New Light Schism新的光分裂

General Information一般信息

Early New Englanders generally practiced congregationalism, though by the 18th century they seldom thought of themselves as the spearhead of the Reformation.早期新英格兰普遍实行的公理,但在18世纪,他们很少想到自己作为改革的先锋。A wave of revivals known as the Great Awakening swept New England beginning in the 1720s, dividing churchgoers into New Light (evangelical Calvinists) and Old Light (more moderate) wings.一个觉醒的伟大复兴波被称为新的1720年代席卷英格兰开始的,到划分的翅膀教堂 (福音加尔文教派)和旧灯 (较温和)。An increasing minority were calling themselves Baptists.越来越少数人自称浸信会。

Nearly all Europeans in these colonies were Protestants, but individual denominations were very different.几乎所有的殖民地,欧洲人在这是新教徒,但个别面额有很大不同。There were Presbyterians, Lutherans, Baptists, Anglicans, Dutch Reformed, Mennonites and Quakers. While the Church of England was the established church (the official, government-supported church) in the Chesapeake colonies, German and Scottish non-Anglicans were migrating south from the middle colonies, and Baptists were making their first southern converts.有长老会,路德会,浸信会,圣公会,荷兰归正,门诺和谊。尽管英国教会是建立教会(官方,政府支持的教会从)在切萨皮克殖民地,德国和苏格兰的非英国圣公会的迁移南中部殖民地,使他们的第一浸信会被转换南部。 Although most Chesapeake slaves were American-born by the late 18th century, they practiced what they remembered of African religions, while some became Christians in 18th-century revivals.虽然大多数的奴隶是美国切萨皮克世纪诞生的18世纪末,他们实行他们的宗教想起非洲,而一些人成为复兴的基督徒在18世纪。

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New Light Schism新的光教会分裂

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The New Light Schism was a division in the Presbyterian and Congregational denominations in the mid - eighteenth century primarily over practical matters of Christian experience.新中光的分裂是一个分裂和公理教派在长老会中- 18世纪基督教经验主要是对实际问题的。Presbyterian schism occurred in 1741 when the Old Lights, who were predominantly of Scotch - Irish heritage, ejected the New Light faction and formed the Old Side synod of Philadelphia.长老会在1741年发生分裂遗产时,旧灯,谁是主要的苏格兰-爱尔兰人,弹出了新的光派,形成了老边费城主教的。 The New Light party, with their English Puritan background, grew out of the Great Awakening and revived a more experiential interpretation of the Christian life.新党背景光,与他们的英语清教徒,前身是一个大觉醒和复兴的基督徒生活的体验和解释更多。They organized the New Side presbyteries of New Brunswick and Londonderry.他们组织新不伦瑞克省和新侧presbyteries伦敦德里的。

Both parties professed traditional Calvinist and Puritan doctrine, but they differed substantially on its practical implications. Old Light ministers, interpreting Calvinism in a rationalistic manner, claimed that holding orthodox theology was more important than Christian living.双方都宣称加尔文派和清教徒的传统学说,但它们之间的差别很大影响其实用性。旧轻部长,诠释加尔文主义在理性的方式,声称持有正统神学是更重要的生活比基督徒。 For them God's sovereign decree determined who was elect, and correct theological belief, not manner of life, was the only major practical sign of salvation.对他们来说,上帝的主权法令,决定谁是选举,正确的神学信仰,而不是生活的方式,是唯一得救的实际主要标志。 Moral laxity often resulted from such deemphasis on religious experience, leading to several Old Light pastors being tried by presbyteries for persistent immoral living and drunkenness.道德松弛往往是由于对宗教经验等去加重,导致一些老光牧师被醉酒presbyteries审判和持续性不道德的生活。

In contrast, New Lights William and Gilbert Tennent stressed Puritan piety as indispensable to Calvinist theology.相比之下,新灯威廉和吉尔伯特坦南特强调清教徒的虔诚作为必不可少的加尔文神学。They preached conviction of sin, teaching their hearers that true faith in Christ required a vital conversion experience leading to moral obedience and personal holiness.他们宣扬罪定罪,教学的听者,在基督的真正信仰需要一个重要的经验转化为道德服从领导和个人圣洁。Gilbert Tennent, in "The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry," contended that some Old Light clergy were actually unregenerate, and he encouraged believers to seek spiritual nurture elsewhere.吉尔伯特坦南特,在“教育部危险的归正,”争辩说,一些旧轻神职人员实际上顽固不化,他鼓励信徒追求精神上培育别处。 Old Light members countered that New Lights were guilty of "enthusiasm" and defamatory accusations.旧光委员反驳说,新的灯光指控犯有“热情”和诽谤。Their itinerant preaching and their encouragement of layment to pressure fellow church members into New Light experience violated Presbyterian polity.他们的巡回宣讲,并鼓励他们layment新的压力轻经验同长老教会的成员,违反政体。

During the schism New Siders experienced dramatic growth and founded the College of New Jersey (Princeton) to educate their ministers. Meanwhile the Old Side generally failed in its educational efforts and actually declined in number.在分裂的新赛德斯出现了戏剧性的增长,并成立了)新泽西学院(普林斯顿教育的部长。与此同时,老方通常失败的教育的努力和实际人数下降英寸 In 1758 New Side initiatives produced reunion on conditions favorable to that group.在1758年新方倡议制作组团聚的有利条件了这一点。

Congregationalists also experienced schism over the Great Awakening. After George Whitefield's and Gilbert Tennent's evangelistic tours in 1740 - 41 brought a general revival to New England, James Davenport's incendiary preaching and incitement of emotional excesses brought sharp Old Light reprisals.公理也经历了大分裂的觉醒。后乔治Whitefield的和的布道之旅,1740年吉尔伯特坦南特- 41一般性的复兴带来了新英格兰,詹姆斯达文波特的煽动性说教和过分煽动情绪带来急剧旧轻报复。Charles Chauncey argued that revivals were not the work of God because emotional outbursts were not produced by God's Spirit.查尔斯昌认为,复兴并不是上帝的工作,因为感情用事,不产生神的精神。Charging New Lights with antinomianism and enthusiasm, he claimed that religion, rather than pertaining to man's emotions, primarily appeals to the understanding and judgment.充电灯与律法主义新的热情,以及他声称,宗教,而不是关于人的情绪,主要呼吁的理解和判断。

Jonathan Edwards defended revivalism.乔纳森爱德华兹辩护复兴。He admitted that instances of doctrinal and ecclesiastical disorder existed.他承认,混乱情况教义和教会的存在。But he argued that believers could distinguish between genuine and counterfeit awakenings by examining whether they brought love for Christ, Scripture, and truth and opposition to evil.但他认为,信徒可以区分真正的觉醒和冒牌货通过检查他们是否带来了邪恶爱基督,圣经和真理,反对。Edwards defined the essence of true religion as "holy affections."爱德华兹的情感本质界定“真正的宗教圣地的。”Religious experience is not limited to the mind.宗教经验不限于心。When regenerated by the Holy Spirit, man's whole being, heart, mind, will, and affections, is engaged.当,再生由圣灵,人的整个人,心,心意志,情感,是一家从事。

This schism helped Edwards and his followers revive a balanced, vital Calvinism.这分裂帮助爱德华兹和他的追随者恢复平衡,重要的加尔文主义。Chauncey and other Old Lights, on the other hand, broke from Calvinism and began to advocate Arminianism and eventually Unitarianism.比卢普斯和其他旧灯,另一方面,打破了由加尔文主义,并开始倡导亚米纽斯主义并最终单一制。

WA Hoffecker西澳奥费克
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
C Chauncey, Enthusiasm Described and Cautioned Against and Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England; J Davenport, The Rev. Mr. Davenport's Confessions and Retractions; J Edwards, The Distinguishing Marks of a Work of the Spirit of God, Some Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival of Religion in New England, and A Treatise Concerning the religious Affections; ES Gaustad, The Great Awakening in New England; G Tennent, The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry; LJ Trinterud, The Forming of an American Tradition. ç昌,热情描述和告诫和新英格兰甘霖思考宗教的国家; J达文波特,达文波特先生牧师的自白和撤消; J爱德华兹,精神神的辨标志着一个工作,几点思考关于新英格兰的宗教在当代的复兴,而A伤寒关于宗教情缘;胚胎干盖于斯塔,伟大的英国新觉醒; Ğ坦南特,该部危险的归正;洛伊Trinterud,这一传统形成的一个美国人。

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