New School Theology新学校神学

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New School Presbyterianism embodied mainstream evangelical Christianity in the middle decades of the nineteenth century.新学校长老会体现了19世纪中叶十年的主流基督教福音派的。 Its modified Calvinist theology, enthusiasm for revivalism, moral reform, and interdenominational cooperation were its most notable characteristics.它的修改加尔文神学,复古热情,道德改革和教派间的合作是其最显着的特点。

New School theology had its remote roots in the Calvinism of Jonathan Edwards, but its immediate predecessor was the New Haven theology of Nathaniel Taylor, who advocated a theology of moral government.新学院的神学有其远程加尔文乔纳森爱德华兹在基层,但其直接的前身是纽黑文,神学的纳撒尼尔泰勒谁主张政府神学道德。 He synthesized moralistic elements from Scottish commonsense philosophy with reinterpretations of traditional Calvinism to construct a semi - Pelagian foundation for revivalism. Denying the imputation of Adam's sin and claiming that unregenerate man can respond to moral overtures, especially Christ's death, Taylor argued that men need not wait passively for the Holy Spirit to redeem them.他合成了传统的加尔文主义道德要素重新解释来自苏格兰常识理念,以构建一个半-为复古伯拉纠的基础。否认罪恶归因亚当和声称顽固不化的人可以回应的道德姿态,特别是基督的死亡,泰勒认为,男人不需要被动等待的精神,以换取他们的圣地。 His views reflected a long - standing American faith in human freedom.他的观点反映了一种长期-站在人类自由的美国人信仰。

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While Old School leaders roundly attacked Taylor's theology, revivalists and ministers such as Charles G Finney, Lyman Beecher, and Albert Barnes popularized it.虽然旧学校领导严厉抨击泰勒的神学,复兴主义和部长为查尔斯G芬尼,莱曼比彻,推广和阿尔伯特巴恩斯等它。Finney used Taylor's theology to redefine revivals as works which man can perform using means which God has provided.芬尼用泰勒的神学,重新界定为提供复兴工程,人可以使用的手段,进行了上帝。With such a theological basis he introduced his famous "new measures," such as referring to his hearers as "sinners" and calling them to sit on an "anxious bench" while they contemplated converting to Christ.有了这样一个神学基础上,他介绍了他的著名的“新措施”,如指他的听众称他们为“罪人”,并加入了“惶惶不安”,而他们设想转换为基督。

Schism divided the two schools of Presbyterians in 1837 when an Old School majority expelled New School members for tolerating theological errors.分裂分长老会学校在1837年时的两个老学校多数被驱逐的容忍神学上的错误新学校的成员。Differences over a plan of union with Congregationalists and slavery played a secondary role.奴隶制度的差异和公理计划在工会与发挥次要作用。Those ejected published the Auburn Declaration, which denied sixteen accusations alleged by the Old School.这些弹出公布的奥本声明,否认指控老学校的16所指控。The declaration affirmed a weakened view of imputation, Adam's sinful act was not counted against all men, but all men after Adam were sinners, supported Christ's substitutionary atonement, and asserted that the work of the Holy Spirit, not human choice, was the basis of regeneration.宣言肯定了插补削弱,亚当的罪恶行为不计入所有的人,但所有的人后,亚当的罪人,支持基督的替代赎罪,并声称,这一精神工作的神圣,没有人的选择,是基础再生。 It was a compromise between New England theology and the Westminister Confession.这是一个妥协的自白之间新英格兰神学和西敏寺。

This modified Calvinism was used to champion activism in American social life.此修改后的加尔文主义是美国社会生活,用冠军运动研究。Voluntary societies consisting of members from various denominations carried out missionary activity and combated social ills.自愿组成的社团的成员来自不同教派进行传教活动和打击社会弊病。These constructive crusades, in which New School Presbyterians played a leading role, were inspired by postmillennial expectations of progress.这些建设性的十字军东征,其中新学长老发挥了主导作用,是鼓舞的进展postmillennial期望。

In the decades after 1840 New School theology became more conservative. 1840年后的几十年中新学校神学变得更加保守。Its proponents widely criticized Finney's prefectionism.它的支持者广泛批评芬尼的prefectionism。They attacked Darwinism, early biblical criticism, and German philosophy and theology.他们袭击达尔文主义,早期圣经批评,德国哲学和神学。Henry B Smith of Union Theological Seminary emerged as the leading spokesman. His defense of systematic theology and biblical infallibility and his perceptions that New Schoolers had become more orthodox were influential in the reunion of the Presbyterian Church in 1869.亨利B史密斯的协和神学院成为领先的发言人。他的看法防御系统的神学和圣经犯错误和他的新正统上中学已成为有影响力的是1869年在长老教会的团聚。

WA Hoffecker西澳奥费克
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
A Barnes, Notes on the Epistle to the Romans; CG Finney, Lectures on Revivals of Religion; G Marsden, The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience; TL Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform; NW Taylor, Lectures on the Moral Government of God.阿巴恩斯,债券在罗马人的书信;重心芬尼,演讲的宗教恢复现象; Ğ马斯登,福音心灵和新学校长老会的经验;热释光史密斯,复兴运动和社会改革;净重泰勒政府的道德讲座神。


Lyman Beecher莱曼比彻

General Information一般信息

Lyman Beecher (1775-1863) was an American Presbyterian clergyman, born in New Haven, Connecticut, and educated at Yale College (now Yale University).莱曼比彻(1775年至1863年),美国长老会牧师,出生在康涅狄格州纽黑文,和(现就读于耶鲁大学耶鲁大学)。 He became pastor of the Presbyterian Church at East Hampton, New York, in 1798.他成了,汉普顿,纽约长老教会牧师在东于1798年。At this church, in 1804, he attained national prominence through his brilliant sermon on the death of the American statesman Alexander Hamilton, who was killed in a duel with the American statesman Aaron Burr.在这个教堂,在1804年,他取得了突出阿龙伯尔国家通过美国的政治家,他的光辉讲道在死亡的美国政治家亚历山大汉密尔顿,与谁在决斗中被打死。 Beecher held pastorates successively at Litchfield, Connecticut, and Boston between 1810 and 1832, and during this period he became known as one of the most eloquent preachers of his time.比彻在利奇菲尔德先后举行pastorates,康涅狄格州和波士顿1810年和1832年之间,在此期间,他成为当时已知他作为一个最有说服力的传道人。 He also was one of the leaders of a Presbyterian faction, called the New School, that opposed the strict doctrine and discipline of the conservative Presbyterians, called the Old School.他还派一个长老会的领导人,所谓的新学校,即反对严格的原则和纪律长老保守,被称为旧学校。

In 1832 Beecher was appointed first president of Lane Theological Seminary, near Cincinnati, Ohio, and pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Cincinnati.比彻在1832年被任命为第一任校长巷神学院辛辛那提附近辛辛那提,俄亥俄州,和牧师第二长老教会。His doctrinal liberalism soon brought him into conflict with his regional superiors.他的理论自由主义很快就使他的上司与他发生冲突的区域。In 1835 he was tried by the presbytery on charges of heresy and hypocrisy, but was acquitted. 1835年他被审判的虚伪长老和收费的异端,但被无罪释放。The Presbyterian Synod, to which the verdict was appealed, sustained his acquittal in the same year.长老主教会议,对此判决提出上诉,维持了其在同一年无罪释放。When the schism foreshadowed by the Old School - New School controversy finally developed in 1838, Beecher adhered to the New School. He continued to preach at his Cincinnati church until 1842 and retained the titular presidency of Lane Theological Seminary for the remainder of his life.当分裂预示了旧学校-新学的争论终于在1838年制定,比彻坚持新学校。他继续在他的教会传教,直到1842年辛辛那提并保留了他的生命里领衔主持的神学院的神学其余为。 He was the father of 13 children, among them the noted American writer Harriet Beecher Stowe.他是孩子的父亲13其中,在著名的美国作家著名作家。All seven of his sons became clergymen.全部7个儿子,他成了牧师。His writings include Collected Works (3 volumes, 1852) and Autobiography and Correspondence (1863).他的著作包括文集(3卷,1852年)和自传和通讯(1863年)。


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