Mysticism神秘主义

General Information一般信息

Mysticism in general refers to a direct and immediate experience of the sacred, or the knowledge derived from such an experience. In Christianity this experience usually takes the form of a vision of, or sense of union with, God; however, there are also nontheistic forms of mysticism, as in Buddhism.一般神秘主义指的是一个直接从这种经验和知识的直接经验所得的神圣,或。 基督教在这方面的经验通常以上帝的视觉形式,或与工会意识;不过,也有nontheistic神秘主义的形式,如佛教。Mysticism is usually accompanied by meditation, prayer, and ascetic discipline.神秘主义通常是伴随着冥想,祈祷,苦行纪律。

It may also be accompanied by unusual experiences of ecstasy, levitation, visions, and power to read human hearts, to heal, and to perform other unusual acts.它也可能伴随着不寻常的狂喜经验,磁悬浮,愿景,并有权阅读人心,愈合,并执行其他不寻常的行为。Mysticism occurs in most, if not all, the religions of the world, although its importance within each varies greatly.神秘主义发生最大,如果不是全部,世界上的宗教的,但其重要性在每个差别很大。The criteria and conditions for mystical experience vary depending on the tradition, but three attributes are found almost universally.的标准和经验的条件取决于神秘的传统,但发现有3个属性几乎普遍。First, the experience is immediate and overwhelming, divorced from the common experience of reality.首先,经验是立即和巨大的,脱离现实的共同经验。Second, the experience or the knowledge imparted by it is felt to be self - authenticating, without need of further evidence or justification.第二,经验或知识,它传授的是认为是自我-验证,没有理由需要进一步的证据或。 Finally, it is held to be ineffable, its essence incapable of being expressed or understood outside the experience itself.最后,它是认为是无法形容的,其本质无法被表达或理解本身以外的经验。

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Many mystics have written of their experiences, and these writings are the best source for our knowledge of mysticism. Poetic language is frequently the vehicle of expression.许多神秘主义者写的经验,这些著作是神秘主义的知识为我们的最佳来源。诗意的语言表达的往往是车辆。Fire, an interior journey, the dark night of the soul, a knowing that is an un - knowing - such are the images or descriptions used for communicating the mystical experience.消防,室内的征程中,灵魂的黑夜,一知道这是一个联合国-知道-这就是神秘的形象描述或经验用于沟通的。In the Christian tradition mysticism is understood as the result of God's action in persons, an unmerited grace they receive from union with God. Other religions allow for the human achievement of the mystical states through certain methods of contemplation, fasting, and breathing.在基督教传统神秘主义被理解为工会结果上帝的行动者,一个不必要的宽限期,从他们获得与神。其他宗教的神秘让国家的人类成就的沉思,通过某些方法,斋戒,呼吸。 Only those whose lives are marked by penance and emotional purification achieve mystical states, however, and the experience itself is always of an Absolute that transcends the human efforts or methods of achieving it.然而,只有那些生活的标志是忏悔和情感净化达到神秘的国家,以及本身的经验总是一个绝对超越人类的努力或它的方法实现。

Modern philosophers and psychologists have studied the occurrence of mysticism.现代哲学家和心理学家研究过神秘主义的发生。William James suggested that it may be an extension of the ordinary fields of human consciousness.威廉詹姆斯认为,这可能是人类意识的延伸领域的普通。The philosopher Henri Bergson considered intuition to be the highest state of human knowing and mysticism the perfection of intuition.哲学家亨利柏格森的直觉认为是最高境界的人的直觉认识和神秘主义的完美。Today scientists are interested in the ways in which certain drugs seem to induce quasi - mystical states.今天,科学家们感兴趣的国家中,某些药物的方式似乎引起准-神秘。Recent studies have added to the understanding of mysticism without fully explaining it in psychological terms.最近的研究增加了神秘主义的理解不全面的角度来解释心理。

Among the many Christian mystics who have documented their experiences are Saint Francis of Assisi; Saint Teresa of Avila; Saint John of the Cross; Jacob Bohme; George Fox, founder of the Quakers; and Emanuel Swedenborg.其中记录他们的经验有许多基督教神秘主义者谁是圣方济各的;圣德肋撒的阿维拉;圣十字若望的;雅各伯梅,贵格会乔治福克斯的创始人和伊曼纽尔威。 For information on mysticism in Islam, see Sufism; in Judaism, Hasidism and Kabbalah; in the Eastern religions, Taoism, Upanishads, Vedanta, and Zen Buddhism.对于伊斯兰教的神秘主义的资料,见苏菲,在犹太教,和卡巴拉的Ḥasidism,而在东方宗教,道教,奥义书,韦丹塔,和禅宗。

Joan A Range琼甲范围

Bibliography 书目
H Bridges, American Mysticism: From William James to Zen (1970); EC Butler, Western Mysticism (1967); WH Capp and WM Wright, eds., Silent Fire: An Invitation to Western Mysticism (1978); JM Clark, The Great German Mystics (1949); W James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902); D Knowles, The English Mystical Tradition (1961); J Marquette, Introduction to Comparative Mysticism (1949); E O'Brien, Varieties of Mystical Experience (1964); G Parrinder, Mysticism in the World's Religions (1977); GG Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1959); E Stevens, An Introduction to Oriental Mysticism (1974); DT Suzuki, Mysticism: Christian and Buddhist (1957); RC Zaehner, Mysticism (1961). H桥,美国神秘主义:从威廉詹姆斯禅(1970年);欧共体巴特勒,西方神秘主义(1967年);硏卡普和WM赖特,合编。安静消防:邀请西方神秘主义(1978年); JM克拉克,大德国神秘主义者(1949年); W詹姆斯,1902年)该品种的宗教经验(; Ð诺尔斯,英语神秘的传统(1961年); J马凯特,介绍比较神秘主义(1949年),电子商务奥布莱恩,经验品种的神秘( 1964年); Ğ Parrinder)神秘主义在世界宗教(1977年;千兆肖勒姆,(1959年大趋势犹太神秘主义),电子商务史蒂文斯,一个1974年介绍东方神秘主义();申命记铃木,神秘主义:基督教和佛教(1957) ;钢筋混凝土扎纳,神秘主义(1961年)。


Mysticism神秘主义

Advanced Information先进的信息

As recognized by all writers on this subject, whether they claim direct personal mystical experience or not, both the definition and description of the mystical encounter are difficult.由于认识到这个问题对所有作家,无论是直接的个人索赔神秘的经验或没有,都遇到的定义和描述了神秘的困难。 It is clear, however, that mysticism is not the same as magic, clairvoyance, parapsychology, or occultism, nor does it consist in a preoccupation with sensory images, visions, or special revelations.很明显,然而,神秘主义是不一样的神秘魔术,千里眼,超心理学,或者,也没有它,包括在图像与感官关注视野,或特殊的启示。 Nearly all Christian mystical writers relegate these phenomena to the periphery.几乎所有的基督教神秘主义作家贬谪这些现象的边缘。 Nearly all Christian mystics avoid the occult arts entirely.几乎所有的基督教神秘主义的神秘艺术完全避免。Briefly and generally stated, mystical theology or Christian mysticism seeks to describe an experienced, direct, nonabstract, unmediated, loving knowing of God, a knowing or seeing so direct as to be called union with God.简言之,一般说,神秘神学或基督教神秘主义的目的,是一位经验丰富的描述,直接,nonabstract,作中间人,工会知道上帝的爱,一知道或看到那么直接,以被称为与神。

History历史

A brief historical survey of Christian mysticism is essential to an understanding of the varied ways in which it is explained and defined.基督教神秘主义的简要历史调查是必不可少的一个定义的解释和理解的不同方式,它是。 Although the terms "mystery" and "mystical" are related etymologically to ancient mystery cults, it is doubtful that NT and patristic writers were dependent theologically upon these sources.虽然术语“神秘”和“神秘”的有关词源古代神秘邪教,这是值得怀疑的NT和教父的作家,对这些依赖来源神学。A distinct mystical or mystery theology emerged in the Alexandrian school of exegesis and spirituality with Clement of Alexandria and Origen and their search for the hidden meaning of Scripture and their exposition of the mystery of redemption.一个明显的神秘神学或神秘出现在学校的赎回亚历山大的神秘和灵性的注释与克莱门特的亚历山德里亚和奥利寻找隐藏的论述及其意义的经文和。

The Cappadocian fathers, especially Gregory of Nyssa; leading monastics, especially Evagrius of Pontus (346 - 99) and John Cassian (c. 360 - 435); Augustine of Hippo; and the obscure personage known as Dionysius the Pseudo - Areopagite created the formative legacy for medieval mysticism.在卡帕多细亚的父亲,尤其是尼萨格雷戈里;领导僧众,特别是Evagrius本都(346 - 99)和约翰卡西安(公元前360 - 435);奥古斯丁的河马,以及掩盖人物Areopagite称为伪狄奥尼修斯-创造的形成对于中世纪的神秘主义传统。The term generally used until the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries to describe the mystical experience was "contemplation."这个词的普遍使用,直到第十四和第十五世纪来形容神秘经验是“沉思”。In its original philosophical meaning this word (Gr. theoria) described absorption in the loving viewing of an object or truth.在最初的哲学意义这个词(Gr. theoria)说明真相吸收爱好观赏对象或一个。

Only in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, with the writings of Richard of Saint Victor and Thomas Aquinas, do systematic descriptive analyses of the contemplative life appear.只有在12世纪和13世纪,托马斯阿奎那的著作的作者理查德和圣维克多,这样做有系统的描述分析,沉思生命的出现。 Late medieval concern with practical and methodical prayer contributed to a turning point in the sixteenth century Ignatian and Carmelite schools (Ignatius Loyola, Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross). Spiritual writers from these traditions were concerned primarily with empirical, psychological, and systematic descriptions of the soul's behavior in order to assist spiritual directors.中世纪晚期有条不紊的祈祷和关心的实际贡献的一个转折点在16世纪的依纳爵和加尔默罗学校(依纳爵罗耀拉,跨德肋撒的阿维拉的,约翰)。这些传统精神的作家而言,主要是从经验,心理和系统行为描述的灵魂的精神,以协助董事。

Protestants generally rejected mystical theology. Despite his acquaintance with medieval mystical writings, Martin Luther cannot be called a mystic, recent attempts to arrange his theology around a mystical center notwithstanding. 新教徒普遍拒绝了中世纪的神学神秘的神秘的著作尽管他的熟人,马丁路德不能被称为神秘的,最近试图安排他的神学围绕一个中心尽管神秘。 Some Protestants in most periods retained an interest in the mystical tradition, although they should not necessarily be considered mystics.在某些时期新教徒多数保留了传统的神秘主义的兴趣,虽然他们并不一定被视为神秘主义者。But mainstream Protestantism has generally mistrusted or been openly hostile toward a mystical dimension of the spiritual life.但是,主流新教普遍不信任或敌对的生活已公开对一个神秘的精神层面的。

In Catholic circles mystical theology was virtually submerged under a tide of enlightenment rationalism in the eighteenth century.在天主教界的神秘神学几乎淹没在一世纪启蒙理性主义浪潮在18。A mystical reaction to rationalism and naturalism, aided by the development of psychological science in the later nineteenth century, is still bearing fruit in the late twentieth century.一个神秘的反应,理性主义和自然主义,资助了19世纪心理科学的发展在后,仍然是20世纪中后期开花结果。A controversy over the relation of mystical theology to "ordinary" prayer and the Christian striving for holiness or perfection dominated the early decades of the twentieth century.一个世纪的关系争论的神秘神学“普通”或基督教的祈祷和努力的圣洁完美的20为主的前几十年。

In general, whereas many Catholic theologians reacted to the challenge of rationalism, naturalism, and modernism with renewed attention to mystical and liturgical spiritual theology, many Protestant evagelicals have responded with a generally rational theology of the letter of Scripture.在一般情况下,而许多天主教神学家的反应是理性的自然挑战,以新的现代主义和神学神秘和重视礼仪的精神,许多新教evagelicals回应与一般的信圣经神学的理性。 Others have given renewed attention to spirituality in the 1970s but still prefer a "Reformation faith piety" or "prophetic spirituality" to mystical contemplation, partly because of the rejection of mystery in liturgical and sacramental theology and practice.其他人重新开始关注精神在20世纪70年代,但仍然喜欢“改造信仰虔诚”或“先知灵性”神秘的沉思,这部分是因为实践排斥在礼仪和圣事奥秘神学和。 But contemporary evangelical antipathy toward mysticism is also partly the result of Barthian influence that reduces mysticism (and pietism) to a heretical subjectivity and anthropocentrism that denies the utterly transcendent reality of God.但对当代福音派神秘主义的反感,也部分影响结果Barthian,降低神秘主义(和虔诚主义)到邪教的主观性和人类中心主义,否认的现实上帝完全超越。

The Nature of Mysticism大自然的神秘主义

Beyond a general descriptive definition as offered above, explanations of the nature and characteristics of the mystical experience vary widely.除了一般的描述性定义,提出以上,经验解释神秘的性质和特点的差别很大。Throughout Christian history and especially since the sixteenth century many Roman Catholic authors have distinguished ordinary or "acquired" prayer, even if occurring at a supraconceptual level of love, adoration, and desire for God, from the extraordinary or "infused" contemplation which is entirely the work of God's special grace.在整个基督教历史,特别是自16世纪的许多杰出的罗马天主教作家有普通或“后天”祈祷,即使发生在崇拜的爱,一supraconceptual水平,为上帝和愿望,从特殊或“注入”的沉思,是完全神的特别恩典的工作。 Only the latter is mystical in a strict sense, according to this view.后者是神秘的,只有在严格意义上说,根据这个观点。Other writers, both Catholic and Protestant, would apply the term "mystical" to all communion with God.其他作家,天主教和新教,将适用于对“神秘”的所有共融与上帝。In the twentieth century some Catholic theologians (eg, L Bouyer, A Stolz), in conjunction with the movement for liturgical renewal, have sought to locate mystical theology in a scriptural and liturgical context, emphasizing the believer's participation in the mystery of God's reconciliation with his creatures in Christ, especially in the sacraments.在20世纪的一些天主教神学家(如升bouyer,一个斯托尔兹)重建,礼仪联同运动,试图找到礼仪方面的神秘神学在圣经,并强调神秘与上帝的和解信徒参与他在基督里的动物,尤其是在圣礼。

Many attempts have been made to describe the fundamental characteristics of mystical experience.已作出许多努力来描述神秘体验的基本特征。Traditionally it has been asserted that the experiential union of creature and Creator is inexpressible and ineffable, although those who have experienced it seek imagery and metaphors to describe it, however imperfectly.传统上它一直声称,工会和生物体验造物主是难以形容和无法形容的,虽然经历过那些谁寻求图像和比喻来形容它,但不完美。 As noted above, it is experienced union or vision, not abstract knowledge.如上所述,它是有经验的工会或愿景,而不是抽象的知识。It is beyond the level of concepts, for reasoning, ideas, and sensory images have been transcended (but not rejected) in an intuitive union.这是毫无概念的水平,为推理,观念和感觉的照片已经被超越)直观的一个工会(但不拒绝。

Thus it is suprarational and supraintellectual, not antirational or anti - intellectual.因此,它是suprarational和supraintellectual,而不是反理性或反-知识分子。 In one sense the sould is passive, because it experiences God's grace poured into itself.在某种意义上,可以是被动的,因为它经历神的恩典本身注入。Yet the union is not quietistic, because the soul consents to and embraces the spiritual marriage.然而,工会不寂静主义,因为灵魂的同意和包容的精神婚姻。Although some authors also stress the transient and fleeting nature of mystical union, others describe it as lasting for a definite, even prolonged period of time.虽然有些作者还强调工会的性质的神秘和稍纵即逝的瞬间,有的时候它描述为一个明确的持久长时间,甚至。More recent theological and liturgical understandings of mystical theology, unlike the systematic phenomenological and "empirical" manuals of the early twentieth century, define characteristics less precisely and seek to fit mystical theology more centrally into an ecclesial and soteriological framework.最近的神学和礼仪的认识神秘的神学世纪,不同的是系统的现象学和“经验性20”手册早期,准确界定特征少,寻求适合教会和救世框架神秘神学更多集中到一个。

The various stages of the mystical way have also been described in immensely varying manner.神秘的方式的不同阶段也有不同的方式描述了极大。Virtually all writers agree, however, that purification (purgation or cleaning) and discipline are prerequisites.几乎所有作家的同意,但是,净化(净化或清洁)和纪律的先决条件。Each of the three classic stages, the path of purification, the phase of illumination, and the mystical union itself (not necessarily occurring in a fixed sequence but rather in interaction with each other), may be described as consisting of various degrees or graduations.每个阶段的三个经典,净化路径,光照阶段,而神秘联盟本身(不一定发生在一个固定的顺序,而是在其他的互动与每一个),可以说是由不同程度的刻度或。 It should not be forgotten that the monastic life, the standard path of ascetic purification throughout much of Christian history, has served as the foundation for much Christian mysticism.它不应该忘记的是,寺院的生活,基督教历史标准路径的苦行净化整个多,已担任基督教神秘主义的基础了。Unfortunately, this foundation has been overlooked by some modern scholars who consider mystics to be individualistic seekers after noninstitutional, extrasacramental religious ecstasy.不幸的是,这个基金会一直忽视了一些宗教狂喜现代学者认为神秘主义者谁,extrasacramental是个人主义的求职者后,非机构。

Teachings about the mystical union have often brought charges of pantheism upon their exponents.关于工会教神秘往往带来指数后,其收费的泛神论。Although most mystics seek to transcend the limits of the (false) self, they have been careful to insist on the preservation of the soul's identity in the union with God, choosing such imagery as that of iron glowing in the fire of unitive love, taking on fire in union with the fire, yet without loss of its properties as iron.虽然大多数的神秘主义者试图超越极限(假)的自我,他们一直小心翼翼地坚持图像保存灵魂的身份的,选择这样的联盟与上帝的爱统一的铁发光在火中,以在工会与火火,但没有铁损性能作为其。 Indeed, one should rather stress that, far from losing itself, the sould finds its true identity in the mystical union.事实上,一而应强调的是,远离失去本身,可以认定其真实身份的神秘联盟研究。Many Protestants have found palatable only those mystical writers who are thought to have limited mystical union to a "conformity of human and divine wills," rather than those who teach an ontological union, a union of essence or being.许多新教徒只找到了可口的神圣遗嘱神秘作家谁被认为是有限的人力和神秘的工会到“一致的”,而不是那些谁教一个本体论工会,工会的一个本质或福利。 This distinction is problematical, since the meaning of either "ontological union" or "conformity of will" depends on the presuppositions about human nature held by the author in question.这种区分是有问题的,因为这个问题的含义不是“本体论工会”或“作者的意愿,符合了”人的本质举行取决于有关的前提。

Those who stress a "prophetic faith piety" or "Reformation" alternative to supposed pantheistic or panentheistic mysticism (eg, Heiler, Bloesch, in part under the influence of Brunner and Barth) have circumscribed mysticism so narrowly and connected it so closely to Neoplatonism that few mystics would recognize it. They have also broadened the meaning of "prophetic religion" so much that most mystics would feel at home under its canopy.这些谁也强调“先知信仰虔诚”或“改造”应该替代或神论泛神论神秘主义(例如,海勒,Bloesch的一部分,在巴特的影响下,布伦纳和)有限制的神秘主义狭隘和连接如此紧密合作,柏拉图说一些神秘主义者会认识到这一点。他们还扩大了林冠意义“先知的宗教”,以至于在最神秘主义者会觉得它的下家。

Scriptural sources for Christian mysticism are found largely in the Logos - incarnation doctrine of John's Gospel, in imagery such as that of the vine and branches (John 15) or Christ's prayer for union (John 17), as well as in aspects of the Pauline corpus.基督教神秘主义圣经的来源发现主要集中在标志- ,以及在方面宝莲的化身学说)约翰的福音,在图像,例如葡萄树和树枝(约15)或基督的祈祷17联盟(约翰语料库。The latter include the description of Paul's rapture into the third heaven (II Cor. 12:1 - 4) or statements such as that referring to a life "hid with Christ in God" (Col. 3:3).后者包括肺心病描述保罗的狂喜进入第三天堂(二。12:1 - 4)或声明,例如指的是生命“与基督一同藏在神”(西3:3)。 In all of these the essential theological presuppositions involve belief in a personal God and in the centrality of the incarnation.在这些所有的基本神学前提涉及个人信仰的神的化身,并在该中心。For medieval mystics Moses' "vision" of God (Exod. 33:12 - 34:9) and his reflection of God's glory upon leaving Mount Sinai (Exod. 34:29 - 35; cf. II Cor. 3:7) served as proof texts, and the allegorized spiritual marriage of the Song of Solomon, together with the other OT wisdom literature, provided unlimited scriptural resources until the shift from spiritual to literal - grammatical humanist and Reformation hermeneutics took place.对于视觉“中世纪的神秘主义者摩西”的神(出埃及记33:12 - 34:9)和他的荣耀反映上帝的后离开西奈山(出埃及记34:29 - 35;比照。二肺心病。3:7)担任作为证明文本,以及雅歌allegorized精神的婚姻,连同其他加时赛的智慧文学,提供了无限的圣经诠释学发生转移的资源,直到从精神到文字-语法人道主义者和改革。

Anthropologically, Christian mystical theology presupposes a human capacity or fittedness for God, drawing especially upon the doctrine of human beings created in the image of God and on the doctrine of God become human in Christ.从人类学,基督教神秘主义神学的前提是人的能力或fittedness为上帝,基督图纸后,特别是在理论的形象创造了人类对神和对上帝的学说成为人类。 Christian mystics have traditionally understood mystical union as a restoration of the image and likeness of God that was distorted or lost at the fall from innocence.基督教神秘主义传统理解的清白神秘解体为恢复和图像相似性的上帝,是歪曲,或丢失。The image of God, distorted but not destroyed, remains as the foundation for the journey from the land of unlikeness to restored likeness and union.神的形象,歪曲,但不被破坏,仍然是工会为基础的土地的旅程从不像,肖像和恢复。Especially in the fourteenth century German Dominican school (Eckhart, Tauler) his teaching on the image of God in humans was expressed with terms such as the "basic will" or "ground" (Grund) of the soul or the "spark of divinity" in the human soul.特别是在14世纪德国多米尼加学校(艾克哈特,塔尔勒)他的神的形象教材,在人类表示“基本的条款,如将”或“理由”(Grund的)灵魂或“神性的火花”在人的灵魂。

In any case, although it stresses union with God who transcends all human limitations, mystical theology is incompatible with either an exclusively transcendent or an exclusively immanent doctrine of God, the God who transcends also became incarnate in Christ and he is immanent in his creatures created in his image.在任何情况下,尽管它强调工会与上帝谁超越了所有人类的局限,神秘的神学是一个完全不符合或超越或上帝的教义完全内在的,超越的上帝谁也成为在基督的化身,他是在他创建的生物内在在他的形象。 For this reason many representatives of both the social gospel and neo - orthodox theology have been stridently antimystical.基于这个原因,许多代表antimystical双方的社会福音和新-正统神学已经慷慨陈辞。

Conclusion结论

Christian mysticism has often been portrayed as having modified and imported into Christianity the Platonic (Neoplatonic) doctrine of cosmological emanation in creation from the idea of the One and, in mystical union, a corresponding return to the One.基督教神秘主义往往被描绘成一个具有修改并导入到基督教的柏拉图(柏拉图的)宇宙射气学说从创作的理念,并在神秘的工会,一个相应的返回之一。 While a concern to relate the Creator to creation both immanently and transcendentally has from the earliest centuries led Christian mystics to make use of Neoplatonic philosophy, equally prominent are those (especially in the Franciscan school) whose theology is Christocentric, ecclesial, and liturgical.虽然关注涉及的造物主创造了从最早的几个世纪都immanently和先验领导的基督教神秘主义哲学的运用,使柏拉图,同样突出的是那些(特别是在方济各学校),其是Christocentric神学,教会,和礼仪。 One of the most cosmologically sophisticated medieval mystics, Nicolas of Cusa (1401 - 64), drew deeply from Neoplatonic and Eckhartian emanationism but was also profoundly Christocentric.神秘主义的一个最复杂的中世纪cosmologically,尼古拉斯的库萨(1401至1464年),提请深深从柏拉图和Eckhartian emanationism但也深刻Christocentric。The issue cannot be resolved solely with broad brushstrokes of metahistorical categories such as Neoplatonism.这个问题不能得到解决的,只是作为广泛的类别,例如柏拉图笔触的形而上历史。

Of the other issues that have recurred in mystical writings and studies of mystical writings, one of the most enduring is the question of the relation between cognitive, intellectual, or speculative elements, on the one hand, and affective, loving, or supraconceptual and suprarational elements on the other.在神秘的著作的其他问题有复发的研究神秘的著作,其中最持久的要素问题是投机性的关系认知,智力,或者一方面,和情感,有爱心,或supraconceptual和suprarational内容为另一方。 The negative way that "ascends" by stripping off all cognitions and images until one "sees" God in a "cloud of unknowing" darkness differs from the philosophical systems that claim mystical knowledge to be the human reason (including will, intellect, and feeling) exploring the sphere above that of limited rationalism (Inge), as well as the simple clinging to God in love alone posited by some mystics.的消极方式,“拾黑暗”的认知和形象,直到剥夺了所有不知情的云“一”一“看见”上帝在不同的哲学体系是唬人的知识是人类理性(包括意志,智慧和情感)探讨上述领域的有限理性(英奇),以及简单的执着的爱只有上帝在神秘主义者假定一些。 Such distinctions, however, are not absolute, and most mystics stress the interrelatedness of love and cognition.这种区别,但是,不是绝对的,最神秘主义者强调相互关联的认知和热爱。

The problem of the objective quality of mystical experience that so preoccupied the psychological - empirical writers of the early twentieth century has become less significant for Christians dealing with mysticism theologically in its scriptural, ecclesial, and liturgical contexts.在20世纪早期的问题的客观质量的神秘经验,因此惹来的心理-经验的作家已经变得不那么显着的情况下处理神秘主义神学与基督徒在圣经,教会,和礼仪。 At the same time, for students of the philosophy of religion the question of objective content has gained renewed attention as nineteenth century naturalism wanes and Western interest in Eastern mysticism and religions grows.同时,学生对内容的宗教哲学问题的目标,取得了新的注意,因为19世纪的自然主义和宗教退去,东方神秘主义在西方的利益增长。

DD Martin房屋署副署长马丁
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
MA Bowman, Western Mysticism; A Guide to the Basic Sources; L Bouyer, F Vandenbroucke, and J Leclercq, A History of Christian Spirituality; Dictionnaire de spiritualite ascetique et mystique, II; A Louth, The Origins of Christian Mystical Theology; TS Kepler, An Anthology of Devotional Literature; W James, The Varieties of Religious Experience; F von Hugel, The Mystical Element of Religion; E Underhill, Mysticism; RM Jones, Studies in Mystical Religion; R Otto, The Idea of the Holy; RC Zaehner, Mysticism, Sacred and Profane; G Harkness, Mysticism: Its Meaning and Message; HD Egan, What are They Saying about Mysticism?马鲍曼神秘主义,西方,一个基本来源指南;升bouyer,女范登布鲁克,和J勒克莱尔,一个历史的基督教灵性;辞典德spiritualite ascetique等神秘性,二;阿劳斯,基督教的神学起源神秘;给付开普勒,一个虔诚的文学选集; W詹姆斯,宗教体验的品种,女冯胡格尔,神秘的宗教元素,电子商务昂德希尔,神秘主义;马币琼斯,神秘的宗教研究与r奥托,神圣的理念;钢筋混凝土扎纳,神秘,神圣与世俗; Ğ哈克尼斯,神秘主义:其意义和消息;高清伊根,它们是什么神秘主义的言说什么?ST Katz, ed., Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis; A Poulain, The Graces of Interior Prayer; C Butler, Western Mysticism; P Murray, The Mysticism Debate; T Merton, New Seeds of Contemplation; AW Tozer, The Knowledge of the Holy; A Nygren, Agape and Eros; F Heiler, Prayer; V Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church.意法半导体卡茨,教育署。,神秘主义和哲学分析;阿普兰,祷告格拉斯内政部;三巴特勒,西方神秘主义; P默里,神秘主义的辩论; Ť默顿,新种子的沉思;胡托泽,神圣的知识;甲尼格伦,爱和爱欲,女海勒,祈祷; V Lossky,神秘的东方教会的神学。



Mysticism神秘主义

Catholic Information天主教信息

(From myein, to initiate).(从myein,主动)。

Mysticism, according to its etymology, implies a relation to mystery.神秘主义,根据其词源,意味着对神秘的关系。In philosophy, Mysticism is either a religious tendency and desire of the human soul towards an intimate union with the Divinity, or a system growing out of such a tendency and desire.在哲学,宗教神秘主义或者是一个趋势,并希望这种趋势和愿望出一个人的灵魂走向与神亲密的联盟,或一个系统增长。As a philosophical system, Mysticism considers as the end of philosophy the direct union of the human soul with the Divinity through contemplation and love, and attempts to determine the processes and the means of realizing this end.作为一个哲学体系,认为神秘主义作为哲学的终结和爱的直接工会通过沉思的神与人的灵魂,并试图确定过程和实现这一目的的手段。 This contemplation, according to Mysticism, is not based on a merely analogical knowledge of the Infinite, but as a direct and immediate intuition of the Infinite.这沉思,根据神秘主义,是不是基于对知识的无限只是类比,但作为一个直观的无穷直接和即时的。According to its tendency, it may be either speculative or practical, as it limits itself to mere knowledge or traces duties for action and life; contemplative or affective, according as it emphasizes the part of intelligence or the part of the will; orthodox or heterodox, according as it agrees with or opposes the Catholic teaching.根据它的倾向,这可能是投机性的或实际的,因为它限制了自身的知识或单纯的生活痕迹职责采取行动;沉思或情感,根据它强调了将部分或情报的一部分;正统或异端,根据它的教学同意或反对天主教。 We shall give a brief historical sketch of Mysticism and its influence on philosophy, and present a criticism of it.我们将提供一个简短的历史素描的神秘主义及其哲学影响,并提出它的批评。

HISTORICAL SKETCH历史概述

In his "History of Philosophy", Cousin mentions four systems, between which, he says, philosophical thought has continually wavered, viz., Sensism, Idealism, Scepticism, and Mysticism.在他的“”历史哲学,表哥提到四个系统,而两者之间,他说,哲学思想,不断动摇,即。,Sensism,理想主义,怀疑主义和神秘主义。 Whatever may be thought of this classification, it is true that Mysticism has exercised a large influence on philosophy, becoming at times the basis of whole systems, but more often entering as an element into their constitution.无论如何,可以分类想到这一点,的确是一个神秘主义哲学行使影响较大,时间成为在整个系统的基础上,但更常见的宪法作为其进入到一个元素。 Mysticism dominated in the symbolic philosophy of ancient Egypt.神秘主义主导了古埃及的象征哲学。The Taoism of the Chinese philosopher Lao-tze is a system of metaphysics and ethics in which Mysticism is a fundamental element (cf. De Harlez, "Laotze, le premier philosophe chinois", in "Mémoires couronnés et autres de l'Académie", Brussels, January, 1886).该子道教的中国哲学家老子是一个“系统的形而上学和伦理学中神秘主义的一个基本要素(见德Harlez,”老子报总理哲学家华报科学院,在“回忆录couronnés等autres德l'”新华社布鲁塞尔1月,1886年)。 The same may be said of Indian philosophy; the end of human reflection and effort in Brahmanism and Vedantism is to deliver the soul from its transmigrations and absorb it into Brahma forever.同样可以说,印度哲学,永远结束了人类思考和努力,是婆罗门教和Vedantism提供其从轮回的灵魂,并把它吸收梵天。 There is little of Mysticism in the first schools of Greek philosophy, but it already takes a large place in the system of Plato, eg, in his theory of the world of ideas, of the origin of the world soul and the human soul, in his doctrine of recollection and intuition.很少有神秘主义在希腊哲学的第一所学校,但它已经采取了大量的地方制度,柏拉图的,例如,在他的思想理论的世界,世界的起源的灵魂,人的灵魂,他的学说的记忆和直觉。 The Alexandrian Jew Philo (30 BC-AD 50) combined these Platonic elements with the data of the Old Testament, and taught that every man, by freeing himself from matter and receiving illumination from God, may reach the mystical, ecstatic, or prophetical state, where he is absorbed into the Divinity.在亚历山大的犹太人斐洛(公元前30年至公元50)相结合的旧约这些数据与柏拉图元素,并告诉我们,每个人,通过释放自己从物质和接收光照,从神,可到达神秘的,欣喜若狂,或预言的状态,他是神吸收到。 The most systematic attempt at a philosophical system of a mystical character was that of the Neoplatonic School of Alexandria, especially of Plotinus (AD 205-70) in his "Enneads".一个神秘的人物最系统的系统尝试在哲学是,柏拉图学院的亚历山德里亚,特别是普罗提诺(公元205-70)在他的“Enneads”。 His system is a syncretism of the previous philosophies on the basis of Mysticism--an emanative and pantheistic Monism.他的体系是一个一元论和泛神论的发散融合了以往的神秘主义哲学的基础- 1。Above all being, there is the One absolutely indetermined, the absolutely Good.最重要的是,有一个绝对indetermined,绝对好。From it come forth through successive emanations intelligence (nous) with its ideas, the world-soul with its plastic forces (logoi spermatikoi), matter inactive, and the principle of imperfection.从它的想法提出来,通过连续的各种机构实体)与智慧(理性,世界的灵魂,用其塑料部队(洛格依spermatikoi),物质活跃,以及不完善的原则。 The human soul had its existence in the world-soul until it was united with matter.人类灵魂的存在有它的灵魂在世界上,直到它是团结的问题。The end of human life and of philosophy is to realize the mystical return of the soul to God.生命结束的人力和哲学是实现灵魂的神秘归还给上帝。Freeing itself from the sensuous world by purification (katharsis), the human soul ascends by successive steps through the various degrees of the metaphysical order, until it unites itself in a confused and unconscious contemplation to the One, and sinks into it: it is the state of ecstasis. With Christianity, the history of Mysticism enters into a new period.释放)从世界本身的感性净化(katharsis,人类的1846度的形而上学的顺序连续的步骤,通过各种,直到它团结沉思自己在一个混乱和无意识的一个,并汇到它:它是状态ecstasis基督教。随着,神秘主义的历史进入一个新阶段。 The Fathers recognized indeed the partial truth of the pagan system, but they pointed out also its fundamental errors.父亲承认确实是异教系统进行部分真理的,但他们也指出,其根本错误。They made a distinction between reason and faith, philosophy and theology; they acknowledged the aspirations of the soul, but, at the same time, they emphasized its essential inability to penetrate the mysteries of Divine life.他们作出了神学理性与信仰之间的区别,哲学和,他们承认灵魂的愿望,但时间,在相同的,他们强调其基本无法穿透的神圣生命的奥秘。 They taught that the vision of God is the work of grace and the reward of eternal life; in the present life only a few souls, by a special grace, can reach it.他们教我们的理想是上帝的恩典的工作和生活的永恒的奖励,在现在的生活只有少数灵魂的宽限期,以一种特殊的,可以达到目标。 On these principles, the Christian school of Alexandria opposed the true gnosis based on grace and faith to the Gnostic heresies.在这些原则,亚历山大基督教学校反对邪教的真实感悟基础上的恩典和信仰的诺斯底。St. Augustine teaches indeed that we know the essences of things in rationibus aeternis, but this knowledge has its starting point in the data of sense (cf. Quæstiones, LXXXIII, c. xlvi).圣奥古斯丁教导我们确实知道的事情aeternis在rationibus的本质的,但这些知识有其四十六)起的数据点的意义(参见Quæstiones,LXXXIII号角。 Pseudo-Dionysius, in his various works, gave a systematic treatment of Christian Mysticism, carefully distinguishing between rational and mystical knowledge.伪狄奥尼修斯的作品,在他的各种,基督教神秘主义作了系统的治疗,仔细区分合理的知识和神秘。By the former, he says, we know God, not in His nature, but through the wonderful order of the universe, which is a participation of the Divine ideas ("De Divinis Nomin.", c, vii, §§ 2-3, in PG, III, 867 sq.).到了前者,他说,我们知道神,自然不是他的,而是通过Divinis Nomin美好秩序的宇宙,这是一个参与的神圣思想(“德。”和c,七,§ § 2-3 ,在编号,第三,867平方米)。There is, however, he adds, a more perfect knowledge of God possible in this life, beyond the attainments of reason even enlightened by faith, through which the soul contemplates directly the mysteries of Divine light.有,不过,他补充说,上帝可能更完美的知识,在这个生命之光,神圣的奥秘以外的造诣甚至开明理性的信念,通过直接的灵魂设想。 The contemplation in the present life is possible only to a few privileged souls, through a very special grace of God: it is the theosis, mystike enosis.生命沉思在目前可能只有少数有特权的灵魂,通过一个非常特殊的神的恩典:它是theosis,mystike希塞统一。

The works of Pseudo-Dionysius exercised a great influence on the following ages. John Scotus Eriugena (ninth century), in his "De Divisione Naturæ", took them as his guide, but he neglected the distinction of his master, identifying philosophy and theology, God and creatures, and, instead of developing the doctrine of Dionysius, reproduced the pantheistic theories of Plotinus (see ERIUGENA, JOHN SCOTUS).-伪狄奥尼修斯工程行使了以下年龄很大的影响。约翰司各脱Eriugena(第九世纪),在他的“德Divisione Naturæ”,把他们作为他的指导,但他忽略了他的主人的区别,确定哲学和神学神的栖息地,和,而不是发展的狄奥尼修斯学说,复制理论的普罗提诺的泛神论(见ERIUGENA,约翰司各脱)。 In the twelfth century, orthodox Mysticism was presented under a systematic form by the Victorines, Hugh, Walter, and Richard (cf. Mignon, "Les Origines de la Scolastique et Hugues de St. Victor", Paris, 1895), and there was also a restatement of Eriugena's principles with Amaury de Bène, Joachim de Floris, and David of Dinant.在12世纪,东正教神秘主义是米尼翁下提出(参见系统的形式,Victorines,休,沃尔特和理查德,“莱斯Origines德拉Scolastique等维克多雨果德圣”,巴黎,1895年),并有还重申了约阿希姆德弗洛里斯Eriugena的原则与阿默里德贝内,并迪南大卫。 A legitimate element of Mysticism, more or less emphasized, is found in the works of the Schoolmen of the thirteenth century.神秘主义的合理构成部分,或多或少强调,是在13世纪发现的工程经院。In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries there was, as a protest against a sterile dialecticism, a revival of mystical systems, some orthodox--J. Ruysbroek, Gerson, Peter d'Ailly, Denys the Carthusian--and others heterodox--John of Ghent, John of Mirecourt, the Beguines and Beghards, and various brotherhoods influenced by Averroism, and especially Meister Eckhart (1260-1327), who in his "Opus Tripartitum" teaches a deification of man and an assimilation of the creature into the Creator through contemplation (cf. Denifle in "Archiv für Literatur und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters", 1886), the "Theologia Germanica", and, to a certain extent, Nicholas of Cusa (1401-64) with his theory of the coincidentia oppositorum.在第十四和第十五世纪以来是,约翰一抗议无菌的辩证论,一个神秘的系统的一些复苏的正统- J的。Ruysbroek,格尔森,彼得德阿伊,罗弼时的卡尔特-以及其他一些异端-根特,Beghards约翰米尔古的伯格音运动,并与各兄弟会由Averroism的影响,特别是艾克哈(1260至1327年),谁在他的“主业Tripartitum”教人同化和动物的造物主把一个神化通过沉思(参见Literatur德尼夫勒在“档案馆献给北达科Kirchengeschichte德Mittelalters”,1886年)的“神学德国小”,并在一定程度上,oppositorum尼古拉斯的库萨(1401至64年)与coincidentia他的理论的。 Protestantism, by its negation of all ecclesiastical authority and by advocating a direct union of the soul with God, had its logical outcome in a Mysticism mostly pantheistic.基督教,其权威否定所有的教会和主张灵魂与上帝的直接联盟,曾在一个神秘主义的合乎逻辑的结果大多是泛神论。

Protestant Mysticism is represented by Sebastian Frank (1499-1542), by Valentine Weiler (1533-88), and especially by J. Böhme (1575-1624), who, in his "Aurora", conceived the nature of God as containing in itself the energies of good and evil, and identified the Divine nature with the human soul whose operation is to kindle, according to its free will, the fire of good or the fire of evil (cf. Deussen, "J. Böhme ueber sein Leben und seine Philosophie", Kiel, 1897). Reuchlin (1455-1522) developed a system of cabalistic Mysticism in his "De arte cabalistica" and his "De verbo mirifico".基督教神秘主义的代表是塞巴斯蒂安弗兰克(1499年至1542年),由情人节韦勒(1533年至1588年),特别是由J.伯梅(1575年至1624年),谁在他的“极光”,设想在上帝的性质为包含本身的能量善恶,并确定了点燃神圣的性质与人类灵魂的运作,根据其自由意志,良好的德森火或火邪(参见“j的伯梅ueber盛Leben北达科他哲学的塞纳河“,基尔,1897年)。罗伊希林(1455年)开发朱德与普艺cabalistica”制度的卡巴拉神秘主义在他的“他的”德韦尔博mirifico“。 We may also assign to the influence of Mysticism the ontological systems of Malebranche and of the Ontologists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.我们也可以指定给神秘主义的影响系统的马勒伯朗士的本体论和本体论19世纪的18和。The romantic Mysticism of Fichte (1762-1814), Novalis (1772-1801), and Schelling (1775-1854) was a reaction against the Rationalism of the eighteenth century.费希特浪漫的神秘主义(1762年至1814年),诺瓦利斯(1772至1801年)和谢林(1775年至1854年),是对18世纪的理性反应的。 A pseudo-Mysticism is also the logical outcome of the Fideism and evolutionistic Subjectivism of modern Protestants, inaugurated by Lessing (1728-81), developed by Schleiermacher (1768-1834), A. Ritschl (1822-89; cf. Goyau, "L'Allemagne Religieuse, Le Protestantisme", 6th ed., Paris, 1906), Sabatier, etc., and accepted by the Modernists in their theories of vital immanence and religious experience (cf. Encyclical "Pascendi").伪神秘主义也是1728年至1781年)的逻辑结果的主观主义的信仰主义和evolutionistic成立,由新教徒现代莱辛(施莱尔马赫开发(1768年至1834年),甲后里奇尔(1822年至1889年;比照。Goyau“ L'阿勒马涅Religieuse,乐Protestantisme“,第六版。,巴黎,1906年),撒巴帖等,在接受了现代主义”Pascendi他们的理论具有重要的内在性和宗教经验(见谕“)。 (See MODERNISM.)(见现代主义。)

CRITICISM批评

A tendency so universal and so persistent as that of Mysticism, which appears among all peoples and influences philosophical thought more or less throughout all centuries, must have some real foundation in human nature.如此普遍的倾向,所以持久性的神秘主义,这百年间出现的所有人民和所有哲学思想的影响或多或少各地,必须有一些人性的真正基础研究。 There is indeed in the human soul a natural desire for, an aspiration towards the highest truth, the absolute truth, and the highest, the infinite good.有的确是人类灵魂的自然愿望,一个愿望实现了最高的真理,绝对真理,最高,无限好。We know by experience and reason that the knowledge and enjoyment of created things cannot give the fulness of truth and the perfection of beatitude which will completely satisfy our desires and aspirations.我们知道从经验和理性的知识和享受创造的东西不能给充满真理的愿望和完善的beatitude将完全满足我们的愿望和。 There is in our soul a capacity for more truth and perfection than we can ever acquire through the knowledge of created things.在我们的灵魂有一个更真实的东西的能力和完善比以往任何时候都可以通过收购创造了知识。We realize that God alone is the end of man, that in the possession of God alone we can reach the satisfaction of our aspirations.我们认识到,只有上帝是男人结束,即在我们拥有的只有上帝可以达到我们的期望满意。(Cf. St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica I:2:1; I:12:1; I:44:4; I-II:3:8; "Contra Gentes", III, cc. i, xxv, l; "De Veritate", Q. xxii, a. 2; "Compend. Theologiæ", 104, etc.) But the rational effort of our intelligence and positive aspirations of our will find here their limits. (参见圣托马斯阿奎那神学大全我:2:1;我:12:1,我:44:4,第一和第二:3:8;“魂斗罗金特斯”,三,抄送。我,二十五,升,“德Veritate”,问:22,答:2;“提要。Theologiæ”,104等),但其限制的合理的努力,我们在这里找到智慧和积极的愿望我们的意志。 Is there truly possible a union of our reason and will with God more intimate than that which we possess through created things?是否有一个真正的原因可能和我们的联盟将与神更亲密比我们拥有通过创造的东西吗?Can we expect more than a knowledge of God by analogical concepts and more than the beatitude proportionate to that knowledge?我们能否期望知识比知识更神的类比的概念和beatitude的比例超过了?Here human reason cannot answer.这里人的原因不能回答。But where reason was powerless, philosophers gave way to feeling and imagination.但是,在理由是无能为力的,哲学家让位于感觉和想象力。They dreamt of an intuition of the Divinity, of a direct contemplation and immediate possession of God.他们梦想着一个神的直觉,沉思的直接和上帝的直接占有。They imagined a notion of the universe and of human nature that would make possible such a union.他们设想了一个性质的概念对宇宙和人类,使我们能用这样的联盟。They built systems in which the world and the human soul were considered as an emanation or part of the Divinity, or at least as containing something of the Divine essence and Divine ideas.他们的想法系统内置在其中的世界和人的灵魂被视为神圣的和含有本质的东西是神圣的化身,或至少是部分的神,或者。The logical outcome was Pantheism.合乎逻辑的结果是泛神论。

This result was a clear evidence of error at the starting-point.这个结果是在一个错误的出发点的明确证据。 The Catholic Church, as guardian of Christian doctrine, through her teaching and theologians, gave the solution of the problem.天主教教会,作为监护人的基督教神学家学说,通过她的教学,并给出了解决问题的。She asserted the limits of human reason: the human soul has a natural capacity (potentia obedientialis), but no exigency and no positive ability to reach God otherwise than by analogical knowledge.她断言的原因限制了人类:人的灵魂有一种自然的能力(势的obedientialis),但没有紧急情况,也没有明确的能力达到类比上帝以外的知识。 She condemned the immediate vision of the Beghards and Beguines (cf. Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchiridion", nn. 474-5), the pseudo-Mysticism of Eckhart (ibid., nn. 501-29), and Molinos (ibid., nn. 2121-88), the theories of the Ontologists (ibid., nn. 1659-65, 1891-1930), and Pantheism under all its forms (ibid., nn. 1801-5), as well as the vital Immanence and religious experience of the Modernists (ibid., nn. 2071-109).她谴责,立即视觉神经网络的Beghards和伯格音运动(参见登青格,Bannwart,“便览”。474-5),伪艾克哈特的神秘主义(同上,神经网络。501-29)和诺斯(同上,神经网络。2121-88),神经网络理论的本体论(同上。1659年至1665年,1991至30年),和NN在所有形式的泛神论(同上。1801-5),以及重要内在性,以及神经网络的现代主义宗教经验(同上。2071-109)。 But she teaches that, what man cannot know by natural reason, he can know through revelation and faith; that what he cannot attain to by his natural power he can reach by the grace of God.但是她教导我们,不知道什么人可以因自然原因,他可以知道通过启示和信心,这是他所不能达到他的自然力量,他可以达到上帝的恩典。 God has gratuitously elevated human nature to a supernatural state.超自然的神的国家无偿提升到一个人的本性。He has assigned as its ultimate end the direct vision of Himself, the Beatific Vision.他已指定为最终结束了自己直视,幸福的远景。But this end can be reached only in the next life; in the present life we can but prepare ourselves for it with the aid of revelation and grace.但这个目标可以达到只有在未来的生活,而在目前的生活,但我们可以自己为它准备与恩典和援助的启示。To some souls, however, even in the present life, God gives a very special grace by which they are enabled to feel His sensible presence; this is true mystical contemplation.对于一些人的灵魂,然而,即使在目前的生活,上帝给了一个非常特殊的宽限期,让他们感到他是明智的存在,这是真正的神秘的沉思。 In this act, there is no annihilation or absorption of the creature into God, but God becomes intimately present to the created mind and this, enlightened by special illuminations, contemplates with ineffable joy the Divine essence.在本法中,不存在消灭或吸收到上帝的动物,但上帝成为密切在场创建的初衷,这一点,通过特殊的灯饰开明,本质与设想无法形容的喜悦神。

Publication information Written by George M. Sauvage.出版信息索维奇写乔治米。Transcribed by Elizabeth T. Knuth.转录由伊丽莎白吨克努特。Dedicated to Thomas S. Charters The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.献给托马斯S宪章天主教百科全书,体积十,1911年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

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Mystical Theology神秘神学

Catholic Information天主教信息

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul which cannot be produced by human effort or industry even with the ordinary aid of Divine grace.神秘神学是科学,宽限期对待行为和经验神圣或国家的灵魂是人类所不能生产或行业的努力,甚至与普通援助。 It comprises among its subjects all extraordinary forms of prayer, the higher forms of contemplation in all their varieties or gradations, private revelations, visions, and the union growing out of these between God and the soul, known as the mystical union.它包括在其主体形式的祈祷所有非凡,形成较高的沉思在所有品种或等级,私人启示,异象,并结合生长在这些之间的上帝和灵魂,联盟被称为神秘。 As the science of all that is extraordinary in the relations between the Divinity and the human spirit, mystical theology is the complement of ascetical, which treats of Christian perfection and of its acquisition by the practice of virtue, particularly by the observance of the counsels.作为神学的科学是一切神秘的精神,非凡的神性之间的关系和人类是互补的ascetical,它把收购的实践美德,基督教的完善及其尤其是律师遵守的。 The contents of mystical theology are doctrinal as well as experimental, as it not only records the experiences of souls mystically favoured, but also lays down rules for their guidance, which are based on the authority of the Scriptures, on the teachings of the Fathers of the Church, and on the explanations of theologians, many of them eminent as mystics.神秘的神学教义的内容是以及实验性,因为它不仅记录青睐灵魂神秘的经验,而且还规定了规则的指导,而基于对父亲权威的圣经,教义上的教会和神学家的解释,其中有许多著名的神秘主义者。 Its rules and precepts are usually framed for the special use of those who have occasion to direct souls in the ways of mysticism, so as to preserve them from error while facilitating their advancement.它的规则和戒律通常拟定有关的神秘主义的特殊使用那些谁还有机会直接在灵魂的方式,以保护他们免受错误,同时促进他们的进步。 It must therefore take note of the erroneous systems of prayer, like Quietism or Semiquietism, and of the self-illusion or deception of souls that mistake the powers of darkness for those of light or the promptings of their own self-seeking for Divine communications.因此,必须采取Semiquietism注意系统的错误的或祈祷,希望清静无为,和自我欺骗的错觉或灵魂是错误的权力,通讯黑暗神为那些寻求灯或激励了的,他们自己。 It is this part of the science that necessitates inquiry into various phases of occultism, diabolism, etc., into which writers like Görres have gone so extensively.正是这种广泛的一部分,就必须科学,各阶段的调查为神秘,魔法等,而这些作家都走了这么喜欢约雷斯。Mystical theology has a nomenclature all its own, seeking to express acts or states that are for the most part purely spiritual in terms denoting analogous experiences in the material order.有一个神秘的神学术语都自行寻求表达的行为或状态是最纯粹的精神在部分条款的顺序领有材料类似的经验。Usually it does not form part of the ordinary class-room studies, but is imparted by spiritual masters in their personal direction of souls, or inculcated, as in seminaries and novitiates, by special conferences and courses of spiritual reading.通常它并不构成研究的一部分,普通类房间,但灌输传授,或精神灵魂的主人在他们的个人方向,在神学院和novitiates,由特别会议和阅读课程的精神。 Preliminary to the study of mystical theology is a knowledge of the four ordinary forms of prayer: vocal, mental, affective, and the prayer of simplicity (see PRAYER).初步的神学研究是一个神秘的祈祷知识的普通形式的四个:声乐,心理,情感,和简单的祈祷(见祈祷)。The last two, notably the prayer of simplicity, border on the mystical.最后两个,特别是简单的祈祷,神秘的边境上。Prayer is often called active or acquired contemplation to distinguish it from passive or higher contemplation, in which mystical union really consists.祈祷是通常被称为积极的或后天的沉思来区分它包括从被动或更高的沉思,在这种神秘的工会真的。

Mystical theology begins by reviewing the various descriptions of extraordinary contemplation, contained in the works of mystics and of writers on mystical subjects, and the divisions which help to describe its various phases, indicating chiefly whether it consists of an enlargement or elevation of knowledge, or of absorption in the Divine vision, or, again, whether the cherubic, ie, intellectual, or seraphic, ie, affective, element predominates.神秘神学首先回顾了不平凡的沉思的各项说明,载于神秘主义者的作品和作家对神秘的主题,以及部门的帮助来形容它的各个阶段,主要是表明它是否包含一个或扩大,或海拔知识吸收在神圣的理想,或者再次,无论是天真无邪,即智力,或撒拉弗,即情感,元素为主。 The objects of contemplation are set forth: God, His Attributes, the Incarnation, and all the Sacred Mysteries of the Life of Christ; His presence in the Eucharist; the supernatural order; every creature of God in the natural order, animate or inanimate, particularly the Blessed Virgin, the angels, the saints, Providence, the Church.沉思的对象提出:上帝,他的属性,化身,以及所有的基督神圣的生命之谜,他在圣体的存在,超自然的命令,每个命令的动物在自然神,动画或无生命的,特别是圣母,天使,圣人,普罗维登斯,教会。 In analyzing the causes of contemplation, what may be called its psychology next comes up for consideration, in so far as it necessitates the ordinary or exceptional use of any human faculty, of the senses of the body, or of the powers of the soul.在分析原因的思考,可以称之为其心理其次是为考虑,只要它的权力,就必须灵魂的普通或特殊用途的任何人或教师,身体,感官的。 On God's part, grace must be considered as a principle, or cause, of contemplation, the special or unusual graces (gratis datoe) as well as ordinary graces, the virtues, theological as well as moral, the gifts of the Holy Spirit.上帝的一部分,必须在宽限期沉思视为一个原则,或事业,特别或不寻常的青睐(免费datoe)以及普通的青睐,是一种美德,以及道德神学,圣灵的恩赐的。 The closing chapter in this part of the science dwells on the fruits of contemplation, especially the elevation of spirit, joy, charity, zeal; on the influences that may contribute to its duration, interruption, or cessation.在科学闭幕章住在这部分上沉思的成果,特别是热情的仰角精神,喜悦,慈善机构;上的影响,可能有助于其持续时间,中断或终止。 Here some theologians treat in detail of the preliminary or preparatory dispositions for contemplation, of natural or moral aptitude, solitude, prayer, mortification or self-denial, corporal and spiritual, as a means of soul-purification; these topics, however, belong more properly to the domain of ascetical theology. What strictly comes within the province of mystical theology is the study of the processes of active and passive purification through which a soul must pass to reach the mystical union.这里是一些神学家的精神对待初步或详细的部署,筹备和沉思,或道德的自然天赋,孤独,祈祷,屈辱或自我否定,体罚,作为净化手段的灵魂,这些话题,但是,更多的属于正确的神学域的ascetical。严格什么神秘神学来自全省范围内的联合研究,是神秘的过程中主动和被动净化灵魂必须通过它传递给一个范围。 Although the active processes are also treated to some extent in ascetical theology, they require special study inasmuch as they lead to contemplation.虽然活动的进程,也处理一些神学程度的ascetical,他们需要特别的研究,因为它们导致沉思。 They comprise: purity of conscience, or aversion even to the slightest sin; purity of heart, the heart being taken as the symbol of the affections, which to be pure must be free of attachments to anything that does not lead to God; purity of the spirit, ie of the imagination and memory; and purity of action.它们包括:纯度的良心,或厌恶甚至丝毫罪,心脏纯度,纯洁的心被视为是象征的感情,这在必须附件免费的东西,不会导致神纯度的精神,即记忆的想象力和;和行动的纯洁性。 It is to these processes that the well-known term "night" is applied by St. John of the Cross, since they imply three things which are as night to the soul in so far as they are beyond or contrary to its own lights, viz., the privation of pleasure, faith as substituted for human knowledge, and God as incomprehensible, or darkness, to the unaided soul.这是这些跨进程著名的“夜间”是适用于由圣约翰,因为它们意味着3件事灵魂为晚上在灯光只要他们是超越或违背自己的,即。的,穷困的人高兴,为信念,取代知识,或与上帝不可理解,黑暗的灵魂外援。 Passive purifications are the trials encountered by souls in preparation for contemplation, known as desolation, or dryness, and weariness.审判是被动纯化干燥或遇到灵魂,作为著名的荒凉准备沉思,和厌倦。As they proceed sometimes from God and sometimes may be produced by the Evil Spirit, rules for the discernment of spirits are set down to enable directors to determine their source and to apply proper means of relief, especially should it happen that the action of the Evil One tends to possession or obsession.当他们有时从神出发,有时可能是精神所产生的邪恶精神,为的是识别规则订定,让董事,以确定其来源和运用适当的救济手段,特别是如果它发生,邪恶的行动的人们往往拥有或痴迷。

These passive purifications affect the soul when every other object of contemplation is withdrawn from it, except its own sins, defects, frailties, which are revealed to it in all their enormity.这些被动净化灵魂时,它会影响其他每个沉思对象从被撤回,除非它自己的罪,缺陷,弱点,这是暴露了他们的艰巨性,以它的一切。 They put the soul in the "obscure night", as St. John of the Cross calls it, or in the "great desolation", to use the phrase of Father Baker.他们把夜晚“的灵魂在”模糊的十字架,为圣约翰的电话,或在“伟大的荒凉”,用一句贝克父亲。In this state the soul experiences many trials and temptations, even to infidelity and despair, all of which are expressed in the peculiar terminology of writers on mystical theology, as well as the fruits derived from resisting them.在这种状态下的灵魂经历许多考验和诱惑,甚至不忠和绝望,所有这些都体现在神秘神学作家特有的术语,以及抵制他们从所得的成果。 Chief among these fruits is the purification of love, until the soul is so inflamed with love of God that it feels as if wounded and languishes with the desire to love Him still more intensely.其中主要是水果的爱净化,灵魂是如此,直到感觉它与发炎爱上帝,仿佛受伤,强烈颓丧的愿望更加爱他。The first difficulty mystical writers encounter in their treatises on contemplation is the proper terminology for its degrees, or the classification of the experiences of the soul as it advances in the mystical union with God effected by this extraordinary form of prayer.第一个难题上沉思论文撰写者在遇到神秘的灵魂,是适当的术语,其学位,或经验的分类,因为它在神秘的祈祷进步联盟与神的影响这一特殊形式。 Ribet in "La Mystique Divine" has a chapter (x) on this subject, and the present writer treats it in chapter xxix of his "Grace of Interior Prayer" (tr. of the sixth edition).神圣里贝特在“香格里拉的奥秘”的一章(x)在这个问题上,和本作家版对待它在第29届第六章对他的“祷告的恩典内政部”(编辑部的)。 Scaramelli follows this order: the prayer of recollection; the prayer of spiritual silence; the prayer of quiet; the inebriation of love; the spiritual sleep; the anguish of love; the mystical union of love, and its degrees from simple to perfect union and spiritual marriage.斯卡拉梅利如下顺序:在回忆祈祷,祈祷的沉默精神;宁静的祈祷;解酒的爱的;精神睡眠;爱情痛苦的,爱情的神秘的工会,其程度从简单到完善工会和精神的结合。 In this union the soul experiences various spiritual impressions, which mystical writers try to describe in the terminology used to describe sense impressions, as if the soul could see, hear, touch, or enjoy the savour or odour of the Divinity.在这个联盟的灵魂经历不同的精神印象,这神秘的作家尝试在感觉印象来描述所使用的术语来形容,好像灵魂可以看到,听到,触摸,或享受的品味或神的气味。 Ecstatic union with God is a further degree of prayer.欣喜若狂的工会与上帝是祈祷进一步程度。This and the state of rapture require careful observation to be sure that the Evil One has no share in them.这和狂喜状态需要仔细观察,肯定他们的魔鬼在他们没有分享。Here again mystical writers treat at length the deceits, snares, and other arts practised by the Evil One to lead souls astray in the quest for the mystical union.神秘的作家在这里再次把详细的欺骗伎俩,圈套,和那恶者的其他艺术实践的带领迷路的灵魂神秘工会在追求。Finally, contemplation leads to a union so intimate and so strong that it can be expressed only by the terms "spiritual marriage".最后,沉思导致工会如此亲密,如此强大,它可以表示条件只有“精神结婚”。The article on contemplation describes the characteristics of the mystical union effected by contemplation.在文章中叙述了沉思沉思的神秘联盟实施的特点。No treatise of mystical theology is complete without chapters on miracles, prophecies, revelations, visions, all of which have been treated under their respective headings.没有神学论着神秘的奇迹是不完整的章节,预言,启示,异象,所有这些都被视为根据各自的标题。

As for the history or development of mysticism, it is as difficult to record as a history of the experiences of the human soul.至于历史或神秘主义的发展,这是难以记录作为人类灵魂的历史经验的。The most that can be done is to follow its literature, mindful that the most extraordinary mystical experiences defy expression in human speech, and that God, the Author of mystical states, acts upon souls when and as He wills, so that there can be no question of what we could consider a logical or chronological development of mysticism as a science.最可以做的,是按照它的文学,铭记最不寻常的神秘经验藐视讲话表达的人类,上帝的意志作者的神秘状态时,行为时,作为他的灵魂,所以不可能有问题是我们可以考虑时间顺序神秘主义作为一门科学发展的逻辑或。 Still, it is possible to review what mystical writers have said at certain periods, and especially what St. Teresa did to treat for the first time mystical phenomena as a science.不过,它可以回顾一下神秘的作家说,在某些时期,尤其是没有什么圣德肋撒治疗首次作为一门科学的神秘现象。Before her, mystics were concerned principally with ecstasies, visions, and revelations; she was the first to attempt a scientific analysis of the process of mystical union brought about by contemplation.在她面前,神秘主义者主要关注的愿景与狂喜,和启示,她是第一次尝试一种神秘工会科学分析的过程中所带来的沉思有关。 As the contribution to the science and history of mystical theology by each of the writers in the following list has been sufficiently noted in the articles on them, it will suffice here to mention the titles of some of their characteristic works.由于每个作家名单中的下列贡献的神秘神学的科学和历史已经足够他们在文章中指出,这将足以在这里提到他们的作品的特点职称的部分。

Famous Mystics Prior to the Nineteenth Century著名的神秘主义者前19世纪

St. Gregory I the Great (b. at Rome, c. 540; d. there, 604): "Commentaries on Job"; this book is called the Ethics of St. Gregory.圣格雷戈里我大(罗马b.在角540;四有,604):“工作评上”,这本书是所谓的格雷戈里圣伦理。The writings of Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite did not reach the West until about 824, when they were sent to Louis the Pious by Michael the Stammerer, Emperor of Constantinople: "Opera".对伪狄奥尼修斯的著作,Areopagite没有达到歌剧“西方直到大约824人,当他们被送往:路易虔诚的迈克尔,君士坦丁堡皇帝的结巴”。 Hugh of St. Victor, canon regular at Paris (b. in Saxony, 1096; d. at Paris, 1141): passim, St. Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux (b. near Dijon, 1090; d. at Clairvaux, 1153): "On the Canticle of Canticles".休圣维克多,佳能经常在巴黎(b.在萨克森州,1096; 1141年在巴黎四):各处,圣伯纳德,克莱尔沃住持(第戎湾附近,1090年,1153年在克莱尔沃四) :“在canticle的颂歌”。Richard of St. Victor, canon regular at Paris (d. at Paris, 1173): "De contemplatione".理查德圣维克多,佳能经常在巴黎(四在巴黎,1173):“德contemplatione”。 St. Bonaventure, Minister General of the Friars Minor (b. at Bagnorea, 1221; d. at Lyons, 1274): "Journey of the Soul towards God".圣文德部长b.一般的天主教方济会(在Bagnorea,1221年,1274年在里昂四):“心灵之旅走向上帝”。The "Seven Roads of Eternity", which has sometimes been attributed to him, is the work of a Friar Minor, Rudolph of Bibrach, of the fourteenth century. “七路上的永恒”,这有时被归因于他,是本世纪的工作的一个小修士,鲁道夫Bibrach,在第14位。St. Gertrude, a Benedictine (b. at Eisleben, 1256; d. at Helfta, Saxony, 1302): Revelations.圣葛楚德本笃(艾斯勒本湾在,1256; 4,在黑尔夫塔萨克森1302):启示。Blessed Angela of Foligno (b. at Foligno, 1248; d. there, 1309): "Life and Revelations" in "Acta SS.", I, January, 186-234; this work is one of the masterpieces of mysticism. Tauler, a Dominican (b. at Strasburg, c. 1300; d. there, 1361): "Sermons" (Leipzig, 1498).安吉拉有福的福利尼奥(b.在福利尼奥,1248;四有,1309):“生活与启示”中的“学报的SS。”我1月,186-234;这项工作是一个神秘主义的杰作的。塔尔勒,多米尼加(斯特拉斯堡b.在角1300,四有,1361):“布道”(莱比锡,1498)。 Blessed Henry Suso, a Dominican (b. at Constance, c. 1295; d. at Ulm, 1366): "Exemplar" (Augsburg, 1482).有福亨利苏索,多米尼加(康斯坦斯b.在角1295; 1366年在乌尔姆四):“样例”(奥格斯堡,1482)。"The Book of the Nine Rocks" is not by him but by a merchant of Strasburg, the somewhat unorthodox Rulman Merswin. St.“九书的岩石”是不是他,而是由一Merswin商人的斯特拉斯堡,在有些非正统Rulman。街Bridget of Sweden (bc 1303; d. at Rome, 1373): "Revelations" (Nuremberg, 1500).瑞典布里奇特(公元前1303年;四在罗马,1373):“启示录”(纽伦堡,1500)。Blessed Ruysbroeck, surnamed the Admirable (b. at Ruysbroeck, 1293; d. at Groenendael, 1381): "Opera omnia", Latin tr.有福Ruysbroeck,姓在Ruysbroeck,1293令人钦佩(生于; 4,在Groenendael,1381):“歌剧的Omnia”,拉丁文。by the Carthusian Surius (Cologne, 1692).由1692年)卡尔特Surius(科隆。François-Louis Blosius (de Blois), Benedictlne Abbot of Liessies (b. near Liège, 1506; d. at Liessies, 1566): "Opera" (Ingolstadt, 1631). St.弗朗索瓦路易布洛修斯(布卢瓦),Benedictlne列日住持Liessies(湾附近,1506; 4,在Liessies,1566):“歌剧”(因戈尔施塔特,1631)。圣Teresa (b. at Avila, 1515; d. at Aba de Tormes, 1582): "Opera" (Salamanca, 1588).特雷莎(b.在阿维拉,1515; 4,在阿坝德托尔梅斯,1582):“歌剧”(萨拉曼卡,1588)。St. John of the Cross, founder of the Discalced Carmelites (b. at Hontiveros, 1542; d. at Ubeda, 1591): "Opera" (Seville, 1702).圣约翰Hontiveros,1542年在十字架上,创始人的discalced carmelites(出生; 1591年在乌韦达四):“歌剧”(塞维利亚,1702)。Venerable Luis de Lapuente (b. at Valladolid, 1554; d. there, 1624): "Life of Father Baltasár Alvarez", confessor of St. Teresa (Madrid, 1615); "Spiritual Guide" (Valladolid, 1609); "Life of Marina de Escobar" (2 vols., Madrid, 1665-73).法师路易斯德普恩特(b.在巴利亚多利德,1554年;四有,1624):“生命之父巴尔塔萨阿尔瓦雷斯”)忏悔圣德肋撒(马德里,1615年,“精神导师”(巴拉多利德,1609年),“生命匡代埃斯科瓦尔“(2卷。,马德里,1665年至1673年)。 St. Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva (b. at Thorens, near Annecy, 1567; d. at Lyons, 1622): "Treatise on the Love of God" (Lyons, 1616).圣弗朗西斯德销售,日内瓦主教(b.在能士阿纳西附近,1567年; 4,在里昂,1622):“上帝伤寒论的爱”(里昂,1616)。Alvarez de Paz, SJ (b. at Toledo 1560; d. at Potosi, 1620): "De inquisitione pacis" in "Opera", III (Lyons, 1647).阿尔瓦雷斯代帕斯,律政司司长(出生于托莱多1560年,1620年在波托西四):“德inquisitione帕西斯歌剧”中的“”,第三章(里昂,1647)。 Philip of the Blessed Trinity, General of the Discalced Carmelites (b. at Malancène, near Avignon, 1603; d. at Naples, 1671): "Summa theologiæ mysticæ" (Lyons, 1656).菲利普阿维尼翁附近的祝福三一,一般的discalced carmelites(出生,在Malancène,1603; 4,在那不勒斯,1671年):“总结theologiæ mysticæ”(里昂,1656年)。Jean-Joseph Surin.让约瑟夫苏林。 Venerable Marie de l'Incarnation (b. at Tours, 1599; d. at Quebec, 1672): "Life and Letters", published by her son Dom Claude Martin, OSB (Paris, 1677).法师玛丽德l'化身(b.在旅游,1599年; 1672年在魁北克四):“生活与文学”)所发表以她的儿子克洛德马丁大教堂,定向结构刨花板(巴黎,1677年。Bossuet called her the "Teresa of the New World".波舒哀称她为“特雷莎的新世界”。Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux (b. at Dijon, 1627; d. at Paris, 1704): "Instruction sur les états d'oraison" (Paris, 1697).波舒哀,摩城主教(b.在第戎,1627年,1704年在巴黎四):“教学河畔各国以及德奥赖松”(巴黎,1697)。 Joseph of the Holy Ghost, Definitor General of the Discalced Carmelites (d. 1639): "Cursus theologiæ mystico-scholasticæ" (6 vols., Seville, 1710-40).鬼圣约瑟夫,definitor一般的discalced carmelites(草1639):“Cursus theologiæ mystico - scholasticæ”(6卷。,塞维利亚,1710年至1740年)。Emmanuel de la Reguera, SJ (b. at Aguilàr del Campo, 1668; d. at Rome, 1747): "Praxis theologiæ mysticæ" (2 vols., Rome, 1740-45), a development of the mystical theology of Wadding (Father Godinez).埃马纽埃尔德拉Reguera,律政司司长(出生于阿吉拉尔戴尔坎普,1668; 1747四在罗马):“实践theologiæ mysticæ”(2卷。,罗马,1740至1745年),发展一个5601的神秘神学(父亲戈迪内斯)。Scaramelli, SJ (b. at Rome, 1687; d. at Macerata, 1752): "Direttorio mistico" (Venice, 1754).斯卡拉梅利,律政司司长(生于罗马,1687年,在马切拉塔在四,1752年):“Direttorio米斯蒂科”(威尼斯,1754)。 As a description, this is the best treatise of the eighteenth century despite its too complicated classification; Voss has published a compendium of it, entitled "Directorium Mysticum" (Louvain, 1857). Schram, OSB (b. at Bamberg, 1722; d. at Bainz, 1797): "Institutiones theologiæ mysticæ (Augsburg, 1777), chiefly an abridgment of la Reguera. More complete lists (176 names) will be found in Poulain, "Graces d'Oraison" (7th ed., Paris, 1911); tr., "The Graces of Interior Prayer" (London, 1910); and in Underhill, "Mysticism" (New York, 1912).作为一个描述,这是18世纪最好的论文,尽管其过于复杂的分类;佛斯发表了它汇编,题为“Directorium Mysticum”(鲁汶,1857)。施拉姆,定向刨花板(出生在班贝格,1722; Ð 。在Bainz,1797):的“institutiones theologiæ mysticæ(奥格斯堡,1777年),主要是删节镧Reguera。更完整的名单(176名)将被发现在普兰,”格拉斯德奥雷松“(第7版。,巴黎, 1911年);文。说:“祈祷格拉斯内政部”(伦敦,1910);和昂德希尔,“神秘主义”(纽约,1912)。

MARÉCHAUX, Le merveilleux divin et le merveilleux démoniaque (Paris, 1901); MIGNE, Dict.马雷绍,乐merveilleux迪温等乐merveilleux démoniaque(巴黎,1901年);米涅,快译通。 de mystique chrétienne (Paris, 1858); LEJEUNE, Manuel de théologie mystique (Paris, 1897); VALLGORNERA, Mystica Theologia Divi Thomoe (Turin, 1891); BAKER, Holy Wisdom (London, 1908); CHANDLER, Ara Coeli Studies in Mystical Religion (London, 1908); DALGAIRNS, The German Mystics of the Fourteenth Century (London, 1858); DELACROIX, Essai sur le mysticisme spéculatif en Allemagne au XIX siècle (Paris, 1900); IDEM, Etudes d'histoire et de psychologie du mysticisme.德神秘基督教民主党(巴黎,1858);勒琼,神秘曼努埃尔德神学(巴黎,1897年); VALLGORNERA,Mystica神学迪维Thomoe(都灵,1891年);贝克,神圣智慧(伦敦,1908年);钱德勒,阿糖胞苷Coeli神秘的研究宗教(伦敦,1908年); DALGAIRNS,1858年)德国神秘的14世纪(伦敦,德拉克洛瓦,Essai河畔乐mysticisme spéculatif金恩阿勒马涅第十九末世(巴黎,1900年);同上,练习曲德历史学等应用心理学杜mysticisme。Lee grands mystiques chrétiens (Paris, I908); DENIFLE, Das geistliche Leben: Blumenlese aus der deutschen Mystikern der 14. Jahrhunderts (Graz, 1895); DEVINE, A Manual of Mystical Theology (London, 1903): GARDNER, The Cell of Self-Knowledge (London, 1910); GÖRRES, Die Christliche Mystik (Ratisbon, 1836-42); POIRET, Theologioe Mysticoe idea generalis (Paris, 1702); RIBET, La Mystique Divine (Paris, 1879); IDEM, L'Ascétique Chrétienne (Paris, 1888); SAUDREAU, La vie d'union à Dieu (Paris, 1900); IDEM, L'état mystigue (Paris, 1903); IDEM, Les faits extraotdinaires de la vie spirituelle (Paris, 1908); IDEM, tr.李场mystiques chrétiens(巴黎,I908);德尼夫勒,达斯geistliche Leben:Blumenlese澳大利亚德deutschen Mystikern德14。Jahrhunderts(格拉茨,1895年);迪瓦恩,A)的神秘神学手册(伦敦,1903年:加德纳,细胞的自我知识(伦敦,1910);约雷斯,模具Christliche Mystik(拉蒂斯邦,1836年至1842年); POIRET,Theologioe Mysticoe想法知通(巴黎,1702);里贝特,拉神的奥秘(巴黎,1879年),同上的L' Ascétique克雷蒂安娜(巴黎,1888年);)索德罗,喇争夺德工会à妙(巴黎,1900年;同上的L'政变mystigue(巴黎,1903年);同上,莱斯既成事实extraotdinaires德拉争夺spirituelle(巴黎,1908年),同上,文。 CAMM, The Degrees of the Spiritual Life (London, 1907); IDEM, tr.卡姆,学位的生命的精神(伦敦,1907年);同上,文。SMITH, The Way that Leads to God (London, 1910); THOROLD, An Essay in Aid of the Better Appreciation of Catholic Mysticism (London, 1900); VON HUGEL, The Mystical Element of Religion (London, 1908).史密斯,路,导致神(伦敦,1910);托罗尔德,安)随笔1900年伦敦援助,更好地了解了天主教神秘主义(;冯胡格尔,神秘的宗教元素(伦敦,1908年)。

Publication information Written by Aug. Poulain.出版信息普兰写八月Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.奉献给耶稣圣心天主教百科全书,体积十四。 Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新


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