Montanism孟他努

General Information一般信息

Montanism was a Christian apocalyptic movement that arose in the 2d century.孟他努是一个基督徒世界末日的运动,出现在二维世纪。It took its name from Montanus, a Phrygian, who, shortly after his baptism as a Christian (156 or 172 AD), claimed to have received a revelation from the Holy Spirit to the effect that he, as representative prophet of the Spirit, would lead the Christian church into its final stage.弗里吉亚花了,它的名字从蒙塔努斯,一谁,不久后,他作为基督教洗礼的影响(156或172年),声称已收到的神圣启示从精神到他作为先知的精神代表,将铅进入最后阶段的基督教教堂。

Aided by two women, Maximilla and Priscilla (or Prisca), Montanus founded a sect of enthusiasts who preached the imminent end of the world, austere morality, and severe penitential discipline. They forbade second marriages, denied the divine nature of the church, and refused forgiveness for sins that persons committed after baptism. )资助的两名妇女,马克西米拉和普里西拉(或普里斯卡马,蒙塔努斯建立了道德节的爱好者谁鼓吹即将结束的世界,严峻,严重悔罪的纪律。它们禁止第二次婚姻,剥夺了教堂的神圣性质,并拒绝宽恕洗礼后所犯的罪的人。 Montanus called for less church hierarchy and more charismatic prophecy.蒙塔努斯呼吁教会少层次和更魅力的预言。He regarded a life of seclusion and contempt of the world as the only true Christian ideal.他认为一个理想的隐居生活和蔑视世界的唯一真正的基督徒。

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The Montanists seem to have sought renewal of the church from within through a rebirth of the religious enthusiasm that had marked Christian beginnings.该montanists似乎已经开始寻求重建有显着基督教的教堂,从内通过再生的宗教热情。By the 3d century, however, they had established separate communities in which women and men were admitted to presbyterate and episcopacy. Tertullian became one of the movement's adherents.采用三维世纪,但是,它们已建立。良独立的社区中,妇女和男子被送往铎和主教成为该运动的拥护者之一的。

As a spiritual and charismatic movement, Montanism posed a threat to the emerging church hierarchy.作为一种精神和魅力的运动,孟他努层次构成了威胁,新兴教会。Despite a series of condemnations and continued opposition from orthodox Christian writers, however, Montanism did not disappear until about the 6th century.尽管一系列的谴责和反对基督教作家继续从正统的,然而,孟他努没有消失,直到6世纪左右。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼丝坎宁安

Bibliography 书目
J Pelikan, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (1971); H Von Campenhausen, Ecclesiastical Authority and Spiritual Power (1969).J伯利坎,本)的兴起,天主教的传统(1971年; Ĥ冯坎彭豪森,教会权威和精神力量(1969年)。


Montanism孟他努

Advanced Information先进的信息

Montanism was a prophetic movement that broke out in Phrygia in Roman Asia Minor (Turkey) around 172.孟他努是一个预言运动爆发了土耳其)在弗里吉亚在罗马小亚细亚(约172。It attracted a wide following, chiefly in the East, but won its most distinguished adherent in Tertullian.它吸引了一大批追随者,主要是在东部地区,但赢得了最杰出的良附着研究。After a period of uncertainty, especially at Rome, it was condemned by synods of bishops in Asia and elsewhere.一个不确定的时期后的罗马,尤其是在,这是其他地方的主教会议谴责和主教在亚洲。A residual sect persisted in Phrygia for some centuries.阿残余教派坚持弗里吉亚的几个世纪。

The main associates of Montanus, who was a recent convert and held no church office, were the prophetesses Prisca (Priscilla) and Maximilla. )和马克西米拉的主要联营公司蒙塔努斯,谁是最近的转换并没有教会办公室举行,是预言普里斯卡马(普丽西拉。What they called "the New Prophecy" was basically a summons to prepare for the return of Christ by heeding the voice of the Paraclete speaking, often in the first person, through his prophetic mouthpieces.他们所谓的“新预言”基本上是一个传票,准备返回的喉舌基督圣灵的预言说,通过经常的第一人,他听从声音。 They claimed to stand in the line of Christian prophecy well attested in Asia, eg, by John of Revelation, but their ecstatic manner of utterance was (falsely) alleged to run counter to the tradition of Israelite and Christian prophecy.他们声称站在基督教的预言线以及在亚洲证明,例如,由约翰的启示,但他们的话语欣喜若狂的方式是(假)指称违背传统的预言以色列人和基督教。 They also incurred the hostility of church leaders by the women's unusual prominence, a boldness that seemed to court martyrdom, their confident predictions of the imminent consummation (shown in time to be false by their nonfulfillment), the hallowing of obscure Phrygian villages like Pepuza as harbingers of the new Jerusalem, and their stern asceticism which disrupted marriages, protracted fasting, and allowed only a dry diet (xerophagy).他们还承担了殉道似乎法院的敌意教会领袖由妇女的不寻常的重视,一个大胆,他们nonfulfillment)他们有信心预测由完善的即将(显示在时间假,哈洛宁波恩村庄像Pepuza模糊弗里吉亚作为耶路撒冷的前兆新的,严厉的禁欲主义和他们的婚姻破裂,长期禁食,并只允许干饮食(xerophagy)。 Nothing strictly heretical could be charged against Montanism.没有什么可以收取严格邪教对孟他努。Any link with monarchianism was accidental.任何monarchianism连接是偶然的。

Although none of its catholic opponents doubted the continuance of prophecy in the church, Montanism erupted at a time when consolidation of catholic order and conformity to apostolic tradition preoccupied the bishops.虽然对手都不怀疑它的天主教教堂中预言的继续存在,孟他努爆发,当时的天主教主教巩固秩序和符合使徒传统,全神贯注的。 The prophet's extravagant pretensions, while not intended to displace the emergent NT of Christian Scripture, were felt to threaten both episcopal and scriptural authority.先知的奢侈的野心,而不是为了取代基督教圣经紧急新台币,被认为威胁都主教和圣经权威。Recognition of the Paraclete in the New Prophecy was their touchstone of authenticity.圣灵认识在新预言是其真实性的试金石。

Tertullian, whose religious rigorism graduated naturally to the New Prophecy, neglected some of the more eccentric features of the Phrygian movement, stressing the development of ethics inculcated by the Spirit in fulfillment of Christ's promises in John 14 - 16. The "greater things" to come from the Paraclete were the more demanding standards of discipline required of spiritual Christians, such as the denial of remarriage to the widowed and of postbaptismal forgiveness for serious sins.良,其宗教rigorism毕业自然的新预言,忽视运动的几个特点弗里吉亚较偏心,强调14发展约翰的道德灌输,在圣灵基督的承诺,履行- 16。“更大的事”,以圣灵是来自标准要求更高罪的基督徒纪律的精神需要,如否认再婚的丧偶宽恕严重和postbaptismal。The contemporary African Passion of Perpetua similarly exalted recent happenings, especially fearless martyrdoms, as evidence of the superabundant grace of the Spirit decreed for the last days.当代非洲的佩尔佩图阿同样崇高的激情最近发生的事情,尤其是无所畏惧的殉道,因为天的最后精神颁布的证据,过多的宽限期。 As Tertullian put it, if the devil's ingenuity escalates daily, why should God's work have ceased advancing to new heights?由于良指出,若魔鬼的聪明才智每天升级,为什么神的工作已经停止推进到新的高度?The New Prophecy seemed almost to claim for itself a special place in salvation history.新预言似乎几乎声称自己的救恩历史的特殊地位研究。

DF Wright东风赖特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
H von Campenhausen, Ecclesiastical Authority and Spiritual Power in the Church of the First Three Centuries, and The Formation of the Christian Bible; D Powell, "Tertullianists and Cataphrygians," VC 29; DF Wright, "Why Were the Montanists Condemned?"Ĥ冯坎彭豪森,教会权威和精神力量在教会第一世纪三,与圣经的基督教形成; Ð鲍威尔,“Tertullianists和Cataphrygians,”创投29;东风赖特,“为什么了Montanists死刑犯?”Them 2.其中有2个。


Montanists Montanists

Catholic Information天主教信息

Schismatics of the second century, first known as Phrygians, or "those among the Phrygians" (oi kata Phrygas), then as Montanists, Pepuzians, and (in the West) Cataphrygians.世纪schismatics与罗马第二,被称为第一Phrygians,或“Phrygians者之间的”(433卡塔Phrygas),然后作为Montanists,Pepuzians,西(中)Cataphrygians。 The sect was founded by a prophet, Montanus, and two prophetesses, Maximilla and Prisca, sometimes called Priscilla.该教派是由先知,蒙塔努斯,两个预言,马克西米拉和普里斯卡马梁美芬,有时也被称为。

CHRONOLOGY年代学

An anonymous anti-Montanist writer, cited by Eusebius, addressed his work to Abercius Marcellus, Bishop of Hieropolis, who died about 200.一位不愿透露姓名的反Montanist作家,尤西比乌斯引用,解决了他的工作Abercius马塞勒斯,死亡主教Hieropolis,谁约200人。 Maximilla had prophesied continual wars and troubles, but this writer declared that he wrote more than thirteen years after her death, yet no war, general or partial, had taken place, but on the contrary the Christians enjoyed permanent peace through the mercy of God (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", V, xvi, 19).马克西米拉曾预言不断的战争和苦难,但这个作家宣称,他说年后她去世超过13,但没有战争,一般的或局部的,已经发生了,但与此相反的基督徒享有永久和平的上帝怜悯通过(尤西比乌斯,“历史。传道书。”第五十六,19)。 These thirteen years can be identified only with the twelve and a half years of Commodus (17 March, 180--31 December, 192).这13年中能够确定科莫多只与12年半和1(3月17日,180 - 12月31日,192)。The wars between rival emperors began early in 193, so that this anonymous author wrote not much later than January, 193, and Maximilla must have died about the end of 179, not long before Marcus Aurelius.皇帝的对手之间的战争年初开始在193,使这一匿名作者说没有多大不迟于今年1月,193人死亡和马克西米拉必须对179年底,而不是奥里利厄斯前不久马库斯。 Montanus and Priscilla had died yet earlier.蒙塔努斯和普里西拉还早已经死亡。Consequently the date given by Eusebius in his "Chronicle" -- eleventh (or twelfth) year of Marcus, ie about 172 -- for the first appearance of Montanus leaves insufficient time for the development of the sect, which we know further to have been of great importance in 177, when the Church of Lyons wrote to Pope Eleutherius on the subject.因此之日起给予172 -由尤西比乌斯在他的“纪事” -第十一届(或年第十二届)IE的马库斯,大约为蒙塔努斯首次出现叶子已经没有足够的时间供该教派的发展,我们进一步了解在177个非常重要的,当里昂教堂写在受教皇Eleutherius。 Again, the Montanists are co-ordinated with the martyr Thraseas, mentioned chronologically between Polycarp (155) and Sagaris (under Sergius Paulus, 166-7) in the letter of Polycrates to Pope Victor; the date of Thraseas is therefore about 160, and the origin of Montanism must be yet earlier.同样,了Montanists是协调与烈士Thraseas 155,按时间顺序提到之间波利卡普()和Sagaris(根据谢尔盖保卢斯,166-7)在波利克拉特斯信中,教皇维克多;的Thraseas日期,因此约160,和在孟他努来源必须还早。 Consequently, Zahn, Harnack, Duchesne, and others (against Völter and Voigt, who accept the late date given by Eusebius, regard St. Epiphanius (Hær., xlviii, 1) as giving the true date of the rise of the sect, "about the nineteenth year of Antoninus Pius" (that is, about the year 156 or 157).因此,赞恩,哈纳克,德雷珀,和其他人(对Völter和沃伊特,谁接受过期尤西比乌斯给予,把圣埃皮法尼乌斯(Hær.,48,1)为使该教派的真正崛起的日期“关于安东尼比约19年“(即约156年或157)。

Bonwetsch, accepting Zahn's view that previously (Hær., xlvi, 1) Epiphanius had given the twelfth year of Antoninus Pius where he should have said M. Aurelius, wishes similarly to substitute that emperor here, so that we would get 179, the very date of the death of Maximilla. Bonwetsch,接受赞恩的看法,即以前(Hær.,四十六,1)埃皮法尼乌斯已经发出了安东尼比约12年的他应该说米奥里利厄斯,希望同样是代替皇帝在这里,所以我们会得到179,非常的日期马克西米拉死亡。 But the emendation is unnecessary in either case.但校正在两种情况下是不必要的。In "Hæreses", xlvi, 1, Epiphanius clearly meant the earlier date, whether right or wrong; and in xlviii, 1, he is not dating the death of Maximilla but the first appearance of the sect.在“Hæreses”,四十六,一,埃皮法尼乌斯显然指的是较早的日期,无论对错,并在第48,1,他没有约会的马克西米拉死亡,但该教派的首次亮相。 From Eusebius, V, xvi, 7, we learn that this was in the proconsulship of Gratus.从尤西比乌斯,五,十六,七,我们知道这Gratus是在proconsulship。Such a proconsul of Asia is not known.这样的亚洲驻伊不得而知。

Bonwetsch accepts Zahn's suggestion to read "Quadratus", and points out that there was a Quadratus in 155 (if that is the year of Polycarp's death, which was under Quadratus), and another in 166, so that one of these years was the real date of the birth of Montanism. Bonwetsch接受赞恩的建议改为“夸”,并指出,有一个卡德拉特斯在155(如果是这样的卡德拉特斯年利卡尔普死亡,下了),另一个在166,这样的年份之一,这些是真正的日期的孟他努的诞生。 But 166 for Quadratus merely depends on Schmid's chronology of Aristides, which has been rejected by Ramsay and others in favor of the earlier chronology worked out by Waddington, who obtained 155 for the Quadratus of Aristides as well as for the Quadratus of Polycarp.但卡德拉特斯166只取决于施密德的波利卡普纪事阿里斯蒂德,已被拒绝了拉姆齐和其他人在为卡德拉特斯赞成较早的年代学工作取得由谁沃丁顿,155井的卡德拉特斯阿里斯蒂德的。 Now it is most probable that Epiphanius's authority counted the years of emperors from the September preceding their accession (as Hegesippus seems to have done), and therefore the nineteenth year of Pius would be Sept., 155-Sept., 156.现在是最可能的情况埃皮法尼乌斯的权威计算皇帝从9月年之前的加入(如Hegesippus似乎已完成),因此在19年将是比约9月,155 - 9月,156。Even if the later and Western mode of reckoning from the January after accession is used, the year 157 can be reconciled with the proconsulship of Quadratus in 155, if we remember that Epiphanius merely says "about the nineteenth year of Pius", without vouching for strict accuracy.即使西方模式和清算后的1月从加入后使用时,可以调和157年的155 proconsulship的卡德拉特斯中,如果我们还记得埃皮法尼乌斯只是说“对皮亚斯19年”,不为金币严格的准确性。He tells us further on that Maximilla prophesied: "After me there shall be no prophetess, but the end", whereas he was writing after 290 years, more or less, in the year 375 or 376.他告诉我们说马克西米拉进一步预言:“在我之后不得有先知,但最终的”,而他在写后290年,376或多或少,或在今年375。 To correct the evident error Harnack would read 190, which brings us roughly to the death of Maximilla (385 for 379).若要更正的明显错误的Harnack会读190,这使我们大致的马克西米拉死亡(379 385)。But ekaton for diakosia is a big change.但对于diakosia ekaton是一个很大的转变。It is more likely that Epiphanius is calculating from the date he had himself given, 19th of Pius=156, as he did not know that of Maximilla's death; his "more or less" corresponds to his former "about".它更可能是埃皮法尼乌斯日期计算是由他自己所说,碧岳第19 = 156,因为他不知道马克西米拉的死,他的“或多或少”对应于他以前的“关于”。So we shall with Zahn adopt Scaliger's conjecture diakosia enneakaideka for diakosia enenekonta, which brings us from 156 to 375!9 years.因此,我们将与赞恩采取斯卡利杰尔猜想九年diakosia enneakaideka为diakosia enenekonta,这使我们从156到375!。As Apollonius wrote forty years after the sect emerged, his work must be dated about 196.由于阿波罗纽斯说节出现40年之后,他的工作必须注明日期约196。

MONTANISM IN ASIA MINOR孟他努小亚细亚

Montanus was a recent convert when he first began to prophesy in the village of Ardabau in Phrygia.蒙塔努斯是最近转换当他第一次开始预言在弗里吉亚村Ardabau研究。He is said by Jerome to have been previously a priest of Cybele; but this is perhaps a later invention intended to connect his ecstasies with the dervish-like behavior of the priests and devotees of the "great goddess".据说,他是由杰罗姆已经过去1锡贝尔勒祭司,但这也许是后来发明旨在连接女神“他兴奋过后的”伟大的苦行僧,信徒一样祭司和行为。 The same prophetic gift was believed to have descended also upon his two companions, the prophetesses Maximilla and Prisca or Priscilla.同样的礼物,相信先知的后裔也有他的两个同伴后,该预言马克西米拉和普里斯卡马或普里西拉。 Their headquarters were in the village of Pepuza.他们的总部都在Pepuza村。The anonymous opponent of the sect describes the method of prophecy (Eusebius, V, xvii, 2-3): first the prophet appears distraught with terror (en parekstasei), then follows quiet (adeia kai aphobia, fearlessness); beginning by studied vacancy of thought or passivity of intellect (ekousios amathia), he is seized by an uncontrollable madness (akousios mania psyches).该教派的匿名对手的描述方法的预言(优西比乌,五,十七,2-3):首先先知出现parekstasei要发疯了恐怖(中文),然后如下安静(adeia偕aphobia,无畏);开端,研究空缺思想或被动的智慧(ekousios amathia),他是抓住一个无法控制的疯狂(akousios躁狂症精神上)。The prophets did not speak as messengers of God: "Thus saith the Lord," but described themselves as possessed by God and spoke in His Person.没有发言的先知为上帝的使者:上帝“如此说,”但说自己是上帝和人所拥有的在他的发言。"I am the Father, the Word, and the Paraclete," said Montanus (Didymus, "De Trin.", III, xli); and again: "I am the Lord God omnipotent, who have descended into to man", and "neither an angel, nor an ambassador, but I, the Lord, the Father, am come" (Epiphanius, "Hær.", xlviii, 11).“我的父亲,这个词,和圣灵,说:”孟他努(迪代,“德特林。”,三,四十一),并再次:“我是上帝万能的,谁拥有”陷入到人, “既不是天使,也不是大使,但我,主,父亲,我来”(埃皮法尼乌斯,“哈尔。”,48,11)。And Maximilla said: "Hear not me, but hear Christ" (ibid.); and: "I am driven off from among the sheep like a wolf [that is, a false prophet--cf. Matt., vii, 15]; I am not a wolf, but I am speech, and spirit, and power."和马克西米拉说:“不是我听,但听到基督”(同上);和:“我驾驶过的马特之间。羊像狼[即,假先知-比照。,七,15] ;我不是狼,但我讲话,和精神,力量。“This possession by a spirit, which spoke while the prophet was incapable of resisting, is described by the spirit of Montanus: "Behold the man is like a lyre, and I dart like the plectrum. The man sleeps, and I am awake" (Epiphanius, "Hær.", xlviii, 4).这抵制占有一个精神,发言而先知是无法被描述的蒙塔努斯精神:“你们看这个人就像是竖琴,我拨子飞镖一样。该名男子睡,我醒了”(埃皮法尼乌斯,“哈尔。”,48,4)。

We hear of no false doctrines at first.我们听到没有虚假学说在第一。The Paraclete ordered a few fasts and abstinences; the latter were strict xerophagioe, but only for two weeks in the year, and even then the Saturdays and Sundays did not count (Tertullian, "De jej.", xv).在圣灵下令几个斋戒和禁欲,后者是严格xerophagioe,但仅限于在两年星期,甚至当时的星期六和星期日不计算在(良,“德jej。”十五)。 Not only was virginity strongly recommended (as always by the Church), but second marriages were disapproved.这不仅是处女强烈建议(如教会总是由),但第二次婚姻被拒绝。Chastity was declared by Priscilla to be a preparation for ecstasy: "The holy [chaste] minister knows how to minister holiness. For those who purify their hearts [reading purificantes enim corda, by conjecture for purificantia enim concordal] both see visions, and placing their head downwards (!) also hear manifest voices, as saving as they are secret" (Tertullian, "Exhort." X, in one manuscript).贞节被宣布普丽西拉是摇头丸准备:“神圣的[纯洁]部长知道如何部长圣洁。对于那些谁净化心灵[阅读purificantes enim科达] concordal的猜想purificantia enim既看到异象,并放置他们的头部向下(!)也听到明显的声音,因为他们是秘密保存为“(良,”劝诫。“一稿十,中)。It was rumored, however, that Priscilla had been married, and had left her husband.据传闻,不过,梁美芬已经结婚,并已离开了她的丈夫。Martyrdom was valued so highly that flight from persecution was disapproved, and so was the buying off of punishment.殉难是如此高度的重视迫害航班从被拒绝,所以是收买的惩罚。"You are made an outlaw?" “你是作出了取缔?”said Montanus, "it is good for you. For he who is not outlawed among men is outlawed in the Lord. Be not confounded. It is justice which hales you in public. Why are you confounded, when you are sowing praise? Power comes, when you are stared at by men."孟他努说,“这是你有好处的。因为他谁不是男人之间是主取缔非法的。你们不要混淆。它是正义的阿莱斯公众您英寸为什么你困惑,当你播种赞美?电力则,当你在盯着男人。“ And again: "Do not desire to depart this life in beds, in miscarriages, in soft fevers, but in martyrdoms, that He who suffered for you may be glorified" (Tertullian, "De fuga", ix; cf. "De anima", lv).并重申:“不要想离开这个病床生活,在流产,在软发烧,但在殉道,认为他受到了谁良,你是荣耀”(“德风雅”,第九条;比照。“德灵魂“吕)。 Tertullian says: "Those who receive the Paraclete, know neither to flee persecution nor to bribe" (De fuga, 14), but he is unable to cite any formal prohibition by Montanus.良说:“谁得到圣灵,但不会知道逃离迫害,也不行贿”(德风雅,14),但他无法举出任何蒙塔努斯正式禁止。

So far, the most that can be said of these didactic utterances is that there was a slight tendency to extravagance.到目前为止,最可以说,这些说教的话语是有轻微倾向奢侈。The people of Phrygia were accustomed to the orgiastic cult of Cybele.弗里吉亚的人的习惯了锡贝尔勒狂欢邪教。There were doubtless many Christians there.那里有许多基督徒无疑。The contemporary accounts of Montanism mention Christians in otherwise unknown villages: Ardabau on the Mysian border, Pepuza, Tymion, as well as in Otrus, Apamea, Cumane, Eumenea.占孟他努当代提到乡村基督徒否则不明:Ardabau对Mysian边界,Pepuza,Tymion,以及在Otrus,阿帕米亚,Cumane,Eumenea。 Early Christian inscriptions have been found at Otrus, Hieropolis, Pepuza (of 260), Trajanopolis (of 279), Eumenea (of 249) etc. (see Harnack, "Expansion of Christianity", II, 360).早期基督教铭文已发现Otrus,Hieropolis,Pepuza(260),Trajanopolis(279),Eumenea 249(对)等(见哈纳克“,”扩大基督教,二,360)。There was a council at Synnada in the third century.有一个世纪理事会Synnada在第三。The "Acta Theodoti" represent the village of Malus near Ancyra as entirely Christian under Diocletian.在“学报Theodoti”代表戴克里先安该拉村附近的海棠按照完全的基督徒。Above all we must remember what crowds of Christians were found in Pontus and Bithynia by Pliny in 112, not only in the cities but in country places.最重要的是,我们必须记住基督徒的人潮中发现本都和比提尼亚由普林尼在112个地方,不仅在城市,但在国家。No doubt, therefore, there were numerous Christians in the Phrygian villages to be drawn by the astounding phenomena. Crowds came to Pepuza, it seems, and contradiction was provoked.毫无疑问,因此,有许多基督徒在弗里吉亚的现象,以惊人的村庄制定的。人群来到Pepuza,似乎是挑衅和矛盾。 In the very first days Apollinarius, a successor of St. Papias as Bishop of Hierapolis in the southwestern corner of the province, wrote against Montanus.在第一天Apollinarius,一希拉波利斯的继任圣主教帕皮亚作为在该省西南部角落,孟他努说反对。Eusebius knew this letter from its being enclosed by Serapion of Antioch (about 191-212) in a letter addressed by him to the Christians of Caria and Pontus.尤西比乌斯和本都知道这封信从卡里亚其被围封的基督徒谢拉皮翁由他(安提约信191-212)的一个。Apollinarius related that Ælius Publius Julius of Debeltum (now Burgas) in Thrace, swore that "Sotas the blessed who was in Anchialus [on the Thracian coast] had wished to cast out the demon from Priscilla; but the hypocrites would not allow it." Clearly Sotas was dead, and could not speak for himself. Apollinarius相关的来源于多普布利乌斯色雷斯朱利叶Debeltum(现在在布尔加斯),发誓说:“Sotas的祝福谁是色雷斯海岸]在Anchialus [上投出了希望从普丽西拉恶魔,但伪君子不会允许它。”显然Sotas死了,不能为自己说话。The anonymous writer tells us that some thought Montanus to be possessed by an evil spirit, and a troubler of the people; they rebuked him and tried to stop his prophesying; the faithful of Asia assembled in many places, and examining the prophecies declared them profane, and condemned the heresy, so that the disciples were thrust out of the Church and its communion.这些匿名的作家告诉我们,有些人认为蒙塔努斯是由一个邪恶的精神占有,和人民troubler的,他们斥责他,并试图阻止他的预言,亚洲忠实聚集在许多地方,并检查他们的预言宣告亵渎,并谴责异端,使门徒们伸出的教会和它的共融。

It is difficult to say how soon this excommunication took place in Asia. Probably from the beginning some bishops excluded the followers of Montanus, and this severity was growing common before the death of Montanus; but it was hardly a general rule much before the death of Maximilla in 179; condemnation of the prophets themselves, and mere disapproval of their disciples was the first stage.这是很难说多久罚了这个地区发生英寸也许从一开始就排除了一些主教蒙塔努斯的追随者,这严重程度日益蒙塔努斯共同之前死亡,但它不太可能是死亡前的一般规则多马克西米拉179;先知谴责自己,他们只是不满弟子是第一阶段。 We hear of holy persons, including the bishops Zoticus of Cumana and Julian of Apamea, attempting to exorcise Maximilla at Pepuza, doubtless after the death of Montanus.我们听到的神圣的人,包括主教阿帕米亚Zoticus的库马纳和朱利安,试图驱除Pepuza马克西米拉在蒙塔努斯,无疑后死亡。 But Themison prevented them (Eusebius, V, xvi, 17; xviii, 12).但Themison阻止他们(优西比乌,五,十六,十七,十八,12)。This personage was called a confessor but, according to the anonymous writer, he had bought himself off.这个人物被称为忏悔,但据匿名的作家,他自己买了。He published "a catholic epistle, in imitation of the Apostle", in support of his party.他出版了“一个天主教书信,在”模仿的使徒,他在党的支持。Another so- called martyr, called Alexander, was for many years a companion of Maximilla, who, though a prophetess, did not know that it was for robbery, and not "for the Name", that he had been condemned by the proconsul Æmilius Frontinus (date unknown) in Ephesus; in proof of this the public archives of Asia are appealed to.另一个所谓的烈士,被称为亚历山大,是我们多年来,伴侣的马克西米拉谁,虽然是先知,不知道它是为抢劫,而不是“为名称”,他被驻伊谴责米利乌斯弗朗提努(日期不详以弗所)中,在向公众证明该档案的亚洲的呼吁。 Of another leader, Alcibiades, nothing is known.另一领导人,亚西比德,没有什么是已知的。The prophets are accused of taking gifts under the guise of offerings; Montanus sent out salaried preachers; the prophetesses painted their faces, dyed their eyelids with stibium, wore ornaments and played at dice.先知被指控服用产品的幌子下礼物;蒙塔努斯派出受薪传道;的预言画他们的脸,染色,锑的眼皮,戴着首饰及骰子在玩。But these accusations may be untrue.但这些指控可能是不真实的。The great point was the manner of prophesying.伟大的一点是预言的方式。It was denounced as contrary to custom and to tradition.它被指责为违背习俗和传统。A Catholic writer, Miltiades, wrote a book to which the anonymous author refers, "How a prophet ought not to speak in ecstasy".天主教作家,米里基阿德,写了一书,其中提到的匿名作者,“如何先知不应该忘我发言”。It was urged that the phenomena were those of possession, not those of the Old Testament prophets, or of New Testament prophets like Silas, Agabus, and the daughters of Philip the Deacon; or of prophets recently known in Asia, Quadratus (Bishop of Athens) and Ammia, prophetess of Philadelphia, of whom the Montanist prophets boasted of being successors.这是敦促该现象那些拥有,不执事者的旧约先知或新约菲利普先知像西拉斯的女儿,亚迦布,和,或在最近的亚洲著名的先知,卡德拉特斯(雅典主教)和Ammia,预言费城人吹嘘的Montanist先知被继承人。 To speak in the first person as the Father or the Paraclete appeared blasphemous.发言的第一人的圣灵为父亲或出现亵渎。 The older prophets had spoken "in the Spirit", as mouthpieces of the Spirit, but to have no free will, to be helpless in a state of madness, was not consonant with the text: "The spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets."老先知曾发言“的精神”,作为喉舌的精神,但有没有自由意志,将无助于疯狂的状态,是不是文本相符的:“先知的精神的,也要受先知。“ Montanus declared: "The Lord hath sent me as the chooser, the revealer, the interpreter of this labor, this promise, and this covenant, being forced, willingly or unwillingly, to learn the gnosis of God." The Montanists appealed to Gen., ii, 21: "The Lord sent an ecstasy [ektasin] upon Adam"; Ps.蒙塔努斯宣称:“耶和华差遣我作为选配显明的,由劳动译员的这个,这个承诺,这个公约,被强迫,情愿或不情愿地学习神的感悟。”该montanists呼吁将军,二,21:“耶和华发出后,亚当”;牧师的狂喜[ektasin]。 cxv, 2: "I said in my ecstasy"; Acts, x, 10: "There came upon him [Peter] an ecstasy"; but these texts proved neither that an ecstasy of excitement was proper to sanctity, nor that it was a right state in which to prophesy.第一百一十五,2:“我说在我的狂喜”,行为中,x,10:“有他来到[彼得] 1摇头丸”,但事实证明这些文本不是一个兴奋忘我的神圣是恰当的,也不是说这是一个权国家在其中的预言。

A better argument was the declaration that the new prophecy was of a higher order than the old, and therefore unlike it.一个更好的理由就是声明,新的预言是较旧的一个高阶,因此不像它。It came to be thought higher than the Apostles, and even beyond the teaching of Christ.它后来被认为高于使徒,甚至超出了基督教。Priscilla went to sleep, she said, at Pepuza, and Christ came to her and slept by her side "in the form of a woman, clad in a bright garment, and put wisdom into me, and revealed to me that this place is holy, and that here Jerusalem above comes down".普丽西拉去睡觉,她说,在Pepuza,基督来到她的服装睡在她身边“的形式在一个明亮的一个女人,穿着,并把我的智慧进入,并透露给我,这个地方是神圣的,并在这里耶路撒冷以上归结“。 "Mysteries" (sacraments?) were celebrated there publicly.“谜”(圣礼?)为庆祝有公开。In Epiphanius's time Pepuza was a desert, and the village was gone.在埃皮法尼乌斯的时间Pepuza是一个沙漠,村庄消失了。 Marcellina, surviving the other two, prophesied continual wars after her death--no other prophet, but the end. It seems on the whole that Montanus had no particular doctrine, and that his prophetesses went further than he did.马塞利纳,存活下来的另外两个,预言她去世后,不断的战争-没有其他的先知,但最终的。它似乎在说整个蒙塔努斯没有特别的学说,他的预言比他走得更远。 The extravagances of his sect were after the deaths of all three; but it is difficult to know how far we are to trust our authorities.他的教派的奢侈的人死亡后,所有三个,但很难知道多少我们要相信我们的当局。The anonymous writer admits that he has only an uncertain report for the story that Montanus and Maximilla both hanged themselves, and that Themison was carried into the air by a devil, flung down, and so died.这些匿名的作家承认,他只是一个不确定的一份报告也上吊自杀的故事,蒙塔努斯和马克西米拉,这Themison进行魔鬼,向空中扔一个下来,等死。 The sect gained much popularity in Asia.该教派在亚洲获得了很大的知名度。It would seem that some Churches were wholly Montanist.看来,一些教堂被完全Montanist。The anonymous writer found the Church at Ancyra in 193 greatly disturbed about the new prophecy.匿名作家的新发现安该拉预言的教会在193大感不安。Tertullian's lost writing "De Ecstasi", in defense of their trances, is said by Prædestinatus to have been an answer to Pope Soter (Hær., xxvi, lxxxvi), who had condemned or disapproved them; but the authority is not a good one.良失去写作“德Ecstasi”,在他们的静坐防御,据说是由Prædestinatus已经回答了教皇索特(Hær.,26,捌拾),谁曾谴责或拒绝他们,但这些权力是不是一个好一。 He has presumably confounded Soter with Sotas, Bishop of Anchialus.他大概有混淆Sotas索特,Anchialus主教。In 177 the Churches of Lyons and Vienne sent to the Churches of Asia and Phrygia their celebrated account of the martyrdoms that had been taking place.在177里昂教堂和维埃纳省的地方教会派往亚洲和弗里吉亚一直采取的庆祝帐户的殉道,民政事务总署。Eusebius tells us that at the same time they enclosed letters which had been written in prison by the martyrs on the question of the Montanists.同时尤西比乌斯告诉我们,在他们封闭Montanists字母被写在了监狱的烈士的问题上。They sent the same by Irenæus to Pope Eleutherius.他们派出由爱任纽同为教宗Eleutherius。Eusebius says only that they took a prudent and most orthodox view.尤西比乌斯只说他们采取了审慎的和最正统的观点。It is probable that they disapproved of the prophets, but were not inclined to extreme measures against their followers.这是可能的,他们不赞成的先知,但不倾向于极端措施对他们的追随者。It was not denied that the Montanists could count many martyrs; it was replied to their boast, that all the heretics had many, and especially the Marcionites, but that true martyrs like Gaius and Alexander of Eumenea had refused to communicate with fellow martyrs who had approved the new prophecy (Anon. in Eusebius, V, xvi, 27).这并不是否认了Montanists可以依靠的许多烈士,那是说他们吹嘘,所有的异端有很多,特别是Marcionites,但真正的Eumenea烈士像亚历山大盖乌斯并拒绝了沟通与谁同烈士批准了新的预言(27 Anon.在尤西比乌斯,五,十六)。The acts of Carpus, Papylus, and Agathonice (the last of these threw herself into the fire), martyrs of Thyatira under Marcus Aurelius (about 161-9), may exhibit an influence of Montanism on the martyrs. Agathonice,(最后这扑进入,火)烈士马库斯的蒂厄拉下奥里利厄斯()约161-9卡尔普斯的行为,Papylus,并可能会出现孟他努烈士的一个影响。

MONTANISM IN THE WEST孟他努我国西部

A second-century pope (more probably Eleutherius than Victor) was inclined to approve the new prophecies, according to Tertullian, but was dissuaded by Praxeas.第二个世纪的教宗(更可能比维克多Eleutherius)倾向于批准新的预言,根据良,但Praxeas劝阻的。 Their defender in Rome was Proclus or Proculus, much reverenced by Tertullian.他们的后卫在罗马的普罗克洛或Proculus,多由良赢得尊重。A disputation was held by Gaius against him in the presence of Pope Zephyrinus (about 202-3, it would seem).一个争论是对他持有的该犹在(存在教皇Zephyrinus约202-3,看来)。As Gaius supported the side of the Church, Eusebius calls him a Churchman (II, xxv, 6), and is delighted to find in the minutes of the discussion that Gaius rejected the Johannine authorship of the Apocalypse, and attributed it to Cerinthus.由于该犹支持教会方面的,叫他一尤西比乌斯丘奇曼(第二,二十五,六),并高兴地讨论中找到分钟,盖乌斯拒绝的启示johannine的著作权的,并归因于克林妥。 But Gaius was the worse of the two, for we know from the commentary on the Apocalypse by Bar Salibi, a Syriac writer of the twelfth century (see Theodore H. Robinson in "Expositor", VII, sixth series, June, 1906), that he rejected the Gospel and Epistles of St. John as well, and attributed them all to Cerinthus.但该犹是两个坏的,因为我们(知道从世纪的评注启示大律师Salibi的,一个叙利亚作家西奥多H ·罗宾逊第十二届看到在“expositor”,七,六系列,6月,1906年),他拒绝了福音,约翰书信圣的欢迎,并归咎于他们都克林妥。It was against Gaius that Hippolytus wrote his "Heads against Gaius" and also his "Defense of the Gospel and the Apocalypse of John" (unless these are two names for the same work).正是在该犹是希波吕托斯首脑反对该犹他说“”,也是他“国防的福音和约翰的启示”(除非这是两个名字相同的工作)。St. Epiphanius used these works for his fifty-first heresy (cf. Philastrius, "Hær." lx), and as the heresy had no name he invented that of Alogoi, meaning at once "the unreasoning" and "those who reject the Logos".圣埃皮法尼乌斯使用参照Philastrius这些作品为他的第五十一届异端(“哈尔。”lx的),并作为异端没有名字,他发明Alogoi认为,这意味着一次的“不通情理”和“谁反对标志“。 We gather that Gaius was led to reject the Gospel out of opposition to Proclus, who taught (Pseudo-Tertullian, "De Præsc.", lii) that "the Holy Ghost was in the Apostles, but the Paraclete was not, and that the Paraclete published through Montanus more than Christ revealed in the Gospel, and not only more, but also better and greater things"; thus the promise of the Paraclete (John 14:16) was not to the Apostles but to the next age.我们推测,该犹是导致拒绝福音出来反对普罗克洛,谁教(伪良,“德Præsc。”吕氏)说,“圣灵是在使徒,但圣灵是没有,而且圣灵通过蒙塔努斯出版“超过基督在福音中发现,不仅多,但也更好,更大的事,因此)承诺的圣灵(约翰14时16分是不是使徒,但到下一个时代。 St. Irenæus refers to Gaius without naming him (III, xi, 9): "Others, in order that they may frustrate the gift of the Spirit, which in the last days has been poured upon the human race according to the good pleasure of the Father, do not admit that form [lion] which corresponds with the Gospel of John in which the Lord promised to send the Paraclete; but they reject the Gospel and with it the prophetic Spirit. Unhappy, indeed, in that, wishing to have no false prophets [reading with Zahn pseudoprophetas esse nolunt for pseudoprophetoe esse volunt], they drive away the grace of prophecy from the Church; resembling persons who, to avoid those who come in hypocrisy, withdraw from communion even with brethren."圣爱任纽是指该犹他没有点名(第三十一,9):“其他命令,因为它们可能阻挠礼物的精神,这在最后的日子已被人倒在比赛按照美意父亲,不承认形式[狮子]对应的圣灵与福音的约翰,其中主答应派,但他们拒绝了福音,它的预言精神。不满,的确,在这,希望有无假先知[阅读与赞恩pseudoprophetas埃塞] nolunt精神而为pseudoprophetoe埃塞,他们赶走预言从教会的恩典;类似的人谁,为了避免那些虚伪谁进来,交流退出,即使兄弟。“ The old notion that the Alogi were an Asiatic sect (see ALOGI) is no longer tenable; they were the Roman Gaius and his followers, if he had any.旧的观念认为尔罗基是一个亚洲节(见尔罗基)不再是站不住脚的,他们是罗马盖乌斯和他的追随者,如果他有什么。But Gaius evidently did not venture to reject the Gospel in his dispute before Zephyrinus, the account of which was known to Dionysius of Alexandria as well as to Eusebius (cf. Eusebius, III, xx, 1, 4).但该犹显然不敢拒绝争端之前Zephyrinus在他的福音,其中4个帐户被称为向修斯亚历山大以及尤西比乌斯(参见尤西比乌斯,三,XX条,1)。 It is to be noted that Gaius is a witness to the sojourn of St. John in Asia, since he considers the Johannine writings to be forgeries, attributed by their author Cerinthus to St. John; hence he thinks St. John is represented by Cerinthus as the ruler of the Asiatic Churches.这是应该指出,该犹是亚洲证人在逗留圣约翰,因为他认为该johannine著作是伪造的,由行为人归咎于克林妥为圣约翰,因此他认为圣约翰是克林妥代表作为教会统治者的亚洲。 Another Montanist (about 200), who seems to have separated from Proclus, was Æschines, who taught that "the Father is the Son", and is counted as a Monarchian of the type of Noetus or Sabellius.另一个Montanist(约200),谁似乎已经普罗克洛分离,是Æschines,谁告诉我们,“父亲是儿子”,是撒伯流算作或上帝一体Noetus的类型。

But Tertullian is the most famous of the Montanists.但良,是了Montanists最为有名。He was born about 150-5, and became a Christian about 190-5.他出生约150-5,成为一个基督徒约190-5。His excessive nature led him to adopt the Montanist teaching as soon as he knew it (about 202-3).他的过度自然使他的教学采用Montanist只要他知道这(约202-3)。His writings from this date onwards grow more and more bitter against the Catholic Church, from which he definitively broke away about 207.他的著作约207日起从这个距离变得更加激烈和更反对天主教教会,而他最终爆发。He died about 223, or not much later.他死了约223个,或不晚得多。His first Montanist work was a defense of the new prophecy in six books, "De Ecstasi", written probably in Greek; he added a seventh book in reply to Apollonius.他的第一个Montanist工作是国防书籍在六个新的预言,“德Ecstasi”,可能写在希腊,他将在第七本书阿波罗纽斯答复。 The work is lost, but a sentence preserved by Prædestinatus (xxvi) is important: "In this alone we differ, in that we do not receive second marriage, and that we do not refuse the prophecy of Montanus concerning the future judgment."这项工作是丢失,但Prædestinatus保留一个句子(26)是重要的:“在这一年内,我们不同的是,在我们没有收到第二次婚姻,和我们不拒绝蒙塔努斯预言关于未来的判断。” In fact Tertullian holds as an absolute law the recommendations of Montanus to eschew second marriages and flight from persecution.事实上良认为作为绝对法的建议,以避免蒙塔努斯和航班从迫害第二次婚姻。He denies the possibility of forgiveness of sins by the Church; he insists upon the newly ordained fasts and abstinences.他否认宽恕教会的罪恶的可能性,他坚持在禁欲斋戒和新受戒。Catholics are the Psychici as opposed to the "spiritual" followers of the Paraclete; the Catholic Church consists of gluttons and adulterers, who hate to fast and love to remarry.天主教徒是Psychici而不是“精神”圣灵追随者的;天主教会再婚组成的贪食和奸淫,谁不想快,爱。Tertullian evidently exaggerated those parts of the Montanist teaching which appealed to himself, caring little for the rest.良显然对自己的部分夸大了Montanist教学的呼吁,关怀休息很低的。He has no idea of making a pilgrimage to Pepuza, but he speaks of joining in spirit with the celebration of the Montanist feasts in Asia Minor.他没有Pepuza思想作出朝圣,但他在谈到加入小精神与亚洲Montanist节日庆祝的。The Acts of Sts.STS的行为。 Perpetua and Felicitas are by some thought to reflect a period a Carthage when the Montanist teaching was arousing interest and sympathy but had not yet formed a schism. perpetua和费利西塔斯是由一些思考,以反映一个时期迦太基时Montanist教学是激发兴趣和同情,但尚未形成分裂。

The following of Tertullian cannot have been large; but a Tertullianist sect survived him and its remnants were reconciled to the Church by St. Augustine (Hær., lxxxvi).在良以下的不能被大;但他幸免于难Tertullianist教派及其残余物调和,捌拾)到圣奥古斯丁教堂(Hær.。 About 392-4 an African lady, Octaviana, wife of Hesperius, a favorite of the Duke Arbogastes and the usurper Maximus, brought to Rome a Tertullianist priest who raved as if possessed.关于392-4非洲夫人,奥克塔维亚娜,妻子Hesperius,杜克大学最喜欢的Arbogastes和篡权鲆带到罗马1 Tertullianist祭司谁妄言像着魔似的。He obtained the use of the church of Sts.他获得了亚硫酸使用的教会。Processus and Martinianus on the Via Aurelia, but was turned out by Theodosius, and he and Octaviana were heard of no more.突和Martinianus有关威盛奥里利亚,但被拒绝由狄奥多西,他和奥克塔维亚娜更没有听说过。Epiphanius distinguished a sect of Montanists as Pepuzians or Quintillians (he calls Priscilla also Quintilla).埃皮法尼乌斯辨别出金蒂利亚节也Montanists作为Pepuzians或Quintillians(他叫普里西拉)。 He says they had some foolish sayings which gave thanks to Eve for eating of the tree of knowledge.他说,他们有一定的知识愚蠢的说法,吃的树到除夕了感谢。They used to sleep at Pepuza in order to see Christ as Priscilla had done.他们睡在用Pepuza为了看到基督梁美芬做了。Often in their church seven virgins would enter with lamps, dressed in white, to prophesy to the people, whom by their excited action they would move to tears; this reminds us of some modern missions rather than of the Irvingite "speaking with tongues", with which the Montanist ecstasies have often been compared.通常在他们的教会7处女将进入灯具,身着白色,以预言的百姓,就是他们兴奋的行动,他们将转移到流泪,这提醒:“我们讲方言的一些任务,而不是Irvingite现代的”,与该Montanist兴奋过后往往比较。 These heretics were said to have women for their bishops and priests, in honor of Eve.这些异端据说除夕妇女,他们的主教和神父的荣誉,研究。They were called "Artotyrites", because their sacrament was of bread and cheese.他们被称为“Artotyrites”,因为他们的圣事是面包和奶酪。Prædestinatus says the Pepuzians did not really differ from other Montanists, but despised all who did not actually dwell at the "new Jerusalem". Prædestinatus说,Pepuzians没有真正不同于其他Montanists,但鄙视所有谁实际上并没有停留在“新耶路撒冷”。There is a well-known story that the Montanists (or at least the Pepuzians) on a certain feast took a baby child whom they stuck all over with brazen pins.有一个众所周知的故事了Montanists(或至少是Pepuzians)对某一节日采取了牙牙学语的孩子他们所坚持的无耻销全国各地。 They used the blood to make cakes for sacrifice.他们用血作出牺牲的蛋糕。If the child died it was looked upon as a martyr; if it lived, as a high-priest.如果孩子死了后,它被看作为一个烈士,如果它生活,作为一个高神父。This story was no doubt a pure invention, and was especially denied in the "De Ecstasi" of Tertullian.这个故事无疑是纯粹的发明,尤其良否认“德Ecstasi”的。An absurd nickname for the sect was Tascodrugitoe, from Phrygian words meaning peg and nose, because they were said to put their forefinger up their nose when praying "in order to appear dejected and pious" (Epiphanius, Hær., xlviii, 14).该教派的一个荒谬的昵称是Tascodrugitoe意义,弗里吉亚的话从PEG和鼻子,因为他们说,把他们的食指了他们在祈祷时鼻子“,以便出现沮丧和虔诚”(埃皮法尼乌斯,哈尔。,48,14)。

It is interesting to take St. Jerome's account, written in 384, of the doctrines of Montanism as he believed them to be in his own time (Ep., xli).有趣的是,采取圣杰罗姆的帐户,384写在孟他努派,教义的作为,他相信他们能够在自己的时间(插曲,四十一)。He describes them as Sabellians in their idea of the Trinity, as forbidding second marriage, as observing three Lents "as though three Saviours had suffered".他形容他们三位一体作为萨姆奈特在他们的想法,作为禁止第二次婚姻,作为观察遭受“三伦茨”好像3奥尔塞弗斯。 Above bishops they have "Cenones" (probably not koinonoi, but a Phrygian word) and patriarchs above these at Pepuza.最重要的主教,他们有“Cenones”(很可能不是koinonoi,但弗里吉亚字)以上,而这些元老在Pepuza。 They close the door of the Church to almost every sin. They say that God, not being able to save the world by Moses and the Prophets, took flesh of the Virgin Mary, and in Christ, His Son, preached and died for us. And because He could not accomplish the salvation of the world by this second method, the Holy Spirit descended upon Montanus, Prisca, and Maximilla, giving them the plenitude which St. Paul had not (1 Corinthians 13:9).他们关闭了教堂的门,几乎每一个罪。他们说,上帝,未能拯救世界的先知摩西和参加了肉体的圣母玛利亚,并在基督里,他的儿子,鼓吹和我们死了。因为他无法完成这个世界第二的方法拯救了,圣灵降临蒙塔努斯马克西米拉,普里斯卡马,并给予他们充实而圣保罗没有(哥林多前书13时09分)。 St. Jerome refuses to believe the story of the blood of a baby; but his account is already exaggerated beyond what the Montanists would have admitted that they held. Origen ("Ep. ad Titum" in "Pamph. Apol.", I fin.) is uncertain whether they are schismatics or heretics.圣杰罗姆拒绝相信婴儿的故事一血液中,但他的帐户已经超出了Montanists夸张会承认,他们举行。奥利(“的EP。广告Titum”中的“Pamph。Apol。”我鳍。)是不确定他们是否schismatics与罗马或异端。 St. Basil is amazed that Dionysius of Alexandria admitted their baptism to be valid (Ep., clxxxii).圣巴索是惊讶,狄奥尼修斯的亚历山大承认他们的洗礼是有效的(插曲,clxxxii)。According to Philastrius (Hær., xlix) they baptized the dead.据Philastrius(Hær.,第四十九章),他们死去的洗礼。Sozomen (xviii) tells us that they observed Easter on 6 April or on the following Sunday. Sozomen(十八)告诉我们,他们观察到星期日复活节4月6日或以下。Germanus of Constantinople (PG, XCVIII, 44) says they taught eight heavens and eight degrees of damnation.君士坦丁堡Germanus的公司(PG,XCVIII,44岁)说,他们教8天,8度的诅咒。The Christian emperors from Constantine onwards made laws against them, which were scarcely put into execution in Phrygia (Sozomen, II, xxxii).从基督教皇帝君士坦丁开始,使他们对法律,其中几乎没有投入弗里吉亚执行中(Sozomen,二,三十二)。But gradually they became a small and secret sect.但是,他们逐渐成为小型的秘密教派。The bones of Montanus were dug up in 861.作者:孟他努的骨头被挖出来的861。The numerous Montanist writings (bibloi apeiroi, "Philosophumena", VIII, xix) are all lost.众多的Montanist著作(bibloi apeiroi,“Philosophumena”,八,19)都丢失。It seems that a certain Asterius Urbanus made a collection of the prophecies (Eusebius, V, xvi, 17).看来,在一定Asterius乌尔巴努斯发了)收集的预言(优西比乌,五,十六,十七。

A theory of the origin of Montanism, originated by Ritschl, has been followed by Harnack, Bonwetsch, and other German critics.阿孟他努理论的起源,起源于由里奇尔,一直遵循的哈纳克,Bonwetsch,和其他德国批评。The secularizing in the second century of the Church by her very success and the disappearance of the primitive "Enthusiasmus" made a difficulty for "those believers of the old school who protested in the name of the Gospel against this secular Church, and who wished to gather together a people prepared for their God regardless alike of numbers an circumstances".该教会的世俗化在她的第二个世纪的非常成功,对失踪的原始“Enthusiasmus”使教会一遇到困难,世俗的“那些信教的老校名谁的福音抗议反对,谁希望他们聚在一起神为一人准备一个数字都不管的情况。“ Some of these "joined an enthusiastic movement which had originated amongst a small circle in a remote province, and had at first a merely local importance. Then, in Phrygia, the cry for a strict Christian life was reinforced by the belief in a new and final outpouring of the Spirit. . .The wish was, as usual, father to the thought; and thus societies of 'spiritual' Christians were formed, which served, especially in times of persecution, as rallying points for all those, far and near, who sighed for the end of the world and the excessus e soeculo, and who wished in these last days to lead a holy life. These zealots hailed the appearance of the Paraclete in Phrygia, and surrendered themselves to his guidance" (Harnack in "Encycl. Brit.", London, 1878, sv Montanism).其中一些“加入了一个热情的运动,起源省之间有一个偏远的一个小圆圈,和重要性当初一个单纯的地方。然后,在弗里吉亚,生命的哭是在严格的基督教信仰,强化了一个新的和的精神。。。的愿望是,像往常一样,父亲的思想;,因此社会中的最后流露的精神'基督教徒组成,其中服务,特别是在迫害倍,作为凝聚点,所有这些,远和近,谁叹了口气对世界的结束和excessus é soeculo,谁愿意在这最后的日子过圣洁的生活。这些狂热欢呼弗里吉亚的圣灵在外观,并交出自己对他的指导意见“(哈纳克在” Encycl。英国人。“,伦敦,1878年,希沃特孟他努派)。This ingenious theory has its basis only in the imagination, nor have any facts ever been advanced in its favor.这巧妙的理论具有想象力的基础上只在,也没有任何事实支持其在不断取得进展。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息写由约翰查普曼。Transcribed by Robert B. Olson.转录由罗伯特B ·奥尔森。Offered to Almighty God for the grace for all people to seek the Truth and find it in His One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.所有的人提供了全能的神的恩典为寻求真理,发现在他一,至圣,天主教和使徒教会。天主教百科全书,卷十,1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

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