奥古斯丁的书',他们已谴责在Jansenius意义上的相同,我们再次谴责他们。“ Relying on these words, the Assembly of the Clergy of the following year (1657) drew up a formula of faith conformable thereto and made subscription to it obligatory.依托这些话,一年后,大会在神职人员(1657年)制定了一个信念公式及其适应,并订阅它强制性的。The Jansenists would not give in. They claimed that no one could exact a lying signature from those who were not convinced of the truth of the matter.詹森教徒不会屈服,他们声称,没有人能够确切的问题上撒谎的签名从这些真理谁是不相信的。The religious of Port-Royal were especially conspicuous for their obstinacy, and the Archbishop of Paris, after several fruitless admonitions, was forced to debar them from receiving the sacraments.皇家宗教港口尤为突出他们的固执,和巴黎大主教训诫,几无果而终后,被迫从他们日后不再接受圣礼。Four bishops openly allied themselves with the rebellious party: they were Henri Arnauld of Angers Buzenval of Beauvais, Caulet of Pamiers, and Pavillon of Aleth.四位主教公开结盟的政党与反叛:他们是亨利Aleth Arnauld的昂热比藏瓦尔的Caulet博韦,对帕米耶Pavillon和。Some claimed besides that the Roman pontiff alone had the right to exact such subscription.除了一些声称是罗马教皇单独有认购权,以准确等。In order to silence them, Alexander VII, at the instance of several members of the episcopate, issued (15 February 1664) a new Constitution, beginning with the words, "Regiminis Apostolici".为了让他们保持沉默,亚历山大七,在几字实例成员,主教团发出的(1664年2月15日)一个新的宪法,首先是,“Regiminis Apostolici”。In this he enjoined, with threat of canonical penalties for disobedience, that all ecclesiastics, as well as all religious, men and women, should subscribe to the following very definite formulary:为此,他责成,与,威胁惩罚不服从命令的规范,所有神职人员,以及所有宗教,男人和女人,应该依照下列处方非常明确的:

I, (Name), submitting to the Apostolic constitutions of the sovereign pontiffs, Innocent X and Alexander VII, published 31 May, 1653 and 16 October, 1656, sincerely repudiate the five propositions extracted from the book of Jansenius entitled 'Augustinus', and I condemn them upon oath in the very sense expressed by that author, as the Apostolic See has condemned them by the two above mentioned Constitutions (Enchiridion, 1099).我(姓名),提交给亚历山大第七使徒宪法主权教宗,无辜的X和公布1653年5月31日和1656年10月16日,真诚地否定五个题为命题提取Jansenius从奥古斯丁的书',和我谴责他们在宣誓中该作者所表达的意义上,作为向圣座谴责他们的宪法提到的两个以上(便览,1099)。

It would be a mistake to believe that this direct intervention of the pope sustained as it was by Louis XIV, completely ended the stubborn opposition.这将是一个错误的认为,这是教皇的直接干预,因为它是由持续的路易十四,彻底结束了顽固反对。The real Jansenists underwent no change of sentiment.没有经历真正的詹森主义情绪的变化。Some of them, such as Antoine Arnauld and the greater number of the religious of Port-Roval, defying both the ecclesiastical and the civil authority, refused their signature, on the pretext that it was not in the power of any person to command them to perform an act of hypocrisy, others subscribed, but at the same time protesting more or less openly that it applied only to the question of right, that the question of fact was reserved and should be so, since in this respect the Church had no jurisdiction, and above all no infallibility.其中有些人,如安东尼Arnauld和-罗瓦尔更多的端口宗教,都不怕教会和民间的权威,拒绝他们的签名,其借口,这是他们的权力没有任何人指挥伪善的行为执行的,其他人认购,但同时抗议或多或少公开,它仅适用于权利的问题,这是事实的问题是保留,应该如此,因为在这方面,教会没有管辖权,而最重要的不犯错误。 Among those who stood for explicit restriction and hence for refusal to sign the formulary as it was, must be numbered the four bishops mentioned above.其中谁是主张明确的限制,并因此拒绝签署该处方的,须按上述四个主教提及。In the mandates through which they communicated to their flocks the Bull "Apostolici" they did not hesitate expressly to maintain the distinction between fact and right.在右边的任务,通过他们传达给他们的羊群的公牛“Apostolici”他们毫不犹豫地明确坚持和事实之间的区别。The pope being informed of this, condemned these mandates, 18 January, 1667.教皇是这个通知,谴责这些任务,1667年1月18日。He did not stop there, but, in order to safeguard both his authority and the unity of belief, he decided, with the full approbation of Louis XIV to subject the conduct of the culprits to a canonical judgment, and for this purpose he appointed as judges nine other members of the French episcopate.他并没有就此打住,但是,为了维护他的权威和双方相信团结,他决定十四,路易与充分认可,以主题的匪徒进行到一个规范的判断,并为此目的,他获委任为法官9名法国主教团其他成员。

IV.四。THE PEACE OF CLEMENT IX第九和平的克莱门特

In the midst of all this, Alexander VII died, 22 May, 1667.在这一切之中,亚历山大七世去世,1667年5月22日。His successor Clement IX wished at first to continue the process, and he confirmed the appointed judges in all their powers.克莱门特九,希望他的继任者在第一,继续这一进程,并确认其所有权力,任命的法官研究。However, the king, who had at first displayed great zeal in seconding the Holy See in the affair, seemed to have let his ardour cool.然而,国王,谁的事情当初在表现出极大的热情,罗马教廷在借调,似乎已经让他的热情冷却。Rome had not judged it expedient to yield to all his wishes regarding the formation of the ecclesiastical tribunal.罗马不是权宜之计,收益率来衡量它的所有关于他的愿望庭组成的教会。Together with his court he began to be apprehensive lest a blow should be struck at the "liberties" of the Gallican Church.连同他的法庭,他开始担心,以免被打击时,要达到一个在“自由教会”的高卢。The Jansenists skilfully turned these apprehensions to their profit.詹森主义者巧妙地变成了这些疑虑,以丰厚的利润。They had already won over several ministers of state, notably Lyonne, and they succeeded in gaining for their cause nineteen members of the episcopate, who in consequence wrote to the sovereign pontiff and to the king. In their petition to the pope these bishops, while protesting their profound respect and entire obedience, observed that the infallibillty of the Church did not extend to facts outside of revelation.他们已经赢得了数名国务部长,特别是Lyonne,他们继承了国王,并赢得他们的事业19名成员的主教,谁在后果写信给教皇的主权。在他们的请愿书,教宗这些主教,而抗议他们深深的敬意和整个服从,观察,教会infallibillty的事实并没有延伸到外部的启示。 They further confounded purely human or purely personal facts with dogmatic facts, ie such as were implied by a dogma or were in necessary connection with it, and under cover of this confusion, they ended by affirming that their doctrine, the doctrine of the four accused bishops, was the common doctrine of the theologians most devoted to the Holy See, of Baronius, Bellarmine, Pallavicini, etc. The same assertions were repeated in a more audacious form in the address to the king, in which they spoke also of the necessity of guarding against theories which were new and "harmful to the interests and safety of the State".他们进一步混淆纯粹的人,或与它有关的事实和教条式的纯粹个人的事实,即如被暗示需要一个人或教条,以及在混乱涵盖这一点,他们指责结束时申明,他们的学说,这个学说的四个主教,是共同的必要性也是神学教义的最忠实的罗马教廷,巴若尼,贝拉明,在帕拉维奇尼1等,则在重复同样的说法更大胆的形式报告给国王,他们在发言对“防范理论是新的和有害的利益和国家安全的”。 These circumstances brought about a very delicate situation, and there was reason to fear that too great severity would lead to disastrous results.这些情况带来了一个非常微妙的情况,人们有理由担心,过大的严重性将导致灾难性的后果。On this account the new nuncio, Bargellini, inclined towards a peaceful arrangement, for which he obtained the pope's consent.在此帐户的新圣座大使同意,巴尔杰利尼,倾向于和平的安排,为此他获得了教皇的。D'Estrées, the Bishop of Laon, was chosen as mediator, and at his request there were associated with him de Gondren, Archbishop of Sens. and Vialar, Bishop of Châlons, both of whom had signed the two petitions just spoken of, and were, therefore, friends of the four accused prelates.代斯特雷的拉昂主教,被选为调解人,并在他的要求和相关有与他去Gondren,大主教和主教维亚拉尔参议员,对夏龙,他们两人已签署了两份请愿刚才发言的人,因此,四被告主教朋友。 It was agreed that these last should subscribe without restriction to the formulary and cause it to be subscribed to in like manner by their clergy in diocesan synods, and that these subscriptions should take the place of an express retractation of the mandates sent out by the bishops.与会者一致认为,去年应该订阅这些不受限制的名册,并安排将在各教区神职人员签署主教会议由他们喜欢的方式,而这些订阅的任务应采取的地方发出明确前言取消了由主教。 Pursuant to this arrangement they convened their synods, but, as later became known all four gave oral explanations authorizing respectful silence on the question of fact, and it would seem that they acted thus with some connivance on the part of the mediators, unknown, however, to the nuncio and perhaps to d'Estrées.根据这项安排,他们召开的主教会议,但是,正如后来成为了已知的所有四个问题的事实口头解释,授权尊重沉默,它似乎与他们这样行事然而,一些不明就纵容部分的调解员,向大使和或许代斯特雷。 But this did not prevent them from affirming, in a common address to the sovereign pontiff, that they themselves and their priests had signed the formulary, as had been done in the other dioceses of France.但是,这并不妨碍他们从肯定,在一个共同的地址,以主权教宗,而他们自己和他们的祭司签署了处方,因为法国已经在做其他教区的。

D'Estrées for his part wrote at the same time: "The four bishops have just conformed, by a new and sincere subscription, with the other bishops".德部分埃斯特雷他说在同一时间:“这四位主教刚刚符合,由新的和真诚的订阅”,与其他主教。Both letters were transmitted by the nuncio to Rome, where Lyonne, also alleging that the signatures were absolutely regular, insisted that the affair should be brought to an end.这两封信圣座大使转达了罗马,在那里Lyonne,还声称该签名是绝对规律,坚持认为这一事件应提请结束。For this reason the pope, who had received these documents 24 September, informed Louis XIV of the fact about 28 September, expressing his joy for the "subscription pure and simple" which had been obtained, announcing his intention to restore the bishops in question to favour and requesting the king to do the same.基于这个原因,罗马教皇,谁收到了这些文件9月24日,知情路易十四,共约28年9月的事实,表达他的喜悦为“认购单纯”,这已取得,宣布他打算恢复问题的主教赞成,并要求国王这样做。 However, before the Briefs of reconciliation thus announced had been sent to each of the four prelates concerned, rumours which had at first been current with regard to their lack of frankness grew more definite, and took the shape of formal and repeated denunciations.但是,在这样宣布的和解简报已送往各主教的四个方面,谣言最先被坦率电流考虑到他们缺乏变得更加明确,并形成了正式的谴责和反复。 Hence, by order of Clement IX, Bargellini had to make a new investigation at Paris.因此,由第九秩序的克莱门特,巴尔杰利尼曾在巴黎作出新的调查。As the final result he sent to Rome a report drawn up by Vialar.至于最后的结果他给了罗马维亚拉尔一报告中得出。This report stated with regard to the four bishops: "They have condemned and caused to be condemned the five propositions with all manner of sincerity, without any exception or restriction whatever, in every sense in which the Church has condemned them"; but he then added explanations concerning the question of fact which were not altogether free from ambiguity.四位主教的这份报告指出在以下方面:“他们都谴责,并加以谴责的方式造成的诚意,所有五个命题,没有任何例外或限制什么的,在每一个”感觉该教会谴责他们,但他随后补充说明有关事实的模糊性问题没有从完全免费。 The pope, no less perplexed than before, appointed a commission of twelve cardinals to obtain information.教皇,同样比前困惑,任命了一个委员会12红雀获取信息。These secured, it seems, the proof of the language made use of by the bishops in their synods.这些担保的,看来,语言证明了他们的主教会议的主教们在使用的。Nevertheless, in consideration of the very grave difficulties which would result from opening up the whole case again, the majority of the commission held that they might and should abide practically by the testimony of the official documents and especially by that of the minister I,yonne regarding the reality of the "subscription pure and simple", at the same time emphasizing anew this point as the essential basis and the condition sine qua non of peace.然而,困难考虑的非常严重的将导致整个案件的开放再次,多数约讷我,该委员会认为,他们的证词可能的,并应遵守几乎由官方的文件,特别是由部长关于“现实的”认购纯粹和简单,在和平时期同样强调这一点重新作为必不可少的基础和条件非必要条件。

The four Briefs of reconciliation were then drawn up and dispatched; they bear the date, 19 January, 1669.和解4简述当时制定并派出,他们承担的日期,1669年1月19日。In them Clement IX recalls the testimony he had received "concerning the real and complete obedience with which they had sincere}y subscribed to the formulary, condemning the five propositions without any exception or restriction, according to all the senses in which they had been condemned by the Holy See".在他们克莱门特九回顾处方的证词,他收到了“关于真实和完整的服从与它们有诚意)Ÿ签署,谴责异常或限制的5点主张没有任何根据的谴责所有感官中,他们被教廷“。 He remarks further that being "most firmly resolved to uphold the constitutions of his predecessors, he would never have admitted a single restriction or exception".他还说话“最坚决地维护宪法的他的前任,他决不会承认一个单一的限制或例外。”These preambles were as explicit and formal as possible.这些序言作为正式的明确的和可能的。They prove, especially when compared with the terms and object of the formulary of Alexander VII, how far wrong the Jansenists were in celebrating this termination of the affair as the triumph of their theory, as the acceptance by the pope himself of the distinction between right and fact.他们证明,尤其是相对于条件和对象的第七处方亚历山大多远错误的詹森主义理论是在庆祝他们的这种终止事件的胜利作为,因为接受之间的区别,教皇对自己的权利和事实。 On the other hand it is clear from the whole course of the negotiations that the loyalty of these champions of a stainless and unfaltering moral code was more than doubtful.另一方面它是明显,从整个谈判过程中认为,这些忠诚的冠军一个不锈钢和自强不息的道德准则是值得怀疑的多。At all events, the sect profited by the muddle these manoeuvres had created to extend its conquest still further and to get a stronger hold on several religious congregations.在所有的事件,该教派的教友获利混乱造成了这些演习,以进一步扩大其征服,并就一些宗教得到一个更强有力的控制。 It was favoured by various circumstances.它是由各种情况青睐。Among them must be included the growing infatuation in France for the so-called Gallican Liberties, and in consequence a certain attitude of defiance, or at least indocility, towards the supreme authority; then the Declaration of 1682, and finally the unfortunate affair of the Régale.其中必须包括高卢自由的所谓增长的迷恋,以便在法国,并在一定后果的蔑视态度,或至少indocility权威,对至上,那么1682年宣言,最后的不幸事件盛宴。 It is worthy of remark that in this last conflict it was two Jansenist bishops of the deepest dye who most energetically upheld the rights of the Church and the Holy See, while the greater number of the others too readily bowed before the arrogant pretensions of the civil power.这句话是值得的,在这最后的冲突是两个教廷简森派主教最深的染料谁最多,大力维护教会的权利,而更多的人太容易了傲慢自负的前鞠躬公务员权力。

V. JANSENISM AT THE BEGINNING OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY五,詹森主义在18世纪初

Despite the reticence and equivocation which it allowed to continue, the "Peace of Clement IX" found a certain justification for its name in the period of relative calm which followed it, and which lasted until the end of the seventeenth century.尽管沉默和含糊,它允许继续下去,克莱门特九“和平的”找到了它的相对平静之后,某些理由为它的名字在此期间,并一直持续到本世纪末的17。 Many minds were tired of the incessant strife, and this very weariness favoured the cessation of polemics.很多人心中已经厌倦了无休止纷争,这非常厌倦赞成停止论战。Moreover the Catholic world and the Holy See were at that time preoccupied with a multitude of grave questions, and through force of circumstances Jansenism was relegated to second place.此外,天主教和罗马教廷世界面临严重的问题是那个时代的众多关注一项,并通过情况迫使詹森被贬到第二位。Mention has already been made of the signs of a recrudescence of Gallicanism betrayed in the Four Articles of 1682, and in the quarrels of which the Régale was the subject.提到已经由1682年的第一个迹象四复发出卖了Gallicanism,在争吵的盛宴,其中的主体。To this period also belongs the sharp conflict regarding the franchises, or droit d'asile (right of asylum), the odious privilege concerning which Louis XIV showed an obstinacy and arrogance which passed all bounds (1687).这一时期,也属于尖锐冲突有关的专营权,或droit德阿西莱(右庇护),其中的恶劣特权有关路易十四的固执和傲慢的表现通过了所有的界限(1687年)。 Moreover, the Quietist doctrines spread by de Molinos, and which seduced for a brief period even the pious and learned Fénelon as well as the relaxed opinions of certain moralists, furnished matter for many condemnations on the part of Innocent XI, Alexander VIII, and Innocent XII. Finally, another impassioned debate had arisen which drew into the arena several groups of the most distinguished and best intentioned theologians, and which was only definitively closed by Benedict XIV, namely the controversy concerning the Chinese and Malabar Rites.此外,寂静主义理论传播的德诺斯,并虔诚的诱惑一个短暂的时期甚至和教训费内隆,以及,提供事项放宽某些道德家的意见和许多无辜的谴责,对无辜第十一部分,亚历山大八十二。最后,另一个又出现了慷慨激昂的辩论舞台提请到几组善意的神学家中最杰出的和最好的,这是唯一明确礼记关闭本笃十四,即有关的争议中,马拉巴。 All these combined causes had for a time distracted public attention from the contents and the partisans of the "Augustinus". Besides, "Jansenism" was beginning to serve as a label for rather divergent tendencies, not all of which deserved equal reprobation.所有这些加起来,造成注意力分散的时候了公众的注意力从内容和游击队的“奥古斯丁”。此外,“詹森主义”已开始成为一个趋势,而不同的标签,但并不是所有这些当之无愧的平等非难。 The out-and-out Jansenists, those who persisted in spite of everything in upholding the principle of necessitating grace and the consequent errors of the five propositions, had almost disappeared with Pascal.在不折不扣詹森主义者,那些谁不顾一切坚持在坚持原则的主张是需要恩典的五年和由此产生的误差,几乎消失的帕斯卡尔。 The remainder of the really Jansenist party without committing itself to a submission pure and simple, assumed a far more cautious demeanour.简单的其余部分,真正简森派党本身没有犯有一项提案纯,并承担了更为谨慎的风范。 The members rejected the expression "necessitating grace", substituting for it that of a grace efficacious "in itself", seeking thus to identify themselves with the Thomists and the Augustinians.成员拒绝的表达“是需要的宽限期”,它取代了宽限期有效的“本身”,从而努力找出自己与Thomists奥古斯丁和。

Abandoning the plainly heretical sense of the five propositions, and repudiating any intention to resist legitimate authority, they confined themselves to denying the infallibility of the Church with regard to dogmatic facts.放弃的5点主张显然邪教意识,并谴责任何意图抗拒合法权力,他们只用事实否认自己对于犯错误的教条式的教会。Then, too, they were still the fanatical preachers of a discouraging rigorism, which they adorned with the names of virtue and austerity, and, under pretext of combating abuses, openly antagonized the incontestable characteristics of Catholicism especially its unity of government, the traditional continuity of its customs, and the legitimate part which heart and feeling play in its worship.然后,他们也仍然团结政府的狂热鼓吹者的一个令人沮丧的rigorism,他们的名字装饰与美德和紧缩的借口下,和,其打击公然对抗的暴行,特别是天主教无可争辩的特点,传统的连续性其习俗和合法的部分,心脏和崇拜的感觉发挥其。 With all their skilful extenuations they bore the mark of the levelling, innovating, and arid spirit of Calvinism.与所有的娴熟extenuations他们承受着水准的标志,创新,干旱和加尔文主义精神。These were the fins Jansénistes.这是鳍Jansénistes。They formed thenceforth the bulk of the sect, or rather in them the sect properly so called was summed up.此后,他们形成了大部分该教派的教派,或者说在他们所谓正确的总结。But apart from them, though side by side with them, and bordering on their tendencies and beliefs, history points out two rather well-defined groups known as the "duped Jansenists" and the "quasi-Jansenists".但是,除了他们,虽然他们站在一边,并在其接壤的倾向和信仰,历史点出两个较为明确的“詹森主义者群体称为”欺骗詹森主义者“和”准。 The first were in good faith pretty much what the fins Jansénistes were by system and tactics: they appear to us as convinced adversaries of necessitating grace, but no less sincere defenders of efficacious grace; rigorists in moral and sacramental questions, often opposed, like the Parlementarians, to the rights of the Holy See; generally favourable to the innovations of the sect in matters of worship and discipline.第一次是在真诚几乎什么鳍Jansénistes战术是由系统:他们似乎相信我们,是需要对手的宽限期,但宽限期有效的捍卫者同样抱有诚意;问题rigorists在道德和圣事,往往反对,像Parlementarians,神圣的权利,以期见,一般有利于学科的创新和崇拜该教派的事务。 The second category is that of men of Jansenist tinge.第二类是男人的简森派的色彩。While remaining within bounds in theological opinions, they declared themselves against really relaxed morality against exaggerated popular devotions and other similar abuses.虽然在神学范围内余下的意见,他们宣布对侵犯自己真的类似放松对夸大道德和其他流行的奉献。The greater number were at bottom zealous Catholics, but their zeal, agreeing with that of the Jansenists on so many points, took on, so to speak, an outer colouring of Jansenism, and they were drawn into closer sympathy with the party in proportion to the confidence with which it inspired them.更大的一些热心的天主教徒在底部,但他们的积极性,同意与詹森教徒,该这么多点,发生在,可以这么说,外部的詹森主义色彩,他们要卷入比例接近同情与党信心与它启发他们。 Even more than the "duped" Jansenists they were extremely useful in screening the sectarians and in securing for them, on the part of the pastors and the multitude of the faithful, the benefit either of silence or of a certain leniency.甚至超过了“欺骗”詹森主义者,他们是非常有用的筛选宗派主义和他们争取到,在牧师的一部分,和众多的忠实的,受益的宽大任沉默或某一个。

But the error remained too active in the hearts of the real Jansenists to endure this situation very long.但真正的詹森主义者的错误仍然太多的积极的心忍受这种情况很长。At the beginning of the eighteenth century it manifested itself by a double occurrence which revived all the strife and trouble.在18世纪初,它体现了一个双重困难本身发生的所有冲突和恢复。The discussion began afresh with regard to the "case of conscience" of 1701.1701年重新开始讨论关于“的”良心案件。A provincial conference was supposed to inquire whether absolution might be given to a cleric who declared that he held on certain points the sentiments "of those called Jansenists", especially that of respectful silence on the question of fact.阿省的会议本来是要询问是否可考虑赦免一个教士谁宣称他“叫詹森教徒举行”那些在某些点的情绪,尤其是尊重事实的问题上保持沉默的。 Forty doctors of the Sorbonnet -- among them some of great renown, such as Natalis Alexander -- decided affirmatively.40医生的Sorbonnet亚历山大-他们中的一些Natalis作为极负盛名的,这样的-决定肯定。 The publication of this decision aroused all enlightened Catholics, and the "case of conscience" was condemned by Clement XI (1703), by Cardinal de Noailles, Archbishop of Paris, by a large number of bishops, and finally by the faculties of theology of Louvain, Douai, and Paris.这一决定引起了出版这一切开明的天主教徒,和良心“个案”的谴责德诺阿耶,巴黎大主教,克莱门特十一(1703年通过),枢机主教由大量的,最后由该学院的神学鲁汶,杜埃和巴黎。 The last-named, however as its slowness would indicate, did not arrive at this decision without difficulty.最后命名的,但是作为其缓慢将表明,在没有到达这一困难决定,但没有。As for the doctors who signed, they were terrified by the storm they had let loose, and either retracted or explained their action as best they might, with the exception of the author of the whole movement, Dr. Petitpied, whose name was erased from the list of the faculty.至于谁签署的医生,他们被吓坏了风暴,他们让松散,要么收回或解释其可能的行动,他们最好的,与该运动异常整个笔者的博士Petitpied,他的名字被抹去的,该学院的名单。 But the Jansenists, though pressed hard by some and abandoned by others, did not yield.但詹森主义者,虽然竭力和其他一些被遗弃的,并没有屈服。For this reason Clement XI, at the request of the Kings of France and Spain, issued 16 July 1705, the Bull "Vineam Domini Sabaoth" (Enchiridion, 1350) in which he formally declared that respectful silence was not sufficient for the obedience due to the constitutions of his predecessors.由于这个原因,法国和西班牙国王克莱门特十一,在要求的,发出1705年7月16日,在公牛“Vineam多米尼千万军马”(便览,1350),他正式宣布,尊重沉默是不够的,由于服从他的前任的宪法的。 This Bull, received with submission by the assembly of the clergy of 1705, in which only the Bishop of Saint-Pons obstinately refused to agree with the opinion of his colleagues, was afterwards promulgated as a law of the State.这轮牛市,他与同事们收到了提交大会通过的1705年的神职人员,在其中只有主教圣庞斯顽固拒绝同意的意见,后来被颁布为国家法律的。 It may be said to have officially terminated that period of half a century of agitation occasioned by the signing of the formulary.这可以说已经正式结束这一时期的50世纪的处方搅拌签署引起的。It also terminated the existence of Port-Royal des Champs, which up to that time had remained a notorious centre and hotbed of rebellion.它也终止了时间的存在港口,皇家的香榭丽,其中最多的仍然是一个臭名昭著的中心已经和叛乱的温床。

When it was proposed to the religious that they should accept the new Bull, they would consent only with this clause: "that it was without derogating from what had taken place in regard to them at the time of the peace of the Church under Clement XI".当有人提出的宗教,他们应该接受新的公牛,他们只同意本条款:“这是没有减损第十一采取了什么地方就在克莱门特他们对时间的和平教会下“。 This restriction brought up again their entire past, as was clearly shown by their explanation of it, and therefore made their submission a hollow pretence.重提这个限制他们的整个过去,它表明了明确的解释,并因此使他们的意见是空心的幌子。Cardinal de Noailles urged them in vain; he forbade them the sacraments, and two of the religious died without receiving them, unless it were secretly from a disguised priest.红衣主教诺阿耶敦促他们在徒劳的,他禁止他们的圣礼,和宗教的两个没有收到他们的死亡,除非它是从一个隐蔽的秘密祭司。 As all measures had failed, it was high time to put an end to this scandalous resistance.由于所有措施均告失败,这是时候结束这种可耻的阻力。A Bull suppressed the title of the Abbey of Port-Royal des Champs, and reunited that house and its holdings to the Paris house.牛市抑制香榭丽舍标题德修道院的港口罗亚尔,和团聚的房子,其持有的巴黎房子。The Court gave peremptory orders for a prompt execution, and, despite all the means of delay contrived and carried out by those interested, the pontifical sentence had its full effect.上诉法庭迅速执行强制性命令的,而且,尽管所有的拖延手段,并进行了人为的兴趣,宗座句子有其充分的效果。The surviving choir religious were scattered among the convents of the neighbouring destroyed dioceses (29 October 1709).幸存的合唱团宗教被)1709年10月之间分散在邻近的修道院摧毁教区(29。This separation had the desired good results.这种分离取得预期的良好效果。All the rebellious nuns ended by submitting, save one, the mother prioress, who died at Blois without the sacraments, in 1716.所有的反叛提交尼姑结束,1716年1保存,母亲普赖尔斯,谁死在布卢瓦没有圣礼,研究。 The Government wishing to eradicate even the trace of this nest of errors, as Clement XI called it, destroyed all the buildings and removed elsewhere the bodies buried in the cemetery.政府更希望消除这种错误的跟踪巢的,因为它叫克莱门特十一,摧毁所有的建筑物和其他地方的墓地中删除的尸体掩埋。

During the disputes concerning the "case of conscience", a new book came cautiously on the scene another "Augustinus", pregnant with storms and tempests, as violent as the first.在书中关于良心的纠纷“案”,一个新的开始谨慎现场另一个“奥古斯丁”,孕育着风暴和暴风雨,作为第一的暴力事件。The author was Paschase Quesnel, at first a member of the French Oratory, but expelled from that congregation for his Jansenistic opinions (1684), and since 1689 a refugee at Brussels with the aged Antoine Arnauld whom he succeeded in 1696 as leader of the party.笔者是Paschase奎斯内尔,最初一论辩成员的法国,但党开除党籍的教友为他Jansenistic意见(1684),并自1689年一难民在布鲁塞尔同年龄的人安托万,他成功地领导Arnauld在1696年作为。 The work had been published in part as early as 1671 in a 12mo volume entitled "Abrégé de la morale de l'Evangile, ou pensées chrétiennes sur le texte des quatres évangélistes".这项工作已出版évangélistes“的一部分,早在1671年texte德quatres量在1 12mo题为”Abrégé德拉士气德l'乐王吉尔堡,欧pensées chrétiennes河畔乐。It appeared with the hearty approbation of Vialar, Bishop of Châlons, and, thanks to a style at once attractive and full of unction which seemed in general to reflect a solid and sincere piety, it soon met with great success.这似乎与夏龙,丰盛的认可主教维亚拉尔,和,固虔诚的感谢和诚挚的样式在一次有吸引力的反映和充分的油膏似乎在一般的,它很快就遇到了很大的成功。 But in the later development of his first work, Quesnel had extended it to the whole of the New Testament.但在第一个工作,他后来的发展,奎斯内尔已扩大到整个新旧约。He issued it in 1693, in an edition which comprised four large volumes entitled, "Nouveau testament en francais avec des réflexions morales sur chaque verset".他是在1693年发行,在“远东经济分为四个大批量题为”运动风格遗书恩主页avec德réflexions莫拉莱斯河畔查克verset。 This edition, besides the earlier approbation of Vialar which it inopportunely bore, was formally approved and heartily recommended by his successor, de Noailles, who, as subsequent events showed, acted imprudently in the matter and without being well-informed as to the contents of the book.这不凑巧孔版,它除了早期的维亚拉尔认可,被正式批准并衷心推荐他的继任者,德诺阿耶,谁,随后的事件表明,鲁莽地采取行动的问题,并没有被很好的内容,通知作为进入该书。 The "Réflexions morales" of Quesnel reproduced, in fact, the theories of the irresistible efficaciousness of grace and the limitations of God's will with regard to the salvation of men.在“反射莫拉莱斯奎斯内尔”的翻版,事实上,上帝的理论不可抗拒efficaciousness的局限性恩典和意志,关于拯救的男人。 Hence they soon called forth the sharpest criticism, and at the same time attracted the attention of the guardians of the Faith.因此,他们很快提出了尖锐的批评所谓,并在同一时间吸引注意力的信仰的捍卫者。The Bishops of Apt (1703) Gap (1704), Nevers, and Besançon (1707) condemned them, and, after a report from the Inquisition, Clement XI proscribed them by the Brief "Universi dominici" (1708) as containing the propositions already condemned and as manifestly savouring of the Jansenist heresy". Two years later (1710) the Bishops of Luçon and La Rochelle forbade the reading of the book.主教的公寓(1703)普(1704),讷韦尔,和贝桑松(1707)谴责他们,并报告后,从第十一宗教裁判所,克莱门特已经禁止他们的摘要“学报JOURNAL多米尼奇”(1708)为含有的主张谴责和明显“品尝了简森派异端。两年后(1710年)的吕松主教和拉罗谢尔不准读书了。

Their ordinance, posted in the capital, gave rise to a conflict with Noailles, who, having become cardinal and Archbishop of Paris, found himself under the necessity of withdrawing the approbation he had formerly given at Châlons. However, as he hesitated, less through attachment to error than through self love, to take this step, Louis XIV asked the pope to issue a solemn constitution and put an end to the trouble.他们的条例,张贴在首都引起了巴黎的冲突与诺瓦耶,谁,已成为红衣主教和大主教,发现自己在沙隆在给定的必要性的认同前撤回他。然而,他犹豫了一下,大致可通过附件爱比通过自身错误,采取这一步骤,路易十四要求教宗发出庄严的宪法,结束了麻烦。 Clement XI then subjected the book to a new and very minute examination, and in the Bull "Unigenitus" (8 September, 1713) he condemned 101 propositions which had been taken from the book (Enchiridion, 1351 sq.).克莱门特十一然后受到的书,一个新的和非常分钟的检查,并在公牛“Unigenitus”(1713年9月8日)他谴责了101平方米的命题,已从1351年的书(便览)。 Among these were some propositions which, in themselves and apart from the context, seemed to have an orthodox sense.其中有些主张是,除了本身和从上下文,似乎有一个正统的感觉。Noailles and with him eight other bishops, though they did not refuse to proscribe the book, seized this Pretext to ask explanations from Rome before accepting the Bull.诺阿耶并与他8其他主教,虽然他们并没有拒绝禁止的书,以此为借口,要求抓住牛市的解释之前,从罗马接受。This was the beginning of lengthy discussions the gravity of which increased with the death of Louis XIV (1715), who was succeeded in power by Philippe d'Orléans.这是经过长时间的讨论开始的严重性,其中奥尔良随着德死亡的路易十四(1715),成功地在权力,谁是菲利普。 The regent took a much less decided stand than his predecessor, and the change soon had its effect on various centres, especially on the Sorbonne, where the sectaries had succeeded in winning over the majority.在摄政采取了比他的前任立场决定少得多,而且很快就成功地改变了其在赢得多数对各中心,尤其是对已索邦教派,其中。 The faculties of Paris, Reims, and Nantes, who had received the Bull, revoked their previous acceptance.兰斯学院的巴黎,和南特,谁收到了公牛,撤销其先前接受。Four bishops went even farther, having recourse to an expedient of which only heretics or declared schismatics had hitherto bethought themselves, and which was essentially at variance with the hierarchical concept of the Church; they appealed from the Bull "Unigenitus" to a general council (1717).四位主教去,甚至更远,求助于权宜之计,其中只有异端或宣布schismatics与罗马迄今为止bethought了自己,这是教会本质上的差异与层次的概念,他们以“呼吁从公牛”Unigenitus给总理事会( 1717)。Their example was followed by some of their colleagues, by hundreds of clerics and religious, by the Parlements and the magistracy Noailles, for a long time undecided and always inconsistent, ended by appealing also, but "from the pope obviously mistaken to the pope better informed and to a general council".其次是他们的榜样的一些同事的,由宗教神职人员和数百个由Parlements和裁判法院诺阿耶,很长一段时间未定,始终不一致也呼吁,结束了,但“更好地从教宗的教宗显然误会通知和一个总理事会“。

Clement XI, however, in the Bull "Pastoralis officii" (1718), condemned the appeal and excommunicated the appellants.克莱门特十一,但是,在牛市“Pastoralis officii”(1718),谴责和驱逐上诉人的上诉。But this did not disarm the opposition, which appealed from the second Bull as from the first Noailles himself published a new appeal, no longer chiefly to the pope "better informed", but to a council, and the Parlement of Paris, suppressed the Bull "Pastoralis". The multiplicity of these defections and the arrogant clamour of the appellants might give the impression that they constituted, if not a majority, at least a very imposing minority.但这并没有解除武装反对派,作为上诉所针对的第二只牛从第一诺阿耶发表了自己新的上诉,不再主要是教宗“更好地了解”,但进入议会,巴黎Parlement的,镇压公牛“Pastoralis”。多样性的流失,这些和上诉人的傲慢叫嚣的可能给人的印象是它们构成,如果不是大多数,至少是一个非常施加少数。 Such, however, was not the case, and the chief evidence of this lies in the well-established fact that enormous sums were devoted to paying for these appeals.这样,然而,情况并非如此,而这些呼吁的主要证据,这是在既定事实,付出了巨大的资金投入。After allowing for these shameful and suggestive purchases, we find among the number of the appellants, one cardinal, about eighteen bishops, and three thousand clerics.购买后允许这些可耻和暗示,我们发现其中的主教人数上诉人,一个大是大非,大约18岁,与3000神职人员。But without leaving France, we find opposed to them four cardinals, a hundred bishops, and a hundred thousand clerics, that is, the moral unanimity of the French clergy.但如果没有离开法国,我们发现其中4枢机反对,1 100主教,神职人员和10.0万,也就是说,法国教士道德一致的。 What is to be said, then, when this handful of protesters is compared to the whole of the Churches of England, the Low Countries, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Naples, Savoy, Portugal, Spain, etc., which, on being requested to pronounce, did so by proscribing the appeal as an act of schism and foolish revolt?什么是可说的,那么,当这个少数示威者相比,英国是整个的教会,低地国家,德国,匈牙利,意大利,那不勒斯,萨沃伊,葡萄牙,西班牙等,其中,在被要求发音,所以没有反抗的和愚蠢的禁制作为上诉的分裂行为呢? The polemics, however, continued for several years.的论战,然而,持续了好几年。The return to unity of Cardinal de Noailles, who submitted without restriction in 1728 six months before his death, was a telling blow to the party of Quesnel.返回他的死亡,以团结的红衣主教诺阿耶,谁在1728年提交的前6个月不加限制,是狠狠打击了奎斯内尔党。Henceforth it steadily grew less, so that not even the scenes that took place at the cemetery of Saint-Médard, of which mention is made below.从此它稳步增长较少,因此甚至没有了下文的场景放在了墓地的圣梅达尔,其中提及。 restored it.恢复它。But the Parlements.但Parlements。eager to de clare themselves and to apply their Gallican and royalist principles, continued for a long time to refuse to receive the Bull "Unigenitus".渴望自己和克莱尔去运用他们高卢和保皇党的原则,持续时间长拒绝接受公牛“Unigenitus”。They even made it the occasion to meddle in scandalous fashion in the administration of the sacraments, and to persecute bishops and priests accused of refusing absolution to those who would not submit to the Holy See.他们甚至有机会染指时尚丑闻在圣礼的管理,并迫害的主教和司铎圣见被告拒绝赦免那些谁不服从。

VI.六。THE CONVULSIONARIES的CONVULSIONARIES

We have reviewed the long series of defensive measures contrived by the Jansenists rejection of the five propositions without rejection of the "Augustinus", explicit distinction between the question of right and the question of fact; restriction of ecclesiastical infallibility to the question of right; the tactics of respectful silence, and appeal to a general council.我们已审查了长长的一系列防御措施的事实人为由詹森教徒拒绝五个问题的主张没有拒绝的“与奥古斯丁”的区别,明确之间的权利的问题;犯错误限制的教会的权利的问题;的尊重沉默的策略,吸引了总理事会。 They had exhausted all the expedients of a theological and canonical discussion more obstinate than sincere.他们已经用尽了所有的权宜之计一个神学和规范的讨论更真诚顽固比。Not a single one of these had availed them anything at the bar of right reason or of legitimate authority.不是一个单一的一种合法权力的人利用这些或任何原因,他们在酒吧的权利。They then thought to invoke in their behalf the direct testimony of God Himself, namely, miracles.然后,他们认为他们的代表在调用,直接见证奇迹的上帝,即。One of their number, an appellant, a rigorist to the point of having once passed two years without communicating, for the rest given to a retired and penitent life, the deacon François de Paris had died in 1727.沟通的一个数目,上诉人没有rigorist年,有一次通过2点,其余的忏悔生命给予一个退休,执事弗朗索瓦巴黎死于1727年。 They pretended that at his tomb in the little cemetery of Saint-Médard marvellous cures took place.他们假装在他卡沙拉墓在圣奇妙的小墓地的治疗发生了。A case alleged as such was examined by de Vintimille, Archbishop of Paris, who with proofs in hand declared it false and supposititious (1731).宣布它的手一案的审查中被证明等由德Vintimille,大主教,巴黎谁与虚假和迷信(1731)。But other cures were claimed by the party, and so noised abroad that soon the sick and the curious flocked to the cemetery.但其他人宣称治愈了党,所以在国外,很快1:65病人和好奇的聚集在墓地。The sick experienced strange agitations, nervous commotions, either real or simulated.生病的经历奇怪的纷争,紧张骚乱,无论是真实或模拟。They fell into violent transports and inveighed against the pope and the bishops, as the convulsionaries of Cévennes had denounced the papacy and the Mass. In the excited crowd women were especially noticeable, screaming, yelling, throwing themselves about, sometimes assuming the most astounding and unseemly postures.他们陷入暴力运输和主教猛烈抨击教皇和作为塞文山脉的convulsionaries谴责了教皇和马萨诸塞州在兴奋的人群,尤其是妇女明显,尖叫,大叫,扔本身对,有时假设的最惊人的,不体面的姿势。 To justify these extravagances, complacent admirers had recourse to the theory of "figurism".为了证明这些奢侈品,自满仰慕已诉诸于“理论”figurism。As in their eyes the fact of the general acceptance of the Bull "Unigenitus" was the apostasy predicted by the Apocalypse, so the ridiculous and revolting scenes enacted by their friends symbolized the state of upheaval which, according to them, involved everything in the Church.由于在他们眼里的牛市其实是普遍接受的“Unigenitus”是叛教启示预测的,因此,荒谬和令人作呕的场面的朋友通过他们象征着动荡状态,据他们说,教会中的所有参与。 They reverted thus to a fundamental thesis such as has been met with in Jansenius and St-Cyran, and which these latter had borrowed from the Protestants.从而恢复他们的基本论点,如已经新教徒会见了Jansenius和圣,齐兰,和这些后者曾借。A journal the "Nouvelles Ecclesiastiques", had been founded in 1729 to defend and propagate these ideas and practices, and the "Nouvelles" was profusely spread, thanks to the pecuniary resources furnished by the Boîte à Perrette, the name given later to the capital or common fund of the sect begun by Nicole, and which grew so rapidly that it exceeded a million of money.阿杂志的“新军Ecclesiastiques”,已成立于1729年,捍卫和宣传这些想法和做法,以及“新军”是大汗蔓延,后来由于资金的给予金钱资源提供的名称博伊泰à Perrette,或共同基金由妮可开始的教派,并增长迅速,超过100万的资金。It had hitherto served chiefly to defray the cost of appeals and to support, in France as well as in Holland, the religious, men and women, who deserted their convents or congregations for the sake of Jansenism.它迄今担任主要以支付上诉费用,并支持法国,以及在荷兰,宗教,男人和女人,谁的詹森主义而抛弃了自己的修道院或教会。

The cemetery of Saint-Médard, having become the scene of exhibitions as tumultuous as they were indecent, was closed by order of the court in 1732.墓地的卡沙拉圣,已成为动荡的展览现场,因为他们的下流,是由法院下令关闭了在1732年。The oeuvre des convulsions, as its partisans called it, was not, however, abandoned. The convulsions reappeared in private houses with the same characteristics, but more glaring.在全部作品德抽搐,因为它的游击队称它,是没有,不过,被遗弃。特征重新出现的动荡同样在私人住宅的,但更明显。 Henceforth with few exceptions they seized only upon young girls, who, it was said, possessed a divine gift of healing.此后数与愈合的礼物时,才例外,他们抓住年轻女孩,谁,有人说一个神圣的,拥有。But what was more astonishing was that their bodies, subjected during the crisis to all sorts of painful tests, seemed at once insensible and invulnerable; they were not wounded by the sharpest instruments, or bruised by enormous weights or blows of incredible violence.但更令人惊讶的是,他们的机构,在向遭受危机的考验种种痛苦的,似乎在一次愚蠢的和无懈可击,他们是不是暴力受伤的尖锐工具难以置信的,巨大的打击或撞伤由重量或。 A convulsionary, nicknamed "la Salamandre", remained suspended for more than nine minutes above a fiery brazier, enveloped only in a sheet, which also remained intact in the midst of the flames.阿抽搐,绰号“拉Salamandre”,仍然暂停超过9分钟以上的火热的火盆,只笼罩在一表,也仍然完好无损火焰中的中间的。 Tests of this sort had received in the language of the sect the denomination of secours, and the secouristes, or partisans of the secours, distinguished between the petits-secours and the grands-secours, only the latter being supposed to require supernatural force.这类试验的这已经接受了希克尔斯语言该教派的教派和secouristes,或希克尔斯游击队的,区分的petits -希克尔斯和大奖赛,希克尔斯,只有后者被假定需要超自然的力量。At this point, a wave of defiance and opposition arose among the Jansenists themselves.此时,一个蔑视和反对浪潮中产生自己的詹森教徒。Thirty appellant doctors openly declared by common consent against the convulsions and the secours. 30上诉人医生公开宣布的希克尔斯一致同意对惊厥和。A lively discussion arose between the secouristes and the anti-secouristes.阿之间出现热烈讨论的secouristes和反secouristes。The secouristes in turn were soon divided into discernantes and melangistes, the former distinguishing between the work itself and its grotesque or objectionable features, which they ascribed to the Devil or to human weakness,while the latter regarded the convulsions and the secours as a single work coming from God, in which even the shocking elements had purpose and significance.反过来的secouristes很快疲软分为discernantes和melangistes,人类之间的区别前者工作本身和其怪诞的或不良的特点,他们归因于魔鬼,而后者则视痉挛,希克尔斯作为一个单一的工作来自上帝,在这种令人震惊的元素,甚至有目的和意义。

Without entering further into the details of these distinctions and divisions, we may ask how we are to judge what took place at the cemetery of Saint-Médard and the matters connected therewith.如果没有区别,进入部门进一步把这些细节,我们可能会问,我们如何判断什么了与之相连的地方在墓地的圣事项卡沙拉和。 Whatever may have been said on the subject, there was absolutely no trace of the Divine seal in these happenings.无论可能受到上说,绝对没有一丝的这些现象神圣的密封研究。It is needless to recall St. Augustine's principle that all prodigies accomplished outside the Church, especially those against the Church, are by the very fact more than suspicious: "Praeter unitatem, et qui facit miracula nihil est".这是不必要的回顾圣奥古斯丁的原则,所有天才完成教会之外,尤其是教会的反对,“是由非常比事实更令人怀疑:”Praeter unitatem,等夸法西特miracula nihil预测。Two things only call for remark.两件事情只要求说这番话的。Several of the so-called miraculous cures were made the subject of a judicial investigation, and it was proved that they were based only on testimonies which were either false, interested, preconcerted, and more than once retracted, or at least valueless, the echoes of diseased and fanatic imaginations.治愈几个所谓的奇迹般的被调查对象提出的一项司法,它证明了他们只根据其中任何虚假证词,有兴趣的,预定的,并不止一次地收回,或至少毫无价值,回声患病和狂热的想像。 Moreover, the convulsions and the secours certainly took place under circumstances which mere good taste would reject as unworthy of Divine wisdom and holiness.此外,惊厥和希克尔斯肯定了这神圣的地方的情况下仅仅是良好的品味会拒绝和不值得的神圣智慧。Not only were the cures, both acknowledged and claimed, supplementary of one another, but cures, convulsions, and secours belonged to the same order of facts and tended to the same concrete end.不仅是治疗,都承认,并声称,另外补充一个,但治疗,抽搐,和希克尔斯属于同样的事实秩序,往往同样的具体目的。We are therefore justified in concluding that the finger of God did not appear in the whole or in any of its parts.因此,我们有理由得出结论,上帝的手指没有出现在全部或任何部分的。On the other hand, although fraud was discovered in several cases, it is impossible to ascribe them all indiscriminately to trickery or ignorant simplicity.另一方面,虽然欺诈案件中发现的几个,也不可能全部归咎于他们不加区别地欺骗无知或简单。Critically speaking, the authenticity of some extraordinary phenomena is beyond question, as they took place publicly and in the presence of reliable witnesses, particularly anti-secourist Jansenists.批判地说,一些特殊现象的真实性是无庸置疑的,因为它们发生在公开和可靠的见证人在场,尤其是反secourist詹森教徒。 The question remains whether all these prodigies are explicable by natural causes, or whether the direct action of the Devil is to be recognized in some of them.问题是,是否所有这些天才是可解释的原因,自然还是魔鬼的直接行动是要他们承认在一些。Each of these opinions has its adherents, but the former seems difficult to uphold despite, and in part perhaps because of, the light which recent experiments in suggestion, hypnotism, and spiritism have thrown on the problem.这些意见,每个都有其信徒,但前者似乎难以坚持,尽管,在部分或许是因为,这个问题光,最近的实验中建议,催眠术和招魂的都扔上。 However this may be, one thing is certain; the things here related served only to discredit the cause of the party which exploited them.然而,这可能是,有一点是肯定的事情在这里只涉及送达诋毁他们造成剥削的一方。Jansenists themselves came at length to feel ashamed of such practices.詹森教徒自己来详细的做法感到羞愧等。The excesses connected with them more than once forced the civil authorities to intervene at least in a mild way; but this creation of fanaticism succumbed to ridicule and died by its own hand.他们更多地联系在一起的过激行为与民事不止一次迫使当局进行干预,至少在一个温和的方式,但这种狂热创造屈服于嘲笑和自己的手死去。

VII.七。JANSENISM IN HOLLAND AND THE SCHISM OF UTRECHT詹森在荷兰和乌得勒支分裂

Injurious as Jansenism was to religion and the Church in France, it did not there lead to schism properly so called.詹森主义是有害的宗教和教会在法国,它没有出现导致分裂所谓正确。The same does not hold good of the Dutch Low Countries, which the most important or most deeply implicated of the sectaries had long made their meeting place, finding there welcome and safety. Since the United Provinces had for the most part gone over to Protestantism, Catholics had lived there under the direction of vicars Apostolic.同样不成立教派良好的荷兰低地国家,其中最重要或最深刻的牵连的,早已使他们的聚会地点,发现那里的欢迎和安全省。由于联合国已超过新教大部分消失了,天主教徒一直住在有方向的副主教使徒。 Unhappily these representatives of the pope were soon won over to the doctrines and intrigues of which the "Augustinus" was the origin and centre.这些不幸的教皇代表很快赢得了在理论和阴谋,其中的“奥古斯丁”是起源和中心。 De Neercassel, titular Archbishop of Castoria, who governed the whole church in the Netherlands from 1663 to 1686, made no secret of his intimacy with the party.德Neercassel,名义上1686大主教Castoria,谁全教会在荷兰从1663年到所管辖的,没有党的秘密,他与亲密。 Under him the country began to become the refuge of all whose obstinacy forced them to leave France and Belgium.根据他的国家开始成为避难所有的固执迫使他们离开法国和比利时。Thither came such men as Antoine Arnauld, du Vaucel, Gerberon, Quesnel, Nicole, Petitpied, as well as a number of priests, monks, and nuns who preferred exile to the acceptance of the pontifical Bulls.到那里等人来宗座公牛作为安托万Arnauld,杜沃塞尔,热尔伯,奎斯内尔,尼科尔,Petitpied,以及以数字的祭司,僧侣和尼姑谁宁愿流放到接受。 A large number of these deserters belonged to the Congregation of the Oratory, but other orders shared with it this unfortunate distinction.阿这些逃兵大量属于论辩众的,但其他命令,它同意与这个不幸的区别。 When the fever of the appeals was at its height, twenty-six Carthusians of the Paris house escaped from their cloister during the night and fled to Holland.当上诉发烧的是在它的高度,26家Carthusians在巴黎逃离他们的回廊,并在夜间逃往荷兰。Fifteen Benedictines of the Abbey of Orval, in the Diocese of Trier, gave the same scandal. 15本笃修道院的奥瓦尔特里尔,在教区,作出了同样的丑闻。Peter Codde, who succeeded Neercassel in 1686, and who bore the title of Archbishop of Sebaste, went further than his predecessor.彼得Codde,谁成功地在1686 Neercassel,谁承担了Sebaste标题大主教,比他的前任走得更远。He refused to sign the formulary and, when summoned to Rome, defended himself so poorly that he was first forbidden to exercise his functions, and then deposed by a decree of 1704.他拒绝签署名册,并在被召到罗马,捍卫了自己很差,所以他是第一个禁止行使其职能,1704年被废黜,然后通过一个法令。 He died still obstinate in 1710.他死于1710年仍然顽固。He had been replaced by Gerard Potkamp, but this appointment and those that followed were rejected by a section of the clergy, to whom the States-General lent their support.他取代了杰拉德Potkamp,但这一任命和那些被拒绝后第一个神职人员的,负有责任的国家的借给他们的支持。The conflict lasted a long time, during which the episcopal functions were not fulfilled.冲突持续了很长一段时间,在此期间,主教的职能并没有实现。In 1723 the Chapter of Utrecht ie a group of seven or eight priests who assumed this name and quality in order to put an end to a precarious and Painful situation, elected, on its own authority, as archbishop of the same city, one of its members, Cornelius Steenhoven, who then held the office of vicar-general. 1723年乌得勒支章即城市群的七,八祭司谁承担这个名称和质量,以杜绝一个不稳定的和痛苦的情况下,由选举产生,对自己的权威,同样作为大主教的,它的一个成员,科尼利厄斯斯廷霍,谁然后办公厅举行的副主教-。 This election was not canonical, and was not approved by the pope.这次选举是不规范的,并没有教皇批准。Steenhoven nevertheless had the audacity to get himself consecrated by Varlet, a former missionary bishop and coadjutor Bishop of Babylon, who was at that time suspended, interdicted, and excommunicated.斯廷霍然而却厚颜无耻地得到自己神圣的Varlet驱逐的前传教士和主教,助理主教巴比伦暂停,当时是谁在停职和。 He thus consummated the schism, interdicted likewise and excommunicated, he died in 1725.因此,他完善了分裂,停职同样和驱逐,他死于1725年。Those who had elected him transferred their support to Barchman Wuitiers, who had recourse to the same consecrator.这些谁当选他调动了他们的支持Barchman Wuitiers,谁求助于同样consecrator。 The unhappy Varlet lived long enough to administer the episcopal unction to two successors of Barchman, van der Croon and Meindarts.生活的不愉快Varlet足够长,负责管理主教油膏两个Barchman后继者,范德克鲁和Meindarts。 The sole survivor of this sorry line, Meindarts, ran the risk of seeing his dignity become extinct with himself.对不起线的唯一幸存者为此,Meindarts,跑的尊严风险灭绝看到他成为自己的。To prevent this, the Dioceses of Haarlem (1742) and Deventer (1757) were created, and became suffragans of Utrecht.为了防止这一点,哈勒姆教区的(1742)和芬特尔(1757年)创建的,并成为乌得勒支suffragans的。 But Rome always refused to ratify these outrageously irregular acts, invariably replying to the notification of each election with a declaration of nullification and a sentence of excommunication against those elected and their adherents.但罗马总是悍然拒绝批准这些违规行为,对那些信徒总是回答他们的当选,选举的每个通知罚无效的声明和一个句子。 Yet, in spite of everything, the schismatical community of Utrecht has prolonged its existence until modern times.然而,尽管一切,乌得勒支分裂的社会也长期存在,直至近代。At present it numbers about 6000 members in the three united dioceses.目前该数字三教区联合有关成员在6000。It would scarcely be noticed if it had not, in the last century, made itself heard by protesting against Pius IX's re-establishment of the Catholic hierarchy in Holland (1853), by declaring itself against the dogmas of the Immaculate Conception (1854) and Papal Infallibility (1870), and lastly, after the Vatican Council, in allying itself with the "Old Catholics", whose first so-called bishop it consecrated.它几乎不被察觉,如果没有,在上个世纪,使自己成为荷兰听取了抗议庇护九的重新建立天主教等级(1853年),宣布与自己1854年)对教条的圣母无原罪(教皇犯错误(1870年),最后,在梵蒂冈会,奉献自己结盟与“旧天主教徒”,其第一个所谓的主教它。

VIII.八。DECLINE AND END OF JANSENISM下降和詹森主义完

During the second half of the eighteenth century the influence of Jansenism was prolonged by taking on various forms and ramifications, and extending to countries other than those in which we have hitherto followed it.在下半年的詹森主义在18世纪的影响是长期的,采取各种形式和后果,并扩展到其他国家比以往那些我们所遵循它。In France the Parlements continued to pronounce judgments, to inflict fines and confiscations, to suppress episcopal ordinances, and even to address remonstrances to the king in defence of the pretended right of the appellants to absolution and the reception of the last sacraments.在法国,Parlements继续宣布判决,施以罚款和没收,压制主教条例,甚至地址进谏国王的赦免权,在国防的假装上诉人和接待的最后圣礼。 In 1756 they rejected a very moderate decree of Benedict XIV regulating the matter. 1756年,他们拒绝了本笃十四非常温和的法令规范的问题。A royal declaration confirming the Roman decision did not find favour in their eyes, and it required all the remaining strength of the monarchy to compel them to register it.一个皇家罗马宣言确认的决定并没有发现在他们的青睐,它要求所有的君主制剩余强度的强迫他们注册。The sectaries seemed by degrees to detach themselves from the primitive heresy, but they retained unabated the spirit of insubordination and schism, the spirit of opposition to Rome, and above all a mortal hatred of the Jesuits.该教派的程度似乎要脱离邪教本身也是原始的,但还保留有增无已的精神,不服从和分裂,罗马精神的反对,以及最重要的一个致命的耶稣会士的仇恨。 They had vowed the ruin of that order, which they always found blocking their way, and in order to attain their end they successively induced Catholic princes and ministers in Portugal, France, Spain, Naples, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies the Duchy of Parma, and elsewhere to join hands with the worst leaders of impiety and philosophism.他们曾誓言毁灭的秩序,他们总是找到阻止他们的方式,以达到其最终他们先后致天主教王子和帕尔马部长在葡萄牙,法国,西班牙,那不勒斯,王国的两个公国的西西里和其他地方的加入philosophism手中不虔诚和最差的领导人。 The same tendency was displayed in the work of Febronius, condemned (1764) by Clement XIII; and, instilled into Joseph II by his councillor Godefried van Swieten, a disciple of the revolted church of Utrecht, it became the principle of the innovations and ecclesiastical upheavals decreed by the sacristan-emperor (see FEBRONIANISM).同样的趋势是显示在费布罗纽斯工作,谴责克莱门特十三(1764),以及,二约瑟夫注入了他的委员雷德弗里德面包车施威滕,乌得勒支弟子一个教会的起义,成为教会的原则,创新和皇帝下令由动乱的教堂司(见FEBRONIANISM)。 It raged in similar fashion in Tuscany under the government of the Grand Duke Leopold, brother of Joseph II; and found another manifestation in the famous Synod of Pistoia (1786), the decrees of which, at once the quintessence of Gallicanism and of the heresy of Jansenism, were reproved by the Bull of Pius VI, "Auctorem fidei" (1794).它肆虐,在类似的方式下,托斯卡纳政府的第二大公爵利奥波德约瑟夫兄弟,并发现其中皮斯托亚主教),(1786年法令的另一表现在著名的,在一旦Gallicanism精髓和异端詹森主义,被斥责六公牛的庇护,“Auctorem信德奥迹”(1794年)。 On French soil the remains of Jansenism were not completely extinguished by the French Revolution, but survived in some remarkable personalities, such as the constitutional Bishop Grégoire, and in some religious congregations, as the Sisters of St. Martha, who did not return in a body to Catholic truth and unity until 1847.在法国领土上的詹森主义仍然没有完全熄灭的法国大革命,但是,幸存下来的一些显着的人士,如主教格雷瓜尔的宪法,并在一些宗教聚会,因为,修女的圣玛尔塔谁也不会返回1身体天主教真理和统一,直到1847年。 But its spirit lived on, especially in the rigorism which for a long time dominated the practice of the administration of the sacraments and the teaching of moral theology.但它的精神过活,尤其是在rigorism其中长期占主导地位的神学实践中的行政圣礼和道德的教学。In a great number of French seminaries, Bailly's "Théologie", which was impregnated with this rigorism, remained the standard textbook until Rome in 1852 put it on the Index "donec corrigatur".在法国修道院大量的,贝利的“神学”,这是rigorism浸渍如此,仍然是标准的教科书,直到罗马在1852年把它在索引“donec corrigatur”。Among those who even prior to that had worked energetically against it, chiefly by offering in opposition the doctrines of St. Alphonsus, two names are deserving of special mention: Gousset, whose "Théologie morale" (1844) had been preceded by his "Justification de la theologie morale du bienheureux Alphonse-Marie Liguori" (2nd ed., 1832); Jean-Pierre Berman, professor at the seminary of Nancy for twenty-five years (1828-1853), and author of a "Theologia moralis ex S. Ligorio" (7 vols., 1855). Such is, in outline, the historical account of Jansenism, its origin, its phases, and its decline.在这些甚至在此之前,谁工作过它积极反对阿方,主要是在圣反对派提供的学说,两个名字都是值得特别提及:Gousset,他的“神学的士气”(1844年)之前一直由他的理由“德拉神学士气杜bienheureux阿尔方斯玛丽利古“(第二版。,1832);让皮埃尔伯曼)教授在1828年至1853年神学院的南希二十五年(和S的作者是”神学莫拉利斯前。利戈里奥“(7卷。,1855)。这就是,在大纲,其帐户的詹森主义的历史阶段,它的起源,以及它的衰落。 It is evident that, besides its attachment to the "Augustinus" and its rigorism in morals, it is distinguished among heresies for crafty proceedings, chicane and lack of frankness on the part of its adherents, especially their pretence of remaining Catholics without renouncing their errors, of staying in the Church despite the Church itself, by skilfully eluding or braving with impunity the decisions of the supreme authority.很明显,除了其附件的“奥古斯丁”及其道德rigorism在,它是杰出的歪理邪说中坦率的狡猾程序,急弯和缺乏对信徒的一部分,尤其是他们的错误幌子,其剩余的天主教徒没有放弃,留在教会,尽管教会本身,巧妙地躲避或冒着与最高权力不受惩罚的决定。 Such conduct is beyond doubt without a parallel in the annals of Christianity previous to the outbreak of Jansenism in fact, it would be incredible if we did not in our own day find in certain groups of Modernists examples of this astonishing and absurd duplicity.这种行为无疑是没有事实以外平行的史册基督教在之前的詹森主义的爆发,这将是令人难以置信的一天,如果我们没有在我们自己找到一些惊人的和荒谬的两面派群体现代主义这方面的例子。 The deplorable consequences, both theoretical and practical, of the Jansenist system, and of the polemics to which it gave rise, may readily be gathered from what has been said, and from the history of the last few centuries.可悲的后果,不管是理论和实践,对简森派制度,以及它所争论引起,可以很容易地收集了说了些什么,从百年历史的最后几个。

Publication information Written by J. Forget.出版信息写了J.忘记。Transcribed by Tomas Hancil. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.转录由托马斯汉奇尔。天主教百科全书,体积八。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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