New England Theology新英格兰神学

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New England Theology is the name given to a theological tradition arising from the work of Jonathan Edwards (1703 - 1758) and continuing well into the nineteenth century.新英格兰神学)和1名给予1758神学传统-因工作乔纳森爱德华兹(1703年世纪到19世纪继续良好。The tradition was not unified by a common set of beliefs, for in fact Edwards's nineteenth century heirs reversed his convictions on many important particulars.这个传统是不是由一个统一的一套共同的信仰,因为实际上爱德华兹的19世纪的继承人扭转重要资料在很多他的信念。 It was rather united in its fascination for common issues, including the freedom of human will, the morality of divine justice, and the problem of causation behind the appearance of sin.这是相当团结在其魅力的共同问题,包括人类的意志自由,正义道德的神圣和罪孽的问题背后的因果关系出现的。

Jonathan Edwards乔纳森爱德华兹

Edwards's theological labors grew out of his efforts to explain and defend the colonial Great Awakening as a real work of God.爱德华兹的神学劳动力增长了他的工作,解释和维护殖民大神的觉醒的一个真正的工作。In the process he provided an interpretation of Calvinism that influenced American religious life for over a century.在这个过程中,他提供了加尔文的解释,影响超过一世纪的美国宗教生活。

Edwards's treatment in the Freedom of the Will (1754) presented Augustinian and Calvinistic ideas on the nature of humanity and of salvation in a powerful new shape.爱德华兹的治疗意志的自由(1754)提出了强大的新形状奥古斯丁和加尔文思想的本质,人类和拯救意识。His basic argument was that the "will" is not an entity, but an expression of the strongest motive in a person's character.他的基本论点是,“将”不是一个实体,而是一个字表达最强烈的动机在一个人的。He supported the thrust of this work with Original Sin (1758), in which he argued that all humankind was present in Adam when he sinned.犯了罪,他支持这项工作的推力,他与原罪(1758年),其中他认为,所有在场的人类是在亚当的时候。Consequently, all people share the sinful character and the guilt which Adam brought upon himself.因此,所有的人分享有罪的性质和亚当自己有罪时带来的。

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Earlier, in 1746, Edwards had explored the practical side of theology in Religious Affections (or emotions).此前,在1746年,爱德华兹曾探讨情感)实际或侧面情缘(神学的宗教。Here he argued that genuine Christianity is not revealed by the quantity or intensity of religious emotions.在这里,他认为,真正的基督教不是情绪透露数量宗教或强度。Rather, true faith is manifest where a heart has been changed to love God and seek his pleasure.相反,真正的信仰是体现在心脏已被更改为爱上帝,并寻求他的乐趣。After his death Edwards's friends published The Nature of True Virtue (1765), which defined the good life as "love to Being in general."他去世后,爱德华兹的朋友发表的热爱大自然的真德(1765),其中生活“,把好一般在立足。” By this he meant that true goodness characterized those actions which honored God as purest Being and other people as derivative beings made in the image of God.这句话的意思,真正的善良特征那些行动兑现上帝作为最纯净的存在和其他神的形象在人民的金融衍生众生。

Jonathan Edwards was overwhelmed by the majesty and the splendor of the divine.乔纳森爱德华兹被淹没的神圣和威严的华丽。The major themes of his theology were the greatness and glory of God, the utter dependence of sinful humanity upon God for salvation, and the supernal beauty of the life of holiness.他的神学的主要主题是上帝的伟大和荣耀,罪孽深重的人类完全依赖上帝的救恩后,和超凡的美丽圣洁的生活。Edwards was not only a fervent Christian person; he was also a theological genius unmatched in American history.爱德华兹不仅是一个狂热的基督教的人,他也是一个天才的神学在美国历史上无与伦比的。Thus, it is little wonder that those who followed him were not successful in maintaining the fullness of his theology.因此,难怪那些谁不跟着他成功地维持他的神学的丰满的。What they did maintain was his revivalistic fervor, his concern for awakening, and his high moral seriousness.他们所做的是他revivalistic保持热情,关心他的觉醒,他的崇高道德的严重性。

The New Divinity新神

The next phase of the New England theology was known as the "new divinity."英格兰神学下一阶段的新被称为“新的神性。” Its leading proponents were Joseph Bellamy (1719 - 90) and Samuel Hopkins (1721 - 1803), New England ministers who had studied with Edwards and had been his closest friends.它的主要支持者是约瑟夫贝拉米(1719 - 90)和塞缪尔霍普金斯(1721年至1803年),新英格兰的朋友学过谁部长爱德华兹和他最亲密的了。Much as Edwards had, Bellamy argued for the sovereignty of God in redemption and against the idea that humankind could save itself.高达爱德华兹,贝拉米主张赎回上帝的主权和反对的想法,人类能够救自己。He also developed Edwards's convictions that churches should allow none into membership who could not testify to a personal experience of God's grace.他还开发了爱德华兹的信念,教会应该让谁都不成会员不能证明A的亲身经历神的恩典。Hopkins extended Edwards's discussion of virtue into a complete ethical system.霍普金斯延长爱德华兹的系统进行完整的伦理道德讨论到。He used the phrase "disinterested benevolence" to construct guidelines for practical ethics.他用“无私仁”道德建设实践的指导方针。Out of this thinking Hopkins developed a vigorous opposition to slavery as an institution which treated people in a way that was not fitting for their character as ones bearing the image of God.出于这种想法霍普金斯制定了强有力的反对奴隶制的神的形象,一个机构,在对待人民的方式,关系到被视为不恰当的字符。Hopkins also maintained a heightened sense of God's sovereignty by insisting that people should be willing even "to be damned for the glory of God."霍普金斯也保持是为荣耀上帝该死的高度感神的主权,坚持认为人应该是“更愿意。”

With Bellamy and Hopkins occurred also the first modifications of Edwards's ideas.贝拉米和霍普金斯与爱德华兹也发生的第一次修改的意见。Bellamy propounded a "governmental" view of the atonement, the idea that God's sense of right and wrong demanded the sacrifice of Christ.贝拉米propounded一个“政府”赎罪查看,想法,上帝的是非感要求基督牺牲。Edwards, by contrast, had maintained the traditional view that the death of Christ was necessary to take away God's anger at sin.爱德华兹相比之下,曾保持了传统观点,基督的死亡是必要的罪恶愤怒拿走神的。Hopkins, again in contrast to Edwards, was more concerned about eternal principles of duty, goodness, and justice than about personal confrontation with the divine.霍普金斯,爱德华兹再次对比,更关心的,善良的永恒原则的责任,对神的正义比个人对抗。He felt that a Calvinistic theologian should, and could, demonstrate how sin resulted in an overall advantage to the universe.他认为,一个加尔文神学家应该而且可以,演示了如何利用单导致整体的宇宙。He held that the human sinful nature arose as a product of the sinful acts which all people commit, rather than as a direct result of Adam's guilt.他认为,人的罪性产生内疚作为一种产品的罪恶行为,所有的人承诺,而不是亚当作为一个直接结果。And Hopkins spoke of Christian duties more as legal necessities for the believer than as the natural outflow of a changed heart.霍普金斯谈到基督教和职责的核心更是改变了法律的必需品的自然流出比为信徒。

The Nineteenth Century19世纪

Modificaions made in the New England theology by Hopkins and Bellamy were subtle ones.贝拉米和Modificaions在新英格兰神学的霍普金斯通过了微妙的。Their successors moved more obviously beyond the teaching of Edwards.他们的继任者提出更明显超出了爱德华兹教学。Timothy Dwight (1752 - 1817), Edwards's grandson and president of Yale College, took a broader view of human abilities in salvation and emphasized more the reasonable nature of the Christian faith.蒂莫西德怀特(1752年至1817年),爱德华兹的孙子和耶鲁大学校长,在拯救了一个人的能力,更广泛的看法,并强调更多的基督教信仰的合理性。 Jonathan Edwards, Jr.乔纳森爱德华兹,小(1745 - 1801), who had studied with Joseph Bellamy, extended Bellamy's idea of a governmental atonement and also placed a stronger emphasis on the law of God for the Christian life. (1745年至1801年),谁曾贝拉米研究了约瑟夫,延长贝拉米的赎罪思想,一个政府,也把基督徒生活的一个强强调法律的上帝。Both he and Dwight continued the general trend to view sin as an accumulation of actions rather than primarily a state of being issuing in evil deeds.他和德怀特继续一般性趋势的看法是邪恶的罪恶行动中积累的一个行动,而不是主要作为发行状态。

By the time Timothy Dwight's best student, Nathaniel W Taylor (1786 - 1858), assumed his position as professor of theology at Yale Divinity School in 1822, the movement from Edwards's specific convictions was very pronounced.到时候蒂莫西德怀特的最好的学生,纳撒尼尔W泰勒(1786 - 1858),他1822年担任耶鲁大学神地位在学校教授神学中,从爱德华兹的信念运动的具体是非常明显。Taylor's New Haven theology reversed the elder Edwards on freedom of the will by contending for a natural power of free choice.泰勒的纽黑文神学扭转了自由选择的自由,老爱德华兹对电力的意愿自然的争夺。And he brought to a culmination the teaching that sin lies in the exercise of sinful actions rather than in an underlying condition.他带到一个高潮的教学方式,是罪恶的行动在于罪孽深重的行使,而不是在一个基础条件。

The influence of the New England theology continued to be great throughout the nineteenth century.神学影响的新英格兰仍然是整个19世纪的伟大。It set the tone for theological debate in New England and much of the rest of the country.它设置在新英格兰基调神学争议和该国其他地区的。Its questions dominated theological reflection at Yale until midcentury and at Andover Seminary even longer.其问题为主的多佛在耶鲁神学院的神学反省,直到本世纪中叶,在更长的时间。Andover, founded in 1808 by Trinitarian Congregationalists, had brought together "moderate Calvinists" and the more rigid followers of Samuel Hopkins.安多佛,成立于1808年由三位一体的公理,已汇集了“温和的加尔文教派”的信徒塞缪尔霍普金斯更加严格。Its last great theologian who self - consciously regarded himself as an heir to Edwards was Edwards Amasa Park (1808 - 1900).最后的伟大神学家谁自我-自觉地把自己作为继承人爱德华兹是爱德华兹亚玛撒公园(1808年至00年)。Park represented a moderate reaction to the theology of Taylor when he spoke up more strongly for God's sovereignty in salvation.公园代表着一种温和的反应泰勒神学时,他开口了更强烈的神的救恩主权研究。

Yet Park also held to a wide variety of nineteenth century assumptions about the capacities of human nature that distanced his thinking from Edwards.然而,公园还举行了一个由爱德华兹全疏远他的思想对各种假设的能力,对19世纪人类的本质。Park proved too liberal for the nineteenth century champions of Calvinism at Presbyterian Princeton Seminary, who attacked his ideas as a sell - out of Calvinism to the optimistic spirit of the age.公园证明过于宽松的销售冠军一19世纪的加尔文在普林斯顿神学院长老,他的想法是谁袭击-从加尔文主义的乐观精神的时代。 For their part, the Princeton Calvinists, who also attacked Taylor and his like - minded colleagues for their deviations from Calvinism, could respect Edwards but were not able to fathom his sense of God's overmastering beauty.对于他们而言,普林斯顿加尔文教派,谁也攻击泰勒和他一样-从加尔文志同道合的同事对他们的偏差,能够尊重爱德华兹,但无法捉摸他的美感神overmastering。

The New England theology was at its best in careful, rigorous theological exposition.新英格兰神学是在其最好小心,严格的神学论述。This strength sometimes turned into a weakness when it led to a dry, almost scholastic style of preaching.这种力量有时变成了一个弱点,当它导致了干,几乎说教的治学风格。But with Edwards, Dwight, or Taylor, who did differ markedly among themselves on important questions, there remained a common ability to communicate a need for revival and ardent Christian living.但是爱德华兹,德怀特,或泰勒,谁没有自己的显着不同的重要问题之一,仍然有一个共同的沟通能力,生活需要的复兴和殷切的基督徒。

The changes in the content of the New England theology, and indeed its passing, had much to do with the character of the United States in the nineteenth century.在英国的神学变化,新的内容,甚至它的消逝,有很多东西可与本世纪性质美国在19。A country convinced of the nearly limitless capabilities of individuals in the New World had increasingly less interest in a theology which had its origin in the all - encompassing power of God.新世界的个人能力在一个国家的无限信服越来越少了近神的兴趣在神学,其中已在其原产地包括一切力量- 。It is significant that when twentieth century theologians like H Richard Niebuhr and Joseph Haroutunian rediscovered the New England theology, they returned to its fount, Edwards, as the source of its most valuable and enduring insights.值得注意的是,当与20世纪的神学家约瑟夫Haroutunian像H理查德尼布尔重新发现了新英格兰神学,他们返回其泉源,爱德华兹的见解,因为持久的源泉和最宝贵的。

Mark A Noll标志着诺尔

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement; FH Foster, A Genetic History of the New England Theology; J Haroutunian, Piety Versus Moralism: The Passing of the New England Theology; HR Niebuhr, The Kingdom of God in America; BB Warfield, "Edwards and the New England Theology," in The Works of Benjamin B Warfield, Vol.司法机构政务长康福蒂,塞缪尔霍普金斯和新神运动,跳频福斯特,英国神学一个新的遗传史; J Haroutunian,虔诚对战德性:传递的神学的新英格兰,人力资源尼布尔,美洲王国的上帝; BB心跳沃菲尔德,“爱德华兹和新英格兰神学,”在,卷工务本雅明乙沃菲尔德。IX: Studies in Theology; AC Cecil, The Theological Development of Edwards Amasa Park.九:神学研究,交流塞西尔,爱德华兹神学发展亚玛撒公园。


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