Nestorianism, Nestorius景教,聂斯脱

General Information一般信息

A 5th - century Christological heresy, Nestorianism takes its name from Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople (428 - 31), who argued against the Alexandrian use of the title Theotokos, meaning "God bearer," or "Mother of God," for the Virgin Mary; for Nestorius, Mary was the mother of Christ only in his humanity. Theologians of the Antiochene school emphasized the humanity of Jesus Christ, the Alexandrian his deity.阿五-世纪基督异端,景教注意到它的名字从聂斯脱里,主教的君士坦丁堡(428 - 31),谁圣母极力反对标题亚历山大使用,意思是“上帝的旗手”,或“上帝之母”的处女玛丽的聂斯脱里, 玛丽只是人类在他的母亲基督。学校神学家的安提阿学派强调人类的神耶稣基督,他的亚历山大Theodore of Mopsuestia held that Christ's human nature was complete but was conjoined with the Word by an external union.摩普绥提亚西奥多认为,基督是人类的本性是连体字完成,但通过与外部的结合。Nestorius, Theodore's pupil, took up his teacher's position after his death.聂斯脱里,西奥多的学生,拿起位置在他死后他的老师的。

Nestorius was condemned by the Council of Ephesus (431), which was convened specifically to settle the dispute.聂斯脱里谴责了理事会以弗所(431),这是召开专门解决这一争端。There the Theotokos was officially affirmed and orthodox doctrine on the nature of Jesus Christ clarified: Christ was pronounced true God and true man, as having two distinct natures in one person - a position that was reaffirmed by the Council of Chalcedon (451). Nestorius was deposed as bishop and sent to Antioch, although the debate continues as to whether Nestorius himself was actually a Nestorian and a heretic. A Nestorian church nevertheless survives in the East and has since taught, in opposition to the orthodox doctrine, that there are two persons in the incarnate Christ, human and divine.在那里,圣母被正式确认并澄清了正统教义基督耶稣的本质:基督是真正的上帝和真正的发音人,在一人具有两种截然不同的性质-这是聂斯脱的立场重申了安理会卡尔西(451)。被废黜的主教,被送往安提,虽然辩论的继续,是否聂斯脱里自己其实是一个景教和异教徒。 景教教堂但生存在东方,此后任教,在反对正统学说,即有两个人的肉身的基督,人力和神圣。

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Bibliography 书目
A Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition (1975); R Loofs, Nestorius and His Place in the History of Christian Doctrine (1914); J Pelikan, The Christian Tradition, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition 100 - 600 (1971).阿格里尔迈尔)基督在基督教传统(1975年与r卢夫斯,nestorius和他的位置在)历史的基督教教义(1914; J伯利坎,基督教传统,100的出现,天主教传统- 600(1971)。


Nestorius, Nestorianism聂斯脱里,景教

Advanced Information先进的信息

A native of Germanicia in Syria, Nestorius became Patriarch of Constantinople in 428.一个在叙利亚本土的Germanicia,聂斯脱里成为君士坦丁堡牧首在428。Having studied in a monastery in Antioch, probably under Theodore of Mopsuesta, he became a fierce opponent of heterodoxy, his first official act as patriarch being the burning of an Arian chapel.经研究,在安提阿寺院Mopsuesta,可能是西奥多下,他成为异端激烈的对手,他的首次官方行为阿里安教堂被作为元老的是燃烧。

In 428 Nestorius preached a series of sermons in which he attacked the devotionally popular attribution of the title Theotokos ("God - bearing") to the Virgin Mary.在428聂斯脱里宣扬的玛丽系列讲道中,他的攻击-轴承“虔诚流行的归属标题圣母(”上帝)的处女。As a representative of the Antiochene school of Christology, he demurred at what he understood to be in that title a mixing of the human and divine natures in Christ.作为基督的代表学校的安提阿学派,他表示反对在他理解为在该标题的基督混合人类和神性在。This seemed to him Apollinarian.这似乎给他Apollinarian。He is reported to have affirmed that "the creature hath not given birth to the uncreatable," "the Word came forth, but was not born of her," and "I do not say God is two or three months old."据报道,他肯定说,“上帝的动物没有生育的uncreatable”,“字就出来了,但不是她出生的,”和“我不说上帝是2或3个月大。” In place of Theotokos, Nestorius offered the term Christotokos ("Christ - bearing").在圣母地点,聂斯脱里提供的“)一词Christotokos(”基督-轴承。He preferred to attribute human characteristics to the one Christ.他宁愿属性人类特征的一个基督。

Nestorius's denunciation of Theotokos brought him under the suspicion of many orthodox theologians who had long used the term. His most articulate and vehement opponent was Cyril of Alexandria. Apparently a significant portion of the debate between them is traceable to the ecclesiastical rivalry between the two important Sees.聂斯脱里的圣母谴责带来长期他说,在怀疑长期使用许多正统神学家谁了。他的阐述和激烈的对手是西里尔亚历山大的。显然他们之间的很大一部分辩论的是可追溯至教会争夺两个重要看到。 In any case, the two traded opinions, and when Cyril read of Nestorius's rejection of the term "hypostatic union" as an interpenetration and thus a reduction of both the divine and the human natures of Christ, he understood Nestorius to be affirming that Christ was two persons, one human, one divine.在任何情况下,两个交易的意见,当西里尔渗透阅读聂斯脱工会拒绝对“本质的”作为,因此是基督减少双方的神人的天性和对他的理解聂斯脱里要申明基督两个人,一个人,一个神圣的。 "He rejects the union," stated Cyril.“他拒绝工会表示,”西里尔。

In August of 430 Pope Celestine condemned Nestorius, and Cyril pronounced twelve anathemas against him in November of the same year.在8月的430塞莱斯蒂纳教皇谴责聂斯脱里,和西里尔突出的一年,同12年11月anathemas反对他。In 431 the General Council at Ephesus deposed Nestorius, sending him back to the monastery in Antioch.在431的总理事会在以弗所废黜聂斯脱里,送他回安提阿修道院研究。Five years later he was banished to Upper Egypt, where he died, probably in 451.五年后,他被放逐到上埃及,在那里他死了,大概在451。

The dispute between Nestorius and Cyril centered in the relationship between the two natures in Christ and represents the divergence between the two major schools of ancient Christology, the Antiochene and the Alexandrian. The former emphasized the reality of Christ's humanity and was wary of any true communicatio idiomatum, or communication of the attributes from one nature to the other (hence Nestorius's aversion to the notion of the Logos's being born or suffering; later Reformed theologians have maintained the same kind of concerns). The latter emphasized Christ's essential diety, tended to affirm a real communicatio, and was equally wary of what sounded like division in Christ's person (Lutheran theologians have tended to follow the Alexandrian emphases).在西里尔争端nestorius和集中在基督的关系两个性质之间的,代表了亚历山大的分歧之间的两大学校古基督的安提阿学派。前者强调了人类现实的基督,是交际警惕任何真正idiomatum,或自然沟通从一个属性的其他 (因此聂斯脱里的厌恶的的概念的标志的诞生或痛苦,后来归正神学家一直保持着一种相同的问题)。 后者强调基督是必然的,倾向于肯定一个真正的交际,并同样警惕什么人听起来像师在基督 (路德神学家往往跟随亚历山大重点)。

Cyril rejected Nestorius's notion of the unity of Christ's person consisting in a unity of wills rather than a unity of essence.西里尔拒绝聂斯脱里的本质概念的统一的团结的基督的人组成的统一的意志,而不是。Both Cyril and Cassian understood this as a kind of adoptionism, wherein the Father adopted the human Jesus, making him his Son (a position similar to the modern so - called Christologies from below).西里尔和卡西安都理解adoptionism这为一类,其中,通过人的父亲耶稣,使他的儿子(一个位置类似于现代如此-所谓从以下Christologies)。 They saw a link between Nestorius's understanding of Christ's person and Pelagius's understanding of Christ as a "mere moral example," and such a connection understandably was anathema to them.他们看到一个例子之间的联系聂斯脱里的的认识基督的人,了解贝拉基的基督作为一个“纯粹的道德”,而这样的连接可以理解的是诅咒他们。

Ironically, modern research has discovered a book written by Nestorius, known as the Book of Heracleides, in which he explicitly denies the heresy for which he was condemned. Rather, he affirms of Christ that "the same one is twofold," an expression not unlike the orthodox formulation of the Council of Chalcedon (451). 讽刺的是,现代研究已经发现了谴责,他作为已知的书上所写的,由nestorius书赫拉克利德斯,他在其中明确否认为异端。而是他的基督申明说,“同一个是双重的,”没有一个表达式不像451)正统制定理事会的卡尔西(。 This points to the high degree of misunderstanding which characterized the entire controversy.这点对整个争议高度误解的特点的。After 433 a group of Nestorius's followers constituted themselves a separate Nestorian Church in Persia.经过433一组,聂斯脱里信徒的构成一个单独的自己在波斯景教教堂。

H Griffith Ĥ格里菲斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
K Baus, The Imperial Church from Constantine to the Early Middle Ages; JF Bethune Baker, Nestorius and His Teaching; A Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition, I; RV Sellers, Two Ancient Christologies. K表巴斯,从君士坦丁帝国教会中世纪初期;樱白求恩贝克,nestorius和他的教学,一个格里尔迈尔,传统基督教的基督徒,我;房车卖家,两部古代Christologies。


Nestorius and Nestorianismnestorius和景教

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. THE HERESIARCH一,异教

Nestorius, who gave his name to the Nestorian heresy, was born at Germanicia, in Syria Euphoratensis (date unknown); died in the Thebaid, Egypt, c.聂斯脱里,谁给了他的名字的景教异端,出生于Germanicia,在叙利亚Euphoratensis(日期不详);角死在Thebaid,埃及, 451.451。He was living as a priest and monk in the monastery of Euprepius near the walls, when he was chosen by the Emperor Theodosius II to be Patriarch of Constantinople in succession to Sisinnius.他是人民生活水平作为一名牧师和Sisinnius僧人Euprepius附近的寺院的墙壁,当他被选为狄奥多西二世皇帝在君士坦丁堡宗主教被继承。 He had a high reputation for eloquence, and the popularity of St. Chrysostom's memory among the people of the imperial city may have influenced the Emperor's choice of another priest from Antioch to be court bishop.他有很高的声誉的口才,和城市的知名度圣金口帝国的人们的记忆中可能影响皇帝的安提阿选择从另一个神父被法院主教。 He was consecrated in April, 428, and seems to have made an excellent impression.他奉献在4月,428,而且似乎已经作出了良好的印象。He lost no time in showing his zeal against heretics.他失去了在显示出他对异教徒的热情没有时间。Within a few days of his consecration Nestorius had an Arian chapel destroyed, and he persuaded Theodosius to issue a severe edict against heresy in the following month.在他的奉献涅斯多留数天,有一个阿里安教堂被摧毁,他说服狄奥多西发出严厉的诏书下一个月对异端的。He had the churches of the Macedonians in the Hellespont seized, and took measures against the Qrartodecimans who remained in Asia Minor.他在马其顿的赫勒斯教会所缉获,并采取措施对小Qrartodecimans亚洲谁仍然英寸 He also attacked the Novatians, in spite of the good reputation of their bishop.他还攻击了Novatians,在主教尽管他们的良好声誉。Pelagian refugees from the West, however, he did not expel, not being well acquainted with their condemnation ten years earlier.远洋的难民来自西方,但是,他没有开除,得不到妥善的早期熟悉它们的谴责十年。He twice wrote to Pope St. Celestine I for information on the subject.他曾两次写信给教皇圣天青石我对问题的资料上。He received no reply, but Marius Mercator, a disciple of St. Augustine, published a memoir on the subject at Constantinople, and presented it to the emperor, who duly proscribed the heretics.他没有收到任何答复,但马吕斯墨卡托,一,弟子圣奥古斯丁的回忆录出版于君士坦丁堡的题目,并提交给皇帝,谁正式禁止的异端。 At the end of 428, or at latest in the early part of 429, Nestorius preached the first of his famous sermons against the word Theotokos, and detailed his Antiochian doctrine of the Incarnation.在428年底,在429或最迟在部分早,聂斯脱里鼓吹圣母首次对他的著名的布道词,他的化身和详细的安蒂奥克学说。 The first to raise his voice against it was Eusebius, a layman, afterwards Bishop of Dorylaeum and the accuser of Eutyches.首次提出了反对的声音是他的IT尤西比乌斯,一个门外汉,事后主教多里莱乌姆和欧迪奇原告的。Two priests of the city, Philip and Proclus, who had both been unsuccessful candidates for the patriarchate, preached against Nestorius.二,祭司的城市,菲利普和普罗克洛谁也都为东正教已落选的候选人,聂斯脱里鼓吹反对。Philip, known as Sidetes, from Side, his birthplace, author of a vast and discursive history now lost, accused the patriarch of heresy.菲利普,Sidetes称为,从侧面,他的出生地,一个巨大的作者和话语历史现在失去了,邪教教主的指责。Proclus (who was to succeed later in his candidature) preached a flowery, but perfectly orthodox, sermon, yet extant, to which Nestorius replied in an extempore discourse, which we also possess.普罗克洛(谁是接替他的候选人资格后)所宣扬的华丽,但完全正统的,说教,但现存的,哪些聂斯脱里拥有一个即席回答的话语中,我们也是。 All this naturally caused great excitement at Constantinople, especially among the clergy, who were clearly not well disposed towards the stranger from Antioch.这一切自然引起在君士坦丁堡十分兴奋,尤其是神职人员,谁显然没有很好处理对陌生人从安提阿。

St. Celestine immediately condemned the doctrine.圣天青石立即谴责了这一学说。Nestorius had arranged with the emperor in the summer of 430 for the assembling of a council.聂斯脱里已安排与安理会皇帝在夏天为1 430的装配。He now hastened it on, and the summons had been issued to patriarchs and metropolitans on 19 Nov., before the pope's sentence, delivered though Cyril of Alexandria, had been served on Nestorius (6 Dec.).现在,他赶紧它,并已发出传票大都市的11月19日至元老和前教皇的一句话)发表的,但西里尔亚历山大,12月已送达聂斯脱里(6。 At the council Nestorius was condemned, and the emperor, after much delay and hesitation, ratified its finding.在安理会的谴责聂斯脱里,皇帝,经过多次拖延和犹豫,批准其调查结果。It was confirmed by Pope Sixtus III.它是由教皇西斯三世证实。

The lot of Nestorius was a hard one.大量的聂斯脱里是很难的。He had been handed over by the pope to the tender mercies of his rival, Cyril; he had been summoned to accept within ten days under pain of deposition, not a papal definition, but a series of anathemas drawn up at Alexandria under the influence of Apollinarian forgeries.他被交给了教皇的竞争对手,西里尔他的慈悲,他已被传唤接受10天之内沉积下的痛苦,而不是教皇的定义,但一anathemas亚历山大制定了一系列的影响下, Apollinarian伪造。The whole council had not condemned him, but only a portion, which had not awaited the arrival of the bishops from Antioch.整个安理会没有谴责他,但只有一部分,而不是等待从安提阿主教的到来。He had refused to recognize the jurisdiction of this incomplete number, and had consequently refused to appear or put in any defence.他拒绝承认这个数目不完整的司法管辖权,并因此拒绝出庭或提出任何辩护。He was not thrust out of his see by a change of mind on the part of the feeble emperor.他没有伸出他看到一个皇帝改变主意软弱的部分。But Nestorius was proud: he showed no sign of yielding or of coming to terms; he put in no plea of appeal to Rome.但聂斯脱里感到自豪:他没有条件的迹象表明高产或来,他在没有上诉请求的罗马。He retired to his monastery at Antioch with dignity and apparent relief.他退休,他在安提阿修道院有尊严和明显的缓解。His friends, John of Antioch, and his party, deserted him, and at the wish of the Emperor, at the beginning of 433, joined hands with Cyril, and Theodoret later did the same.他的朋友,安提阿约翰和他的党,抛弃了他,并在皇帝想了433,在开始的时候,加入了西里尔双手,和Theodoret后来相同。 The bishops who were suspected of being favourable to Nestorius were deposed.主教的聂斯脱里向谁被怀疑是有利于被废黜。An edict of Theodosius II, 30 July, 435, condemned his writings to be burnt.安法令的狄奥多西二世7月30日,435谴责他的著作被烧毁。A few years later Nestorius was dragged from his retirement and banished to the Oasis. He was at one time carried off by the Nubians (not the Blemmyes) in a raid, and was restored to the Thebaid with his hand and one rib broken.几年后聂斯脱里被拖从他的退休和被流放到绿洲。赫空袭是在)一时间努比亚人(不是Blemmyes进行关闭,并恢复和一根肋骨到Thebaid用手折断。 He gave himself up to the governor in order not to be accused of having fled.他给了自己的州长为了不被指责有逃离。

The recent discovery of a Syriac version of the (lost) Greek apology for Nestorius by himself has awakened new interest in the question of his personal orthodoxy.最近发现的由他本人为聂斯脱了叙利亚版本丢失)的(希腊道歉已经意识到个人正统他在新的兴趣的问题。The (mutilated) manuscript, about 800 years old, known as the "Bazaar of Heraclides", and recently edited as the "Liber Heraclidis" by P. Bedjan (Paris, 1910), reveals the persistent odium attached to the name of Nestorius, since at the end of his life he was obliged to substitute for it a pseudonym.该(肢解)手稿,约800岁)被称为“市场赫拉克利特”,1910年最近编辑的“书Heraclidis”由P. Bedjan(巴黎,揭示了持续憎恨隶属聂斯脱名称,因为在他生命结束时,他不得不为它替代化名。In this work he claims that his faith is that of the celebrated "Tome", or letter of Leo the Great to Flavian, and excuses his failure to appeal to Rome by the general prejudice of which he was the victim.在这项工作中,他声称,他的信念是,在著名的“汤姆”,或信利奥向弗拉维安大,和他的失败找借口,呼吁受害人向罗马的一般损害了他。 A fine passage on the Eucharistic Sacrifice which occurs in the "Bazaar" may be cited here: "There is something amiss with you which I want to put before you in a few words, in order to induce you to amend it, for you are quick to see what is seemly. What then is this fault? Presently the mysteries are set before the faithful like the mess granted to his soldiers by the king. Yet the army of the faithful is nowhere to be seen, but they are blown away together with the catechumems like chaff by the wind of indifference. And Christ is crucified in the symbol [kata ton tupon], sacrificed by the sword of the prayer of the Priest; but, as when He was upon the Cross, He finds His disciples have already fled. Terrible is this fault,--a betrayal of Christ when there is no persecution, a desertion by the faithful of their Master's Body when there is no war" (Loofs, "Nestoriana", Halls, 1905, p. 341). The writings of Nestorius were originally very numerous.阿细通过修改它的圣牺牲是发生在“集市”可引在这里:“有什么不对劲的你来我想在你们面前的几句话,为了引诱你,因为你是很快就看到什么是合适的。那么,这是错呢?目前的奥秘是国王的士兵之前设置的忠实授予他喜欢的事情。然而,军队的忠诚是无处可看,但他们一起吹走与冷漠风catechumems像糠的。钉在十字架上的基督是在符号[卡塔吨tupon],剑牺牲由牧师祈祷的,但是,因为当他十字后,他发现他的弟子已经逃走。可怕的是这种故障, -一个基督的背叛时,没有迫害,一,遗弃的忠实其主人的尸体在没有战争“(卢夫斯”Nestoriana“,会堂,1905年,第341页) 。作者:聂斯脱里的著作原本非常多。As stated above, the "Bazaar" has newly been published (Paris, 1910) in the Syriac translation in which alone it survives.如上所述,在“市场”已在新近出版,因为只有它生存(巴黎,1910年)在叙利亚文译本。The rest of the fragments of Nestorius have been most minutely examined, pieced together and edited by Loofs.其余的聂斯脱里的片段,细细检查了大多数,拼凑在一起,编辑的卢夫斯。His sermons show a real eloquence, but very little remains in the original Greek.他讲道显示一个真正的口才,但很少希腊仍保留在原。 The Latin translations by Marius Mercator are very poor in style and the text is ill preserved.由马吕斯麦卡托拉丁风格的翻译是非常差和生病的文本保存。

Batiffol has attributed to Nestorius many sermons which have come down to us under the names of other authors; three of Athanasius, one of Hippolytus, three of Amphilochius, thirty-eight of Basil of Selleucia, seven of St. Chrysostom; but Loofs and Baker do not accept the ascription. Batiffol已归功于以nestorius其他作者有许多说教名称归到我们,三个亚他那修,Selleucia希波吕托斯之一,三Amphilochius,38的罗勒,七圣金口,但卢夫斯和贝克不接受归属。 Mercati has pointed out four fragments in a writing of Innocent, Bishop of Maronia (ed. Amelli in "Spicil. Cassin.", I, 1887), and Armenian fragments have been published by Ludtke.梅尔卡蒂指出。卡西在四个片段Spicil书面马罗尼亚对无辜者,主教(编辑Amelli以“。”我,1887年),和亚美尼亚的碎片已吕特克出版。

II.二。THE HERESY异端

Nestorius was a disciple of the school of Antioch, and his Christology was essentially that of Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, both Cilician bishops and great opponents of Arianism.聂斯脱里是安提弟子学校,他基本上认为基督阿里乌教派狄奥多罗斯塔尔苏斯和西奥多摩普绥提亚,都奇里乞亚主教的对手和巨大的。 Both died in the Catholic Church. Diodorus was a holy man, much venerated by St. John Chrysostom.这两个死在天主教会。狄奥多罗斯是一个神圣的人,多由圣约翰金口崇敬。Theodore, however, was condemned in person as well as in his writings by the Fifth General Council, in 553.西奥多,然而,在人的谴责,以及在他的著作由第五总理事会,553年。In opposition to many of the Arians, who taught that in the Incarnation the Son of God assumed a human body in which His Divine Nature took the place of soul, and to the followers of Apollinarius of Laodicea, who held that the Divine Nature supplied the functions of the higher or intellectual soul, the Antiochenes insisted upon the completeness of the humanity which the Word assumed.在许多反对灵魂的白羊座,谁教的化身,在神的儿子,承担了人体中了他的神性的地方,并提供了自然的信徒Apollinarius的老底嘉,谁认为神圣智力功能的较高或灵魂,Antiochenes坚持的假设Word的完整的人类其中。 Unfortunately, they represented this human nature as a complete man, and represented the Incarnation as the assumption of a man by the Word.不幸的是,这个完整的人,他们代表的人性作为,并代表字化身为假设一个人的。The same way of speaking was common enough in Latin writers (assumere hominem, homo assumptus) and was meant by them in an orthodox sense; we still sing in the Te Deum: "Tu ad liberandum suscepturus hominem", where we must understand "ad liberandum hominem, humanam naturam suscepisti".同样的说话方式是共同assumptus足够的拉丁美洲作家(assumere人身攻击,同性恋),并叫他们在正统意义上,我们仍然在谢恩赞美颂唱:“涂广告liberandum suscepturus人身攻击”,在这里我们必须了解“广告liberandum人身攻击,humanam naturam suscepisti“。 But the Antiochene writers did not mean that the "man assumed" (ho lephtheis anthropos) was taken up into one hypostasis with the Second Person of the Holy Trinity.但安提阿学派作家并不意味着“人假设”(合lephtheis anthropos)采取了三位一体成神圣的一hypostasis与第二人。They preferred to speak of synapheia, "junction", rather than enosis, "unification", and said that the two were one person in dignity and power, and must be worshipped together.他们宁愿synapheia可言,“结”希塞统一,而不是“统一”,并说,两人一人在尊严和权力,而且必须合祀。 The word person in its Greek form prosopon might stand for a juridical or fictitious unity; it does not necessarily imply what the word person implies to us, that is, the unity of the subject of consciousness and of all the internal and external activities.该表格prosopon人在其希腊字可能代表一个法人或虚构的统一,它并不一定意味着这个词是什么人向我们暗示,即意识的统一的主题和所有内部和外部的活动。 Hence we are not surprised to find that Diodorus admitted two Sons, and that Theodore practically made two Christs, and yet that they cannot be proved to have really made two subjects in Christ.因此,我们并不感到惊讶地发现,狄奥多罗斯承认的两个儿子,而西奥多几乎两次基督,但它们不能被证明为真的基督作出两项课题研究。 Two things are certain: first, that, whether or no they believed in the unity of the subject in the Incarnate Word, at least they explained that unity wrongly; secondly, that they used most unfortunate and misleading language when they spoke of the union of the manhood with the Godhead -- language which is objectively heretical, even were the intention of its authors good.有两点是肯定的:第一,是否或不相信他们的Word化身的团结对课题的,至少他们解释说,统一的错误,其次,他们用最不幸和误导性的语言,当他们谈到工会神性与男子汉气概-邪教的语言,是客观,甚至是作者的意图良好。

Nestorius, as well as Theodore, repeatedly insisted that he did not admit two Christs or two Sons, and he frequently asserted the unity of the prosopon.聂斯脱里,以及西奥多,一再坚持说,他不承认两个或两个儿子基督,他经常断言prosopon统一的。On arriving at constantinople he came to the conclusion that the very different theology which he found rife there was a form of Arian or Apollinarian error.关于他抵达君士坦丁堡来的结论是非常不同的神学,他发现有一个普遍存在的错误形式阿里安或Apollinarian。 In this he was not wholly wrong, as the outbreak of Eutychianism twenty years later may be held to prove.在这一点,他并没有完全错误的,因为Eutychianism爆发20年后可能举行证明。In the first months of his pontificate he was implored by the Pelagian Julian of Eclanum and other expelled bishops of his party to recognize their orthodoxy and obtain their restoration He wrote at least three letters to the pope, St. Celestine I, to inquire whether these petitioners had been duly condemned or not, but he received no reply, not (as has been too often repeated) because the pope imagined he did not respect the condemnation of the Pelagians by himself and by the Western emperor, but because he added in his letters, which are extant, denunciations of the supposed Arians and Apollinarians of Constantinople, and in so doing gave clear signs of the Antiochene errors soon to be known as Nestorian.在他任职的头几个月,他是党的恳求被他的伯拉纠朱利安Eclanum主教和其他被驱逐到承认他们的正统,并取得他们的恢复,他至少写了三封信给教宗,圣天青石我,询问是否请愿者已被正式谴责或没有,但他没有收到任何答复,而不是(已常常重复),因为教皇想像他不尊重自己的pelagians谴责和西方的皇帝,而是因为他说在他的信,这是现存的,君士坦丁堡谴责的应该阿里安斯和Apollinarians,并在这样做了明确的被称为景教迹象即将安提阿学派的错误。 In particular he denounced those who employed the word Theotokos, though he was ready to admit the use of it in a certain sense: "Ferri tamen potest hoc vocabulum proper ipsum considerationem, quod solum nominetur de virgine hoc verbum hoc propter inseparable templum Dei Verbi ex ipsa, non quia mater sit Dei Verbi; nemo enim antiquiorem se parit."他特别谴责那些谁雇用的字圣母,虽然他愿意承认它的意义上使用的一个肯定的:“费里塔门potest责vocabulum适当存有considerationem,狴索卢姆nominetur德virgine责verbum责propter不可分割templum棣Verbi前IPSA指数,非奎亚母校参加棣Verbi;尼莫enim antiquiorem本身巴力。“Such an admission is worse than useless, for it involves the whole error that the Blessed Virgin is not the mother of the Second Person of the Holy Trinity.这种入场不如无用,因为它涉及到整个错误的圣母是不是母亲的圣三位一体第二个人的。It is therefore unfortunate that Loofs and others who defend Nestorius should appeal to the frequency with which he repeated that he should accept the Theotokos if only it was properly understood.因此,不幸的是,卢夫斯和其他保卫聂斯脱里谁应该呼吁的频率,他重申,他应该接受正确理解圣母只要它是。In the same letter he speaks quite correctly of the "two Natures which are adored in the one Person of the Only-begotten by a perfect and unconfused conjunction", but this could not palliate his mistake that the blessed Virgin is mother of one nature, not of the person (a son is necessarily a person not a nature), nor the fallacy: "No one can bring forth a son older than herself."在同一封信中,他讲的很正确的“两个”性质的,是崇拜的一个人只有在一个完美的遗物和unconfused一起,但这不能掩饰他的错误,圣母是一位母亲的性质,不是人(一个儿子必然是一个人不是一个性质),也不是谬论:“没有人能带出一个年纪比自己的儿子。” The deacon Leo, who was twenty years later as pope to define the whole doctrine, gave these letters to John Cassian of Marseilles, who at once wrote against Nestorius his seven books, "De incarnatione Christi".执事利奥,谁是20年后作为教宗确定整个学说,给了这些信件,约翰书籍卡西安马赛,谁在反对他曾经写道:聂斯脱7,“德incarnatione基督”。 Before he had completed the work he had further obtained some sermons of Nestorius, from which he quotes in the later books.之前,他已完成的工作,他的书还进一步获得了一些说教聂斯脱里,从后来他引用了。He misunderstands and exaggerates the teaching of his opponent, but his treatise is important because it stereotyped once for all a doctrine which the Western world was to accept as Nestorianism.他误解和夸大了他的对手教学,但他的论文是重要的,因为它一旦定型景教为所有人学说是西方世界接受。After explaining that the new heresy was a renewal of Pelagianism and Ebionitism, Cassian represents the Constantinoplitan patriarch as teaching that Christ is a mere man (homo solitarius) who merited union with the Divinity as the reward of His Passion.在解释新异端是卡西安续期佩拉纠和Ebionitism,代表作为教学Constantinoplitan元老说,基督是一个单纯的人(同性恋孤)谁值得激情的神与他的工会作为奖励。 Cassian himself brings out quite clearly both the unity of person and the distinction of the two natures, yet the formula "Two Natures and one Person" is less plainly enunciated by him than by Nestorius himself, and the discussion is wanting in clear-cut distinctions and definitions.卡西安自己带出了不少的人都清楚的团结和本质区别的两个,但公式“两个性质,一个人”是他阐述了以下明显比聂斯脱自己,讨论切断希望在明确的区分和定义。

Meanwhile Nestorius was being attacked by his own clergy and simultaneously by St.同时聂斯脱里被袭击,同时他自己的神职人员圣Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, who first denounced him, though without giving a name, in an epistle to all the monks of Egypt, then remonstrated with him personally by letter, and finally wrote to the pope.西里尔,他的主教亚历山德里亚,谁首先谴责,但没有给予一个名称,在埃及的书信向所有的僧侣,然后由他亲自规劝信,终于写信给教宗。 Loofs is of the opinion that Nestorius would never have been disturbed but for St. Cyril.卢夫斯是圣西里尔认为,聂斯脱里就不会受到干扰,但。But there is no reason to connect St. Cyril with the opposition to the heresiarch at Constantinople and at Rome.但是,没有理由在罗马圣西里尔连接,并与反对派异教在君士坦丁堡。His rivals Philip of Side and Proclus and the layman Eusebius (afterwards Bishop of Dorylaeum), as well as the Roman Leo, seem to have acted without any impulse from Alexandria.他的对手)菲利普侧普罗克洛和门外汉尤西比乌斯(后来的主教多里莱乌姆,以及罗马利奥,似乎已经没有任何亚历山大行事冲动。 It might have been expected that Pope Celestine would specify certain heresies of Nestorius and condemn them, or issue a definition of the traditional faith which was being endangered.它可能已经预料教宗天青石将指定的聂斯脱里某些异端邪说和谴责他们,或发出威胁的传统定义正在信仰。

Unfortunately he did nothing of the kind.可惜他没有这样的话。St. Cyril had sent to Rome his correspondence with Nestorius, a collection of that Patriarch's sermons, and a work of his own which he had just composed, consisting of five books "Contra Nestorium".圣西里尔曾派他到罗马的书籍信件与聂斯脱里,五集合该宗主教的布道,和他自己的工作,他组成的,刚刚组成的“魂斗罗Nestorium”。 The pope had them translated into Latin, and then, after assembling the customary council, contented himself with giving a general condemnation of Nestouris and a general approval of St. Cyril's conduct, whilst he delivered the execution of this vague decree to Cyril, who as Patriarch of Alexandria was the hereditary enemy both of the Antiochene theologian and the Constantinoplitan bishop.教宗在他们翻译成拉丁文,然后,会后组装的习惯,一般的钱满足自己的Nestouris给予谴责圣西里尔和一般批准的行为,而他这个交付执行的法令,谁是含糊亚历山大主教的主教是Constantinoplitan世袭敌人都在安提阿学派神学家和。 Nestorius was to be summoned to recant within ten days.聂斯脱里是公开认错就能被传唤到10天之内。The sentence was as harsh as can well be imagined.这句话是苛刻的是可想而知的。St. Cyril saw himself obliged to draw up a form for the recantation.圣西里尔看见自己有责任制定一个变节的形式为。With the help of an Egyptian council he formulated a set of twelve anathematisms which simply epitomize the errors he had pointed out in his five books "Against Nestorius", for the pope appeared to have agreed with the doctrine of that work.随着议会帮助他制定了一个埃及“一套12 anathematisms它只是缩影聂斯脱里的错误,他对书中所指出的五个”,教皇出现了有工作的同意这一原则的。It is most important to notice that up to this point St.最重要的是要注意这一点,截至圣Cyril had not rested his case upon Apollinarian documents and had not adopted the Apollinarian formula mia physis sesarkomene from Pseudo-Anathasius. He does not teach in so many words "two natures after the union", but his work against Nestorius, with the depth and precision of St. Leo, is an admirable exposition of Catholic doctrine, worthy of a Doctor of the church, and far surpassing the treatise of Cassian.西里尔没有休息Apollinarian文件后,他的案件,也没有采取Apollinarian公式米娅- Anathasius sesarkomene physis之伪。他不教这么多字的“两个性质后,联盟”,但他的工作对聂斯脱里,随深度和利奥精度圣,天主教教义是一个令人钦佩的论述,值得教会的一个博士学位,而且远远超过了卡西安论文的。 The twelve anathematisms are less happy, for St.这12个anathematisms不太高兴,因为圣Cyril was always a diffuse writer, and his solitary attempt at brevity needs to be read in connection with the work which it summarizes.西里尔总是弥漫作家,他在简短的企图孤立必须总结在阅读这方面的工作。

The Anathematisms were at once attacked, on behalf of John, Patriarch of Antioch, in defence of the Antiochene School, by Andrew of Samosata and the great Theodoret of Cyrus.该Anathematisms了一次攻击,对,代表约翰,牧安提学校国防的安提阿学派赛勒斯,由安德鲁萨莫萨塔和Theodoret伟大。 The former wrote at Antioch; his objections were adopted by a synod held there, and were sent to Cyril as the official view of all the Oriental bishops.前者说在安提阿,他反对的主教会议通过了在那里举行,而被送往东方主教西里尔所有的官方看法。St. Cyril published separate replies to these two antagonists, treating Andrew with more respect than Theodoret, to whom he is contemptuous and sarcastic.圣西里尔发表单独的答复这两个对手,治疗Theodoret安德鲁比更多的尊重,他是谁藐视和讽刺。The latter was doubtless the superior of the Alexandrian in talent and learning, but at this time he was no match for him as a theologian.后者无疑是学习上的天赋和在亚历山大,但在这个时候,他并没有神学家,他的对手为。Both Andrew and Theodoret show themselves captious and unfair; at best they sometimes prove that St. Cyril's wording is ambiguous and ill-chosen. They uphold the objectionable Antiochene phraseology, and they respect the hypostatic union (enosis kath hypostasin) as well as the physike enosis as unorthodox and unscriptural.安德鲁和Theodoret都展现自我挑剔和不公平的,充其量他们有时证明圣西里尔的措辞含糊不清,缺乏选择。他们坚持反对安提阿学派用语,并尊重他们的本质的工会(希塞统一凯思hypostasin)以及physike希塞统一为非正统和unscriptural。 The latter expression is indeed unsuitable, and may be misleading.后者表现的确是不合适的,而且可能会产生误导。Cyril had to explain that he was not summarizing or defining the faith about the Incarnation, but simply putting together the principal errors of Nestorius in the heretic's own words.西里尔只好解释说,他没有总结或定义的化身的信仰有关,而只是汇总自己的话邪教的主要误差的聂斯脱里研究。In his books against Nestorius he had occasionally misrepresented him, but in the twelve anathematisms he gave a perfectly faithful picture of Nestorius's view, for in fact Nestorius did not disown the propositions, nor did Andrew of Samosata or Theodoret refuse to patronize any of them.在反对聂斯脱里他的书,他偶尔曲解他,但在12 anathematisms他给的,其实聂斯脱里认为,聂斯脱里一个绝对忠实的图片并没有断绝关系的主张,也没有Theodoret安德鲁萨莫萨塔或拒绝光顾他们任何。 The anathematisms were certainly in a general way approved by the Council of Ephesus, but they have never been formally adopted by the Church.该anathematisms是肯定会伸出手的普遍认可的方式,但他们从来没有被正式通过的教会。Nestorius for his part replied by a set of twelve contra-anathematisms.聂斯脱里为他的回答部分由anathematisms一套12禁忌。 Some of them are directed against St. Cyril's teaching, others attack errors which St. Cyril did not dream of teaching, for example that Christ's Human Nature became through the union uncreated and without beginning, a silly conclusion which was later ascribed to the sect of Monophysites called Actistetae.其中一些是针对教学圣西里尔的,攻击他人的错误而圣西里尔没有教学的梦想,例如,基督的人性成为通过工会非受造,没有开始,一个愚蠢的结论,后来被归因于节基督一叫Actistetae。 On the whole, Nestorius's new programme emphasized his old position, as also did the violent sermons which he preached against St. Cyril on Saturday and Sunday, 13 and 14 December, 430.整体而言,聂斯脱里的新方案强调了他原来的位置,这也是没有的,430对暴力的布道,他宣扬圣西里尔周六和周日,13日和12月14日。 We have no difficulty in defining the doctrine of Nestorius so far as words are concerned: Mary did not bring forth the Godhead as such (true) nor the Word of God (false), but the organ, the temple of the Godhead.我们没有任何困难远在确定的原则聂斯脱里,以便话来说:玛丽并没有带来这样的神体器官(真),也不是上帝的话(假),但是,在寺庙的神性。 The man Jesus Christ is this temple, "the animated purple of the King", as he expresses it in a passage of sustained eloquence.该名男子耶稣基督是这个寺庙,“国王”动画紫色的,因为他口才表达它在一个持续的通过。The Incarnate God did not suffer nor die, but raised up from the dead him in whom He was incarnate.肉身的神并没有遭受也不死,但他提出的从死里复活的人,他的化身。The Word and the Man are to be worshipped together, and he adds: dia ton phorounta ton phoroumenon sebo (Through Him that bears I worship Him Who is borne).在Word和人要崇拜在一起,他补充道:直径吨phorounta吨phoroumenon塞博他(通过这个熊我崇拜他,是谁承担)。 If St. Paul speaks of the Lord of Glory being crucified, he means the man by "the Lord of Glory".如果谈到圣保罗荣耀的上帝被钉在十字架上,他是指“人以”耶和华的荣耀。There are two natures, he says, and one person; but the two natures are regularly spoken of as though they were two persons, and the sayings of Scripture about Christ are to be appropriated some of the Man, some to the Word.有两种性质,他说,一个人,但是这两个性质是经常谈到的,虽然他们是两个人,圣经的说法,是对基督拨一些人,一些到Word。 If Mary is called the Mother of God, she will be made into a goddess, and the Gentiles will be scandalized.如果玛丽被称为上帝之母,她将成为一个女神,和外邦人会反感。

This is all bad enough as far as words go.这是所有坏足够的话尽量去。But did not Nestorius mean better than his words?聂斯脱里的意思,但并不比他的话?The Oriental bishops were certainly not all disbelievers in the unity of subject in the Incarnate Christ, and in fact St. Cyril made peace with them in 433.东方主教们当然不是所有不信基督降生在统一的主题,事实上圣西里尔433和平与过来。One may point to the fact that Nestorius emphatically declared that there is one Christ and one Son, and St. Cyril himself has preserved for us some passages from his sermons which the saint admits to be perfectly orthodox, and therefore wholly inconsistent with the rest.有人可能会指出这样一个事实是聂斯脱里强调宣称有一个儿子和一个基督和圣西里尔自己也保存了我们完全正统的一些段落是从他的布道会圣承认,因此,完全不符合的休息。 For example: "Great is the mystery of the gifts! For this visible infant, who seems so young, who needs swaddling clothes for His body, who in the substance which we see is newly born, is the Eternal Son, as it is written, the Son who is the Maker of all, the Son who binds together in the swathing-bands of His assisting power the whole creation which would otherwise be dissolved."例如:“伟大的礼物是神秘的婴儿!为此可见,似乎谁这么年轻,谁需要襁褓的儿子的衣服为他的身体,谁在物质,我们看到的是新生的,是永恒的,因为它是写,儿子是谁所有设备的,谁的儿子一起在swathing结合解散的乐队,他的整个创作力量的协助,以免被。“ And again: "Even the infant is the all-powerful God, so far, O Arius, is God the Word from being subject to God." And: "We recognize the humanity of the infant, and His Divinity; the unity of His Sonship we guard in the nature of humanity and divinity."并重申:“即使是婴儿,是全能的上帝,到目前为止,澳阿里乌斯,是神的话语从受到上帝。”并说:“我们认识到人类的婴儿,和他的神,他的团结儿子名分,我们守卫在人类与大自然的神性。“ It will probably be only just to Nestorius to admit that he fully intended to safeguard the unity of subject in Christ.这将可能才刚刚以nestorius承认,他完全是为了保障基督团结的主题研究。But he gave wrong explanations as to the unity, and his teaching logically led to two Christs, though he would not have admitted the fact.但他给了错误的解释,以团结,他的教学逻辑导致两个基督,但他不会承认这个事实。 Not only his words are misleading, but the doctrine which underlies his words is misleading, and tends to destroy the whole meaning of the Incarnation. It is impossible to deny that teaching as well as wording which leads to such consequences as heresy.不仅他的话是误导,但他的话学说的基础是误导性的,往往破坏整体的化身意义。这是不可能否认,教学以及措词导致这种后果的异端邪说。 He was therefore unavoidably condemned.因此,他不可避免地受到谴责。He reiterated the same view twenty years later in the "Bazaar of Heraclides", which shows no real change of opinion, although he declares his adherence to the Tome of St. Leo.他重申了同样的观点20年后的“集市的赫拉克利特”,这表明没有真正的改变的意见,但他宣称他的坚持利奥圣多美和普林西比圣。

After the council of 431 had been made into law by the emperor, the Antiochene party would not at once give way.431后,会被法律所制成的皇帝,安提阿学派党不会马上让路。But the council was confirmed by Pope Sixtus III, who had succeeded St. Celestine, and it was received by the whole West. Antioch was thus isolated, and at the same time St. Cyril showed himself ready to make explanations.但是,安理会确认了西斯三世,谁成功了圣天青石,它是安提收到整个西方。因此孤立,并在同一时间,圣西里尔表明自己准备做出解释。 The Patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria agreed upon a "creed of union" in 433 (see EUTYCHIANISM).始祖的安提阿和亚历山大商定了工会“信条433”的(见EUTYCHIANISM)。Andrew of Samosata, and some others would not accept it, but declared the word "Theotokos" to be heretical.安德鲁萨莫萨塔,有些人不会接受它,但表示将“圣母”是邪教。

Theodoret held a council at Zeuguma which refused to anathematize Nestorius. Theodoret举行了Zeuguma议会,它拒绝诅咒聂斯脱里。But the prudent bishop of Cyrus after a time perceived that in the "creed of union" Antioch gained more than did Alexandria; so he accepted the somewhat hollow compromise.但是,中空妥协审慎主教的一段时间后有所居鲁士在觉察到“信仰工会”安提涨幅超过当时亚历山大,因此他接受了。 He says himself that he commended the person of Nestorius whilst he anathematized his doctrine.他说,他称赞自己的人,而他的聂斯脱里诅咒他的学说。A new state of things arose when the death of St. Cyril, in 444, took away his restraining hand from his intemperate followers. The friend of Nestorius, Count Irenaeus had become Bishop of Tyre, and he was persecuted by the Cyrillian party, as was Ibas, Bishop of Edessa, who had been a great teacher in that city.一个国家的事情时,就出现新的西里尔死亡圣444,中,拿走了他的手从他的追随者抑制过激。朋友的聂斯脱里,伯爵爱任纽已成为轮胎主教,他,迫害的Cyrillian一方是律师协会,主教埃德萨谁一直是这个城市的伟大师形象。 These bishops, together with Theodoret and Domnus, the nephew and successor of John of Antioch, were deposed by Dioscorus of Alexandria in the Robber Council of Ephesus (449).这些主教,连同Theodoret和Domnus,侄子和安提继任者约翰,被废黜的亚历山大Dioscorus在强盗安理会的以弗所(449)。 Ibas was full of Antiochene theology, but in his famous letter to Maris the Persian he disapproves of Nestorius as well as of Cyril, and at the Council of Chalcedon he was willing to cry a thousand anathemas to Nestorius. IBAS的是神学充满安提阿学派,但在他著名的信马里波斯他不赞成聂斯脱里以及西里尔,并在安理会的chalcedon的,他愿意哭千anathemas以nestorius。 He and Theodoret were both restored by that council, and both seem to have taken the view that St. Leo's Tome was a rehabilitation of the Antiochene theology.他和Theodoret都恢复了该理事会,双方似乎已认为,圣里奥的汤姆是一个神学康复的安提阿学派。The same view was taken by the Monophysites, who looked upon St. Leo as the opponent of St. Cyril's teaching. Nestorius in his exile rejoiced at this reversal of Roman policy, as he thought it.同样的看法是由该monophysites,谁又将永华街作为教学的对手圣西里尔的罗马政策。涅斯多留在他的流亡逆转高兴在这一点,因为他认为。 Loofs, followed by many writers even among Catholics, is of the same opinion.卢夫斯,其次是许多作家甚至天主教徒之间,意见是一致的。But St. Leo himself believed that he was completing and not undoing the work of the Council of Ephesus, and as a fact his teaching is but a clearer form of St. Cyril's earlier doctrine as exposed in the five books against Nestorius. But it is true that St. Cyril's later phraseology, of which the two letters to Succensus are the type, is based upon the formula which he felt himself bound to adopt from an Apollinarian treatise believed to be by his great predecessor Athanasius: mia physis ton Theou Logou sesarkomene.但圣里奥自己认为,他正在完成,而不是撤消以弗所工作理事会,并作为一个事实,但他的教学是一个明确的形式早学说圣西里尔作为聂斯脱五本书针对暴露在。但是,的确,圣西里尔后来用语,其中有两封信Succensus的类型,是根据公式,他觉得自己一定会采取从大的前身亚他那修一Apollinarian论文相信是由他的:米娅physis之吨Theou洛古sesarkomene 。St. Cyril found this formula an awkward one, as his treatment of it shows, and it became in fact the watchword of heresy.圣西里尔发现这个公式是一个尴尬,因为他是治疗的节目,它实际上成为了异端的口号。 But St. Cyril does his best to understand it in a right sense, and goes out of his way to admit two natures even after the union en theoria, an admission which was to save Severus himself from a good part of this heresy.但他最好的圣济利禄不理解意义上的权利,并超出他的方式承认恩theoria两个性质甚至工会后,入学是保存自己从塞维鲁异端这是一个很好的一部分。

That Loofs or Harnack should fail to perceive the vital difference between the Antiochenes and St. Leo, is easily explicable by their not believing the Catholic doctrine of the two natures, and therefore not catching the perfectly simple explanation given by St. Leo.这卢夫斯或哈纳克应该没有看到圣里奥重要差异Antiochenes和,是圣利奥容易可解释他们不相信天主教教义的两个性质,因此没有抓住完全由简单的解释作出。 Just as some writers declare that the Monophysites always took physis in the sense of hypostasis, so Loofs and others hold that Nestorius took hypostasis always in the sense of physis, and meant no more by two hypostases than he meant by two natures.正如一些作家宣布该monophysites总是采取hypostasis在physis之感,所以卢夫斯和其他人认为,聂斯脱了physis之hypostasis常常给人的,并意味着没有更多的由两个hypostases比他指的两个性质。 But the words seem to have had perfectly definite meanings with all the theologians of the period.但似乎也有一定的期限完全与所有的神学意义。That the Monophysites distinguished them, is probable (see MONOPHYSITES AND MONOPHYSITISM), and all admit they unquestionably meant by hypostasis a subsistent nature.这该monophysites尊敬他们,很可能(见monophysites和东正教基督一),并都承认,他们无疑hypostasis意思温饱的性质。 That Nestorius cannot, on the contrary, have taken nature to mean the same as hypostasis and both to mean essence is obvious enough, for three plain reasons: first, he cannot have meant anything so absolutely opposed to the meaning given to the word hypostasis by the Monophysites; secondly, if he meant nature by hypostasis he had no word at all left for "subsistence" (for he certainly used ousia to mean "essence" rather than "subsistence"); thirdly, the whole doctrine of Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Nestorius's own refusal to admit almost any form of the communicatio idiomatum, force us to take his "two natures" in the sense of subsistent natures.这聂斯脱不能,相反,已采取的性质意味着hypostasis一样,都意味着本质是显而易见的,三个普通的原因:第一,他不能叫过这么绝对反对含义的单词hypostasis该monophysites;第二,如果他的意思hypostasis性质由他根本就没有什么话,他离开“生活津贴”(当然是指用ousia“本质”而不是“生活”);第三,整体的Mopsuestia西奥多学说,和聂斯脱里的自己拒绝承认交际idiomatum几乎任何形式的,迫使我们采取感温饱性质的“两个性质。”

The modern critics also consider that the orthodox doctrine of the Greeks against Monophysitism -- in fact the Chalcedonian doctrine as defended for many years -- was practically the Antiochene or Nestorian doctrine, until Leontius modified it in the direction of conciliation.现代的批评者还认为,希腊人对基督一正统教义的-其实迦克随着时间的学说辩护很多-实际上是在安提阿学派或景教教义,直到Leontius修改它在调解的方向。 This theory is wholly gratuitous, for from Chalcedon onwards there is no orthodox controversialist who has left us any considerable remains in Greek by which we might be enabled to judge how far Leontius was an innovator.这一理论是完全无偿的,希腊,使我们能够判断可能是多远Leontius是一个创新从卡尔西开始没有正统controversialist谁离开了我们仍然有相当研究。 At all events we know, from the attacks made by the Monophysites themselves, that, though they professed to regard their Catholic opponents as Crypto-Nestorians, in so doing they distinguished them from the true Nestorians who openly professed two hypostases and condemned the word Theotokos.在所有的事件,我们知道,从自己的基督一性的攻击作出,尽管他们声称把加密,景教的天主教对手,他们这么做,他们从杰出的圣母景教谁真正公开宣称2 hypostases,谴责字。In fact we may say that, after John of Antioch and Theodoret had made peace with St. Cyril, no more was heard in the Greek world of the Antiochene theology.事实上,我们可以说,经过约翰安提阿和Theodoret作出了和平与圣西里尔,没有更多的神学听取了安提阿学派的希腊世界。 The school had been distinguished, but small.学校已被尊敬,但小。In Antioch itself, in Syria, and in Palestine, the monks, who were exceedingly influential, were Cyrillians, and a large proportion of them were to become Monophysites.在安提阿本身,叙利亚,巴勒斯坦,僧侣们,谁是非常有影响力,在被Cyrillians,而且其中有相当一部分人成为基督一性。 It was beyond the Greek world that Nestorianism was to have its development.这是希腊以外的世界,景教是有其发展。There was at Edess a famous school for Persians, which had probably been founded in the days of St. Ephrem, when Nisibis had ceased to belong to the Roman Empire in 363.在Edess有一个波斯人名校,这很可能是363创立圣在天埃夫雷姆塞,当尼西比斯已不再属于罗马帝国。The Christians in Persia had suffered terrible persecution, and Roman Edessa had attracted Persians for peaceful study.在波斯的基督徒遭受了可怕的迫害,罗马埃德萨吸引了研究波斯人和平。Under the direction of Ibas the Persian school of Edessa imbibed the Antiochene theology.根据IBAS的方向是学校的edessa波斯吸胀的安提阿学派神学。But the famous Bishop of Edessa, Rabbûla, though he had stood apart from St. Cyril's council at Ephesus together with the bishops of the Antiochene patriarchate, became after the council a convinced, and even a violent, Cyrillian, and he did his best against the school of the Persians.但是,Rabbûla著名的主教埃德萨,虽然他已经站在除了圣西里尔理事会在以弗所一起安提阿学派与东正教主教的,后成为该会相信,甚至暴力,Cyrillian,他极力反对波斯人的学校。 Ibas himself became his successor.IBAS的自己成了他的继任者。But at the death of his protector, in 457, the Persians were driven out of Edessa by the Monophysites, who made themselves all-powerful.但在他的保护者死亡,在457,波斯人被驱赶的全功能强大的edessa由该monophysites,谁作出自己。 Syria then becomes Monophysite and produces its Philoxenus and many another writer.叙利亚则成为其Philoxenus基督一性和生产和许多其他作家。Persia simultaneously becomes Nestorian.同时成为波斯景教。Of the exiles from Edessa into their own country nine became bishops, including Barsumas, or Barsaûma, of Nisibis and Acacius of Beit Aramage.纳入国家自己的流亡者从埃德萨九成为主教,包括Barsumas,或Barsaûma Aramage,对尼西比斯拜特哈和a cacius的b。The school at Edessa was finally closed in 489.在埃德萨学校终于关闭489。

At this time the Church in Persia was autonomous, having renounced all subjection to Antioch and the "Western" bishops at the Council of Seleucia in 410.这时波斯教会是自主的,有放弃一切服从安提阿和“西方”410主教在塞琉西亚在安理会。The ecclesiastical superior of the whole was the Bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, who had assumed the rank of catholicos.教会的整体优势的是,主教塞琉西亚,泰西封谁曾担任大主教职级。This prelate was Babaeus or Babowai (457-84) at the time of the arrival of the Nestorian professors from Edessa.这是Babaeus主教或Babowai(457-84)在埃德萨时间景教的到来,从教授。He appears to have received them with open arms.他似乎已经接受了他们张开双臂。But Barsaûma, having become Bishop of Nisibis, the nearest great city to Edessa, broke with the weak catholicos, and, at a council which he held at Beit Lapat in April, 484, pronounced his deposition.但Barsaûma,已成为埃德萨尼西比斯主教,最近的伟大的城市,大主教打破弱,并在一个议会,他Lapat举行贝特哈4月,484,宣布他的沉积。 In the same year Babowai was accused before the king of conspiring with Constantinople and cruelly put to death, being hung up by his ring-finger and also, it is said, crucified and scourged. There is not sufficient evidence for the story which makes Barsaûma his accuser. The Bishop of Nisibis was at all events in high favour with King Peroz (457-84) and had been able to persuade him that it would be a good thing for the Persian kingdom if the Christians in it were all of a different complexion from those of the Empire, and had no tendency to gravitate towards Antioch and Constantinople, which were not officially under the sway of the "Henoticon" of Zeno.同年Babowai是死刑被告在对国王的阴谋与君士坦丁堡和残酷地说,也被挂了他的戒指,手指,这是说,钉在十字架上鞭打。没有足够的证据使Barsaûma的故事他的指控。尼西比斯主教的是在所有的一切都发生的事件的青睐与国王Peroz(457-84),并能够说服他一件好事,它会成为波斯王国,如果在不同的基督徒从帝国的肤色的,并没有倾向,倾向于向安提阿和君士坦丁堡,而不是正式芝诺的支配下的“”Henoticon。

Consequently all Christians who were not Nestorians were driven from Persia.因此,所有基督徒谁不是从波斯景教驱动。But the story of this persecution as told in the letter of Simeon of Beit Arsam is not generally considered trustworthy, and the alleged number of 7700 Monophysite martyrs is quite incredible.但迫害的故事,这是Arsam告诉拜特哈的信西缅也没有一般认为值得信赖的,而所谓基督一烈士人数7700是相当惊人的。 The town of Tagrit alone remained Monophysite.仅镇的Tagrit仍然基督一。But the Armenians were not gained over, and in 491 they condemned at Valarsapat the Council of Chalcedon, St. Leo, and Barsaûma.但亚美尼亚人并没有获得过,在491 Valarsapat谴责他们在Barsaûma安理会的chalcedon,圣里奥和。Peroz died in 484, soon after having murdered Babowai, and the energetic Bishop of Nisibis had evidently less to hope from his successor, Balash. Peroz死在484后不久,因谋杀Babowai,以及充满活力的尼西比斯主教明显少了希望从他的继任者,巴拉什。Though Barsaûma at first opposed the new catholicos, Acacius in August, 485, he had an interview with him, and made his submission, acknowledging the necessity for subjection to Seleucia.虽然Barsaûma起初反对新的大主教,485 Acacius 8月,他有他的采访,并提出他的意见,承认塞琉西亚必要性服从。However, he excused himself from being present at Acacius's council in 484 at Seleucia, where twelve bishops were present.不过,他原谅了自己从目前在塞琉西亚,主教在12正在出席Acacius理事会484。At this assembly, the Antiochene Christology was affirmed and a canon of Beit Lapat permitting the marriage of the clergy was repeated.在此集会,安提阿学派基督是教会的肯定和一个Lapat允许重复的Beit婚姻是神职人员。The synod declared that they despised vainglory, and felt bound to humble themselves in order to put an end to the horrible clerical scandals which disedified the Persian Magians as well as the faithful; they therefore enacted that the clergy should make a vow of chastity; deacons may marry, and for the future no one is to be ordained priest except a deacon who has a lawful wife and children.主教会议宣布,他们鄙视虚荣,觉得势必缩小自己,以制止忠实结束的可怕文书丑闻波斯袄教徒的disedified以及,他们因此颁布的神职人员应该有贞节的誓言;执事可以结婚,对未来没有一个是儿童的神父被祝圣执事除外谁拥有合法的妻子和。 Though no permission is given to priests or bishops to marry (for this was contrary to the canons of the Eastern Church), yet the practice appears to have been winked at, possibly for the regularization of illicit unions.虽然没有获得特别允许,神父或主教结婚(因为这是违背东方教会的大炮的),但这种做法似乎已在工会的眼色,可能为非法的正规化。 Barsaûma himself is said to have married a nun named Mamoé; but according to Mare, this was at the inspiration of King Peroz, and was only a nominal marriage, intended to ensure the preservation of the lady's fortune from confiscation. Barsaûma自己也说已经结婚了名为Mamoé一个尼姑,但根据母马,这是在Peroz灵感的国王,只是一个象征性的婚姻,旨在确保没收保全夫人的财富从。

The Persian Church was now organized, if not thoroughly united, and was formally committed to the theology of Antioch.现在的波斯教会组织,如果不彻底统一,并正式承诺在安提阿神学的。But Acacius, when sent by the king as envoy to Constantinople, was obliged to accept the anathema against Nestorius in order to be received to Communion there.但是Acacius,当君士坦丁堡发送给国王的特使,不得不接受聂斯脱里诅咒打击才能收到圣餐那里。After his return he bitterly complained of being called a Nestorian by the Monopohysite Philoxenus, declaring that he "knew nothing" of Nestorius.回国后他痛苦地抱怨被称为Monopohysite Philoxenus 1景教的,声称他“什么都不知道涅斯多留”的影响。Nevertheless Nestorius has always been venerated as a saint by the Persian Church.不过聂斯脱里一直崇敬作为一个教会圣人的波斯。 One thing more was needed for the Nestorian Church; it wanted theological schools of its own, in order that its clergy might be able to hold their own in theological argument, without being tempted to study in the orthodox centres of the East or in the numerous and brilliant schools which the monophysites were now establishing.有一点需要更多的景教教堂,它希望自己的神学学校,以便其神职人员也许能保持自己的神学争论中,而不被诱惑,研究在东或正统中心的众多现在建立辉煌的学校,该monophysites了。 Barsaûma opened a school at Nisibis, which was to become more famous than its parent at Edessa. Barsaûma开幕尼西比斯一所学校,这是比埃德萨成为其母公司在更著名。The rector was Narses the Leprous, a most prolific writer, of whom little has been preserved.校长是Narses的麻风,最多产作家,其中几乎没有保存下来。This university consisted of a single college, with the regular life of a monastery.这所大学组成的一个学院,与寺院的正常生活。Its rules are still preserved (see NISIBIS).它的规则仍然保留(见尼西比斯)。At one time we hear of 800 students.有一段时间,学生们听到800。Their great doctor was Theodore of Mopsuestia.他们的伟大医生的Mopsuestia西奥多。His commentaries were studied in the translation made by Ibas and were treated almost as infallible.他的评论,研究了由律师协会的翻译和治疗几乎不会犯错误的。Theodore's Canon of Scripture was adopted, as we learn from "De Partibus Divinae Legis" of Junilius, (PL, LXVIII, and ed. By Kihn), a work which is a translation and adaptation of the published lectures of a certain Paul, professor at Nisbis.西奥多的圣经佳能获得通过,因为我们Junilius学习“德Partibus Divinae立法理由”的,(特等,LXVIII,和ED。通过Kihn),一个作品的翻译和教授改编保罗,发表演讲,某在Nisbis。The method is Aristotelean, and must be connected with the Aristotelean revival which in the Greek world is associated chiefly with the name of Philoponus, and in the West with that of Boethius.该方法是亚里士多德,必须复兴涉嫌与亚里士多德这在希腊是世界上主要的相关约翰菲洛波努斯的名字,在西方与伯蒂乌斯认为。 The fame of this theological seminary was so great that Pope Agapetus and Cassiodorus wished to found one in Italy of a similar kind.神学院的神学成名这是如此之大,教皇阿加佩图斯和Cassiodorus希望找到一个在意大利的一个类似。 the attempt was impossible in those troublous times; but Cassiodorus's monastery at Vivarium was inspired by the example of Nisibis.企图是不可能在那些乱世,但Cassiodorus的座植物园是尼西比斯在修道院的启发的例子。 There were other less important schools at Seleucia and elsewhere, even in small towns.有在塞琉西亚和其他地方的其他不太重要的学校,甚至在小城镇。

Barsaûma died between 492 and 495, Acacius in 496 or 497.Barsaûma死亡492和495之间,在496或497 Acacius。Narses seems to have lived longer.Narses似乎长寿。The Nestorian Church which they founded, though cut off from the Catholic Church by political exigencies, never intended to do more than practise an autonomy like that of the Eastern patriarchates.他们的景教教会成立,虽然削减了从天主教教会的政治隐忧,从来没有打算做更多的练习1比东部自治这样的牧首辖区。 Its heresy consisted mainly in its refusal to accept the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon.它的异端主要包括在其拒绝接受安理会的卡尔西和以弗所。It is interesting to note that neither Junilius nor Cassiodorus speaks of the school of Nisibis as heretical.有趣的是,要注意的是,无论Junilius也不Cassiodorus邪教谈到作为尼西比斯学院。They were probably aware that it was not quite orthodox, but the Persians who appeared at the Holy Places as pilgrims or at Constantinople must have seemed like Catholics on account of their hatred to the Monophysites, who were the great enemy in the East.他们可能知道这是不是很正统,但波斯人谁出现在君士坦丁堡或在圣地的朝圣者必须有他们的仇恨似乎像天主教徒对帐户的基督一性说,谁是东方的大敌研究。 The official teaching of the Nestorian Church in the time of King Chosroes (Khusran) II (died 628) is well presented to us in the treatise "De unione" composed by the energetic monk Babai the Great, preserved in a manuscript From which Labourt has made extracts (pp. 280-87).在二(官方教学Khusran)的(景教教堂的时间国王Chosroes死亡628)提交给我们很好的论文手稿从哪个Labourt有“德左翼联盟”组成了一个充满活力的大和尚鲍鲍伊,保存使提取物(页280-87)。 Babai denies that hypostasis and person have the same meaning.鲍鲍伊否认hypostasis和人具有相同的含义。A hypostasis is a singular essence (ousia) subsisting in its independent being, numerically one, separate from others by its accidents.阿hypostasis是一个独特的本质(ousia)在其存续的独立存在,数值1,事故由独立于他人。A person is that property of a hypostasis which distinguishes it from others (this seems to be rather "personality" than "person") as being itself and no other, so that Peter is Peter and Paul is Paul.一个人是他人的财产的hypostasis区分它是由(这似乎是“个性保”而不是“人”),作为存在本身并没有其他,所以,彼得是彼得和保罗。 As hypostases Peter and Paul are not distinguished, for they have the same specific qualities, but they are distinguished by their particular qualities, their wisdom or otherwise, their height or their temperament, etc. And, as the singular property which the hypostasis possesses is not the hypostasis itself, the singular property which distinguishes it is called "person".由于hypostases彼得和保罗不尊敬,因为他们具有相同的特定品质,但他们在其他方面特别是其杰出的品质,他们的智慧或他们的身高或气质等,具备作为奇异财产的hypostasis是不是hypostasis本身,奇异财产区别它被称为“人”。

It would seem that Babai means that "a man" (individuum vagum) is the hypostasis, but not the person, until we add the individual characteristics by which he is known to be Peter or Paul.看来,鲍鲍伊意味着“一个人”(individuum vagum)是本质,特性,而不是人,直到我们添加或个人特性的保罗,他是已知的彼得。This is not by any means the same as the distinction between nature and hypostasis, nor can it be asserted that by hypostasis Babai meant what we should call specific nature, and by person what we should call hypostasis.这是不以任何方式hypostasis一致和自然之间的区别,也不能断言,由hypostasis鲍鲍伊意味着什么,我们应该呼吁的具体性质,以及什么人,我们应该呼吁hypostasis。 The theory seems to be an unsuccessful attempt to justify the traditional Nestorian formula: two hypostases in one person.该理论似乎是一个不成功的尝试,证明传统的景教公式:一人两hypostases研究。As to the nature of the union, Babai falls on the Antiochene saying that it is ineffable, and prefers the usual metaphors -- assumption, inhabitation, temple, vesture, junction-to any definition of the union.至于工会的性质,鲍鲍伊落在安提阿学派说这是无法形容的,而宁愿通常隐喻-假设,居住,寺庙,笼罩,结到任何联盟的定义。 He rejects the communicatio idiomatum as involving confusion of the natures, but allows a certain "interchange of names", which he explains with great care.他反对的性质交际idiomatum作为涉及混淆,但允许一定的“交换姓名”,这说明他非常关心。

The Persian Christians were called "Orientals", or "Nestorians", by their neighbours on the west.波斯的基督徒被称为“东方人”,或“景教”,由西方的邻居对。They gave to themselves the name Chaldeans; but this denomination is usually reserved at the present day for the large portion of the existing remnant which has been united to the Catholic Church.他们给自己的名字迦勒底人,但这个名称通常是一天保留目前的天主教教会的大部分现有的残余已团结到。The present condition of these Uniats, as well as the branch in India known as "Malabar Christians", is described under CHALDEAN CHRISTIANS.在这些Uniats目前状况,以及印度分公司在“被称为”马拉巴尔基督徒,是所述加尔丁基督徒。 The history of the Nestorian Church must be looked for under PERSIA.教会历史上景教必须寻找下波斯。The Nestorians also penetrated into China and Mongolia and left behind them an inscribed stone, set up in Feb., 781, which describes the introduction of Christianity into China from Persia in the reign of T'ai-tsong (627-49).的nestorians也渗透到中国,蒙古和他们留下了刻石头,设置在2月,781,描述了中国从引进到波斯在基督教统治的前提下,庄(627-49)。 The stone is at Chou-Chih, fifty miles south-west of Sai-an Fu, which was in the seventh century the capital of China. It is known as "the Nestorian Monument".石头是在周智,50英里西南世安富,而中国是在公元7世纪的首都。它是“称为”景教碑。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息写由约翰查普曼。Transcribed by John Looby. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.卢比转录由约翰。天主教百科全书,卷十,1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

For bibliography see CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA; EPHESUS, COUNCIL OF; DIOSCURUS, BISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA.对于书目见作者西里尔亚历山大;以弗所,理事会; DIOSCURUS,亚历山大教区主教。Here may be added, on I: GARNIER, Opera Marii Mercatoris, II (Paris, 1673); PL, XLVII, 669; TILLEMONT, Memoires, XIV; ASSEMANI, Bibliotheca Orient., III, pt 2 (Rome, 1728); LOOFS in Realencyklopadie, sv Nestorius; FENDT, Die Christologie des Nestorius (Munich, 1910); BATIFFOL in Revue Biblique, IX (1900), 329-53; MERCATI in Theolog.在这里我可以补充,于:卡尼尔,歌剧默里Mercatoris,二(巴黎,1673);特等,四十七,669;蒂耶蒙,回忆录,第十四; ASSEMANI,藏书东方。,三,2角(罗马,1728);卢夫斯在Realencyklopadie,希沃特聂斯脱里,芬特,模具Christologie德聂斯脱里(慕尼黑,1910); BATIFFOL在杂志biblique,第九章(1900),329-53;梅尔卡蒂在Theolog。Revue VI (1907), 63; LUDTKE in Zeitschr.第六杂志(1907年),63;吕特克在Zeitschr。Fur Kirchengesch.毛皮Kirchengesch。XXIX (1909), 385.第29届(1909年),385。

On the early struggle with Nestorianism: ASSEMANI, Bibliotheca Orentalis, III, parts 1 and 2 (Rome, 1728); DOUCIN, Histoire du Nestorianisme (1689). On the Persian Nestorians: the Monophysite historians MICHAEL SYRUS, ed.早在与景教斗争:ASSEMANI,藏书Orentalis,三,1和2部分(罗马,1728);杜桑,历史学杜Nestorianisme(1689)。论波斯景教:历史学家的基督一麦锡斯,编辑。 CHABOT (Paris, 1899) and BARHEBRAEUS, edd.夏波(巴黎,1899年)和BARHEBRAEUS,教育博士。ABBELOOS AND LAMY (Paris, 1872-77); the Mohammedan SAHRASTANI, ed. ABBELOOS和拉米(巴黎,1872年至1877年);的穆罕默德SAHRASTANI,教育署。CURETON (London, 1842); and especially the rich information in the Nestorian texts themselves; GISMONDI, Maris Amri et Slibae de patriarchis Nestoranis commentaria, e codd.库里顿(伦敦,1842年),特别是文本本身的景教在丰富的信息;吉斯蒙迪,马里阿姆里等Slibae德patriarchis Nestoranis commentaria,电子科德。Vat.; the Liber Turris (Arabic and Latin, 4 parts, Rome, (1896-99); BEDJAN, Histoire de Mar Jab-Alaha (1317), patriarche, et de Raban Saumo (2nd ed., Paris, 1895); Synodicon of Ebedjesu in MAI, Scriptorum vett. Nova. Coll., X (1838); BRAUN, Das Buch der Synhados (Stuttgart and Vienna, 1900); CHABOT, Synodicon Orientale, ou recueil de Synodes Nestoriens in Notes of Extraits, Synhados (Stuttgart and Vienna, 1900); Chabot Synodicon Orentale, ou recueil de Synodes Nestoriens in Notes et Extraits, XXXVII (Paris, 1902); GUIDI, Ostsyrische bischofe und Bischofsitze in Zeitschrift der Morgen landl. Gesellsch., (1889), XLII, 388; IDEM, Gli statuti della scuola di Nisibi (Syriac text) in Giornaale della Soc. Asiatica Ital., IV; ADDAI SCHER, Chronique de Seert, histoire Nestorienne (Arabic and French), and Cause de la fondation des ecoles (Edessa and Nisibis) in Patrologia Orentalis, IV (Paris, 1908). -See also PETERMANN AND KESSLER in Realencyklop., sv Nestorianer; FUNK in Kirchenlex., sv Nestorius und die Nestorianer; DUCHESNE, Hist. Ancienne de l'eglise, III (Paris, 1910). -On the "Nestorian Monument", see PARKER in Dublin review, CXXXI (1902), 2, p. 3880; CARUS AND HOLM, The Nestorian Monument (London, 1910).增值税。;的利贝Turris(阿拉伯语和拉丁语,4个部分,罗马(1896年至1899年); BEDJAN,历史学de Mar的山,Alaha(1317),Patriarche号,等代拉班Saumo(第二版。巴黎,1895年); Ebedjesu Synodicon在麦,Scriptorum vett。新星。科尔。,第十章(1838年);布劳恩达斯布赫明镜Synhados(斯图加特和维也纳,1900);塞波特,Synodicon东方,欧recueil德Synodes Nestoriens在Synhados注意到Extraits(斯图加特和维也纳,1900年);塞波特Synodicon Orentale,欧recueil德Synodes Nestoriens票据等Extraits,三十七(巴黎,1902年);圭迪,Ostsyrische bischofe北达科兰德尔Bischofsitze在史杂志晨报。Gesellsch。,(1889年),四十二,388 ;同上,格利斯塔图蒂德拉scuola迪Nisibi(叙利亚文文本)Giornaale德拉的SoC。草需求面实证。,第四; ADDAI谢尔,德Seert纪事,历史学Nestorienne(阿拉伯语和法语),并导致德拉基金会德主管的高等(埃德萨和尼西比斯)在Patrologia Orentalis,第四章(巴黎,1908年)。-又见彼得曼和Kessler Realencyklop。中,希沃特Nestorianer; Kirchenlex芬克英寸,希沃特聂斯脱北达科他死Nestorianer;德雷珀,组织胺。安西安娜德l'利斯,三(巴黎, 1910年)。-在“景教碑”,见审查帕克在都柏林,CXXXI(1902),2,第3880;卡斯和圣,景教碑(伦敦,1910年)。


Also, see:此外,见:
Monophysitism monophysitism

Antiochene Theology安提阿学派神学

Alexandrian Theology亚历山大神学

Apollinarianism 亚波里

Adoptionism adoptionism


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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