Martin Luther马丁路德

mǎdīng·lł dé·

General Information一般信息

Martin Luther was a German theologian and a major leader of the Protestant Reformation. He is sometimes called the father of Protestantism, and one of the major branches of Protestantism - Lutheranism - is named after him.马丁路德是德国神学家和宗教改革的主要领导人。 他有时也被称为新教的父亲,和基督教的主要分支之一的-路德教-是他的名字命名。

Early Life早年生活

Luther, the son of a Saxon miner, was born at Eisleben on Nov.路德,在矿工的儿子一撒克逊人,出生于11月艾斯勒本10, 1483.10,1483。He entered the University of Erfurt when he was 18 years old.他进入爱尔福特大学时他只有18岁。After graduation he began to study law in 1505.毕业后,他在1505年开始研究法律。In July of that year, however, he narrowly escaped death in a thunderstorm and vowed to become a monk.在今年7月说,但是,他差点死在一个雷雨,并誓言要成为一个和尚。He entered the monastery of the Augustinian Hermits at Erfurt, where he was ordained in 1507.他走进寺院1507在被祝圣奥古斯丁隐士在爱尔福特他,其中。The following year he was sent to Wittenberg, where he continued his studies and lectured in moral philosophy.次年,他被送往维滕贝格,他在那里继续他的研究和讲授道德哲学。In 1511 he received his doctorate in theology and an appointment as professor of Scripture, which he held for the rest of his life. Luther visited Rome in 1510 on business for his order and was shocked to find corruption in high ecclesiastical places.在1511年,他获得了神学博士学位,并任命他作为一个生活教授经文,其中他休息举行的。 路德访问了1510罗马出差他的命令,并震惊地发现在高的地方教会的腐败。

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He was well acquainted with the scholastic theology of his day, but he made the study of the Bible, especially the epistles of Saint Paul, the center of his work. Luther found that his teachings diverged increasingly from the traditional beliefs of the Roman church. His studies had led him to the conclusion that Christ was the sole mediator between God and man and that forgiveness of sin and salvation are effected by God's Grace alone and are received by faith alone on the part of man.他非常熟悉,他一天的学术神学,但他的圣经研究的,尤其是保罗书信圣,他的路德中心工作。发现,他的教导教会罗马分歧日益从传统的信仰。 他的研究使他得出结论说,基督是唯一的调停人与上帝的宽恕和救赎的罪孽,并影响了神的恩典是单独和男子单收到信仰的一部分。This point of view turned him against scholastic theology, which had emphasized man's role in his own salvation, and against many church practices that emphasized justification by good works. His approach to theology soon led to a clash between Luther and church officials, precipitating the dramatic events of the Reformation. 这个角度来看,把作品他反对学术神学,它强调人自身的作用,他的救恩,并针对许多教堂做法,好强调理由的。他的方法,以神学很快导致了教会的冲突之间的路德和官员,也促成了戏剧性事件的改造。

Dispute over Indulgences争议的纵容

The doctrine of Indulgences, with its mechanical view of sin and repentance, aroused Luther's indignation. The sale by the church of indulgences - the remission of temporal punishments for sins committed and confessed to a priest - brought in much revenue. The archbishop of Mainz, Albert of Brandenburg, sponsored such a sale in 1517 to pay the pope for his appointment to Mainz and for the construction of Saint Peter's in Rome. 该纵容学说,其的愤慨机械鉴于罪路德和忏悔,引起。的宽容出售的教会-的承诺减免罪的处罚时间和供认一名神父-收入带来了很多。在美因茨大主教,勃兰登堡艾伯特,主办这样的销售在1517年向他支付教宗任命为美因茨和建造圣彼得罗马的研究。 He selected Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, to preach the indulgences and collect the revenues.他选择约翰特策尔,多米尼加修士,宣扬宽容和收集的收入。When Tetzel arrived in Saxony, Luther posted his famous 95 theses on the door of the castle church at Wittenberg on Oct. 31, 1517. Although some of the theses directly criticized papal policies, they were put forward as tentative objections for discussion.当特策尔抵达萨克森州, 路德在维滕贝格张贴论文95篇门城堡教堂在他著名的关于1517年10月31日。教皇批评虽然有些政策直接的论文,讨论他们提出了反对意见,作为暂定。

Copies of the 95 theses were quickly spread throughout Europe and unleashed a storm of controversy. During 1518 and 1519, Luther defended his theology before his fellow Augustinians and publicly debated in Leipzig with the theologian Johann Eck, who had condemned the ideas of Luther. 论文的复印件95,很快传遍了欧洲,引发了争议风波的影响。在1518年和1519年,路德神学辩护同胞奥古斯丁在他和他的公开辩论在莱比锡与神学家约翰之角,谁曾谴责路德的思想。 Meanwhile, church officials acted against him.与此同时,教会官员对他采取行动。The Saxon Dominican provincial charged him with heresy, and he was summoned to appear in Augsburg before the papal legate, Cardinal Cajetan.多米尼加的萨克森省与他被控异端,他被传唤到奥格斯堡出现在面前的教皇使节,枢机cajetan。Refusing to recant, he fled to Wittenberg, seeking the protection of the elector Frederick III of Saxony. When the Wittenberg faculty sent a letter to Frederick declaring its solidarity with Luther, the elector refused to send Luther to Rome, where he would certainly meet imprisonment or death.拒绝放弃信仰,他逃到维滕贝格,寻求保护选民的萨克森腓特烈三世的。 维滕贝格当老师写信给弗雷德里克宣布其声援路德,选民拒绝送路德到罗马,在那里他一定会被监禁或死亡。

Reforms改革

In 1520, Luther completed three celebrated works in which he stated his views.在1520年,路德完成了三个著名的作品在他的看法,他说。In his Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, he invited the German princes to take the reform of the church into their own hands; in A Prelude Concerning the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, he attacked the papacy and the current theology of sacraments; and in On the Freedom of a Christian Man, he stated his position on justification and good works.讲话对德意志民族的基督教贵族的,他请德国王子要教会他们自己的双手把改革的,在一个前奏关于巴比伦笼养的教会,他攻击教皇和目前的圣礼神学以及在关于人的自由的基督徒,他说他的作品的理由和良好的立场。 The bull of Pope Leo X Exsurge Domine, issued on June 15 that same year, gave Luther 60 days to recant, and Decet Romanum Pontificem of Jan. 3, 1521, excommunicated him.公牛的多明教皇利奥X Exsurge,于6月15日发出的同一年,60天了路德放弃信仰,而且,1521年,Decet Romanum Pontificem的1月3日驱逐他。

Summoned before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in April 1521, Luther again refused to recant and was put under the ban of the empire.召唤五在国会前的蠕虫神圣罗马帝国皇帝查尔斯在1521年4月,路德再次拒绝放弃信仰而被置于帝国的禁令。He took refuge in the Wartburg castle, where he lived in seclusion for eight months.他花了几个月时间避难的瓦特堡城堡,在那里他住在与世隔绝的8个。During that time he translated the New Testament into German and wrote a number of pamphlets.在此期间,他翻译成德文的新约,写了一些小册子的。In March 1522 he returned to Wittenberg to restore order against enthusiastic iconoclasts who were destroying altars, images, and crucifixes.在1522年3月他回到维滕贝格恢复秩序十字架对热心反对偶像崇拜谁在破坏祭坛,图片和。 His reforming work during subsequent years included the writing of the Small and Large Catechisms, sermon books, more than a dozen hymns, over 100 volumes of tracts, treatises, biblical commentaries, thousands of letters, and the translation of the whole Bible into German.他在随后的改革年的工作包括字母书写的小和大要理问答,布道书有十多个,多的赞美诗,超过100万册的传单,论文,圣经评论,和德国的整个圣经翻译成。

With Philipp Melanchthon and others, Luther organized the Evangelical churches in the German territories whose princes supported him.随着菲利普梅兰希和其他组织的首领支持他路德福音教会领土,其在德国。He abolished many traditional practices, including confession and private mass.他废除了许多传统的私人质量的做法,包括供词和。Priests married; convents and monasteries were abandoned.牧师已婚,修道院和被遗弃的寺庙。These were difficult times. Luther lost some popular support when he urged suppression of the Knights' Revolt (1522) and the Peasants' War (1524 - 26); his failure to reach doctrinal accord with Ulrich Zwingli on the nature of the Eucharist (1529) split the Reform movement. Nonetheless, Luther found personal solace in his marriage (1525) to a former Cistercian nun, Katherina von Bora; they raised six children.这些困难的时期。路德失去了一些民心时,他敦促)镇压骑士起义(1522年)和农民战争(1524至1526年, 他未能达成(1529年圣体的性质与理论一致的乌尔里希温格利)分裂的改革运动。尽管如此,路德发现修道院的修女在个人安慰他的婚姻(1525年)到前,凯瑟琳冯宝来,他们提出的六个孩子。

At Worms, Luther had stood alone.在蠕虫,路德独自站在。When the Evangelicals presented the Augsburg Confession to Charles V and the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, many theologians, princes, and city councils subscribed to that classic Protestant statement of faith. By the time of Luther's death, a large part of northern Europe had left the Roman Catholic church for new Evangelical communities. 当福音派提出的招供查尔斯五世和国会的1530年奥格斯堡在奥格斯堡,许多神学家,王子,以及市议会签署的经典信仰新教的声明。到欧洲时间路德的死亡,北部大部份已离开罗马天主教会为新的基督教社区。 Late in 1545, Luther was asked to arbitrate a dispute in Eisleben; despite the icy winter weather, he traveled there.晚于1545年,路德是一个要求仲裁争端艾斯勒本,尽管天气冰冷的冬天,他前往那里。The quarrel was settled on Feb. 17, 1546, but the strain had been very great and Luther died the next day.这场争吵是定居于1546年2月17日,但带来的压力已经很大,路德于第二天死亡。

Luther left behind a movement that quickly spread throughout the Western world. His doctrines, especially justification by faith and the final authority of the Bible, were adopted by other reformers and are shared by many Protestant denominations today. As the founder of the 16th - century Reformation, he is one of the major figures of Christianity and of Western civilization.路德留下了西方世界的运动,迅速传遍。 他的学说,特别是圣经的理由的信仰和最终决定权,还通过了其他改革者,并分享许多新教教派今天。由于16日创始人-世纪改革,他是文明的一个主要数字的基督教和西方。

Lewis W Spitz刘易斯W施皮茨

Bibliography 书目
P Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther (1966); J Atkinson, Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism (1968) and The Trial of Luther (1971); R Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther (1951); H Boehmer, Road to Reformation (1946); G Brendler, Martin Luther: Theology and Revolution (1990); WD Cargill Thompson, The Political Thought of Martin Luther (1984); M Edwards, Martin Luther and the False Brethren (1975); EH Erikson, Young Man Luther (1958); RH Fife, The Revolt of Martin Luther (1957); VHH Green, Luther and the Reformation (1964); M Hoffman, ed., Martin Luther and the Modern Mind (1985); M Luther, Luther's Works (1955); A McGrath, Luther's Theology of the Cross (1985); HA Oberman, Luther: Man between God and the Devil (1990); J Pelikan, ed., Interpreters of Luther (1968); G Ritter, Luther: His Life and Work (1964); G Rupp, Luther's Progress to the Diet of Worms (1964); EG Schwiebert, Luther and His Times (1950); B Tierney, ed., Martin Luther, Reformer or Revolutionary?P斯,本)神学马丁路德(1966年; J阿特金森,马丁路德和新教的诞生(1968)及路德审判(1971)与r班顿,在这里,我站:a)生命的马丁路德(1951年; Ĥ博默,道改造(1946年); Ğ布兰德勒,马丁路德:神学与革命(1990年);的WD嘉吉汤普森,1984年)政治思想的马丁路德(,间爱德华兹,马丁路德和1975年)假弟兄(;高血压埃里克森,年轻人路德(1958年);相对湿度快富,该)起义中的马丁路德(1957年;卤代烃绿色,路德和宗教改革(1964年),间霍夫曼,编辑。马丁路德与现代心灵(1985年),间路德,路德的作品(1955年);阿麦格拉思,路德的)神学的十字架(1985年;医管局奥伯曼,路德:人与上帝与魔鬼(1990); J伯利坎,编辑。,路德翻译的(1968年); Ğ里特,路德:他的生活和工作(1964年); Ğ鲁普,路德的进展情况向国会的蠕虫(1964年);乙二醇Schwiebert,路德和他的时代(1950年);乙蒂尔尼,编辑。马丁路德,重整或革命? (1977).(1977年)。


Martin Luther (1483 - 1546)马丁路德(1483年至1546年)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Martin Luther was a major leader of the German Reformation.马丁路德是德国宗教改革的主要领导人。Luther's father came from peasant background, but achieved success in the mining industry so that he was able to afford an excellent education for his son. Luther began his studies at the Ratschule in Mansfeld and probably attended the Cathedral School at Magdeburg, where he came under the influence of the Brethren of the Common Life.路德的父亲来自农民的背景,但取得事业成功的开采,使他能够负担得起他的儿子出色的教育。路德开始曼斯费尔德他的研究Ratschule在和可能出席,他遭到了教会学校在马格德堡,在那里生命的弟兄们共同影响的。 He completed his preparatory education at the Georgenschule in Eisenach before entering the University of Erfurt in 1501.他在1501年之前完成进入大学的爱尔福特他在筹备的艾森纳赫Georgenschule教育。He received his BA in 1502 and his MA in 1505.在1505年他获得学士学位的1502年和他的马。In accordance with his father's wishes he had begun study for a law degree when a brush with death in a thunderstorm, July, 1505, caused him to make a vow to become a monk.按照他的意愿在父亲的他已经开始研究一项法律学位时,刷在一个与死亡1505雷雨,7月,使他宣誓,成为一名僧人。

While in the monastery Luther began the serious study of theology at Erfurt.而在修道院路德开始在爱尔福特神学认真研究。In 1508 he was sent to Wittenberg to lecture on moral philosophy at the newly founded University of Wittenberg.在1508年,他被送往维滕贝格讲授道德哲学,以在新成立的大学维滕贝格。In 1509 he returned to Erfurt, where he continued his studies and delivered lectures in theology.在1509年他回到埃尔富特,他在那里继续他的研究和讲授神学。His teachers at Erfurt adhered to the nominalist theology of William of Ockham and his disciple, Gabriel Biel, which disparaged the role of reason in arriving at theological truth and placed a greater emphasis on free will and the role of human beings in initiating their salvation than did traditional scholasticism.他的老师在爱尔福特坚持真理的唯名论的神学在神学奥卡姆的威廉和他的弟子,加布里埃尔比尔,而在到达贬原因的作用,并把会比拯救人类的作用和他们的人在发起一个更加强调自由没有传统的经院哲学。 In 1510 - 11 Luther made a trip to Rome on a mission for his order.在1510年至1511年路德为了使他的使命之旅,以罗马。While in Rome he was shocked by the worldliness of the clergy and disillusioned by their religious indifference.而在罗马,他感到震惊的神职人员世俗的冷漠感到失望和他们的宗教。In 1511 he was sent back to Wittenberg, where he completed his studies for the degree of Doctor of Theology in October, 1512. In the same year he received a permanent appointment to the chair of Bible at the university.在1511年,他被送回维滕贝格,在那里他完成,1512年10月为他的研究的博士学位神学英寸在同一年,他收到的主持圣经大学在长期任用。

During the period 1507 - 12 Luther experienced intense spiritual struggles as he sought to work out his own salvation by careful observance of the monastic rule, constant confession, and self - mortification. Probably as a result of the influence of popular piety and the teachings of nominalism Luther viewed God as a wrathful judge who expected sinners to earn their own righteousness. Partly because of his contact with the vicar general of his order, Johann von Staupitz, and his reading of Augustine, but primarily through his study of the Scriptures as he prepared his university lectures, Luther gradually changed his view of justification. His "tower experience," in which he achieved his major theological breakthrough and came to the full realization of the doctrine of justification by faith alone, has normally been dated before 1517.在此期间1507年至1512年路德经历激烈的斗争精神,他要求工作的,他不断忏悔自己得救了寺院的规则认真遵守的,与自我-屈辱。 可能由于对教义的影响和流行的虔诚唯名论路德认为上帝作为一个正义的愤怒法官预计罪人谁赚取自己。部分是因为他的命令与他接触的副主教,约翰冯Staupitz,奥古斯丁和他的阅读,但主要是通过他的研究圣经的,因为他准备他的大学演讲, 逐渐改变了他的理由路德的看法。他的“塔的经验,” 在其中取得突破,其主要神学的信仰来实现单独的学说的理由要充分,有1517年以前通常是过时。

However, recent scholarship has suggested that Luther was correct when he stated near the end of his life that it did not occur until late 1518. This interpretation maintains that Luther gradually progressed in his understanding of justification from the nominalist view, which gave human beings a role in initiating the process, to the Augustinian view, which attributed the beginning of the process to God's free grace but believed that after conversion human beings could cooperate.然而,最近的学术研究表明,路德是正确的生活时,他说他在附近结束,它并没有出现,直到1518年底。 路德认为,这种解释的理由进展逐渐在他的理解从唯名论观点,这使人类的生命在启动过程中的作用,对奥古斯丁认为,这归因于宽限期开始自由的过程上帝的,但他相信,经过转换人类可以合作。 The fully developed Lutheran doctrine, which viewed justification as a forensic act in which God declares the sinner righteous because of the vicarious atonement of Jesus Christ without any human merit rather than a lifelong process, was not clearly expressed in Luther's writings until his sermon Of the Threefold Righteousness, published toward the end of 1518. 充分发展路德学说,这看的,理由是法医的行为在上帝的终身耶稣基督没有,而不是任何人的优点宣告罪人正义因为替代赎罪的过程是没有明确的作品表达了路德的,直到他的布道在三重义,1518年发表的最终走向。

The Reformation began in October, 1517, when Luther protested a major abuse in the sale of indulgences in his Ninety - five Theses. These were translated into German, printed, and circulated throughout Germany, arousing a storm of protest against the sale of indulgences.10月开始的改革,1517年,当路德抗议虐待5论文主要出售的放纵他的90 - 。这些被翻译成德文印制,分发和德国各地,引起放纵销售风暴对抗议。When the sale of indulgences was seriously impaired, the papacy sought to silence Luther.当放纵销售受到严重损害,教皇寻求沉默路德。He was first confronted at a meeting of his order held in Heidelberg on April 26, 1518, but he used the Heidelberg disputation to defend his theology and to make new converts. In August of 1518 Luther was summoned to Rome to answer charges of heresy, even though he had not taught contrary to any clearly defined medieval doctrines. Because Luther was unlikely to receive a fair trial in Rome, his prince, Frederick the Wise, intervened and asked the papacy to send representatives to deal with Luther in Germany.他首先面临1518次会议26日在一,命令他在海德堡举行的4月,但他用了海德堡争论,以捍卫自己的神学,并作出新的转换。 路德在1518年8月被传唤到罗马来回答异端罪名,尽管他没有告诉任何明确违反中世纪的学说。由于路德是不可能得到公正的审判在罗马,他的王子弗雷德里克智者,干预,并要求教皇派代表来处理路德在德国。 Meetings with Cardinal Cajetan in October, 1518, and Karl von Miltitz in January, 1519, failed to obtain a recantation from Luther, although he continued to treat the pope and his representatives with respect.卡耶坦与枢机主教会议在10月,1518年和卡尔冯米尔蒂茨1月,1519年,未能获得一个变节从路德,但他继续治疗和尊重他的代表与教宗。

In July, 1519, at the Leipzig debate Luther questioned the authority of the papacy as well as the infallibility of church councils and insisted on the primacy of Scripture. This led his opponent, Johann Eck, to identify him with the fifteenth century Bohemian heretic, Jan Hus, in an effort to discredit Luther.今年7月,1519年,在莱比锡辩论路德质疑教皇的权威,以及议会犯错误教会和圣经坚持的首要地位。这使他的对手,约翰埃克,以确定他与邪教的15世纪波希米亚,胡斯,努力抹黑路德。 After the debate Luther became considerably more outspoken and expressed his beliefs with increasing certainty.在经过辩论路德成为相当多的直言不讳,并表示他的信念与确定性增加。In 1520 he wrote three pamphlets of great significance.在1520年,他写了三小册子伟大意义。

The first, the Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, called upon the Germans to reform the church and society, since the papacy and church councils had failed to do so.第一,社会地址向德国基督教贵族的民族的,呼吁德国改革教会和议会,因为教皇和教会没有这样做。

The second, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, clearly put Luther in the ranks of the heterodox, because it attacked the entire sacramental system of the medieval church. Luther maintained there were only two sacraments, baptism and the Lord's Supper, or at most three, with penance possibly qualifying as a third, rather than seven sacraments. He also denied the doctrines of transubstantiation and the sacrificial Mass.第二,该教会的巴比伦圈养的,明确提出异端路德的在行列,因为它袭击了整个中世纪教堂圣礼系统中的。 路德保持只有两个圣礼,洗礼和圣餐,或最多3 ,与忏悔排位赛可能作为第三方,而不是七个圣礼。 他还否认了质变理论和马萨诸塞州的牺牲

The third pamphlet, The Freedom of the Christian Man, was written for the pope.第三小册子,民自由的基督教,写了教皇。It was nonpolemical and clearly taught the doctrine of justification by faith alone.这是nonpolemical 理由 ,并明确告诉独自信仰教义。

Even before the publication of these pamphlets a papal bull of excommunication was drawn up to go into effect in January, 1521.即使在这些小册子出版罚牛市的教皇是制定了到今年1月生效,1521。 In December, 1520, Luther showed his defiance of papal authority by publicly burning the bull.去年12月,1520年,由路德表明牛市公开焚烧他的蔑视教皇的权威。Although condemned by the church, Luther still received a hearing before an imperial diet at Worms in April, 1521.虽然教会谴责,路德仍然收到,1521年帝国议会听证会之前,在蠕虫在4月。At the Diet of Worms he was asked to recant his teachings, but he stood firm, thereby defying also the authority of the emperor, who placed him under the imperial ban and ordered that all his books be burned.在国会的蠕虫要求他放弃信仰他的教诲,但他立场坚定,从而也不畏权威的皇帝,谁把他的禁令下,帝国,并下令,所有他的书被烧毁。 On the way home from Worms, Luther was abducted by friends who took him to the Wartburg castle, where he remained in hiding for nearly a year.关于未来的一年里回家的路上蠕虫,路德是一个朋友谁绑架了他的瓦特堡城堡,几乎凡有他仍躲藏。While at the Wartburg he wrote a series of pamphlets attacking Catholic practices and began his German translation of the Bible.虽然在瓦特堡,他写了一系列的做法天主教小册子,并开始攻击他的德语翻译的圣经。In 1522 Luther returned to Wittenberg to deal with disorders that had broken out in his absence, and he remained there for the rest of his life.1522年路德在维滕贝格返回处理缺乏症是有他爆发了,他仍然有他的生活休息。 In 1525 he married Catherine von Bora, a former nun, who bore him six children.在1525年,他娶了凯瑟琳冯宝来,前尼姑,谁给他生了六个孩子。Luther had an extremely happy and rich family life, but his life was marred by frequent ill health and bitter controversies.路德曾非常高兴和丰富的家庭生活,但他的生活所破坏的争议频繁疾病和痛苦。

Luther often responded to opponents in a polemical fashion, using extremely harsh language.路德回应对手往往在一论战时尚,使用极为苛刻的语言。In 1525 when the peasants of south Germany revolted and refused to heed his call to negotiate their grievances peacefully, he attacked them viciously in a pamphlet entitled Against the Murdering Horde of Peasants.在1525年时,德国南部的农民起义,并拒绝听从他的呼吁和平谈判的不满,他恶毒攻击他们在农民部落的小册子的杀人有权反对。 A controversy with the Swiss reformer Ulrich Zwingli over the Lord's Supper split the Protestant movement when an effort to resolve the differences at a meeting in Marburg failed in 1529.晚饭争议与瑞士的改革者乌尔里希温格利在主的分裂的新教运动时,努力解决分歧马尔堡会议在1529年失败的研究。Throughout his life Luther maintained an overwhelming work load, writing, teaching, organizing the new church, and providing overall leadership for the German Reformation. Among his more important theological writings were the Smalcald Articles published in 1538, which clearly defined the differences between his theology and that of the Roman Catholic Church.在他的整个生命路德保持了压倒性的工作负荷,写作,教学,组织了新教堂,并提供德语改革的总体领导的著作在他的更重要的神学是smalcald文章发表在1538年,其中明确规定他的神学之间的差异和教会的罗马天主教。

Luther never viewed himself as the founder of a new church body, however. He devoted his life to reforming the church and restoring the Pauline doctrine of justification to the central position in Christian theology. In 1522, when his followers first began to use his name to identify themselves, he pleaded with them not to do this. 路德从来没有认为自己的身体作为教会的创办人,一个新的,但是。他毕生致力于改革的教堂和恢复的理由宝莲学说的基督教神学的中心位置在1522。在,当他的追随者第一次开始使用他的名字自己的身份,他恳求他们不要这么做。 He wrote: "Let us abolish all party names and call ourselves Christians, after him whose teaching we hold . . . I hold, together with the universal church, the one universal teaching of Christ, who is our only master." He died at Eisleben on February 18, 1546, while on a trip to arbitrate a dispute between two Lutheran nobles. 他说:“让我们废除了所有政党名称,并呼吁自己的基督徒,他的教学后,我们举行。。。我认为,与普世教会,一个普遍的教学只有掌握基督,谁是我们的。”他死在1546艾斯勒本02月18日,而在旅途贵族争议仲裁一两个路德。 He was buried in the Castle Church at Wittenberg.他被安葬在城堡教堂维滕贝格。

Bibliography 书目
J Pelikan and HT Lehmann, eds., Luther's Works; HT Kerr, ed., A Compend of Luther's Theology; P Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther; EG Rupp, The Righteousness of God; U Saarnivaara, Luther Discovers the Gospel; AG Dickens, The German Nation and Martin Luther; J Atkinson, Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism; RH Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther; H Boehmer, Martin Luther: Road to Reformation; RH Fife, The Revolt of Martin Luther; H Grisar, Luther; HG Haile, Luther: An Experiment in Biography; EG Schwiebert, Luther and His Times; JM Todd, Martin Luther: A Biographical Study. J伯利坎和HT莱曼合编。,路德的作品;羟色胺克尔,编辑。,一个神学提要路德的; P斯,在路德神学的马丁;乙二醇鲁普,神义的; ü萨尔尼瓦拉,路德发现了福音;公司狄更斯,德国民族和马丁路德; J阿特金森,马丁路德和新教的诞生;相对湿度班顿,在这里,我立场:生活的马丁路德; Ĥ博默,马丁路德:路改造;生殖健康法伊夫,马丁起义中的作用路德; Ĥ格里萨尔,路德;氢化海尔,路德:一个传记试验;他的时代乙二醇Schwiebert,路德和; JM托德,马丁路德:一个传记研究。


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