Neo-Orthodoxy - History新正统派

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Neo-orthodoxy is not a single system; it is not a unified movement; it does not have a commonly articulated set of essentials. At best it can be described as an approach or attitude that began in a common environment but soon expressed itself in diverse ways.新正统不是一个单一的系统,它不是一个统一的运动,它不具有普遍阐明一套必需品。充其量可以说是一个多样化的方法或态度,开始在一个共同的环境,但很快在表达自己方法。 It began in the crisis associated with the disillusionment following World War I, with a rejection of Protestant scholasticism, and with a denial of the Protestant liberal movement which had stressed accommodation of Christianity to Western science and culture, the immanence of God, and the progressive improvement of mankind.它始于第一次世界大战后的世界金融危机相关的幻灭,以士林拒绝新教,并具有文化剥夺自由的新教运动,强调了住宿的西方科学和基督教,上帝内在的,进步改善人类。

The first important expression of the movement was Karl Barth's Romerbrief, published in 1919.第一运动的重要体现的是卡尔巴特的Romerbrief,1919年出版。Soon a number of Swiss and German pastors were involved.不久,一个牧师数量瑞士和德国的参与。In the two years 1921 - 22 Friedrich Gogarten published his Religious Decision, Emil Brunner his Experience, Knowledge and Faith, Eduard Thurneysen his Dostoievsky, and Barth the second edition of his Commentary on Romans.在两年的1921至1922年出版了他的宗教弗里德里希戈加滕决策,埃米尔布伦纳他的经验,知识和信念,他的爱德华Thurneysen陀思妥耶夫斯基,和巴特对罗马的第二版,他的评论。 In the fall of 1922 they established Zwischen den Zeiten, a journal whose title characterized the crisis element in their thinking in that they felt they lived between the time when the Word was made flesh and the imminent appearance of the Word again.在1922年秋天,他们又建立了Zwischen巢穴蔡滕,日记的标题自己的思想特点,在危机中的元素,他们认为他们之间的生活时道成了肉身和即将出现的话。 Although at this point most of the early members of the movement held to some common points of view, such as the absolute transcendence of God over all human knowledge and work, the sovereignty of the revelation in Jesus Christ, the authority of Scripture, and the sinfulness of mankind, it was not long before their dialectical approach led them to disagreements and a parting of the ways.虽然在这一点上大部分知识和工作的所有人类早超越了上帝的绝对的成员,举行这样的运动,以不确定感,观点,在和主权,在耶稣基督的启示权威,圣经的人类的罪孽,但没过多久,他们的辩证的方法使他们的分歧和分手的。

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However, the disagreements seemed to make the movement all the more vigorous and intriguing.然而,分歧似乎使运动更加充满活力和有趣。Soon it spread to England, where CH Dodd and Edwyn Hoskyns became involved; in Sweden Gustaf Aulen and Anders Nygren became followers; in America the Niebuhr brothers were identified as neo - orthodox; and others in other churches and lands began to read about the movement and watch what was happening.很快蔓延到英国,其中CH多德和爱德温霍斯基成为参与;在瑞典古斯塔夫Aulen和安德斯尼格伦成为追随者,在美国的尼布尔兄弟被确定为新的土地-正统,其他等人在教堂,并开始阅读有关运动看发生了什么事情。 With the rise of the Nazi movement in Germany many of the leaders of the neo - orthodox movement met with other German Christians in Barmen in 1934 and issued a declaration against the evils of Nazism.随着新崛起的纳粹领导人的行动在德国许多-正统的运动在1934年会见了德国与其他基督徒在巴门,并发表声明,邪恶对纳粹主义的。 The resulting crackdown by Hitler forced some into exile, as Paul Tillich; some back to their homeland, as Barth; some underground, as Dietrich Bonhoeffer; and some ultimately into concentration camps, as Martin Niemoeller.由希特勒造成打击被迫流亡到一些蒂利希,如保罗,有的回到自己的家园,为巴特,有的在地下,作为迪特里希朋霍费尔,有的最终进入集中营尼默勒,马丁。 The movement continued throughout the period of World War II and into the postwar period, but with the death of the main leaders it tended to lose its cutting edge in theology.这个运动继续在整个二战期间第二,进入战后时期,但与死亡的主要领导人也往往失去其在神学的最前沿。

The movement was called neo - orthodox for a number of reasons.这场运动被称为新 - 为正统的原因。 Some used the term in derision, claiming it had abandoned the traditional Protestant creedal formulations and was advocating a new "off" brand of orthodoxy.有些国家使用的术语在嘲笑,声称它已经放弃了传统的新教教义的配方,并倡导新的“小康”正统品牌。Others saw the movement as a narrowing of the traditional stance of Protestantism and thus to be avoided in favor of a more liberal stance.其他人看到了新教运动作为一个缩小的传统立场,从而避免被自由派立场,赞成一个更。Those in sympathy with the movement saw in the word "orthodoxy" the effort to get back to the basic ideas of the Protestant Reformation and even the early church, as a means of proclaiming the truth of the gospel in the twentieth century; and in the prefix "neo" they saw the validity of new philological principles in helping to attain an accurate view of Scripture, which in turn and in combination with orthodoxy would provide a powerful witness to God's action in Christ for those of the new century.运动者的同情与看到的单词“正统”,甚至早期的教会,真理作为一种手段,是传播福音在20世纪的努力,并取回了新教改革的基本思路;在前缀“新”,他们看到了新世纪语言学的有效性原则,帮助实现准确的圣经观点,而这又与正统结合将提供一个强有力的见证上帝在行动的新的基督的。

Methodology方法论

The methodologial approach of the movement involved dialectical theology, theology of paradox, and crisis theology.该运动methodologial办法涉及的辩证神学,神学的悖论,和危机神学。The use of dialectical thinking goes back to the Greek world and Socrates' use of questions and answers to derive insight and truth. It was used by Abelard in Sic et Non, and is the technique of posing opposites against each other in the search for truth.用辩证的思维可以追溯到希腊世界和苏格拉底的使用问题和答案,以获取洞察力和真理。这是阿贝拉尔在使用非碳化硅等,是对真理的技术构成对立搜索对每个其他。 Barth and the early leaders were probably attracted to the dialectic as the result of their study of Soren Kierkegaard's writing.巴特和早期领导人很可能吸引到的辩证法作为写作的结果克尔凯郭尔的研究索伦。For Kierkegaard, propositional truths are not sufficient; assent to a series of religious formulations or creeds is not enough.对于克尔凯郭尔,命题真理是不够的同意,以一宗教信条系列配方或者是不够的。Kierkegaard believed theological assertions of the faith to be paradoxical.克尔凯郭尔的信仰神学认为是自相矛盾的说法。 This requires the believer to hold opposite "truths" in tension.这就要求信徒举行的真理“的紧张对立”。Their reconciliation comes in an existential act generated after anxiety, tension, and crisis, and which the mind takes to be a leap of faith.他们来自于一个存在和解的行为后产生紧张焦虑,和危机,并采取思想是一个信仰的飞跃。

The neo - orthodox took the position that traditional and liberal Protestantism had lost the insight and truth of the faith.在新-正统信仰的立场,即采取了开放的基督教传统和失去了洞察力和真理。The nineteenth century theologians had taken the paradoxes of faith, dissolved their tension, used rational, logical, coherent explanations as a substitute, creating propositions, and thus had destroyed the living dynamic of the faith. 19世纪的神学家已经对信仰的矛盾,解除他们的紧张情绪,使用,连贯的解释作为替代理性,逻辑,创造主张,从而破坏了信仰生活动态。For the neo - orthodox, paradoxes of the faith must remain precisely that, and the dialectic method which seeks to find the truth in the opposites of the paradoxes leads to a true dynamic faith.对于新-正统的,似是而非的信念必须保持精确的和辩证方法,目的是要找到对立面的矛盾中的真理导致了真正的动态的信心。 As an example of this consider the statement: "In the No found in God's righteous anger one finds the Yes of his compassion and mercy."作为一个例子说明这个考虑:“在没有发现在上帝的义愤一发现是他的同情和怜悯。的”

Some of the paradoxes identified by the neoorthodox movement are the absolute transcendence of God in contrast with the self - disclosure of God; Christ as the God - man; faith as a gift and yet an act; humans as sinful yet free; eternity entering time.运动,部分neoorthodox由悖论确定是神的绝对超越自我的对比-神披露;基督的神-人;作为礼物,但信仰的行为;人类的罪恶,但是自由;永恒进入时间。 How is it possible to have a wholly other God who reveals himself?怎么可能有其他的神完全揭示了自己谁?How is it possible for the man Jesus of history to be the Son of God, the second person of the Trinity?它的历史是怎样的人耶稣可能是神的儿子,是三位一体的第二人呢?How can one speak of faith as God's gift and yet involve human action?怎么能说是信仰上帝的礼物,但涉及到人的行为?How is it possible for humans to be simultaneously sinful and saved?怎么可能对人类是有罪的同时并保存?How is it possible for eternity, which is apart from time, to break in on time?怎么可能为永恒,这是除了时间,休息时间吗? In struggling with these, the temptation is to rationalize answers and avoid the crisis of faith; but the neo - orthodox eschewed such a solution.在这种挣扎中,诱惑是合理化的答案,避免信心危机,但新-正统回避这样一个解决办法。It is only in crisis / struggling that one can rise above the paradox and be grasped by the truth in such a way as to defy rational explanation.只有在危机/挣扎,人们可以超越的悖论,并掌握了一地的真理,如违抗合理的解释。 Crisis is that point where yes and no meet.危机是肯定的地步,也没有满足。

It is that theological point where the human recognizes God's condemnation of all human endeavors in morals, religion, thought processes, scientific discoveries, and so on, and the only release is from God's word.正是在人类神学点承认上帝的道德谴责人类活动的所有,宗教,思维过程,科学发现等,唯一的发布是从神的话语。The neo - orthodox, in summarizing their methodology, used dialectics in relation to the paradoxes of the faith which precipitated crises which in turn became the situation for the revelation of truth.在新-正统,在总结他们的方法,用辩证的真理的启示与信仰的矛盾而沉淀的危机,在形势转成了。

Some Key Beliefs一些主要的信仰

Perhaps the fundamental theological concept of the movement is that of the totally free, sovereign God, the wholly other in relation to his creation as to how it is controlled, redeemed, and how he chooses to reveal himself to it.也许根本的神学运动的概念是,在完全自由,主权的上帝,完全其他有关他的创作,以它是如何控制,赎回,以及他如何选择自己揭示它。 Next is God's self - revelation, a dynamic act of grace to which mankind's response is to listen.其次是上帝的自我-启示,一个宽限期,以动态的行为,其中人类的反应是听。This revelation is the Word of God in a threefold sense: Jesus as the word made flesh; Scripture which points to the word made flesh; and the sermon which is the vehicle for the proclamation of the Word made flesh.这启示是上帝的话在三重意义:耶稣的一句话让肉经文,其中指出的一句话让肉和讲道这是Word的车辆所作的宣布肉。In its first sense, the Word made flesh, it is not a concern for the historical Jesus as in Protestant liberalism, but a concern for the Christ of faith, the risen Christ testified to and proclaimed by the apostles.在第一次从某种意义上说,Word中取得的肉体,它不是一个自由主义的关注,因为在基督教的历史上的耶稣,而是一种信仰关心的是基督,复活的基督作证和使徒宣布的。 In the second sense, Word as Scripture, it is not intended that the two be seen as one.在第二个意义上讲,Word作为圣经,它不打算在这两个被视为一个。The Scripture contains the Word but is not the Word.圣经包含Word,但不是词。

In the third sense, the Word is proclaimed and witnessed to, in and through the body of Christ through the work of the Holy Spirit.在第三个意义上说,Word是宣布和见证了,并通过基督的身体通过圣灵的工作圣灵。

The movement also stressed the sinfulness of mankind.该运动还强调了人类的罪恶。The sovereign, free God who reveals himself does so to a sinful fallen humanity and creation.主权,自由上帝谁揭示了自己这样做有罪下降到人性和创造。There is a vast chasm between the sovereign God and mankind, and there is no way that mankind can bridge that chasm.有一个巨大的鸿沟,人类之间的主权的神,是没有办法,人类可以弥合的鸿沟。All of mankind's efforts to do so in his religious, moral, and ethical thoughts and actions are as nothing.所有人类的努力,这样做他的宗教,道德,伦理思想和行动都没有什么作为。The only possible way for the chasm to be crossed is by God, and this he has done in Christ.唯一可能的途径的鸿沟要跨越,是由上帝,基督和他做这个研究。And now the paradox and the crisis: when the paradox of the word's No against mankind's sin is given along with the Yes of the Word of grace and mercy, the crisis mankind faces is to decide either yes or no.现在的矛盾和危机:当罪恶的矛盾这个词的没有对人类的怜悯随着给出的是优雅的话语,人类面临的危机是决定是或否。 The turning point has been reached as the eternal God reveals himself in mankind's time and existence.转折点已经达到神的永恒揭示存在于人类自己的时间和金钱。

Significance意义

The neo - orthodox movement has made a number of important contributions to twentieth century theology.在新-正统的运动作出了重要贡献数至二十世纪的神学。With its stress on Scripture as the container of the Word it emphasized the unity of Scripture and helped to precipitate a renewed interest in hermeneutics.凭借其对圣经压力容器作为Word它强调圣经的团结和帮助沉淀在解释学的新兴趣。With its rejection of nineteenth century Protestant liberalism and its return to the principles of the Reformation it helped to rejuvenate interest in the theology of the sixteenth century reformers and in the early church fathers.凭借其19世纪的改革排斥新教自由主义及其返回的原则,向它有助于振兴改革者利益世纪神学的16和早期教会的父亲。 With its threefold view of the Word the doctrine of Christology has been more carefully examined, and the Word as proclamation has reemphasized the importance of preaching and the church as the fellowship of believers.凭借其三倍Word中的基督的教义已经更加仔细研究,以及Word作为宣布已再次强调了说教的重要性和信徒的教会团契的。 The use of dialectic, paradox, and crisis introduced an effort to preserve the absolutes of the faith from every dogmatic formulation and, by so doing, aided the cause of ecumenism.用辩证的矛盾,并介绍了危机,努力保持绝对的教条式的制定从每一个信仰和做如此,资助的合一事业。Finally, the urgency found in the writings and in the title of its first journal has encouraged a renewed interest in eschatology.最后,紧迫性的著作中发现,在其第一期刊名称在末世鼓励新的兴趣。

Neo - orthodoxy is tied to its own Zeitgeist and thus does not have the popularity it enjoyed earlier in the century.新-正统是依赖于自己的时代精神,因而没有得到它的普及世纪前在。Certain inherent elements have precluded its continuing influence.某些固有的分子排除其持续性影响。For example, its dialectic has presented confusing concepts such as "the impossible - possibility" and "the history beyond time"; its view of Scripture, "The Bible is God's Word so far as God lets it be his Word" (Barth, Church Dogmatics, I / 2, 123), has been seen as a rejection of the infallible sola Scriptura of conservative Protestantism.例如,它的辩证呈现混乱的概念,如“不可能的-可能性”和“时间的历史跨越”,它的圣经观,“圣经是神的话语只要上帝允许这是他的词”(巴特,教会教义,我/ 2,123),一直被视为一个索拉拒绝犯错的新教圣经保守。The reliance of some of the neo - orthodox upon existentialism and other nineteenth and twentieth century concepts has meant that when those concepts became unfashionable, neo - orthodoxy became unfashionable.在新的一些依赖-正统观念后,存在主义和其他19世纪和20世纪,这意味着,当这些概念变得不合时宜,新-正统变得不合时宜。 Perhaps the greatest weakness within the movement has been its pessimism concerning the reliability and validity of human reason.也许在这个运动的最大弱点是它的悲观情绪有关的可靠性和有效性的原因人类。

If human reason cannot be trusted, then it follows that since neo - orthodoxy relied on human reason, it could not be trusted. Finally, some have criticized neo - orthodoxy for lacking a plan for the reformation of society; most theologies, however, are susceptible to this charge.如果人类理性不能被信任,那么,既然新-正统的原因依赖于人类,但它不能被信任。最后,一些人批评新-社会正统的改革缺乏一个的计划,大部分神学,但是,容易受到这种指控。 Neo - orthodoxy's stance toward the conservatives and the liberals has satisfied neither group and the moderates have not embraced it.新-正统的立场,对保守派和自由派都已经满意组和温和派没有接受它。Thus although one cannot ignore the movement, its ultimate place in the history of theology is not yet clear.因此,虽然人们不能忽视的运动,它的神学最终地方的历史中,目前尚不清楚。

RV Schnucker风疹病毒Schnucker
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
J Pelikan, Twentieth Century Theology in the Making; J Macquarrie, Twentieth - Century Religious Thought; W Nicholls, Systematic and Philosophical Theology; JM Robinson, ed., The Beginnings of Dialectical Theology; W Hordern, The Case for a New Reformation Theology; HU von Balthasar, The Theology of Karl Barth; C Michalson, ed., Christianity and the Existentialists; E Brunner, The Theology of Crisis; O Weber, Foundations of Dogmatics; CW Kegley and RW Bretall, eds., Reinhold Niebuhr; AJ Klassen, ed., A Bonhoeffer Legacy; W Schmithals, An Introduction to the Theology of Rudolf Bultmann.J伯利坎,在制定20世纪神学; J麦夸里,二十-世纪的宗教思想; W尼科尔斯,系统性和哲学神学; jm罗宾逊,编辑。,辩证的神学开端; W霍德恩,在神学案例一新的变革;胡冯巴尔塔萨,巴特神学的卡尔;三Michalson,编辑。,基督教和存在主义,电子商务布伦纳,危机神学; Ø韦伯,教义的基础;连续凯格利和RW Bretall,合编。,尼布尔;欧塞尔克拉森,编辑。,阿朋霍费尔的遗产; W Schmithals,安布特曼介绍鲁道夫的神学。


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