Mercersburg TheologyMercersburg 神学

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Mercersburg Theology is a romantic Reformed theology which during the midnineteenth century stood opposed to the main developments of American religious thought.梅塞神学是一个浪漫的改革神学,其中在midnineteenth世纪站在反对美国宗教思想的主要事态发展的影响。 It was the work of John Williamson Nevin (1803 - 86), a theologian, and Philip Schaff (1819 - 93), a church historian, who taught at the seminary of the German Reformed Church in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, in the 1840s and 1850s.这是)工作的约翰威廉姆森内温(1803年至1886年,一个神学家,和菲利普沙夫(1819 - 93),教会历史学家,谁19世纪50年代任教于宾夕法尼亚州的修道院的德国归正教会在梅塞,在19世纪40年代和。

Nevin had graduated from Presbyterian Princeton, had lectured there briefly, and then taught for a decade at a Presbyterian seminary in Pittsburgh before joining Mercersburg in 1840.内温长老曾毕业于普林斯顿大学,曾出现短暂演讲,然后在美国匹兹堡神学院任教的一个长老会在十年前,1840年加入梅塞研究。 He detailed the theological pilgrimage which undergirded his move away from a Princeton form of Calvinism in The History and Genius of the Heidelberg Catechism, doctrinal standard of the German Reformed, exhibited the Reformation at its best before its modern decline into a rationalistic and mechanical "Puritanism."他详细介绍了他的神学朝圣的undergirded脱离了,普林斯顿形式加尔文主义在历史的改造和天才的海德堡的问答,理论水平的德国展出“清教在其最好的改革和现代化的机械前下降到理性“。 Nevin criticized the direction of American Protestantism in The Anxious Bench (1843), a work which attacked revivalism for being too individualistic, too emotional, and too much concerned with the "new measures" (such as the anxious bench for souls under conviction) which drew attention to human foibles and away from the work of Christ and the church.内文批评焦虑)法官(1843年美国新教的方向中的一个工作袭复古过于个人主义,太情绪化,和太多的有关措施,以“新”的信念(如灵魂下的惶惶不安),其中提请注意人类弱点,远离教会基督和工作。 To remedy these ills Nevin proposed a return to classic Reformed convictions about Christ and his work.为了纠正这些弊端内温提出了他的工作,回到经典的关于基督和改革信念。

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The Mystical Presence (1846) argued that the views of the Reformers, especially Calvin, provided a means to overcome superficial and subjectivistic Protestantism.神秘的存在(1846)认为,改革者的意见,特别是卡尔文,提供了一个方法,以克服主观肤浅和新教。 It began with the dramatic assertion that "Christianity is grounded in the living union of the believer with the person of Christ; and this great fact is emphatically concentrated in the mystery of the Lord's Supper."它始于戏剧性的说法,即“基督教就是基督植根于人的生活,工会与信徒,和这个伟大的事实是重点集中在晚餐的神秘的主。” Against the view of Communion as a mere memorial, Nevin presented a case for the "real spiritual presence."鉴于对纪念馆作为一个单纯的共融,内文提出了存在的情况下为“真正的精神。”God, he taught, comes to the church objectively, though not materially, in the Lord's Supper. The Supper in turn should become the focus of worship, and its presentation of the incarnate Christ the center of theology.上帝,他教,来到教堂的客观,虽然没有重大,在主的晚餐。 晚餐中的又应成为崇拜的焦点,其介绍的化身基督的神学中心。

When Philip Schaff came to Mercersburg in 1844 from the University of Berlin, he brought along an appreciation for Germany's new idealistic philosophy and for its pietistic church renewal as well.当菲利普沙夫来到从1844年到梅塞柏林大学,他带来了一个哲学的赞赏德国新理想主义和教会的虔诚,以及重建。His early work at Mercersburg urged Protestants toward a fuller appreciation of the Christian past.他在早期的工作要求梅塞过去新教徒对基督教的一个更全面的理解。In The Principle of Protestantism (1844) he suggested, for example, that the Reformation continued the best of medieval Catholicism.在这个例子中的新教原则(1844年),他的建议,认为改革继续天主教最好的中世纪。 And he looked forward to the day when Reformed, Lutheran, and even eventually Catholic believers could join in Christian union.他期待着有一天改革,路德会,天主教的信徒,甚至最终可能加入基督教工会。Such views led to charges of heresy, from which Schaff cleared himself only with difficulty.这种观点导致异端罪名,从中沙夫清除困难只有他自己。

The influence of Nevin and Schaff was slight in the 1840s and 1850s. American Protestants were ill at ease with immigrants and with anyone who spoke a good word for any aspect of Roman Catholicism. They were wholeheartedly given to revivalism.该内温的影响和沙夫是在19世纪40年代略有新教徒和19世纪50年代。移民在美国被虐待与人方便与谁说话的罗马天主教好话的任何方面。给予他们全心全意复兴。 They were busy making plans for interdenominational cooperation and did not look kindly on Mercersburg's new reading of history.他们忙于合作计划教派,不看历史上梅塞请阅读是新的。And America's dominant Protestant philosophy, commonsense realism, had little room for the developmental ideas of Nevin and Schaff.而美国的新教占主导地位的哲学,常识的现实主义,也没有想法和沙夫的内温的发展空间。

The two Mercersburg stalwarts were able to work closely together for barely a decade.这两个梅塞中坚分子能够紧密合作以不到10年。Nevin, after editing the Mercersburg Review from 1849 to 1853, retired because of illness and disillusionment.内文后,编辑梅塞审查1849年至1853年,幻灭退休是因为疾病和。Schaff left Mercersburg in 1863 for teaching posts at Andover and Union seminaries, where he participated actively in the general evangelical life of America.沙夫在1863年离开美国梅塞为教学岗位安多弗和联盟神学院,在那里生活,他积极参加一般的福音。Nonetheless, the works of the Mercersburg men remain a guide - post for Christians who share their convictions: that the person of Christ is the key to Christianity; that the Lord's Supper, understood in a classic Reformed sense, is the secret to the ongoing life of the church; and that study of the church's past provides the best perspective for bringing its strength to bear on the present.然而,梅塞男子工程,仍是一个指南- 基督教后为基督徒谁分享他们的信念: 即该人的基督是关键,是主的晚餐,意义理解一个典型的改革,是企业的生命秘密正在进行在教堂,并认为过去的研究教会的提供了目前最好的角度为使自己的力量承担。

Mark A Noll标志着诺尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
JH Nichols, Romanticism in American Theology: Nevin and Schaff at Mercersburg and (ed.) The Mercersburg Theology.JH尼科尔斯,神学浪漫主义在美国:内文和沙夫在梅塞和(编)的梅塞神学。

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