Naturalism自然

General Information一般信息

Naturalism is a philosophical position which holds that all that exists is natural - in other words, is part of the spatio - temporal processes of nature - or, that if any sort of nonnatural object may exist, it is known only through its effects within nature.自然是一种哲学立场认为,所有存在是很自然的话-在其他的时空部分-时空过程的本质-或者,如果任何形式的非自然对象可能存在,只知道它是自然的影响,通过其内。 Everything that can be experienced is within the spatio - temporal order of nature.一切都可以经历是在时空-大自然的时间顺序。

As a system of natural processes, nature possesses a degree of orderliness that makes it intelligible, but it cannot be explained as a whole.作为一个系统的自然过程,自然拥有全度有序,它使理解的,但它不能被解释为一个。Nor can it as a whole express moral value.它的价值也不能作为一个整体表现道德。Moral values, however, may emerge in the relation between human beings as one part of nature and the rest of nature.道德价值,但是,可能出现的众生之间的关系人作为自然的一部分的性质休息。As part of nature, humans are subject to lawful natural processes; intelligence emerges from the active life of organisms within nature.作为自然的一部分,人类受到合法的自然过程;情报生物体从生活出现了积极的内部性质。

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Differing views are held within naturalism regarding the general character of nature. Reductionistic naturalism, which predominated during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, holds that all natural objects are reducible to objects as characterized by physical science.性质不同的看法是自然之内举行的一般性质有关。 还原论的自然主义,它在17世纪占主导地位,18日和19日,认为所有的对象都归结为自然物体的物理特征的科学。Nature is a determined system and human beings, as part of nature, are determined. Values are not real.大自然是一个确定的系统和人类作为大自然的一部分,有决心。价值是不是真的。

Contemporary naturalism, however, holds that all experienced objects and qualities are equally real within nature. 当代自然主义,但是,认为所有有经验的对象是同样的性质和素质真正内。The categories of science do not exhaust nature's reality. Richness, diversity, spontaneity, and value dimensions exist within nature that elude the categories of the physical scientist but that are immediately experienced in human interaction with nature.科学的分类并没有用尽大自然的现实。丰富度,多样性,自发性和价值维度存在于物理性质,逃避科学家的分类,但经验丰富的互动性,会立即与人类。 As part of nature, human beings manifest spontaneity and freedom.作为自然的一部分,人类自发和自由的表现。Scientific method, as the method of natural inquiry, is a way of dealing with any content that reveals itself within nature.科学方法调查,作为自然的方法,是一种自然的方式处理内部的任何内容,揭示本身。

Sandra B Rosenthal桑德拉乙罗森塔尔

Bibliography 书目
N Carver and P Hare, eds., Naturalism and Rationality (1986); SM Eames, Pragmatic Naturalism (1976); LR Furst and P Skrine, Naturalism (1971); FA Lange, The History of Naturalism, (1925); VC Punzo, Reflective Naturalism (1969); AJ Reck, The New American Philosophers (1968); RW Sellars, Neglected Alternatives (1973). ñ卡弗和P野兔,合编。,自然与理性(1986年);钐埃姆斯,语用自然主义(1976年);轻铁弗斯特和P斯克林,自然主义(1971年);足总杯兰格的自然史,(1925年);创投庞佐,反思自然(1969年);欧塞尔雷克,新美国哲学家(1968年); RW光碟塞拉斯,被忽视的替代品(1973年)。


Naturalism自然主义

Advanced Information先进的信息

Naturalism is the view that the "natural" universe, the universe of matter and energy, is all that there really is. This rules out God, so naturalism is atheistic. It rules out other spiritual beings as well as God, so naturalism is materialistic.自然是认为,“自然”宇宙,宇宙的物质和能量,是一切,真的有。 这排除上帝,所以自然主义是无神论。它排除了其他人的精神,以及上帝,所以自然主义是唯物。By ruling out a spiritual part of the human person which might survive death and a God who might resurrect the body, naturalism also rules out survival after death.通过排除精神的一部分后死亡的人有可能生存死亡和上帝谁的身体,自然也排除了生存的可能复活。In addition, naturalism usually but not always denies human freedom on the grounds that every event must be explainable by deterministic natural laws.此外,自然通常但并不总是否认人类自由的理由对每一个事件必须通过法律解释的确定性自然。It usually but not always denies any absolute values because it can find no grounds for such values in a world made up only of matter and energy.它通常但并不总是否认任何绝对价值,因为它可以找到一个能在没有任何理由的价值,并提出了这种世界唯一的问题。And finally, naturalism usually but not always denies that the universe has any meaning or purpose because there is no God to give it a meaning or purpose, and nothing else which can give it a meaning or purpose.最后, 自然通常但并不总是否认宇宙有什么意义或目的,因为没有上帝给它一个意义或目的,没有别的可以给它一个意义或目的。

Anyone who accepts the first three denials, of God, spiritual beings, and immortality, might be called a naturalist in the broad sense, and anyone who adds to these the denial of freedom, values, and purpose might be labeled a naturalist in the strict sense, or a strict naturalist.谁接受任何前三否认,上帝,鬼神,和不朽,可以被称为自然在一定意义上的广泛,,谁的价值增加了这些剥夺自由,标记和目的可能是一个自然主义者,在严格感,或严格的自然主义。 Communists, for instance, are not strict naturalists, for their world view includes a purpose in history, at least in human history, and perhaps in the whole history of the universe.共产党人,例如,不严格的大自然,他们的世界观还包括对历史的目的,在历史上,至少在人类,也许在宇宙的整个历史。 Some religious humanists are not strict naturalists, for they argue for free will and even for values which are independent of known wants and needs.一些宗教人文主义者没有严格的大自然,因为他们知道主张自由意志,甚至是独立的价值观,期望和需要。Some opponents of naturalism would argue that naturalists in the broad sense are at least somewhat inconsistent and that naturalism in the broad sense leads logically to strict naturalism.自然主义的一些反对者会说,在广阔的大自然的感觉,至少有些不一致,在这个意义上自然引起广泛的逻辑上严格的自然主义。 Many strict naturalists would agree with this.许多严格的大自然会同意这一点。

Those who reject naturalism in both the strict and broad sense do so for a variety of reasons. They may have positive arguments for the existence of some of what naturalists deny, or they may have what seem to be decisive refutations of some or all of the arguments for naturalism. 这些谁反对自然主义意识均严格和广泛的这样做的原因多种。博物学家否认他们可能有什么积极的论点存在一些,或者他们可能有什么似乎是决定性的驳斥全部或部分论据自然。 But, in addition to particular arguments against naturalist tenets or their grounds of belief, some opponents of naturalism believe that there is a general argument which holds against any form of naturalism.但是,除了特定的信仰他们的论据反对自然原理或理由,自然主义的一些反对者认为,这是一个普遍的说法持反对自然主义的任何形式。 These opponents hold that naturalism has a "fatal flaw" or, to put it more strongly, that naturalism is self - destroying.这些反对者认为,自然有一个“致命缺陷”,或把它更加强烈,这自然是不言而喻-摧毁。If naturalism is true, then human reason must be the result of natural forces.如果自然是真的,那么人类理性力量的结果必须是自然。

These natural forces, are not, on the naturalistic view, rational themselves, nor can they be the result of a rational cause.这些天然的力量,是不是,自然主义观点,理性的自己,也不能成为一个理性造成的结果。So human reason would be the result of nonrational causes.因此,将是人类理性的非理性原因造成的。This, it can be argued, gives us a strong reason to distrust human reason, especially in its less practical and more theoretical exercises.这一点,可以说,给了我们一个强有力的理由不信任的人的原因,特别是在其较实际和更理论的工作。But the theory of naturalism is itself such an exercise of theoretical reason.但是,自然主义理论本身就是这样的理由行使的理论。 If naturalism is true, we would have strong reasons to distrust theoretical reasoning.如果自然是真的,我们将有充分理由不信任的理论推理。If we distrust theoretical reasoning, we distrust particular applications of it, such as the theory of naturalism. Thus, if naturalism is true, we have strong reasons to distrust naturalism.如果我们不信任的理论推理,我们不信任,尤其是它的应用,如自然主义理论。 因此,如果自然是真的,我们有充分理由不信任自然。

MH MacDonald氢麦克唐纳
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
CS Lewis, Miracles; A Flew, God and Philosophy and A Rational Animal; JN Jordan, Determinism's Dilemma; JR Lucas, The Freedom of the Will; R Rorty, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. CS刘易斯,奇迹,一个飞越,上帝与哲学,理性的动物;若望约旦,决定论的困境,小卢卡斯,自由的意志与r罗蒂,哲学与自然之镜。


Naturalism自然主义

Catholic Information天主教信息

Naturalism is not so much a special system as a point of view or tendency common to a number of philosophical and religious systems; not so much a well-defined set of positive and negative doctrines as an attitude or spirit pervading and influencing many doctrines.自然是没有这么多的一个特殊的制度和宗教制度作为一个角度或一个共同的倾向哲学数目,与其说是一个良好定义的一套正面和负面的学说作为一个普遍存在的精神和态度或影响的许多学说。 As the name implies, this tendency consists essentially in looking upon nature as the one original and fundamental source of all that exists, and in attempting to explain everything in terms of nature. Either the limits of nature are also the limits of existing reality, or at least the first cause, if its existence is found necessary, has nothing to do with the working of natural agencies.顾名思义,这种趋势基本上是由所有在性质,寻找一个原有的和基本的来源存在,并在试图解释大自然中的一切条款。要么自然的限制也限制了现有的或现实至少在第一个原因,如果发现它的存在是必要的,也没有任何关系的机构的工作自然。 All events, therefore, find their adequate explanation within nature itself.所有活动,因此,找到自己本身的性质充分说明内。 But, as the terms nature and natural are themselves used in more than one sense, the term naturalism is also far from having one fixed meaning.但是,由于自然条件和自然本身的含义使用一个以上的,任期自然也远远没有一个固定的意义。

(I) If nature is understood in the restricted sense of physical, or material, nature, naturalism will be the tendency to look upon the material universe as the only reality, to reduce all laws to mechanical uniformities and to deny the dualism of spirit and matter. (一)如果自然是理解材料的性质,受限制的物理意义,或者,自然将成为趋势看待宇宙的唯一现实的物质的,所有的法律,以减少机械一致性,并否认与精神的二元论的问题。 Mental and moral processes will be but special manifestations of matter rigorously governed by its laws.精神和道德的过程将是物质的特殊表现形式,但严格的法律管辖其。

(II) The dualism of mind and matter may be admitted, but only as a dualism of modes or appearances of the same identical substance. (二)二元论这个问题的心态和可能被接纳,但只作为一种物质的二元论的模式相同或外表相同。Nature includes manifold phenomena and a common substratum of the phenomena, but for its actual course and for its ultimate explanation, it requires no principle distinct from itself.性质包括多方面的现象和现象的共同底层的,但它的实际过程和它的最终解释,它不需要原则本身有别于。In this supposition, naturalism denies the existence of a transcendent cause of the world and endeavours to give a full account of all processes by the unfolding of potencies essential to the universe under laws that are necessary and eternal.在这个假设,自然否认世界的存在的努力和超越的事业,给予必要的宇宙效价充分考虑到所有进程的开展根据法律是必要的和永恒的。

(III) Finally, if the existence of a transcendent First Cause, or personal God, is admitted as the only satisfactory explanation of the world, Naturalism claims that the laws governing the activity and development of irrational and of rational beings are never interfered with. (三)最后,如果上帝存在一个超越第一原因,或个人,是要求承认的唯一令人满意的解释世界,自然的规律与发展的活动和非理性和理性的人都没有作出任何干预。 It denies the possibility, or at least the fact, of any transitory intervention of God in nature, and of any revelation and permanent supernatural order for man.它否认任何超自然的启示和永久为了人的可能性,事实,或至少是暂时的干预任何性质的上帝,和。

These three forms are not mutually exclusive; what the third denies the first and the second, a fortiori, also deny; all agree in rejecting every explanation which would have recourse to causes outside of nature.这三种形式并不是互相排斥的;什么第三否认第一次和第二次,更何况,还否认,所有的性质同意拒绝解释这一切将诉诸原因之外。 The reasons of this denial - ie, the philosophical views of nature on which it is based - and, in consequence, the extent to which explanations within nature itself are held to suffice, vary greatly and constitute essential differences between these three tendencies.否认这个原因-例如,它是基于哲学观的本质上-和后果,中,足够的程度,以解释的性质本身内举行,差别很大,构成三个倾向之间有着本质的区别。

I. Materialistic Naturalism一,唯物主义自然

Materialistic Naturalism asserts that matter is the only reality, and that all the laws of the universe are reducible to mechanical laws.唯物主义自然说,问题是唯一的现实,所有的宇宙法律的规定是归结为机械的法律。What theory may be held concerning the essence of matter makes little difference here.什么理论可以就这一问题举行的,并没有太多的本质区别。Whether matter be considered as continuous or as composed of atoms distant from one another, as being exclusively extension or as also endowed with an internal principle of activity, or even as being only an aggregate of centres of energy without any real extension (see ATOMISM; DYNAMISM; MECHANISM), the attitude of Naturalism is the same.无论此事视为连续或另一个原子组成的一个遥远的,是专门为延长或也拥有一内部原则的活动,甚至扩展为中心的能源是真正without any只金总(见原子论;活力;机制),在自然的态度是一样的。It claims that all realities in the world, including the processes of consciousness from the lowest to the highest, are but manifestations of what we call matter, and obey the same necessary laws.它宣称,所有在现实世界,包括意识,从最低的进程到最高,但表现的是我们所说的问题,并遵守相同的必要的法律。While some may limit their materialistic account to nature itself, and admit the existence of a Creator of the world, or at least leave this question open, the general tendency of Materialism is towards Atheism and exclusive Naturalism. Early Greek philosophers endeavoured to reduce nature to unity by pointing to a primordial element out of which all things were composed.虽然有些可能会限制他们的物质帐户本身的性质,并承认或存在的一个创造者的世界,至少离开这个问题的公开,对总的趋势是走向唯物主义和无神论的独家自然。早期希腊哲学家的性质,以努力减少统一由一个指向原始元素,脱离一切事情组成。 Their views were, implicitly at least, Animistic or Hylozoistic rather than Materialistic, and the vague formative function attributed to the Nous, or rational principle, by Anaxagoras was but an exception to the prevailing naturalism.他们的意见,至少含蓄,泛灵或Hylozoistic而不是功利,形成功能的模糊归因于理性,或合理的原则,由阿那克萨哥拉只不过是一个例外,当时的自然主义。 Pure mechanism was developed by the Atomists (Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius), and the soul itself was held to be composed of special, more subtile, atoms.纯机制开发的原子论(德谟克利特,伊壁鸠鲁,卢克莱修),和灵魂本身被认为是原子组成的特殊的,更微妙。In the Christian era materialism in its exclusive form is represented especially by the French school of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the German school of the latter half of the nineteenth century.在其独家的形式公元唯物主义为代表,尤其是到了19世纪的法国学校的18世纪后半期的一半,后者的德国学校。Since matter is the only reality, whatever takes place in the world is the result of material causes and must be explained by physical antecedents without any teleology.由于此事是唯一的现实,无论世界上发生的时间是原因所造成的物质,必须前因身体没有任何解释的目的论。Life is but a complex problem of physics and chemistry; consciousness is a property of matter; rational thought is reduced to sensation, and will to instinct.人生不过是一个复杂的问题和化学物理学,意识是物质财产,理性思维是减少到的感觉,本能和意志。The mind is a powerless accompaniment or epiphenomenon of certain forms or groupings of matter, and, were it suppressed altogether, the whole world would still proceed in exactly the same way.心是一个无能为力的伴奏或事宜附带现象或某种形式的组合,而且完全压制了它,整个世界将继续进行在完全相同的方式。Man is a conscious automaton whose whole activity, mental as well as physiological, is determined by material antecedents.人是有意识的自动机,其整个活动,心理以及生理,是由材料决定的先例。What we call the human person is but a transitory phase in the special arrangement of material elements giving rise to special mental results; and it goes without saying that in such a system there is no room for freedom, responsibility, or personal immortality.我们所说的人只不过是一个过渡时期,以智力成果特别在上升特别安排给予物质因素,以及它不朽不言而喻,在这样一个系统有个人no空间的自由,责任,或。

II.二。Pantheism泛神论

Pantheism in its various forms asserts that God, the First Reality, World-Ground, or Absolute, is not transcendent and personal, but immanent in the world, and that the phenomena of nature are only manifestations of this one common substance.在其各种形式的泛神论声称,上帝,第一现实,世界地面,或绝对的,是不是超越性和个人,而是内在的世界,这是自然的现象只是物质表现的这一个共同的。 For the Stoics, He is the immanent reason, the soul of the world, communicating everywhere activity and life.对于斯多噶,他是内在的原因,世界的灵魂,沟通世界各地的活动和生活。According to Scotus Eriugena, "God is the essence of all things, for He alone truly is" (De divisione naturæ, III); nature includes the totality of beings and is divided into据司各脱Eriugena,“上帝是所有事物的本质的孤独,因为他确实是”(德divisione naturæ,三);性质包括全部的生命和分成

uncreated and creating nature, ie, God as the origin of all things, unknowable even to Himself;非受造和创造的性质,即,他自己的上帝,因为所有事物的起源,甚至不可知;

created and creating nature, ie, God as containing the types and exemplars of all things;创造和创造的性质,即上帝的东西包含的所有类型和范例;

created and not-creating nature, ie, the world of phenomena in space and time, all of which are participations of the Divine being and also theophaniœ, or manifestations of God;创造,而不是创造的性质,即现象世界在空间和时间,所有这一切都是神圣的参股,现正也theophaniœ,或上帝的表现形式;

neither created nor creating nature, ie, God as the end of all things to whom all things ultimately return.既不创造也不创造的性质,即上帝作为回报的事情最终结束所有的事情谁所有。

Giordano Bruno also professes that God and nature are identical, and that the world of phenomena is but the manifestation of the Divine substance which works in nature and animates it.布鲁诺还声称,上帝与自然是相同的,并且是世界现象,但它体现的神圣物质的性质和动画作品。According to Spinoza, God is the one substance which unfolds itself through attributes, two of which, extension and thought, are known to us.根据斯宾诺莎,上帝是一个物质属性本身通过展开,其中两个,推广和思想,是我们所知的。 These attributes manifest themselves through a number of modes which are the finite determinations of the infinite substance.这些物质的属性,体现自己通过无限数字的方式确定了这是有限的。As absolute substance, God is natura naturans; as manifesting himself through the various modes of phenomena, he is natura naturata.作为绝对的实质,是上帝的Natura naturans;现象作为体现自己通过各种方式,他的Natura naturata。To-day Monism reproduces essentially the same theories.的日常基本相同的一元论的理论再现。Mind is not reduced to a property, or epiphenomenon, of matter, but both matter and mind are like parallels; they proceed together as phenomena or aspects of the same ultimate reality.心灵是没有减少的财产,或偶然现象的问题,一个,但物质和精神两平行线像,他们开始一起作为现象或现实方面相同的最终。 What is this reality?这一现实是什么?By some, explicitly or implicitly, it is rather conceived as material, and we fall back into Materialism; by others it is claimed to be nearer to mind than to matter, and hence result various idealistic systems and tendencies; by others, finally, it is declared to be strictly unknown and unknowable, and thus Monistic Naturalism comes into close contact with Agnosticism.一些人,明示或暗示,它是相当设想为材料,我们重新陷入唯物史观;它是由其他人自称是接近心比物质,从而导致各种理想主义的制度和倾向;他人,最后,它被宣布为严格未知和不可知的,因此一元论的自然主义不可知论来联系紧密。

Whatever it may be ultimately, nature is substantially one; it requires nothing outside of itself, but finds within itself its adequate explanation.不管它可能是最终,自然是大大之一,它无需任何外部的本身,而是在其本身认为适当的解释。Either the human mind is incapable of any knowledge bearing on the question of origins, or this question itself is meaningless, since both nature and its processes of development are eternal.无论是人的心灵本身是不能对这一问题的任何知识的关系问题上的渊源,或者是没有意义的,因为两者的性质和发展的过程是永远的。 The simultaneous or successive changes which occur in the world result necessarily from the essential laws of nature, for nature is infinitely rich in potencies whose progressive actualization constitutes the endless process of inorganic, organic, and mental evolution.在同时或连续的改变,发生在世界的结果未必是必须的法律性质从,对大自然的无限丰富的发展,其效价逐渐现实化,构成了永无休止的过程和精神的无机,有机,。 The evolution and differentiation of the one substance according to its own laws and without the guiding agency of a transcendent intelligence is one of the basic assumptions of Monistic and Agnostic Naturalism.的演变和分化,在一个物质根据其自身的规律,没有超越的情报机构的指导,是一个自然主义一元论和不可知论的基本假设的。 Nor is it possible to see how this form of Naturalism can consistently escape the consequences of Materialistic Naturalism. The supernatural is impossible; at no stage can there be any freedom or responsibility; man is but a special manifestation or mode of the common substance, including in himself the twofold aspect of matter and consciousness. Moreover, since God, or rather "the divine", as some say, is to be found in nature, with which it is identified, religion can only be reduced to certain feelings of admiration, awe, reverence, fear, etc., caused in man by the consideration of nature its laws beauties, energies, and mysteries.它也不是可以看到的自然形式如何能坚持唯物主义自然逃脱的后果。超自然是不可能的,在任何阶段可以有任何的自由和责任,但人是一个特殊的表现形式或模式,包括在共同的实质内容,在自己的和意识方面的双重问题。此外,由于神,或者说“神”,因为有人说,这将是存在于自然界,与它是确定的,宗教只能沦为某些感情的钦佩,敬畏,敬畏,恐惧等,人为造成的性质考虑在其法律美人,能源,和奥秘。 Thus, among the feelings belonging to "natural religion", Haeckel mentions "the astonishment with which we gaze upon the starry heavens and the microscopic life in a drop of water, the awe with which we trace the marvellous working of energy in the motion of matter, the reverence with which we grasp the universal dominance of the law of substance throughout the universe" ("Die Welträthsel", Bonn, 1899, V, xviii, 396-97; tr. McCabe, New York, 1900, 344).因此,在“感情属于”自然宗教,海克尔提到的“惊讶的目光,我们生活在布满星星的天空和微观中的一滴水,而我们的敬畏与跟踪运动的奇妙能源工作事,与我们的崇敬掌握了整个宇宙的物质的法律的普遍优势“(”死Welträthsel“,波恩,1899年,五,18,396-97;文。麦凯布,纽约,1900年,344)。

III.三。Transcendent First Cause of the Universe超越的第一个原因的宇宙

For those who admit the existence of a transcendent First Cause of the universe, naturalism consists essentially in an undue limitation of God's activity in the world.对于那些谁承认的宇宙存在一个超然的第一原因,自然组成基本上是不必要的限制神的世界的活动中。God is only Creator, not Providence; He cannot, or may not, interfere with the natural course of events, or He never did so, or, at least, the fact of His ever doing so cannot be established.上帝是唯一的造物主,而不是普罗维登斯,他不能,或不得干扰的事件,自然或他从未这样做,或者,至少,他的既定事实永远不能这样做。 Even if the soul of man is regarded as spiritual and immortal, and if, among human activities, some are exempted from the determinism of physical agents and recognized to be free, all this is within nature, which includes the laws governing spirits as well as those governing matter.即使该名男子被认为是灵魂的精神和不朽的,如果人类活动中,有些是从代理商豁免宿命论的身体和认可的自由,所有这一切自然同在,其中包括执政的法律精神,以及这些理事的问题。 But these laws are sufficient to account for everything that happens in the world of matter or of mind.但这些法律是否足以解释一切,心在世界上发生的事情或。This form of naturalism stands in close relation with Rationalism and Deism.这与理性主义和自然神论形式密切相关的自然主义立场研究。 Once established by God, the order of nature is unchangeable, and man is endowed by nature with all that is required even for his religious and moral development.一旦建立了神,自然秩序是不可改变的,人是大自然赋予的一切所需要的发展,甚至对他的宗教和道德。The consequences are clear: miracles, that is, effects produced by God himself and transcending the forces of nature, must be rejected.其后果是显而易见的:奇迹,就是神所产生的影响自己和超越自然的力量,必须予以拒绝。Prophecies and so-called miraculous events either are explainable by the known, or hitherto unknown, laws of nature or, if they are not thus explainable, their happening itself must be denied, and the belief in their reality attributed to faulty observation.预言和所谓的奇迹般的事件要么是可以解释由已知或未知迄今为止,自然规律的,或者,如果他们不这样解释的,其发生本身必须被剥夺,而现实在他们的信念归因于错误的观察。 Since, for religious and moral, as well as for scientific truths, human reason is the only source of knowledge, the fact of a Divine Revelation is rejected, and the contents of such supposed revelation can be accepted only in so far as they are rational; to believe in mysteries is absurd.因为,宗教和道德,以及为科学真理,人类理性是知识的唯一来源,事实上,一个神圣的启示是拒绝,启示的内容应该可以接受这种只只要它们是合理的;相信奥秘是荒谬的。 Having no supernatural destiny, man needs no supernatural means - neither sanctifying grace as a permanent principle to give his actions a supernatural value nor actual grace to enlighten his mind and strengthen his will.由于没有超自然的命运,没有人需要超自然的手段-既不是常设的原则作为神圣的恩典,让他的行动超自然的价值,也实际的宽限期,以启发他心里并加强他的意志。 The Fall of Man, the mysteries of the incarnation and the Redemption, with their implications and consequences, can find no place in a Naturalistic creed.该名男子的秋季,赎回神秘的化身和后果,用自己的影响,并能找到自然没有放在一个信条。Prayers and sacraments have only natural results explainable on psychological grounds by the confidence with which they inspire those who use them.祈祷和圣礼只有自然的心理信心的结果解释的理由与他们激励那些谁使用它们。If man must have a religion at all, it is only that which his reason dictates.如果一个人必须有一个在所有的宗教,而只是说他的原因驱使。Naturalism is directly opposed to the Christian Religion.自然是直接反对基督教。But even within the fold of Christianity, among those who admit a Divine Revelation and a supernatural order, several naturalistic tendencies are found.但是,即使在基督教倍,其中谁承认一个神圣的启示和超自然的秩序,一些自然主义的倾向被发现。Such are those of the Pelagians and Semipelagians, who minimize the necessity and functions of Divine grace; of Baius, who asserts that the elevation of man was an exigency of his nature; of many sects, especially among Liberal Protestants, who fall into more or Less radical Rationalism; and of others who endeavour to restrict within too narrow limits the divine agency in the universe.这就是那些优雅的pelagians和Semipelagians,谁最小化的必要性和神圣职能;的Baius谁声称该男子是一个性质的海拔紧急他;许多教派,尤其是在自由新教徒,或落入谁更较为温和的理性主义和其他人谁努力限制过于狭窄范围内,宇宙中的神圣机构。

IV.四。General Considerations一般注意事项

From the fundamental principles of Naturalism are derived some important consequences in æsthetical, political, and ethical sciences.从自然主义的基本原则是根据美学,一些重要的政治后果,和道德科学。In æsthetics Naturalism rests on the assumption that art must imitate nature without any idealization, and without any regard for the laws of morality.在自然主义美学的假设在于,艺术必须模仿理想化的性质没有任何,没有任何道德方面的法律为。Social and political Naturalism teaches that "the best interests of public society and civil progress require that in the constitution and government of human society no more attention should be given to religion than if there were no religion at all, or at least that no distinction should be made between true and false religion" (Pius IX, Encycl., "Quanta cura", 8 Dec., 1864).社会和政治的自然主义教导我们,“和文明进步的最佳利益的公共社会要求,在宪法和人类社会的政府没有给予更多的关注应该对宗教比如果没有在所有宗教,或至少应没有任何区别作出真假宗教“(比约九,Encycl。”广达库拉“,1864年12月8日)。 Leo XIII lays it down that "the integral profession of the Catholic Faith is in no way consistent with naturalistic and rationalistic opinions, the sum and the substance of which is to do away altogether with Christian institutions, and; disregarding the rights of God, to attribute to man the supreme authority in society" (Encycl., "Immortale Dei", 1 Nov., 1885).利奥十三规定下来,“天主教信仰的组成专业的机构是绝不符合自然和理性的意见,总结和实质内容,就是要做好完全与基督教以外,和;无视神权,以属性名男子在社会上的最高权威“(Encycl.,”Immortale棣“,1885年11月1日)。 Moreover, like individual organisms, social organisms obey fatal laws of development; all events are the necessary results of complex antecedents, and the task of the historian is to record them and to trace the laws of their sequences, which are as strict as those of sequences in the physical world.而且,像生物个体,社会发展规律的生物体服从致命的,所有活动都是复杂的前因必要的结果,而历史学家的任务是记录并跟踪他们的那些法律的序列,它作为有严格的序列在物理世界。

In ethics, the vague assumption that nature is the supreme guide of human actions may be applied in many different ways.在伦理,模糊假设的本质是人类活动的最高指导,可应用在许多不同的方法。 Already the principle of the Stoics, formulated first by Zeno, that we must live consistently or harmoniously (to homologoumenos zen), and stated more explicitly by Cleanthes as the obligation to live in conformity with nature (to homologoumenos te physei zen) gave rise to several interpretations, some understanding nature exclusively as human nature, others chiefly as the whole universe.已经是斯多噶原则上,制定了第一个由泽诺,我们必须始终或生活和谐(以homologoumenos禅宗),并表示physei德禅更明确克利安西的义务,以符合生活与自然(以homologoumenos)引起了几种解释,有些人只以认识自然的本质,其他主要是因为整个宇宙。 Moreover as man has many natural tendencies, desires, and appetites, it may be asked whether it is moral to follow all indiscriminately; and when they are conflicting or mutually exclusive, so that a choice is to be made, on what ground must certain activities be given the preference over the others?此外,由于人有许多自然的倾向,欲望和胃口,它可能会问,是否是道德遵循所有乱,而当它们发生冲突或相互排斥,所以,一个是作出选择的活动,就一定要什么理由得到了比其他偏好? Before the Stoics, the Cynics, both in theory and in practice, had based their rules of conduct on the principle that nothing natural can be morally wrong.前斯多噶,愤世嫉俗的人,无论在理论上和实践中,自然是基于什么原则,他们的规则就可以进行道德上是错误的。Opposing customs, conventions, refinement, and culture, they endeavoured to return to the pure state of nature.反对关税,公约,改进和文化,他们努力回归自然的纯净状态。Rousseau, likewise, looks upon the social organization as a necessary evil which contributes towards developing conventional standards of morality.卢梭,同样,看来在社会组织的道德标准作为一个必要的邪恶的发展对传统的贡献。Man, according to him, is naturally good, but becomes depraved by education and by contact with other men.男子,据他说,自然是好的,但成为堕落的教育和其他男人接触。This same theme of the opposition of nature and culture, and the superiority of the former, is a favourite one with Tolstoi.这和文化主题的性质相同的反对派和托尔斯泰的优越性前,是一个具有最喜欢的。According to Nietzsche, the current standards of virtue are against nature, and, because they favour the poor, the weak, the suffering, the miserable, by commending such feelings as charity, compassion, pity, humility, etc., they are obstacles in the way of true progress.根据尼采,凭借目前的标准是违反自然,而且,由于他们赞成这种感情的施舍,同情,怜悯,谦卑等穷人,弱者的苦难,悲惨,赞扬,他们是障碍真正的进步方式。 For the progress of mankind and the development of the "Superman", it is essential to return to the primitive and natural standard of morality, which is energy activity, strength, and superiority; the most powerful are also the best.为了人类的进步和发展的力量的“超人”,它必须返回和自然的原始道德标准,这是能源的活动,和优势,最强大也是最好的。

If ethical naturalism is considered in its relation with the three philosophical views explained above, it sometimes means only the rejection of any duties based on a Divine Revelation, and the assumption that the only source of right and wrong is human reason.如果是自然的道德关系视为其与上述三个哲学观点解释,它有时意味着只有神的启示的基础上的排斥任何工作,而这种假设的人类理性的唯一来源的正确和错误的。 Generally, however, it means the more radical tendency to treat moral science in the same manner as natural science.但是,总的来说,它意味着更激进的倾向,对待自然的科学道德科学的方式在同一个。There is freedom nowhere, but absolute necessity everywhere.有自由行不通的,但绝对必要的无处不在。All human actions, as well as physical events, are necessary results of antecedents that are themselves necessary.人类的一切行动,以及身体的活动,本身是必需的前身是结果。The moral law, with its essential distinction of right and wrong conduct, is, not an objective norm, but a mere subjective result of associations and instincts evolved from the experience of the useful and agreeable, or of the harmful and painful, consequences of certain actions.道德法律,其错误行为的本质区别的权利,是不是一个客观的标准,而是一个主观的结果仅仅是和本能从协会发展的有益的经验和接受,或有害的和痛苦的,后果一定行动。 It is, nevertheless, a motive that prompts to act in certain directions, but the effectiveness of which is strictly determined by the degree of its intensity in a given individual compared with the resistance it encounters on the part of antagonistic ideas. Thus, the science of ethics is not normative: it does not deal with laws existing antecedently to human actions, and which these ought to obey.话虽如此,一个动机,提示采取行动,在某些方向,但成效是严格个人给予的程度取决于其强度在1比上遇到阻力思想对立的一部分。因此,科学道德是不规范性:它并不涉及现行法律先行,以人的行动,以及这些应该服从。 It is genetic, and endeavours to do for human actions what natural science does for physical phenomena, that is, to discover, through an inference from the facts of human conduct, the laws to which it happens to conform.这是遗传,并努力,做了对人类行为学什么不自然的物理现象,即发现,通过进行推论人类从事实,法律,它恰好符合。

It is impossible to state in detail the attitude of the Catholic Church towards the assumptions, implications, and consequences of Naturalism.这是国家不可能详细的自然态度,对天主教教会的假设,影响,和后果。Naturalism is such a wide and far-reaching tendency, it touches upon so many points, its roots and ramifications extend in so many directions, that the reader must be referred to the cognate topics treated in other articles.自然是如此广泛和深远的趋势,这点触及这么多,它的根源和影响扩大在这么多的方向,即读者必须提到的其他条款处理的同源主题。 In general it can only be said that Naturalism contradicts the most vital doctrines of the Church, which rest essentially on Supernaturalism.一般它只能说是违背自然其余基本上超自然学说中最重要的是教会。 The existence of a personal God and of Divine Providence, the spirituality and immortality of the soul, human freedom and responsibility, the fact of a Divine Revelation, the existence of a supernatural order for man, are so many fundamental teachings of the Church, which, while recognizing all the rights and exigencies of nature, rises higher, to the Author and Supreme Ruler of nature.存在的责任和个人的上帝神圣的普罗维登斯,和不朽的精神和灵魂,人的自由,,事实上,一个神圣的启示,为一个超自然的存在是为了人的教会,使其中许多基本教义虽然承认的所有权利和紧迫性的性质,上升较高,对作者和最高统治者的性质。

Publication information Written by CA Dubray.出版信息达布雷写的CA。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.奉献给耶稣圣心天主教百科全书,卷十,1911年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

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