Monothelitism Monothelitism

General Information一般信息

Monothelitism was a 7th - century Byzantine doctrine that accepted the teaching of two natures in Jesus Christ, as defined (451) at the Council of Chalcedon, but declared that he had only one will or mode of activity (energeia). The Monothelitic formula was adopted (624) by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius as a compromise that might be acceptable to the Monophysites (Monophysitism) of Egypt and Syria.Monothelitism是7 -世纪拜占庭式的理论,接受了基督耶稣的教学中两个性质的定义,会卡尔西(451)上,但宣称,他将只有一个或模式的活动(energeia)。公式的Monothelitic通过拜占庭皇帝希拉克略(624)作为一个可以接受的折衷办法,以该monophysites(基督一)埃及和叙利亚。 Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, championed the doctrine and won the support of the Egyptian and Armenian Monophysites.谢尔盖,君士坦丁堡牧首的,拥护的原则,赢得了该monophysites支持埃及和亚美尼亚。

The Christological controversies of an earlier age soon reappeared, however.不久又出现年龄较早基督的争议,但是。Sergius sought the support of Pope Honorius I, who approved the Monothelitic formula, specifically rejecting the Chalcedonian teaching of "two wills."谢尔盖寻求,教宗何诺支持我,谁批准Monothelitic公式明确拒绝了两个遗嘱迦克教学“。”Monothelitism was condemned by Honorius's successors and by the Third Council of Constantinople (680). Monothelitism谴责了诺的继任者,由第三届理事会君士坦丁堡(680)。Because the writings of Honorius had contributed to the spread of this teaching, he also was condemned, although he was not accused of the formal teaching of heresy.由于诺的作品作出了贡献教学传播如此,他也遭到了谴责,但他并没有指责异端教学正规。

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Monothelitism Monothelitism

Advanced Information先进的信息

Monothelitism was a heresy especially prevalent in the Eastern church in the seventh century which said that as Christ had but one nature (monophysitism) so he had but one will (Greek monos, "alone"; thelein, "to will"). Emperor Heraclius attempted to reconcile the monophysite bishops, who held that the human and divine natures in Christ were fused together to form a third, by offering in his ecthesis (statement of faith) in 638 the view that Christ worked through a divine - human energy. Monothelitism是异端盛行,特别是在东部教会在第七世纪的基督曾表示,由于只有一个性质(一元神),所以他只上过一会(希腊莫诺,“独”; thelein,“到会”)。皇帝希拉克略试图调和主教,谁认为,人的天性,在基督和神的融合在一起,形成一个第三,在提供),在他ecthesis(638信仰的声明认为,基督基督一性工作,通过一神-人的能量。 This compromise was at first accepted by Constantinople and Rome, but Sophronius soon to be Bishop of Jerusalem, organized the orthodox opposition to monothelitism.这一妥协是在第一次接受了罗马和君士坦丁堡,但Sophronius即将耶路撒冷主教,组织了反对正统monothelitism。 A fine defense of the person of Christ as one in two natures with two wills was given by John of Damascus.一个基督的罚款防御人作为遗嘱性质之一,与两个二是由约翰大马士革下达。The Council of Chalcedon had declared that "Christ has two natures."理事会的卡尔西宣布,“基督有两个性质。”This was now amended by the Council of Constantinople, which declared that Christ had two wills, his human will being subject to his divine will.这是现在修正了将安理会的君士坦丁堡,宣布基督有两个遗嘱,他的人会受到他的神圣。

WN Kerr十五分克尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
John of Damascus, Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, III; A Harnack, History of Dogma, IV; AA Luce, Monophysitism; HP Liddon, The Divinity of Our Lord.约翰大马士革,信仰东正教的博览会,三;阿哈纳克,教条的历史,四,机管局卢斯,基督一性;惠普利敦,我国主神。


Monothelitism and MonothelitesMonothelitism和Monothelites

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Sometimes written MONOTHELETES, from monotheletai, but the eta is more naturally transliterated into late Latin by i.) A heresy of the seventh century, condemned in the Sixth General Council. (有时书面MONOTHELETES,从monotheletai,但更自然译音埃塔进入后期拉丁语由岛)一个世纪异端第七,安理会谴责在第六秘书长。 It was essentially a modification of Monophysitism, propagated within the Catholic Church in order to conciliate the Monophysites, in hopes of reunion.它基本上是一个基督一修改,在天主教教会传播,以调解该monophysites团聚,在希望。

THE THEOLOGICAL QUESTION的神学问题

The Monophysites were habitually represented by their Catholic opponents as denying all reality to the human nature of Christ after the union.该monophysites被习惯性地代表他们的工会后,天主教的所有现实的基督人性对手否认。This was perhaps a logical deduction from some of their language, but it was far from being the real teaching of their chief doctors.这也许是他们的语言逻辑演绎一些,但它远远不是他们的医生主要的实际教学。

Yet at least it is certain that they made the unity of Christ (on which they insisted against real and supposed Nestorianizers) imply only one principle of intention and will, and only one kind of activity or operation (energeia). Personality seemed to them to be manifested in will and action; and they thought a single personality must involve a single will and a single category of action. The Person of Christ, being divino-human, must therefore involve one divino-human will and one divino-human activity (see EUTYCHIANISM; MONOPHYSITES AND MONOPHYSITISM).但至少可以肯定的是,他们所取得的Nestorianizers统一基督(上应该对他们坚持真正的)意味着只有一个原则的意图和意志,只有一个人格种活动或操作(energeia)。似乎他们体现在意志和行动,他们认为一个人必须有一个统一的意志和行动的单一类别。在基督的人,被迪维努,人力,因此必须涉及一个迪维努,人的意志和一迪维努,人类活动(见EUTYCHIANISM; monophysites和东正教基督一)。

A. The two Wills.答:两个遗嘱。

The Catholic doctrine is simple, at all events in its main lines.天主教教义很简单,在其主要线路的所有事件。The faculty of willing is an integral part of human nature: therefore, our Lord had a human will, since He took a perfect human nature.该学院是一个愿意人性的组成部分:因此,我们的主有一个人的意志,因为他参加了一个完美的人性。 His Divine will on the other hand is numerically one with that of the Father and the Holy Ghost.他的神会,另一方面是一个神圣的数值与该鬼的父亲和。It is therefore necessary to acknowledge two wills in Christ.因此,必须承认两个基督遗嘱研究。

But if the word will is taken to mean not the faculty but the decision taken by the will (the will willed, not the will willing), then it is true that the two wills always acted in harmony: there were two wills willing and two acts, but one object, one will willed; in the phrase of St. Maximus, there were duo thelemata though mia gnome.但是,如果将这个词的意思是不是教师,但所采取的决定将(意志的意志,而不是将愿意),那么这是事实,这两个意志总是和谐行事:有两个遗嘱愿意和2行为,但一个对象,人会意志;在Maximus的短语圣,有两人的gnome thelemata虽然米娅。The word will is also used to mean not a decision of the will, but a mere velleity or wish, voluntas ut natura (thelesis) as opposed to voluntas ut ratio (boulesis).将这个词也用来指不将决定的,但仅仅velleity或希望,塔斯UT斯达康的Natura(thelesis)相对于塔斯UT斯达康比(boulesis)。 These are but two movements of the same faculty; both exist in Christ without any imperfection, and the natural movement of His human will is perfectly subject to its rational or free movement.这些只不过是两个系的变动相同;同时存在,在基督没有任何缺陷,而人的意志为转移的,他自然是完全符合其理性或自由流动。 Lastly, the sensitive appetite is also sometimes entitled will.最后,敏感的食欲有时也有权将。It is an integral part of human nature, and therefore exists in the perfect human nature of Jesus Christ, but without any of the imperfection induced by original or actual sin: He can have no passions (in that sense of the word which implies a revolt against the reason), no concupiscence, no "will of the flesh".这是一个人性化的整体的一部分,因此存在于基督耶稣的人性的完美,但没有任何罪恶或实际原来的缺陷引起的:他有没有激情的暴动意味着它(在这个意义上的字反对的原因),没有concupiscence,没有“意志的肉”。 Therefore this "lower will" is to be denied in Christ, in so far as it is called a will, because it resists the rational will (it was in this sense that Honorius was said by John IV to have denied that Christ had a lower will); but it is to be asserted in Him so far as it is called will, because it obeys the rational will, and so is voluntas per participationem: in fact in this latter sense the sensual appetite is less improperly called will in Christ than in us, for quo perfectior est volens, eo magis sensualitas in eo de voluntate habet.因此,这种“低意愿”是要否认基督,只要它被称为会,因为它会抗拒理性(它是在基督这个意义上,是由何诺说,约翰四世已经否认较低会),但它是被他断言,只要它被称为会,因为它服从理性的意志,因此是participationem塔斯每:实际上在这后一种意义上的感官胃口不太所谓不当会比在基督在我们,因为现状perfectior预测沃伦斯,行政主任马吉斯sensualitas在埃奥德voluntate habet。But the strict Sense of the word will (votuntas, thelema) is always the rational will, the free will. It is therefore correct to say that in Christ there are but two wills: the Divine will, which is the Divine nature, and the human rational will, which always acts in harmony with and in free subjection to the Divine will.但严格意义上的意志(votuntas,thelema)始终是理性的意志,自由意志。因此,正确地说,在基督里,但有两个遗嘱:神的意志,这是神圣的性质,以及人类理性的意志,它总是与行为和谐和自由服从神的意志。 The denial of more than one will in Christ by the heretics necessarily involved the incompleteness of His human nature.这必然涉及人类对大自然的不完备拒绝异端以上的人会在基督。They confounded the will as faculty with the decision of the faculty.他们混淆了的教师将与教师的决定。They argued that two wills must mean contrary wills, which shows that they could not conceive of two distinct faculties having the same object.他们认为,两个遗嘱必须表示遗嘱相反,这表明他们不能想象在同一个对象有两个不同的学系。Further, they saw rightly that the Divine will is the ultimate governing principle, to hegemonikon, but a free human will acting under its leadership seemed to them to be otiose.此外,他们看到正确地指出,神的意志是最终的主导原则,以hegemonikon,而是一个自由人的意志行事的领导下对他们的似乎是多余的。 Yet this omission prevents our Lord's actions from being free, from being human actions, from being meritorious, indeed makes His human nature nothing but an irrational, irresponsible instrument of the Divinity - a machine, of which the Divinity is the motive power.然而,这被遗漏防止行动自由主的,从人类活动有功,被,确实使他的人性,不过是一种非理性的,不负责任的神文书-一台机器,其中的神,是动力。 To Severus our Lord's knowledge was similarly of one kind - He had only Divine knowledge and no human cognitive faculty.为了塞维鲁我们的主的知识是同样的一种-他只有神圣的知识,没有人的认知能力。Such thoroughgoing conclusions were not contemplated by the inventors of Monothelitism, and Sergius merely denied two wills in order to assert that there was no repugnance in Christ's human nature to the promptings of the Divine, and he certainly did not see the consequences of his own disastrous teaching.这种彻底的结论是没有预想到的Monothelitism的发明家和谢尔盖只是否认两个遗嘱,以断言,没有任何性质的反感,在基督的人,以神圣的激励了的,他肯定没有看到的后果他自己的灾难性教学。

B. The two operations二,两个操作

Operation or energy, activity (energeia, operatio), is parallel to will, in that there is but one activity of God, ad extra, common to all the three Persons; whereas there are two operations of Christ, on account of His two natures.操作或能源,活动(energeia,手术),平行于会,在这世界上只有一个上帝活动的,广告多,是所有的3人;而有两个操作性质的基督,他的两个帐户。 The word energeia is not here employed in the Aristotelean sense (actus, as opposed to potentia, dynamis), for this would be practically identical with esse (existentia), and it is an open question among Catholic theologians whether there is one esse in Christ or two.这个词energeia不在这里受雇于亚里士多德意义(行为致,而不是势的,潜能),因为这是几乎相同的埃塞(existentia),它是一个天主教神学家之间悬而未决的问题是否有一个基督在埃塞或2。 Nor does energeia here mean simply the action (as Vasquez, followed by de Lugo and others, wrongly held) but the faculty of action, including the act of the faculty.这里的意思也不energeia简单的动作(如巴斯克斯举行其次是德卢戈,错误等),但教师的行动,包括教师的行为。 Petavius has no difficulty in refuting Vasquez, by referring to the writers of the seventh century; but he himself speaks of duo genera operationum as equivalent to duo operationes, which introduces an unfortunate confusion between energeia and praxeis or energemata, that is between faculty of action and the multiple actions produced by the faculty. Petavius没有巴斯克斯困难反驳,指的是七世纪由作家的,但他自己operationum谈到两人属等同二人operationes,它引入了一个不幸的混淆或energemata之间energeia和praxeis,这一行动是教师之间由教师制作的多个操作。 This confusion of terms is frequent in modern theologians, and occurs in the ancients, eg St. Sophronius.这方面的混乱是经常在现代神学家,和古人发生在,如圣Sophronius。The actions of God are innumerable in Creation and Providence, but His energeia is one, for He has one nature of the three Persons.上帝的行动是在创作和静宜无数,但他的energeia是其中之一,因为他有一个3人的本质。The various actions of the incarnate Son proceed from two distinct and unconfused energeiai, because He has two natures.肉身的圣子的各种行动的出发点和unconfused energeiai两个不同的,因为他有两个性质。All are the actions of one subject (agent or principium quod), but are either divine or human according to the nature (principium quo) from which they are elicited.所有的行动都是原理狴一个主题(或代理人),但不是神或人类根据大自然(原理不变)由它们所引起。The Monophysites were therefore quite right in saying that all the actions, human and divine, of the incarnate Son are to be referred to one agent, who is the God-man; but they were wrong in inferring that consequently His actions, both the human and the Divine, must all be called "theandric" or "divino-human", and must proceed from a single divino-human energeia.该monophysites因此说得很对,所有的行动,人类和神的儿子,肉身是被称为一个代理,谁是神人,但他们推测错误,因此他的行为,无论是人和神圣的,都必须被称为“theandric”或“迪维努-人”,必须要从单一迪维努人与人energeia。 St. Sophronius, and after him St.圣Sophronius,经过他的圣Maximus and St. John Damascene, showed that the two energeia produce three classes of actions, since actions are complex, and some are therefore mingled of the human and the divine.大菱鲆和圣约翰大马士革,显示该两名energeia产生三个类别的行动,因为行动是复杂的,有些是相互交织,因此神对人类和。

(1) There are Divine actions exercised by God the Son in common with the Father and the Holy Ghost (eg the creation of souls or the conservation of the universe) in which His human nature bears no part whatever, and these cannot be called divino-human, for they are purely Divine. (1)被称为迪维努神圣的上帝的儿子行动行使共同与父亲和圣灵(创建如灵魂或保护是宇宙),其中他不能人性承担任何部分什么的,而这些人与人,因为他们是纯粹的神圣。 It is true that it is correct to say that a child ruled the universe (by the communicatio idiomatum), but this is a matter of words, and is an accidental, not a formal predication - He who became a child ruled the universe as God, not as a child, and by an activity that is wholly Divine, not divino-human.诚然,这是正确地说,一个孩子的交际idiomatum统治宇宙(由),但是这是一个问题的话,是一种偶然的,不是一个正式的预测-他成了一个孩子谁统治宇宙神,而不是作为一个孩子,由一个神圣的活动,是完全不迪维努-人类。

(2) There are other Divine actions which the Word Incarnate exercised in and through His human nature, as to raise the dead by a word, to heal the sick by a touch. (二)有其他行动,神圣的化身字,并通过行使他的人性,以提高一个字死了,医治病人的触摸。Here the Divine action is distinguished from the human actions of touching or speaking, though it uses them, but through this close connexion the word theandric is not out of place for the whole complex act, while the Divine action as exercised through the human may be called formally theandric, or divino-human.在这里,神圣的行动,是区别于触摸或发言的人的行动的,但它使用他们,而是通过这种密切的联接词theandric是并不过分的地方整个复杂的行为,而作为人行使神圣的行动可能会通过所谓正式theandric,或迪维努-人类。

(3) Again, there are purely human actions of Christ, such as walking or eating, but these are due to the free human will, acting in response to a motion of the Divine will.(3)同样,也有纯粹是吃人的行为的基督,如步行或,但这些都是由于人的意志的自由,神圣的行动响应议案的意愿。These are elicited from a human potentia, but under the direction of the Divine.这些引起了一个人势的,但在神圣的方向。Therefore they are also called theandric, but in a different sense - they are materially theandric, humano-divine.因此,他们也被称为theandric,但在不同的意义-它们有重大theandric,humano神的。 We have seen therefore that to some of our Lord's actions the word theandric cannot be applied at all; to some it can be applied in one sense, to others in a different sense.因此,我们已经看到一些以theandric我们的主的行动一词不能适用于所有;在一些可以适用于从某种意义上说,不同意义的其他方面。 The Lateran Council of 649 anathematized the expression una deivirilis operatio, mia theandrike energeia, by which all the actions divine and human are performed. 649拉特兰会议的诅咒表达乌纳deivirilis手术,米娅theandrike energeia,其中所有神和人的行动是执行。It is unfortunate that the respect felt for the writings of Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita has prevented theologians from proscribing the expression deivirilis operatio altogether.不幸的是,尊重Areopagita毡修斯的著作伪阻止deivirilis神学从手术完全禁制的表达。It has been shown above that it is correct to speak of deiviriles actus or actiones or energemata.它已被证明是正确的,它上面讲的deiviriles行为致或actiones或energemata。The kaine theandrike energeia, of Pseudo-Dionysius was defended by Sophronius and Maximus as referring to the Divine energeia when producing the mixed (formally theandric) acts; theandric thus becomes a correct epithet of the Divine operation under certain circumstances, and that is all.在凯恩theandrike energeia修斯,伪是辩护Sophronius和鲆,它是指当神圣的energeia生产混合(正式theandric)行为; theandric从而成为某些情况下,正确的神圣称号的运作下,这是所有。

Though the Monophysites in general spoke of "one theandric operation", yet a speech of St. Martin at the Lateran Council tells us that a certain Colluthus would not go even so far as this, for he feared lest "theandric" might leave some operation to the human nature; he preferred the word thekoprepes, Deo decibilis (Mansi, X, 982).虽然在一般该monophysites谈到“一theandric行动”,但一会讲话,圣马丁在拉特兰告诉我们,一定Colluthus不会去,即使这样,在这方面,因为他担心,以免“theandric”可能给一些操作对人性,他更喜欢用thekoprepes,迪奥decibilis(曼西,第十,982)。 The denial of two operations, even more than the denial of two wills, makes the human nature of Christ an inanimate instrument of the Divine will.这些行动剥夺两个,甚至两个以上的遗嘱剥夺,使基督的人性是神圣的无生命的工具的意愿。St. Thomas points out that though an instrument participates in the action of the agent who uses it, yet even an inanimate instrument has an activity of its own; much more the rational human nature of Christ has an operation of its own under the higher motion it receives from the divinity.圣托马斯指出,虽然文书参加了自己行动的代理人谁使用它,但即使是没有生命的仪器都有其活动的,更多的是理性的基督人性有自己的议案一较高下,其运作它接收从神性。 But by means of this higher motion, the two natures act in concert, according to the famous words of St. Leo's Tome: "Agit enim utraque forma cum alterius communione quod proprium est; Verbo scilicet operante quod Verbi est, et carne exsequente quod carnis est. Unum horum coruscat miraculis, aliud succumbit injuriis" (Ep. 28, 4).但是,这意味着更高的议案,该法在音乐会两个性质,根据利奥的圣多美和普林西比圣的名言:“地理信息技术应用enim utraque预计暨alterius communione狴proprium预测;韦尔博scilicet operante狴Verbi预测,等卡恩exsequente狴carnis建于教科文组织货币单位霍鲁姆coruscat miraculis,aliud succumbit injuriis“(插曲28日,4)。These words were quoted by Cyrus, Sergius, Sophronius, Honorius, Maximus, etc., and played a large part in the controversy.这些话是引述了居鲁士,谢尔盖,Sophronius,诺,鲆等,发挥了很大的争议部分研究。This intercommunication of the two operations follows from the Catholic doctrine of the perichoresis, circuminsessio, of the two unconfused and inseparable natures, as again St. Leo: "Exprimit quidem sub distinctis actionibus veritatem suam utraque natura, sed neutra se ab alterius connexione disjungit" (Serm. liv, 1). St.这两个行动通话遵循的perichoresis从天主教教义,circuminsessio,两个unconfused和不可分割的性质,也再次圣利奥:“Exprimit quidem分distinctis actionibus veritatem苏阿姆utraque的Natura,桑达纽特勒本身从头alterius connexione disjungit” (Serm.丽芙,1)。街Sophronius (Mansi, XI, 480 sqq.) and St. Maximus (Ep. 19) expressed this truth at the very outset of the controversy as well as later; and it is insisted upon by St. John Damascene. Sophronius(曼西,第十一,480时12 sqq。)和圣鲆(插曲19)表达了这一真理在稍后的一开始就争议以及;,这是坚持大马士革经圣约翰。 St. Thomas (III, Q. xix, a. 1) well explains it: "Motum participat operationem moventis, et movens utitur operatione moti, et sic utrumque agit cum communicatione alterius".圣托马斯(三,问:十九,甲一)较好地解释的那样:“莫特姆participat operationem moventis,等movens utitur operatione莫蒂,碳化硅等地理信息技术应用暨communicatione alterius utrumque”。Krüger and others have doubted whether it could be said that the question of two operations was already decided (as Loofs held), in Justinian's time.克鲁格等人怀疑它是否可以说,两个问题的行动已经决定(如卢夫斯)举行时间,在查士丁尼的。But it seems that St. Leo's words, yet earlier, were clear enough.但似乎圣利奥的话,还早,是十分清楚。The writings of Severus of Antioch assumed that his Catholic opponents would uphold two operations, and an obscure monk in the sixth century, Eustathius (De duabus naturis, PG, LXXXVI, 909) accepts the expression.安提阿的塞维鲁著作假定的对手,他的天主教会坚持两个操作,一个和尚在六世纪模糊的,欧斯塔修斯(德duabus naturis,前列腺素,捌拾,909)接受的表达。Many of the numerous citations from the Greek and Latin Fathers adduced at the Lateran Council and on other occasions are inconclusive, but some of them are clear enough.许多拉特兰安理会和拉丁美洲的父亲在援引大量引用来自希腊和其他场合都没有结果,但其中有一些是显而易见的。Really learned theologians like Sophronius and Maximus were not at a loss, though Cyrus and Honorius were puzzled.确实学到Maximus的神学家一样Sophronius,并没有出现亏损,但居鲁士和诺感到很奇怪。The Patriarch Eulogius of Alexandria (580-607) had written against those who taught one will, but his work was unknown to Cyrus and Sergius.在亚历山大牧首Eulogius(580-607)写了一对那些谁教的意愿,但他的工作是陌生的赛勒斯和谢尔盖。

HISTORY历史

The origin of the Monothelite controversy is thus related by Sergius in his letter to Pope Honorius.这场争论的起源Monothelite因此相关的谢尔盖教皇在他的信诺。When the Emperor Heraclius in the course of the war which he began about 619, came to Theodosiopolis (Erzeroum) in Armenia (about 622), a Monophysite named Paul, a leader of the Acephali, made a speech before him in favour of his heresy.当他开始皇帝赫拉克留这在战争过程中约619名,来到(约622),以Theodosiopolis(埃尔泽鲁姆)在亚美尼亚一基督一名叫保罗,Acephali的领导人作了发言异端他面前,他赞成。 The emperor refuted him with theological arguments, and incidentally made use of the expression "one operation" of Christ.皇帝驳斥他的论点与神学,并顺带了基督行动“使用的表达”之一。Later on (about 626) he inquired of Cyrus, Bishop of Phasis and metropolitan of the Lazi, whether his words were correct.后来(约626),他询问了赛勒斯,拉孜主教的症状困扰评估和大都市的,无论他的话是正确的。Cyrus was uncertain, and by the emperor's order wrote to Sergius the Patriarch of Constantinople, whom Heraclius greatly trusted, for advice.赛勒斯是不确定的,由皇帝的命令说,以谢尔盖的信任君士坦丁堡牧首,其中赫拉克留很大,征求意见。Sergius in reply sent him a letter said to have been written by Mennas of Constantinople to Pope Vigilius and approved by the latter, in which several authorities were cited for one operation and one will.答复谢尔盖寄给他的信中说已经书面向君士坦丁堡Mennas教皇Vigilius,将通过后者,其中列举了几个部门,一个一个操作。 This letter was afterwards declared to be a forgery and was admitted to be such at the Sixth General Council.这封信后来被宣布为是伪造的,并承认是会等举行的第六届大会。Nothing more occurred, according to Sergius, until in June, 631, Cyrus was promoted by the emperor to the See of Alexandria.没有什么更多的发生,根据谢尔盖631,直到今年六月,赛勒斯是皇帝的倡导下,亚历山大见。The whole of Egypt was then Monophysite, and it was constantly threatened by the Saracens. Heraclius was doubtless very anxious to unite all to the Catholic Church, for the country was greatly weakened by the dissensions of the heretics among themselves, and by their bitterness against the official religion.埃及当时整个基督一性,它也不断受到威胁,撒拉逊人。赫拉克留无疑是非常渴望团结一切的天主教教会,为国家大大削弱了异教徒的纠纷之间,以及他们对苦味官方宗教。 Former emperors had made efforts for reunion, but in the fifth century the Henoticon of Zeno had been condemned by the popes yet had not satisfied all the heretics, and in the sixth century the condemnation of the Three Chapters had nearly caused a schism between East and West without in the least placating the Monophysites. Cyrus was for the moment more successful.前皇帝作出了努力,为团聚,但在五世纪的芝诺Henoticon了教皇的谴责却并没有满足所有的异教徒,并在第六世纪分会谴责三国已接近之间造成了分裂和东西至少没有在安抚该monophysites。赛勒斯的时刻是在更大的成功。 Imagining, no doubt, as all Catholics imagined, that Monophysitism involved the assertion that the human nature of Christ was a nonentity after the Union, he was delighted at the acceptance by the Monophysites of a series of nine Capitula, in which the Chalcedonian "in two natures" is asserted, the "one composite hypostasis", and physike kai kath hypostasin enosis, together with the adverbs asygchytos, atreptos, analloiotos. St.想象,毫无疑问,因为所有的天主教徒想象,即基督一所涉及的断言,即基督的人性是一个无足轻重的联盟后,他很高兴在,接受9投降由基督一性的系列,其中迦克“在两个性质“的断言,”一个复合hypostasis“,并physike偕凯思hypostasin希塞统一,加上副词asygchytos,atreptos,analloiotos。街 Cyril, the great doctor of the Monophysites, is cited; and all is satisfactory until in the seventh proposition our Lord is spoken of as "working His Divine and His human works by one theandric operation, according to the divine Dionysius".西里尔,在该monophysites伟大的医生,是引用,一切是令人满意的,直到第七个命题是我们的主说的是“人类的工作和他的作品之一,他的神圣theandric运作,根据神圣的狄奥尼修斯”。 This famous expression of the Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite is taken by modern critics to show that he wrote under Monophysite influences. But Cyrus believed it to be an orthodox expression, used by Mennas, and approved by Pope Vigilius.这表达了Areopagite著名的伪狄奥尼修斯是由现代的批评,以证明他的影响下基督一说。但是赛勒斯认为它是一个正统的表达,Mennas使用,并Vigilius教皇批准。 He was triumphant therefore at the reunion to the Church of a large number of Theodosian Monophysites, so that, as Sergius phrases it, all the people of Alexandria and nearly all Egypt, the Thebaid, and Libya had become of one voice, and whereas formerly they would not hear even the name of St. Leo and of the Council of Chalcedon, now they acclaimed them with a loud voice in the holy mysteries.因此,他在胜利的团聚,以该monophysites教会Theodosian一个大数目,所以,正如谢尔盖词组了,所有的人几乎所有的亚历山大和埃及,Thebaid,利比亚已经成为一个声音,而以前则他们不会听的名字连奥秘圣里奥和安理会的卡尔西,现在他们称赞他们在神圣与大声。 But the Monophysites saw more clearly, and Anastasius of Mount Sinai tells us that they boasted "they had not communicated with Chalcedon, but Chalcedon with them, by acknowledging one nature of Christ through one operation".但该monophysites更清楚地看到,阿纳斯塔修斯和西奈山告诉我们,他们吹嘘“他们没有沟通卡尔西,但卡尔西与他们所承认基督操作通过一个一个的性质”。

St. Sophronius, a much venerated monk of Palestine, soon to become Patriarch of Jerusalem, was in Alexandria at this time.圣Sophronius,和尚多尊敬的巴勒斯坦,不久将成为耶路撒冷牧,亚历山大是在这个时候。He strongly objected to the expression "one operation", and unconvinced by Cyrus's defence of it, he went to Constantinople, and urged on Sergius, upon whose advice the expression had been used, that the seventh capitulum must be withdrawn.他强烈反对的表达“一个行动”,是不服赛勒斯的辩护,他到君士坦丁堡,并敦促谢尔盖撤回,表达其意见后,已被运用,使第七小头必须是。 Sergius thought this too hard, as it would destroy the union so gloriously effected; but he was so far impressed that he wrote to Cyrus that it would be well for the future to drop both expressions "one operation" and "two operations", and he thought it necessary to refer the whole question to the pope.谢尔盖认为这太难了,因为这将破坏工会等光荣影响,但他至今印象深刻,他写信给赛勒斯,这将是未来的良好前景下降两个表达式“一个行动”和“两个行动”,并他认为有必要把整个问题的教皇。 (So far his own story.) This last proceeding must warn us not to judge Sergius too harshly. (到目前为止,他自己的故事。)这最后的程序必须提醒我们不要过于严厉的法官谢尔盖。It may be invention that he was born of Monophysite parents (so Anastasius of Sinai); at all events he was an opponent of the Monophysites, and he based his defence of "one operation" on the citations of Fathers in the spurious letter of his orthodox predecessor Mennas, which he believed to have had the approval of Pope Vigilius.这可能是他发明的西奈基督一出生父母(这么阿纳斯塔修斯);在所有的事件,他是基督一性的对手,他的辩护“一行动”对伪书的引文父亲在他的正统的前任Mennas,他认为能够有Vigilius教皇批准。 He was a politician who evidently knew little theology.他是一位政治家,谁知道一点显然神学。But he had more to answer for than he admits.但他有更多的回答比他承认。Cyrus had not really been doubtful at first. His letter to Sergius with great politeness explains that he had said the emperor was wrong, and had quoted the famous words of St. Leo's Tome to Flavian: "Agit utraque natura cum alterius communione quod proprium est" as plainly defining two distinct but inseparable operations; Sergius was responsible for leading him into error by sending him the letter of Mennas.赛勒斯并没有真正被怀疑在第一。礼貌,以他的信中解释说,他与谢尔盖曾表示皇帝是错误的,并引述利奥的圣多美和普林西比的名言圣以弗拉维安:“地理信息技术应用utraque的Natura暨alterius communione狴proprium预测“作为两个不同的定义,但显然离不开业务;谢尔盖是Mennas负责领导他错了,派他的信。Further, St. Maximus tells us that Sergius had written to Theodore of Pharan asking his opinion; Theodore agreed.此外,圣Maximus的告诉我们,谢尔盖曾写信给Pharan西奥多询问他的意见;西奥多表示同意。(It is probable that Stephen of Dora was mistaken in making Theodore a Monothelite before Sergius.) He also worked upon the Severian Paul the one-eyed, the same with whom Heraclius had disputed. (这是有可能的是谢尔盖多拉斯蒂芬在作出错误西奥多前Monothelite。)保工作,他还呼吁塞韦里安一个眼睛,同样的争议与谁赫拉克留了。 He had requested George Arsas, a Monophysite follower of Paul the Black of Antioch, to furnish him with authorities for the "one operation", saying in his letter that he was ready to make a union on this basis.他要求乔治Arsas,一保安提基督一追随者的黑人,要提供“他与当局的”一个操作,在他的信中说,他愿在此基础上,工会。 The Alexandrian St. John the Almsgiver (609 or 619) had taken this letter from Arsas with his own hand, and was only prevented by the irruption of the Saracens (619) from using it to obtain the deposition of Sergius.在亚历山大的圣约翰的慈善家(609或619)已采取这种手信Arsas与他自己的,只是防止由谢尔盖突的撒拉逊人(619)使用它来沉积获得。

In the letter to Honorius, Sergius unwittingly develops another heresy.在以诺信,谢尔盖无意中开发另一个异端。He admits that "one operation", though used by a few Fathers, is a strange expression, and might suggest a denial of the unconfused union of two natures. But the "two operations" are also dangerous, by suggesting "two contrary wills, as though when the Word of God wished to fulfil His saving Passion, His humanity resisted and contradicted His will, and thus two contrary wills would be introduced, which is impious, for it is impossible that in the same subject there should be two wills at once, and contrary to one another as to the same thing".他承认,“一个行动”,虽然使用了由少数的父亲,是个奇怪的表达,可能意味着否定性质的两个unconfused联盟。但是,“两个行动”也危险,暗示“两种相反的意志,就像当上帝的话,他希望履行节约的激情,他的人性反抗,违背他的意愿,从而将两种相反的意志介绍,这是大不敬的,因为它是不可能的,在同一主题遗嘱应当有两个在一次,彼此相反,以同样的事情“。 So far he is right; but he continues: "For the saving doctrine of the holy Fathers clearly teaches that the intellectually animated flesh of the Lord never performs its natural movement apart from, and by its own impetus contrariwise to, the direction of the Word of God hypostatically united to it, but only at the time and in the manner and to the extent that the Word of God wishes," just as our body is moved by our rational soul.到目前为止,他是对的,但他继续说:“在神圣的父亲清楚地节约教义的教导主的智力动画肉从来没有履行其自然的运动除,并以自己的动力此相反,在Word的方向神hypostatically团结,但只是在时间和方式及的范围内,神的话语愿望,“正如我们的身体是灵魂感动我们的理性。 Here Sergius speaks of the natural will of the flesh, and of the Divine will, but makes no mention of the higher free will, which indeed is wholly subject to the Divine will.这里谢尔盖谈到了肉体的自然意志,以及神的意志,但并没有将提到更高的自由,这的确是完全受神的意志。He may indeed be understood to include this intellectual will in "the intellectually animated flesh", but his thought is not clear, and his words simply express the heresy of one will.他可能确实被理解为包括这肉“知识将在”智力动画,但他的思想不明确,他的话只是表达一个异端的意志。He concludes that it is best simply to confess that "the only begotten Son of God, who is truly both God and Man, works both the Divine and the human works, and from one and the same incarnate Word of God proceed indivisibly and inseparably both the Divine and the human operations as St. Leo teaches: Agit enim utraque, etc."他认为,最好是简单地承认说,“上帝的独生子,谁是真正的上帝和人,作品既有神和人的作品,从同一个体现神的话语和不可分割的两个不可分割地进行神和人的行动的圣利奥教导:地理信息技术应用enim utraque,等等“If these words and the quotation from St. Leo mean anything, they mean two operations; but Sergius's error lies precisely in deprecating this expression.如果这些话,意味着什么带从圣利奥,他们指的两次行动,但谢尔盖的错误表达恰恰在于贬低这一点。It cannot be too carefully borne in mind that theological accuracy is a matter of definition, and definition is a matter of words.它不能太仔细记住这是一个神学准确定义的问题,并定义是一个问题的话。The prohibition of the right words is always heresy, even though the author of the prohibition has no heretical intention and is merely shortsighted or confused.禁止的话永远是异端的权利,即使禁止在没有作者的意图和邪教,只是短视或混淆。Honorius replied reproving Sophronius, and praising Sergius for rejecting his "new expression" of "two operations".何诺说,谴责Sophronius,赞美谢尔盖拒绝他的“新表达”“的”两个操作。He approves the recommendations made by Sergius, and has no blame for the capitula of Cyrus.他批准由谢尔盖提出的建议,并没有责怪赛勒斯的投降。In one point he goes further than either, for he uses the words: "Wherefore we acknowledge one Will of our Lord Jesus Christ."在1点,他比任何更进一步,为他所用的字眼:“人哪,我们承认一个基督,我们的主耶稣。”We may easily believe the testimony of Abbot John Symponus, who wrote the letter for Honorius, that he intended only to deny a lower will of the flesh in Christ which contradicted His higher will, and that he was not referring at all to His Divine will; but in connexion with the letter of Sergius such an interpretation is scarcely the more obvious one.我们可以很容易相信会证词住持约翰Symponus,谁写的信诺,他本来只打算否认他的高一低的意志在基督的血肉相矛盾,而且他不是指在所有他的神将,但在Connexion公司与谢尔盖信这种解释,这是无法比较明显的例子。 It is clear that Honorius was not any more a wilful heretic than was Sergius, but he was equally incorrect in his decision, and his position made the mistake far more disastrous.很显然,诺没有任何更多的是故意的异端比谢尔盖,但他同样不正确的决定,他的,他的立场和作出的错误更是灾难性的。 In another letter to Sergius he says he has informed Cyrus that the new expressions, one and two operations, are to be dropped, their use being most foolish.在另一谢尔盖信,他说他已经通知赛勒斯说,新的表现形式,一,两个行动,是被丢弃,它们的使用是最愚蠢的。

In one of the last four months of 638 effect was given to the pope's letter by the issue of an "Exposition" composed by Sergius and authorized by the emperor; it is known as the Ecthesis of Heraclius.实际上,对过去638 4个月交给了教皇的信件由谢尔盖的组成问题“,”博览会和皇帝的授权,它是赫拉克留被誉为Ecthesis。Sergius died 9 Dec., a few days after having celebrated a council in which the Ecthesis was acclaimed as "truly agreeing with the Apostolic teaching", words which seem to be a reference to its being founded on the letter of Honorius.谢尔盖死亡12月9日,信诺几天后,一个庆祝会,其中的Ecthesis誉为“真正的使徒,同意与教学”,即来似乎是一对参照成立了福利。 Cyrus received the news of this council with great rejoicings.赛勒斯收到rejoicings新闻本会与伟大。The Ecthesis itself is a complete profession of Faith according to the five General Councils.该Ecthesis本身就是一个完整的职业信仰按照五个总议会。Its peculiarity consists in adding a prohibition of the expression one and two operations, and an assertion of one will in Christ lest contrary wills should be held.它的特点包括禁止表达式之一,两次手术,并声称将在举行的一个基督以免违反遗嘱应当加入。The letter of Honorius had been a grave document, but not a definition of Faith binding on the whole Church.在诺信已严重的文件,但没有约束力教会整体上定义的信仰。The Ecthesis was a definition.该Ecthesis是一个定义。But Honorius had no cognizance of it, for he had died on 12 Oct. The envoys who came for the emperor's confirmation of the new Pope Severinus refused to recommend the Ecthesis to the latter, but promised to lay it before him for judgment (see MAXIMUS OF CONSTANTINOPLE).但何诺没有认识到它的,因为他Severinus死于10月12日教皇的特使谁来抓新皇帝证实的拒绝推荐Ecthesis后者,但承诺的判断,奠定他面前(见鲆君士坦丁堡)。 Severinus, not consecrated until May, 640, died two months later, but not without having condemned the Ecthesis.Severinus,而不是神圣的,直到5月,640,两个月后死亡,但并非没有Ecthesis有谴责。John IV, who succeeded him in December, lost no time in holding a synod to condemn it formally.约翰四世,谁接替他在12月,失去的时间没有正式举行会议,以谴责。When Heraclius, who had merely intended to give effect to the teaching of Honorius, heard that the document was rejected at Rome, he disowned it in a letter to John IV, and laid the blame on Sergius. He died Feb., 641.当赫拉克留,谁也只是为了落实诺教学,听说该文件是在罗马被拒绝,他否定四是在约翰的信,奠定了谢尔盖责怪。他死于2月,641。 The pope wrote to the elder son of Heraclius, saying that the Ecthesis would doubtless now be withdrawn, and apologizing for Pope Honorius, who had not meant to teach one human will in Christ.教宗致函赫拉克留大儿子说,现在的Ecthesis无疑将被撤回,基督为教宗何诺道歉,谁也并不意味着人类将在教导1。 St. Maximus Confessor published a similar defence of Honorius, but neither of these apologists says anything of the original error, the forbidding of the "two operations, which was soon to become once more the principal point of controversy. In fact on this point no defence of Honorius was possible. But Pyrrhus, the new Patriarch of Constantinople, was a supporter of the Ecthesis and confirmed it in a great council, which St. Maximus, however, reproves as irregularly convoked. After the death of Constantine and the exile of his brother Heracleonas, Pyrrhus himself was exiled to Africa Here he was persuaded in a famous controversy with St. Maximus (qv) to renounce the appeal to Vigilius and Honorius and to condemn the Ecthesis; he went to Rome and made his submission to Pope Theodore, John IV having died (Oct., 642).马克西姆斯忏悔圣诺发表了类似的辩护,但辩护说,任何事情都没有这些原来的错误,有争议的禁止“两个行动,这是不久将再次成为主要的点。其实在这一点上没有何诺防御是可能的。但皮拉斯,君士坦丁堡牧首新的,是一个Ecthesis支持者召集的,并确认它在一个大议会,其中圣鲆,但是,谴责为不定期。君士坦丁后死亡和流放的他的弟弟Heracleonas,皮拉斯自己被流放到非洲在这里,他请参阅劝说鲆(一个著名的争论与圣)放弃上诉,以Vigilius和诺和谴责Ecthesis,他去了罗马,并作了提交教皇西奥多,约翰四世去世后(10月,642)。

Meanwhile protests from the East were not wanting.从东同时抗议不想。St. Sophronius, who, after becoming Patriarch of Jerusalem, died just before Sergius, had yet had time to publish at his enthronization a formal defence of the dogma of two operations and two wills, which was afterwards approved by the sixth council.圣Sophronius,谁后,成为耶路撒冷宗主教的去世之前谢尔盖,还没有来得及公布他的enthronization第六个安理会正式辩护的教条的两个行动,两个遗嘱,其中是事后批准。 This remarkable document was the first full exposition of the Catholic doctrine.这非凡的文件是首次全面阐述天主教教义的。 It was sent to all the patriarchs, and St. Sophronius humbly asked for corrections. His references to St. Leo are interesting, especially his statement: "I accept all his letters and teachings as proceeding from the mouth of Peter the Coryphæus, and I kiss them and embrace them with all my soul".这是发送到所有的元老,和圣Sophronius虚心改正要求。他引用圣利奥很有意思,特别是他声明:“我接受他所有的信件和教义作为领导者要从口彼得,我他们亲吻,拥抱我的灵魂“他们。 Further on he speaks of receiving St. Leo's definitions as those of Peter, and St. Cyril's as those of Mark.进一步对他讲的那些接受圣彼得的定义,狮子座的,和圣西里尔马克的那些。He also made a large collection of testimonies of the Fathers in favour of two operations and two wills.他还提出了两种意志和收集大量的两项行动的证词的父亲赞成。He finally sent to Rome Stephen, Bishop of Dora, the first bishop of the patriarchate, who has given us a moving description of the way in which the saint led him to the holy place of Calvary and there charged him, saying: "Thou shalt give an account to the God who was crucified for us in this holy place, in His glorious and awful advent, when He shall come to judge the living and the dead, if thou delay and allow His Faith to be endangered, since, as thou knowest, I am myself let, by reason of the invasion of the Saracens which is come upon us for our sins. Swiftly pass, then, from end to end of the world, until thou come to the Apostolic See, where are the foundations of the holy doctrines. Not once, not twice, but many times, make clearly known to all those holy men there all that has been done; and tire not instantly urging and beseeching, until out of their apostolic wisdom they bring forth judgment unto victory."他最后被送往罗马斯蒂芬,多拉主教,他第一个带电的东正教主教,谁给了我们有一个移动的描述的方式,圣人的圣所导致的各各他,说:“你必给钉在十字架上为我们在这个神圣的地方出现,他的光荣和可怕的,神交代,谁是当他将要审判活人与死人,你若延误,让他的信仰受到危害,因为你,因为晓得,我自己让,由撒拉逊人入侵的原因是我们的临到为我们的罪。迅速通过,那么,从端到端的世界,直到你来使徒看,哪里的地基神圣的教义。不是一次,两次,而是很多次,清楚地表达对所有这些神圣的男子there所有已经完成;和轮胎不会立即督促和恳求的智慧,使徒,直到从他们那里,他们带来judgment胜利。 “Urged by almost all the orthodox bishops of the East, Stephen made his first journey to Rome.东敦促几乎所有的东正教主教,反使他的第一次旅行到罗马。On the death of St. Sophronius, his patriarchal see was invaded by the Bishop of Joppa, a supporter of the Ecthesis.在Sophronius死亡圣,他的家长看到的是Ecthesis入侵的主教由约帕的,一个支持者。Another heretic sat in the See of Antioch.另一个邪教坐在安提见。At Alexandria the union with the Monophysites was shortlived.在亚历山大与该monophysites工会是短命的。In 640 the city fell into the hands of the Arabians under Amru, and the unfortunate heretics have remained until today (save for a few months in 646) under the rule of the infidel.在640个城市落入阿拉伯人手中阿姆鲁下,和不幸的异教徒,直到今天仍然(节省数个月,646异教徒)的统治之下。 Thus the whole of the Patriarchates of Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria were separated from Rome.因此,整个耶路撒冷的牧首的君士坦丁堡,安提阿,亚历山大和罗马人分开。Yet no doubt, except in Egypt, the great number of the bishops and the whole of their flocks were orthodox and had no wish to accept the Ecthesis.但毫无疑问,除了埃及,大量的主教和他们的羊群全被正统,并无意接受Ecthesis。

The bishops of Cyprus, independent of any patriarch, held a synod 29 May, 643, against the Ecthesis.塞浦路斯主教,牧首独立的任何一个主教举行5月29日,有643对Ecthesis。They wrote to Pope Theodore a letter of entreaty: "Christ, our God, has instituted your Apostolic chair, O holy head, as a God-fixed and immovable foundation. For thou, as truly spake the Divine Word, art Peter, and upon thy foundation the pillars of the Church are fixed, and to thee He committed the keys of the kingdom of Heaven. He ordered thee to bind and loose with authority on earth and in heaven. Thou art set as the destroyer of profane heresies, as Coryphæus and leader of the orthodox and unsullied Faith. Despise not then, Father, the Faith of our Fathers, tossed by waves and imperilled; disperse the rule of the foolish with the light of thy divine knowledge, O most holy. Destroy the blasphemies and insolence of the new heretics with their novel expressions. For nothing is wanting to your orthodox and pious definition and tradition for the augmentation of the Faith amongst us. For we - O inspired one, you who hold converse with the holy Apostles and sit with them - believe and confess from of old since our very swaddling clothes, teaching according to the holy and God-fearing Pope Leo, and declaring that 'each nature works with the communion of the other what is proper to it'", etc. They declare themselves ready to be martyred rather than forsake the doctrine of St. Leo: but their Archbishop Sergius, when the persecution arose, was found on the side of the persecutors, not of the martyrs.他们说,教皇西奥多一恳求信:“基督,我们的上帝,已设立的使徒椅子啊,神圣的头的基础,作为上帝固定和不动产你。因为,作为真正的圣言如是说,艺术彼得,并吁请你的基础,教会支柱,是固定的,你和他犯下了天上的王国的钥匙的。他命令你到天堂松散绑定和地球上的权威和。祢定为邪教驱逐舰的亵渎领导者,作为和领袖的信仰东正教和污点。鄙夷不是那么,父亲,父亲对我们的信仰,与迎面而来的海浪和危害;分散的傲慢和愚蠢的规则与轻亵渎了你神圣的知识,噢,最神圣的。摧毁其新颖的表现形式,新异教徒什么也没有。对于想你是正统的和虔诚的定义和传统的信念,增强了我们中间。对于我们-氧启发一,你认为谁交谈与圣使徒和他们坐在一起-相信和承认,从旧衣服,因为我们非常襁褓,因材施教的神圣和虔诚的教皇利奥,并宣布这是每一个性质的其他工程与共融的东西是正确的,它的“,等等,他们宣布自己准备好烈属,而不是放弃原则圣利奥:但他们的主教谢尔盖,当出现迫害,被发现的迫害者一边的,不是烈士。 It is abundantly clear that St. Maximus and his Constantinopolitan friends, St. Sophronius and the bishops of Palestine, Sergius and his suffragans, had no notion that the Apostolic See had been compromised by the letters of Honorius, but they look to it as the only port of salvation. Similarly in 646 the bishops of Africa and the adjoining islands held councils, in the name of which the primates of Numidia, Byzacene and Mauritania sent a joint letter to Pope Theodore, complaining of the Ecthesis: "No one can doubt that there is in the Apostolic See a great and unfailing fountain pouring forth waters for all Christians", and so forth.这是十分清楚,他的君士坦丁堡圣鲆和朋友,圣Sophronius和他suffragans主教巴勒斯坦,谢尔盖并没有诺概念,即教廷教廷已对被破坏的信件通过,但他们看看,因为它得救的唯一的港口。同样,在646非洲主教举行的议会和邻近岛屿,其中的名称和毛里塔尼亚的灵长类动物的努米底亚,Byzacene联名写信给教皇西奥多,Ecthesis抱怨的:“没有人能怀疑有在圣座一项伟大而经久不衰喷泉浇注出来“水域内的所有基督教徒,等等。 They enclose letters to the emperor and to the patriarch Paul, to be sent to Constantinople by the pope.他们在信附上皇帝和保罗的元老,被发送到君士坦丁堡的教皇。They are afraid to write directly, for the former governor, Gregory (who had presided at the disputation of his friend St. Maximus with Pyrrhus) had revolted and made himself emperor, and had just been defeated; this was a blow to orthodoxy, which it brought into discredit at Constantinople.他们害怕直接写入,前州长,格雷戈里(谁主持了对他的朋友的争论与皮拉斯圣鲆)的反抗,使自己的皇帝,并且刚刚被击败,这是一个,打击正统它带入抹黑在君士坦丁堡。 Victor, elected primate of Carthage after the letters were written, added one of his own.维克多,迦太基灵长类当选后写的信,说他自己的1。

Paul the patriarch whom the Emperor Constans had substituted for Pyrrhus, had not been acknowledged by Pope Theodore, who demanded of him that Pyrrhus should first be tried by a council before two representatives of the Holy See.保罗皮拉斯元老为他们的皇帝士坦思取代了,还没有承认教皇西奥多,谁他要求该皮拉斯应首先会尝试通过前两个见代表圣灵。Paul's reply is preserved: the views he exposes are those of the Ecthesis, and he defends them by referring to Honorius and Sergius.保罗的回答是保留了:他的意见是Ecthesis那些暴露的,和他辩护谢尔盖他们,指的是诺和。Theodore pronounced a sentence of deposition against him, and Paul retaliated by destroying the Latin altar which belonged to the Roman See in the palace of Placidia at Constantinople, in order that the papal envoys might be unable to offer the Holy Sacrifice; he also persecuted them, together with many orthodox laymen and priests, by imprisonment, exile, or stripes.西奥多宣告判决他对沉积,和保罗牺牲报复,拉丁坛属于宫殿普拉奇迪亚在罗马的见在君士坦丁堡,在破坏秩序的教皇特使可能无法提供的神圣,他还迫害他们与很多外行和东正教神职人员条纹,受到监禁,流放,或。 But Paul, in spite of this violence, had no idea of resisting the definitions of Rome.但保罗,在暴力虽然如此,没有罗马概念的定义抵制。Until now, Honorius had not been disowned there, but defended.到现在为止,诺没有否定有,但辩护。It was said that he had not taught one will; but the prohibition in the Ecthesis of two operations was but an enforcement of the course Honorius had approved, and nothing had as yet, it seems, been officially published at Rome on this point.据说,他没有人会教,但在行动禁止在两个Ecthesis的只不过是一诺执行已批准的过程中,什么事也没有作为的是,它似乎被正式公布在罗马在这一点上。 Paul, somewhat naturally, thought it would be sufficient if he dropped the teaching of one will, and prohibited all reference to one will or two wills as well as to one operation or two operations; it could hardly be urged that this was not in accordance with the teaching of Pope Honorius.保罗,很自然地认为这将是足够的,如果他放弃了一个教学会,并禁止所有一提到遗嘱或两个遗嘱以及一个或两个操作运行,它可能很难按照要求,这是不随着教宗何诺教学。 It would be a measure of peace, and East and West would be again united.这将是一个和平的措施,及东,西将再次团结起来。Paul therefore persuaded the emperor to withdraw the Ecthesis, and to substitute for that elaborate confession of Faith a mere disciplinary measure forbidding all four expressions under the severest penalties; none of the emperor's orthodox subjects have any longer permission to quarrel over them, but no blame is to attach to any who may have used either alternative in the past.保罗因此说服皇帝收回Ecthesis,并以取代信仰阐述供认只有纪律措施,禁止严厉的惩罚所有四个表情下,受试者都没有皇帝的正统已经不再允许争吵过,但没有责怪是谁附加到任何可能利用过去或者替代研究。 Transgression of this law is to involve deposition for bishops and clerics, excommunication and expulsion for monks, loss of office and dignity for officials, fines for richer laymen, corporal punishment and permanent exile for the poorer.法海侵本是涉及沉降的主教和僧侣神职人员,禁教并驱逐出境,失去职位的官员和尊严,更丰富的外行较差罚款,体罚的和永久的流放。 By this cruel law heresy is to be blameless and orthodoxy forbidden.通过这种残酷的法律异端是无可指责和正统禁止。It is known as the Type of Constans.这是被称为士坦思类型。It is not a Monothelite document, for it forbids that heresy just as much as the Catholic Faith.这不是一个Monothelite文件,因为它禁止的邪教信仰一样多为天主教徒。Its date falls between Sept. 648 and Sept. 649.它的日期是9月至9月和649 648。Pope Theodore died 5 May of the latter year, and was succeeded in July by St. Martin I. In October St. Martin held a great council at the Lateran, at which 105 bishops were present. The pope's opening speech gives a history of the heresy, and condemns the Ecthesis, Cyrus, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, and the Type.教皇西奥多5年5月去世后,并成功地在7月马丁一圣圣马丁在10月举行了出席大议会在拉特兰,在这105名主教。教宗的开幕式讲话给出了一个历史的异端,并谴责Ecthesis,赛勒斯,谢尔盖,皮拉斯,保罗,和类型。 John IV had spoken of Sergius with respect; and Martin does not mention Honorius, for it was obviously impossible to defend him if the Type was to be condemned as heresy.约翰四世曾谈到谢尔盖的尊敬;和马丁没有提及诺,因为这显然是不可能为他辩护,如果类型是被谴责为异端。Stephen of Dora, then on his third visit to Rome, presented a long memorial, full of devotion to the Apostolic See.斯蒂芬的多拉,罗马然后他第三次访问,提出了长纪念馆,见充满献身使徒。A deputation followed, of 37 Greek abbots residing in or near Rome, who had apparently fled before the Saracens from their various homes in Jerusalem, Africa, Armenia, Cilicia, etc. They demanded the condemnation of Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, and Cyrus and the anathematizing of the Type by the Apostolic and head See.一个代表团随后,37个居住在希腊罗马住持或接近,谁显然等逃离基利家,之前,亚美尼亚,撒拉逊人从不同的家庭在耶路撒冷,他们要求非洲和谴责的谢尔盖,皮拉斯,保罗,居鲁士头anathematizing和类型的使徒见。 The heretical documents read were part of a letter of Theodore of Pharan, the seventh proposition of Cyrus, the letter of Sergius to Cyrus, excerpts from the synods held by Sergius and Pyrrhus (who had now repented of his repentance), and the approval of the Ecthesis by Cyrus.邪教的文件读了Pharan一部分的西奥多信中,古列第七命题,谢尔盖信赛勒斯,悔改摘录谢尔盖和从主教会议举行皮拉斯(谁,他现在已经悔改),以及批准由赛勒斯Ecthesis。 The letter of Sergius to Honorius was not read, nor was anything said about the correspondence of the latter with Sergius.在谢尔盖信诺是向不识字,也没有什么谢尔盖说,大约用对应后者的。St. Martin summed up; then the letter of Paul to Pope Theodore and the Type were read.圣马丁总结,然后保罗的信中,教皇西奥多和类型的阅读。The council admitted the good intention of the latter document (so as to spare the emperor while condemning Paul), but declared it heretical for forbidding the teaching of two operations and two wills.该委员会承认,使良好的意愿,后者文件(不遗余力皇帝同时谴责保罗),但宣布它为邪教,禁止遗嘱教学两项行动和2。Numerous excerpts from the Fathers and from Monophysite writers were read, and twenty canons were agreed to, the eighteenth of which condemns Theodore of Pharan, Cyrus, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, the Ecthesis, and the Type, under anathema.许多基督一作家摘录从父亲和被阅读,20炮获得通过,18型,其中谴责西奥多Pharan,赛勒斯,谢尔盖,皮拉斯,保罗,Ecthesis和诅咒,下。 A letter to the emperor was signed by all.阿信向皇帝签署了所有。An encyclical letter was sent throughout the Church in the name of St. Martin and the council, addressed to all bishops, priests, deacons, abbots, monks, ascetics, and to the entire sacred fulness of the Catholic Church.安通谕致函整个教会在,名称圣马丁和安理会向所有主教,司铎,执事,方丈,僧侣,苦行者,和整个天主教会充满了神圣的。 This was a final and complete condemnation of the Constantinopolitan policy.这是一个政策的君士坦丁堡最后和彻底的谴责。Rome had spoken ex cathedra. Stephen of Dora had been before appointed papal vicar in the East, but he had by error been informed only of his duty to depose heretical bishops, and not that he was authorized to substitute orthodox bishops in their place.罗马曾发言的教堂前。多拉斯蒂芬曾东被教皇任命前的牧师,但他错误已经由被告知只有罢免职务邪教主教,而不是他被授权来代替自己的位置东正教主教研究。 The pope now gave this commission to John, Bishop of Philadelphia in Palestine, who was ordered to appoint bishops, priests, and deacons in the patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem.现在的教宗约翰给这个委员会,费城主教在巴勒斯坦,谁下令任命主教,神父,和执事在和耶路撒冷的大主教的安提阿。 Martin also sent letters to these patriarchates, and to Peter, who seems to have been governor, asking him to support his vicar; this Peter was a friend and correspondent of St. Maximus.马丁也致函这些大主教,和彼得,谁似乎已经省长,要求他支持他的牧师,这是彼得的朋友和鲆通讯员圣。The pope deposed John, Archbishop of Thessalonica, and declared the appointments of Macarius of Antioch and Peter of Alexandria to be null and void.教皇约翰废黜,大主教萨洛尼卡,并宣布彼得亚历山大任命米加利阿斯和安提阿是无效的。Constans retaliated by having St. Martin kidnapped at Rome, and taken a prisoner to Constantinople.士坦思报复,被绑架后圣马丁在罗马,并采取了囚犯君士坦丁堡。The saint refused to accept the Ecthesis, and after sufferings, many of which he has himself related in a touching document, he died a martyr in the Crimea in March, 655 (see POPE MARTIN I).圣拒绝接受Ecthesis,经过痛苦,他有许多动人的相关文件中的自己,他死在3月在克里米亚烈士,655(见波普马丁一)。 St. Maximus (662), his disciple the monk Anastasius (also 662), and another Anastasius, a papal envoy (666), died of ill-treatment, martyrs to their orthodoxy and devotion to the Apostolic See.圣鲆(662),他的弟子和尚阿纳斯塔修斯(也是662),另一个阿纳斯塔修斯,教皇特使(666),治疗死于虐待,看他们的正统和烈士献身使徒。

While St. Martin was being insulted and tortured at Constantinople, the patriarch Paul was dying.虽然圣马丁被侮辱和折磨在君士坦丁堡,死亡的元老保罗。"Alas, this will increase the severity of my judgment", he exclaimed to the emperor, who paid him a visit; and Constans was induced to spare the pope's life for the moment. “唉,这将增加”我的判断严重程度,他大声说皇帝,谁去看望了他和康斯坦诱导腾出生活的时刻,教宗的。At Paul's death Pyrrhus was restored.在保罗的死皮拉斯恢复。His successor Peter sent an ambiguous letter to Pope Eugenius, which made no mention of two operations, thus observing the prescription of the Type. The Roman people raised a riot when it was read in Sta.他的继任者彼得发出暧昧的信,教皇叶夫根尼,而没有提及两个行动,从而观察类型开药。罗马人提出一站暴动时在读。Maria Maggiore, and would not permit the pope to continue his Mass until he promised to reject the letter. Maria Maggiore的,也不会允许他继续教皇弥撒,直到他答应拒绝信。Constans sent a letter to the pope by one Gregory, with a gift to St. Peter.士坦思派出一个教皇格雷戈里,信用圣彼得的礼物。 It was rumoured at Constantinople that the pope's envoys would accept a declaration of "one and two wills" (two because of the natures, one on account of the union).相传在君士坦丁堡,教皇特使将接受遗嘱宣言“1和2”(工会二是因为在天性的,对一对帐户)。St. Maximus refused to believe the report.圣马克西姆斯拒绝相信这个报告。In fact Peter wrote to Pope Vitalian (657-672) professing "one and two wills and operations" and adding mutilated quotations from the Fathers; but the explanation was thought unsatisfactory, presumably because it was only an excuse for upholding the Type. In 663 Constans came to Rome, intending to make it his residence, on account of his unpopularity at Constantinople, for besides putting the pope to death and proscribing the orthodox faith, he had murdered his brother Theodosius.其实彼得说,教皇维拉利安(657-672)信奉“一个和两个意志和行动”,并加入肢解父亲从报价,但被认为不能令人满意的解释,大概是因为它只是一个借口,坚持形式。在663士坦思来到罗马,准备让他的住所,就在他的君士坦丁堡占不受欢迎,除了把信仰为教宗死刑,禁制的正统,他谋杀了他的弟弟狄奥多西。 The pope received him with all due honour, and Constans, who had refused to confirm the elections of Martin and Eugenius, ordered the name of Vitalian to be inscribed on the diptychs of Constantinople.教宗接受他以应有的荣誉,并士坦思,谁也拒绝证实和叶夫根尼选举马丁,下令维拉利安名称是君士坦丁堡上diptychs对。 No mention seems to have been made of the Type.没有提到似乎已形式作出的。But Constans did not find Rome agreeable.但士坦思没有找到罗马同意。After spoiling the churches, he retired to Sicily, where he oppressed the people.破坏的教堂后,他退休的西西里,在那里他被压迫人民。 He was murdered in his bath in 668.他被谋杀在他洗澡的668。Vitalian vigorously opposed rebellion in Sicily, and Constantine Pogonatus, the new emperor, found the island at peace on his arrival.维拉利安大力反对西西里岛叛乱,和君士坦丁Pogonatus,新的皇帝,发现他在到达岛上的和平。 It does not seem that he took any interest in the Type, which was doubtless not enforced, though not abolished, for he was fully occupied with his wars against the Saracens until 678, when he determined to summon a general council to end what he regarded as a quarrel between the Sees of Rome and Constantinople.它似乎并不认为他采取任何类型的兴趣,这无疑是不执行,但不废除,因为他是完全反对占领的撒拉逊与他的战争,直到678,当他决定召集总理事会结束,他认为什么作为一间的争吵罗马和君士坦丁堡看到。 He wrote in this sense to Pope Donus (676-78), who was already dead.他说在这个意义上说,教皇多努斯(676-78),谁已经死亡。 His successor St. Agatho thereupon assembled a synod at Rome and ordered others to be held in the West.他的继任者圣Agatho随即召集了一个在罗马的主教,并命令其他人将在西部举行。A delay of two years was thus caused, and the heretical patriarchs Theodore of Constantinople and Macarius of Antioch assured the emperor that the pope despised the Easterns and their monarch, and they tried, but unsuccessfully, to get the name of Vitalian removed from the diptychs.阿年延迟2因此造成的,而邪教元老安提西奥多君士坦丁堡和米加利阿斯保证皇帝,教皇藐视东方的和他们的君主,他们尝试过,但没有成功,获得维拉利安名称diptychs遣送。 The emperor asked for three representatives at least to be sent from Rome, with twelve archbishops or bishops from the West and four monks from each of the Greek monasteries in the West, perhaps as interpreters.皇帝要求至少三名代表将派出由罗马也许,有12个大主教或主教从西方和四个寺院僧侣从希腊在每一个西方国家,翻译。 He also sent Theodore into exile, probably because he was an obstacle to reunion.他还派流亡西奥多进入,可能是因为他是一个障碍团聚。

The first session of the Sixth Œcumenical Council took place at Constantinople (7 Nov., 680), Constantine Pogonatus presiding and having on his left, in the place of honour, the papal legates.该理事会首次会议乃众人第六放在了君士坦丁堡(11月7日,680),康斯坦丁Pogonatus主持离开后,他的荣誉,在这个地方,教皇使节。 Macarius of Antioch was the only prelate who stood up for Monothelitism, and he was in due course condemned as a heretic (see MACARIUS or ANTIOCH).安提阿米加利阿斯的主教谁是唯一站在Monothelitism为,他是在一个适当的时候作为谴责邪教(见米加利阿斯或安提阿)。 The letters of St. Agatho and of the Roman Council insisted on the decisions of the Lateran Council, and repeatedly affirmed the inerrancy of the Apostolic See.罗马安理会的信圣Agatho和坚持拉特兰会议的各项决定的,并一再申明,见无误的使徒。These documents were acclaimed by the council, and accepted by George, the new Patriarch of Constantinople and his suffragans. Macarius had appealed to Honorius; and after his condemnation a packet which he had delivered to the emperor was opened, and in it were found the letters of Sergius to Honorius and of Honorius to Sergius.这些文件是由著名的议会,乔治接受了,在他suffragans新宗主教和君士坦丁堡。米加利阿斯曾呼吁诺和谴责后,他一个皇帝,他曾包交付给开了,在它被发现谢尔盖向信诺和诺向谢尔盖。 As these were at best similar to the Type, already declared heretical, it was unavoidable that they should be condemned.由于这些人充其量相似的类型,已经宣布的邪教,这是不可避免的,他们应该受到谴责。The fifth council had set the example of condemning dead writers, who had died in Catholic communion, but George suggested that his dead predecessors might be spared, and only their teaching anathematized.第五次理事会确定了交流的例子,谴责死者的作家,天主教死于谁,但乔治认为,他死去的前辈可能幸免,只是他们的教学和诅咒。 The legates might have saved the name of Honorius also had they agreed to this, but they evidently had directions from Rome to make no objection to his condemnation if it seemed necessary.该使节也许节省了诺的名字,他们也同意这一点,但他们显然已经从罗马的方向,使他不反对谴责好像出必要的。The final dogmatic decree contains the decisions of the five preceding general councils, condemns the Ecthesis and the Type, and heretics by name, including Honorius, and "greets with uplifted hands" the letters of Pope Agatho and his council (see HONORIUS I, Pope).最后的教条式的法令包含一般议会的决定之前5个,谴责Ecthesis和类型,并命名异端的,包括诺和“手映入眼帘的隆起”他会的信件和教皇Agatho(见挪留我,教皇)。 The address to the emperor, signed by all the bishops, declares that they have followed Agatho, and he the Apostolic teaching.主教们向皇帝报告,签署所有,宣布他们是按照Agatho,和他的使徒教学。"With us fought the prince of the Apostles, for to assist us we had his imitator and the successor to his chair. The ancient city of Rome proffered you a divinely written confession and caused the daylight of dogmas to rise by the Western parchment. And the ink shone, and by Agatho, Peter spoke; and you, the autocrat king, voted with the Almighty who reigns with you."他说:“我们打的使徒的王子,为协助我们,我们有自己的模仿和继承他的椅子。古老的罗马城市痛心疾首你一个神圣的书面供词,导致白天的教条将上升西方羊皮纸。与闪闪发光的油墨,以及Agatho,彼得谈到了,你的独裁者国王,你投谁的全能的统治。“ A letter to the pope was also signed by all the Fathers.教宗信还签署了所有的父亲。The emperor gave effect to the decree in a lengthy edict, in which he echoes the decisions of the council, adding: "These are the teachings of the voices of the Gospels and the Apostles, these are the doctrines of the holy synods and of the elect and patristic tongues; these have been preserved untainted by Peter, the rock of the faith, the head of the Apostles; in this faith we live and reign."皇帝给予实施该法令,在一个漫长的诏书,他在呼应安理会的各项决定,并补充:“这是福音的使徒和教诲的声音,这些都是教义的圣主教会议和选举和教父的舌头,这些已保存彼得玷污了,信念和岩石的,使徒的头,在这个信念,我们的生活和统治。“ The emperor's letter to the pope is full of Such expressions; as for example: "Glory be to God, Who does wondrous things, Who has kept safe the Faith among you unharmed. For how should He not do so in that rock on which He founded His Church, and prophesied that the gates of hell, all the ambushes of heretics, should not prevail against it? From it, as from the vault of heaven, the word of the true confession flashed forth," etc. But St. Agatho, a worker of many miracles, was dead, and did not receive the letter, so that it fell to St. Leo II to confirm the council.皇帝的信教宗表达充满了这样的;作为例子:“荣耀归于上帝,谁做奇妙的事情,谁保持信心的你安全的,没有受伤。对于应如何他不这样做,是岩石上,他创立了教会,并预言地狱之门,所有的异教徒伏击的,不应该战胜它呢?从,从天穹的,供认词的真实闪现出“等,但圣Agatho一个奇迹工人很多,死了,没有收到信,所以,它下降到圣利奥二世确认议会。 Thus was the East united again to the West after an incomplete but deplorable schism.因此,是东方美再次分裂,但令人遗憾的西后一个不完整的。

It would seem that in 687 Justinian II believed that the sixth council was not fully enforced, for he wrote to Pope Conon that he had assembled the papal envoys, the patriarchs, metropolitans, bishops, the senate and civil officials and representatives of his various armies, and made them sign the original acts which had recently been discovered.看来,在687查士丁尼二世认为,第六届议会并没有完全执行,因为他说,教皇科农说,他组装了教皇特使的元老,大都市,主教,参议院和民事官员和军队的代表,他的各种,并让他们签署发现原来最近的行为。 In 711 the throne was seized by Philippicus Bardanes, who had been the pupil of Abbot Stephen, the disciple "or rather leader" of Macarius of Antioch.在711位检获Philippicus巴尔达涅斯,谁曾经是安提阿学生斯蒂芬的住持,弟子“,或更确切地说领导人米加利阿斯”的。 He restored to the diptychs Sergius, Honorius, and the other heretics condemned by the council; he burned the acts (but privately, in the palace), he deposed the Patriarch Cyrus, and exiled some persons who refused to subscribe a rejection of the council.他恢复到diptychs谢尔盖,诺,和安理会谴责其他异端,他烧的行为(但私人宫殿,在),他废黜了主教居鲁士,和一些流亡人士谁不同意一个议会否决了。 He fell, 4 June, 713, and orthodoxy was restored by Anastasius II (713-15).他下跌,6月4日,713,和正统是)恢复了阿纳斯塔修斯二世(713-15。Pope Constantine had refused to recognize Bardanes.教皇康斯坦丁拒绝承认巴尔达涅斯。The intruded patriarch, John VI, wrote him a long letter of apology, explaining that he had submitted to Bardanes to prevent worse evils, and asserting in many words the headship of Rome over the universal Church.在闯入元老,约翰六世,给他写了一封长信道歉,解释说,他已提交给巴尔达涅斯防止恶化的丑恶现象,并声称在许多字以上的校长普遍教会的罗马。 This was the last of Monothelitism.这是Monothelitism最后。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息写由约翰查普曼。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.奉献给耶稣圣心天主教百科全书,卷十,1911年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

The chief ancient authorities for our knowledge of the Monothelites are the acts of the Lateran synod and of the sixth council, the works of ST.该Monothelites行政当局为我们古老的知识是第六届理事会的行为拉特朗主教和,意法半导体的作品。MAXIMUS CONFESSOR and ANASTASIUS SINAITA, and the Collectanea of ANASTASIUS BIBLIOTHECARIUS.马克西姆斯忏悔和阿纳斯塔修斯SINAITA和BIBLIOTHECARIUS会论文集的阿纳斯塔修斯。 Of modern works only a few need be specially mentioned: COMBÉFIS, Auctarium novum, II (Historia Monothelitarum et Dissertatio apol. pro actis VI synodi (Paris, 1648); PETAVIUS, De Incarnatione, VIII, IX; HEFELE, Hist. of Councils, V (Eng. tr.); BARDENHEWER, Ungedruckle Excerpte aus einer Schrift des Patriarchen Eulogius von Alexandria (in Theolog. Quartalschrift, 1896, no. 78); OWSEPIAN, Die Entstehungsgeschichte des Monotheletismus nach ihren Quellen geprüft (Leipzig, 1897). See also HONORIUS I, POPE, and MAXIMUS OF CONSTANTINOPLE.现代作品只有少数需要时特别提到:COMBÉFIS,Auctarium,新创,二(史记Monothelitarum等Dissertatio apol。亲英联六synodi(巴黎,1648); PETAVIUS,德Incarnatione,八,九,黑弗勒,组织胺。两局, V(英文。);巴登黑韦尔,Ungedruckle Excerpte澳大利亚einer Schrift德Patriarchen Eulogius冯亚历山大Theolog(英寸Quartalschrift,1896年,没有。78); OWSEPIAN,模具Entstehungsgeschichte德Monotheletismus乙酰胆碱ihren Quellen geprüft(莱比锡,1897年)。查看我还何诺,教皇和大菱鲆君士坦丁堡。


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