Novation Schism, Novatian更替分裂

General Information一般信息

Novatian, c.200-c.258, a Roman theologian and the first writer of the Western church to use Latin, was an early antipope.诺瓦蒂安,c.200 - c.258,罗马神学家和西方教会的第一个作家用拉丁文,是早期的对立教皇。He had himself consecrated bishop of Rome in 251 in opposition to Pope Cornelius.他自己神圣的哥尼流,教皇在罗马的主教,反对251。Novatian believed that Cornelius was too lenient toward those who had apostatized during the Decian persecution (249-50) and had then requested readmission to the church.诺瓦蒂安认为,哥尼流过于宽松对那些谁教会了apostatized在Decian迫害(249-50),并随后要求重新加入。 He felt that more rigorous standards of readmission should apply.他认为,重新接纳更严格的标准,应适用。Novatian was excommunicated, but his followers formed a schismatic sect that persisted for several centuries.诺瓦蒂安被逐出教会,但他的追随者组成了一个分裂的邪教,它持续了几个世纪。Novatian himself was probably martyred in the persecution of Valerian.诺瓦蒂安自己可能是烈属,在缬草迫害。Novatian's most important work is De Trinitate (c.250), an orthodox interpretation of early church doctrine on the Trinity.诺瓦蒂安的最重要的工作是代Trinitate(c.250),一个三位一体的正统解释早期教会的教义上。

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Novation Schism更替教会分裂

Advanced Information先进的信息

This began as a debate over the proper treatment which the church should accord to Christians who had denied their faith during times of persecution.这是一开始迫害争论的适当的治疗,应给予该教会的基督信徒在时代谁剥夺了信心。In the widespread persecution under Decius, Pope Fabian was martyred in January of 250, but the church was in such dire straits that his successor was not elected until spring of 251.在本德西乌斯大规模迫害,教皇费边是烈属250 1月,但教会是在如此悲惨的境地,他的继任者是不会当选的251至春天。 The majority vote was cast for Cornelius, who favored full acceptance of those who had lapsed in the terrible peril.大多数人投票投哥尼流,谁赞成可怕的危险完全接受这些谁已经失效的研究。The choice was repudiated by the clergy who had been most staunch during the persecution, and in opposition they consecrated Novatian, a Roman presbyter who was apparently already acclaimed for his important and orthodox theological work, On the Trinity.这个选择是否定的迫害神职人员谁曾在最为坚定,反对神圣罗马牧师,他们是谁,他显然已经赞誉和正统神学的重要工作,在三位一体诺瓦蒂安,1。 Christendom was thus faced with two rival popes, each seeking support of the wider church.基督教因此面对两个对手教皇,每个教会寻求更广泛的支持。

As each pope defended the legitimacy of his own position, the demarcation became more pronounced.由于每个教宗捍卫自己的合法地位,划界变得更加突出。Questions arose as to how the church should deal with those who had purchased from a magistrate false certificates affirming that they had offered a pagan sacrifice as over against those who had actually performed the sacrifice, a practice in which even bishops had engaged.出现问题,如何教会应该处理那些谁购买了牺牲裁判官虚假证明,他们肯定提供了一个异教徒,超过对那些谁实际上执行了牺牲,一个从事实践中甚至有主教。 The Novatianists maintained that only God might accord forgiveness for such grievous sin, while the Cornelius party argued for a judicious use of "the power of the keys" in forgiving the lapsed after a proper period of penance.该Novatianists坚持认为,只有上帝赦罪可能符合这种严重,而科尼利厄斯党主张一个明智的键使用的“权力宽恕”失效后,在适当时期的忏悔。 Cyprian of Carthage became the major spokesman for this Catholic position of clemency.迦太基塞浦路斯成为了宽大处理的主要发言人天主教立场的。

He opined that salvation was impossible outside the communion of the church and that true penitents must be received back into the fold as expeditiously as possible, while Novatian and his supporters maintained that the church must be preserved in its purity without the defilement of those who had not proved steadfast.他认为,拯救是不可能的外教会共融的和真正的忏悔者必须接受放回尽快倍,而诺瓦蒂安和他的支持者认为,教会必须保持其纯洁无玷污了那些谁没有坚定的证明。 They were later to go so far as to deny forgiveness for any serious offense (such as fornication or idolatry) after baptism, though pardon might be offered to those deemed near death.他们后来竟然否认偶像崇拜严重或宽恕任何罪行(如私通)的洗礼后,虽然可能会提供赦免死刑的人认为近了。

When they were excommunicated by a synod of bishops at Rome, the Novatianists, wishing to avoid compromise and complacency with sin, established a separate church with its own discipline and clergy, including bishops.当他们被逐出教会由主教在罗马的主教,在Novatianists,希望避免与妥协和罪恶自满,建立,包括一个独立的教会主教有自己的纪律和神职人员。 Their emphasis on purity and rigorism as well as a vehement clash of personalities drew significant support throughout the church at large, and especially from a Carthaginian presbyter named Novatus, himself at odds with Cyprian.他们强调纯度和rigorism以及强烈的个性冲突提请广大整个教会的大力支持,特别是从一个名为赔率与迦太基长老在塞浦路斯Novatus,他自己。 There was a strong following in Phrygia, especially among Montanist groups.有一个强大的弗里吉亚以下组,特别是Montanist。The Novatian Church continued for several centuries and was received by the Council of Nicaea as an orthodox though schismatic group.该诺瓦蒂安教会持续了几个世纪,并于尼西亚收到由东正教会的一组,但分裂的。In particular its affirmation of Christ as being of one substance with the Father was applauded.特别是其作为基督的肯定是父亲的一种物质与赞赏。Later the sect fell under imperial disfavor, was forbidden the right of public worship, and had its books destroyed.后来根据该教派帝国下跌失宠,被禁止的崇拜权公开的,有它的书籍被销毁。The majority of its members were reabsorbed into the mainstream of the Catholic Church, although the Novatian Church was an identifiable entity until the seventh century.它的大部分成员被重新吸收进入主流的天主教教会,虽然诺瓦蒂安教会是一个可识别的实体,直到公元7世纪。

RC Kroeger and CC Kroeger钢筋混凝土克罗杰和CC克罗杰
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
ANF , V; Eusebius, History of the Church, VI, VII; A Harnack, SHERK , VIII.心钠素,五;尤西比乌斯,教会史,六,七;阿哈纳克,谢尔克,第八。

Novatian and Novatianism诺瓦蒂安和Novatianism

Catholic Information天主教信息

Novatian was a schismatic of the third century, and founder of the sect of the Novatians; he was a Roman priest, and made himself antipope.诺瓦蒂安一个世纪裂的三分之一,Novatians创始人,该教派的,他是一个罗马牧师,使自己对立教皇。His name is given as Novatus (Noouatos, Eusebius; Nauatos, Socrates) by Greek writers, and also in the verses of Damasus and Prudentius, on account of the metre.他的名字是给予Novatus(Noouatos,尤西比乌斯; Nauatos,苏格拉底)由希腊作家,以及在和普顿的达玛斯的诗句,就占了表。


We know little of his life.我们知道他生命中的小。St. Cornelius in his letter to Fabius of Antioch relates that Novatian was possessed by Satan for a season, aparently while a catechumen; for the exorcists attended him, and he fell into a sickness from which instant death was expected; he was, therefore, given baptism by affusion as he lay on his bed.圣安提阿哥尼流的信中涉及到法比尤斯认为诺瓦蒂安被撒旦附体的一个赛季,aparently而初学者;的法师参加了他,他预期陷入了一种疾病从哪个当场死亡,他是,因此,由于注水洗礼,他躺在床上。 The rest of the rites were not supplied on his recovery, nor was he confirmed by the bishop.仪式放心,没有提供关于他的恢复,也不是他的主教证实了。"How then can he have received the Holy Ghost?"“他又如何能得到圣灵?”asks Cornelius.问科尼利厄斯。 Novatian was a man of learning and had been trained in literary composition.诺瓦蒂安是一个学习的人组成的,并已在文学训练。Cornelius speaks of him sarcastically as "that maker of dogmas, that champion of ecclesiastical learning".哥尼流谈到他讽刺为“是教条的制造商,即学习冠军的教会”。His eloquence is mentioned by Cyprian (Ep. lx, 3) and a pope (presumably Fabian) promoted him to the priesthood in spite of the protests (according to Cornelius) of all the clergy and many of the laity that it was uncanonical for one who had received only clinical baptism to be admitted among the clergy.他的口才是所提到的塞浦路斯(插曲lx的,3)和教皇(大概比安)晋升(按哥尼流他抗议的僧侣尽管俗人)所有的神职人员和许多,这是一对uncanonical谁收到的洗礼是唯一的临床神职人员承认其中。 The story told by Eulogius of Alexandria that Novatian was Archdeacon of Rome, and was made a priest by the pope in order to prevent his succeeding to the papacy, contradicts the evidence of Cornelius and supposes a later state of things when the Roman deacons were statesmen rather than ministers.这个故事告诉亚历山大Eulogius该诺瓦蒂安是罗马副主教的,并写了教宗的一名牧师,以阻止他继承教皇,违背了科尼利厄斯证据和假设一个国家的事情后,当罗马执事是政治家而不是部长。 The anonymous work "Ad Novatianum" (xiii) tells us that Novatian, "so long as he was in the one house, that is in Christ's Church, bewailed the sins of his neighbours as if they were his own, bore the burdens of the brethren, as the Apostle exhorts, and strengthened with consolation the backsliding in heavenly faith."这些匿名的工作“广告Novatianum”(十三)告诉我们,诺瓦蒂安,“只要他的房子是在一,即教会是基督的,哀叹他的邻居的罪恶,仿佛他们是他自己,承担的负担弟兄们,正如使徒劝告和安慰加强与倒退的信念在天上。“

The Church had enjoyed a peace of thirty-eight years when Decius issued his edict of persecution early in 250.教会已享有250和平的38年发行时德西乌斯迫害他的法令早期研究。Pope St. Fabian was martyred on 20 January, and it was impossible to elect a successor.教宗圣费边是烈属,1月20日,它是不可能选出继任人。Cornelius, writing in the following year, says of Novatian that, through cowardice and love of his life, he denied that he was a priest in the time of persecution; for he was exhorted by the deacons to come out of the cell, in which he had shut himself up, to assist the brethren as a priest now that they were in danger.科尼利厄斯,一年写在下面,说,诺瓦蒂安,通过胆怯和生活的爱他,他否认他是一个牧师在迫害的时间,因为他是由执事告诫出来的细胞,其中他把自己关起来,帮助处于危险之中的弟兄们现在被作为一个牧师,他们。 But he was angry and departed, saying he no longer wished to be a priest, for he was in love with another philosophy.但是,他很生气,并离开,他说他不再希望成为一名神父,因为他的爱是与另一哲学。The meaning of this story is not clear.这个故事的含义不明确。Did Novitian wish to eschew the active work of the priesthood and give himself to an ascetic life? At all events, during the persecution he certainly wrote letters in the name of the Roman clergy, which were sent by them to St. Cyprian (Epp. xxx and xxxvi). The letters are concerned with the question of the Lapsi, and with the exaggerated claim of the martyrs at Carthage to restore them all without penance.难道Novitian想避开的神职人员积极工作,给自己一个苦行僧的生活?在所有的事件,在迫害他肯定说Epp.字母(该名称的罗马神职人员,他们派出的是由圣塞浦路斯xxx和三十六)。字母是Lapsi关心的问题,并与在迦太基夸大了烈士声称没有忏悔,以恢复他们所有。 The Roman clergy agree with Cyprian that the matter must be settled with moderation by councils to be held when this should be possible; the election of a new bishop must be awaited; proper severity of discipline must be preserved, such as had always digtinguished the Roman Church since the days when her faith was praised by St. Paul (Romans 1:8), but cruelty to the repentant must be avoided.罗马的神职人员同意塞浦路斯,这个问题必须解决,与温和议会将于何时这应该是可能的;主教选举必须等待一个新的,严重的纪律,必须妥善保存,如一直digtinguished罗马教会的日子,因为当她的信仰忏悔称赞圣保罗(罗马书1:8),但残酷的,必须加以避免。 There is evidently no idea in the minds of the Roman priests that restoration of the lapsed to communion is impossible or improper; but there are severe expressions in the letters.有没有不恰当的想法显然是不可能的,或在头脑中的罗马祭司的共融是恢复失效,但有严重的字母表达的影响。It seems that Novatian got into some trouble during the persecution, since Cornelius says that St. Moses, the martyr (d. 250), seeing the boldness of Novatian, separated him from communion, together with the five priests who had been associated with him.这似乎陷入了一些麻烦诺瓦蒂安在迫害,因为科尼利厄斯说,圣摩西,烈士(草250),看到诺瓦蒂安大胆的,他从共融分离,连同5祭司谁曾与他有关联。

At the beginning of 251 the persecution relaxed, and St. Cornelius was elected pope in March, "when the chair of Fabian, that is the place of Peter, was vacant", with the consent of nearly all the clergy, of the people, and of the bishops present (Cyprian, Ep. lv, 8-9).在251开始迫害的放松,和圣哥尼流3月被选为教皇,“当费边的椅子,这是彼得地点,是空的”,与神职人员同意几乎所有的,人民,与目前的主教(塞浦路斯,环保。吕,8-9)。 Some days later Novatian set himself up as a rival pope.几天后诺瓦蒂安自己确定为一个对手教皇。Cornelius tells us Novatian suffered an extraordinary and sudden change; for he had taken a tremendous oath that he would never attempt to become bishop.科尼利厄斯告诉我们诺瓦蒂安遭受了非凡的和突然改变,因为他已经采取了巨大的誓言,他将永远不会试图成为主教。But now he sent two of his party to summon three bishops from a distant corner of Italy, telling them they must come to Rome in haste, in order that a division might be healed by their mediation and that of other bishops. These simple men were constrained to confer the episcopal order upon him at the tenth hour of the day.但现在他派他的两个党的召唤,意大利三位主教从一个遥远的角落,告诉他们,他们要来罗马匆忙了,为了使表决可能治愈他们的调解,而其他主教。这些简单的男人限制赋予当天的主教秩序小时后,他在第十届。 One of these returned to the church bewailing and confessing his sin, "and we despatched" says Comelius, "successors of the other two bishops to the places whence they came, after ordaining them."他们其中一个返回教堂怨声载道,并供认他的罪过,“我们派出”说Comelius,两个“接班人其他主教祝圣的地方,他们从那里来,照顾。” To ensure the loyalty of his supporters Novatian forced them, when receiving Holy Communion, to swear by the Blood and the Body of Christ that they would not go over to Cornelius.为确保诺瓦蒂安忠诚的支持者迫使他们,在接受圣餐,基督发誓由血液和身体,他们不会去到哥尼流。

Cornelius and Novatian sent messengers to the different Churches to announce their respective claims.Cornelius和诺瓦蒂安打发到不同的教会宣布各自的索赔。From St. Cyprian's correspondence we know of the careful investigation made by the Council of Carthage, with the result that Cornelius was supported by the whole African episcopate.从圣塞浦路斯的信件中,我们知道会迦太基作出仔细的调查,结果与主教哥尼流非洲是支持的整体。St. Dionysius of Alexandria also took his side, and these influential adhesions soon made his position secure.圣亚历山大修斯还带着他的身边,这些有影响力的粘连,很快就他的地位稳固。But for a time the whole Church was torn by the question of the rival popes.但对于整个教会教皇时间撕破对手是由问题的。 We have few details.我们有几个细节。St. Cyprian writes that Novatian "assumed the primacy" (Ep. lxix, 8), and sent out his new apostles to many cities to set new foundations for his new establishment; and, though there were already in all provinces and cities bishops of venerable age, of pure faith, of tried virtue, who had been proscribed in the persecution, he dared to create other false bishops over their heads (Ep. lv, 24) thus claiming the right of substituting bishops by his own authority as Cornelius did in the case just mentioned.圣塞浦路斯写道诺瓦蒂安“假设的首要”(插曲lxix,8),并发出了他的新使徒许多城市建立新的基础提出了新的他,和,虽然已在全国各省,市的主教高龄信仰,纯洁,试图美德,谁被迫害被禁,他敢于创造低压,24个其他虚假主教在他们头上(插曲),从而声称没有权利科尼利厄斯代主教由他作为自己的权威在刚才提到的情况。 There could be no more startling proof of the importance of the Roman See than this sudden revelation of an episode of the third century: the whole Church convulsed by the claim of an antipope; the recognized impossibility of a bishop being a Catholic and legitimate pastor if he is on the side of the wrong pope; the uncontested claim of both rivals to consecrate a new bishop in any place (at all events, in the West) where the existing bishop resisted their authority.不可能有更惊人的罗马教廷举证的重要性比这突如其来的启示三世纪的一个小插曲的:震撼整个教会的对立教皇声称1;不可能承认的合法牧师和天主教主教,如果作为一个他是在教皇端的错误;无争议的两个竞争对手声称奉献一个新的主教在任何地方(在所有的事件,在西方)如果现有主教抵制他们的权力。 Later, in the same way, in a letter to Pope Stephen, St. Cyprian urges him to appoint (so he seems to imply) a new bishop at Arles, where the bishop had become a Novatianist.后来,以同样的方式,在反教宗的信,圣塞浦路斯敦促他任命(所以他似乎暗示)1 1 novatianist的新主教在阿尔勒,已成为地方主教。St. Dionysius of Alexandria wrote to Pope Stephen that all the Churches in the East and beyond, which had been split in two, were now united, and that all their prelates were now rejoicing exceedingly in this unexpected peace -- in Antioch, Caesarea of Palestine, Jerusalem, Tyre, Laodicea of Syria, Tarsus and all the Churches of Cilicia, Caesarea and all Cappadocia, the Syrias and Arabia (which depended for alms on the Roman Church), Mesopotamia, Pontus and Bithynia, "and all the Churches everywhere", so far did the Roman schism cause its effects to be felt.圣亚历山大修斯的写信给司提反所有两个教会在东部和超越,因为它在分裂,团结是现在,而现在所有的主教都非常庆幸在这意外的和平-在安提阿,撒利亚巴勒斯坦,耶路撒冷,轮胎,以及老底嘉叙利亚,沙特阿拉伯塔尔苏斯所有教会的基利家,和所有卡帕多西亚撒利亚,在叙利亚和(这取决于罗马教会的施舍),美索不达米亚,本都和庇推尼去,“和所有的地方教会“到目前为止,没有罗马分裂的原因及其影响都不容低估。 Meanwhile, before the end of 251, Cornelius had assembled a council of sixty bishops (probably all from Italy or the neighbouring islands), in which Novatian was excommunicated.同时,年底前的251,科尼利厄斯已经召集了一个委员会)邻近岛屿上的60主教(可能是从意大利或全部,其中诺瓦蒂安被逐出教会。 Other bishops who were not present added their signatures, and the entire list was sent to Antioch and doubtless to all the other principal Churches.其他主教说谁不在场的签名,整个列表被送往安提阿,无疑给所有其他主要教会。

It is not surpr sing that a man of such talents as Novatian should have been, conscious of his superiority to Cornelius, or that he should have found priests to assist his ambitious views.这不是surpr唱,一个人的看法,他雄心勃勃的这种人才,诺瓦蒂安应该意识到曾经是他的优势,科尼利厄斯,或者说他应该找到牧师协助。 His mainstay was in the confessors yet in prison, Maximus, Urbanus, Nicostratus, and others.他坦白的主体是在监狱中还,鲆,乌尔巴努斯,Nicostratus等。Dionysius and Cyprian wrote to remonstrate with them, and they returned to the Church.修斯和塞浦路斯说劝谏他们,他们回到了教会。A prime mover on Novatian's side was the Carthaginian priest Novatus, who had favoured laxity at Carthage out of opposition to his bishop.阿方的主要推动者是迦太基的诺瓦蒂安祭司Novatus,谁也赞成在迦太基松弛了反对他的主教。In St. Cyprian's earlier letters about Novatian (xliv-xlviii, 1), there is not a word about any heresy, the whole question being as to the legitimate occupant of the place of Peter.在圣塞浦路斯先前封有关诺瓦蒂安(四十四,四十八,1),没有一个对任何异端字,整个问题是,以合法的彼得乘员的地方。 In Ep.在内啡肽。li, the words "schismatico immo haeretico furore" refer to the wickedness of opposing the true bishop.他说,新词“schismatico immo haeretico风波”,是指主教反对邪恶的真实。The same is true of "haereticae pravitatis nocens factio" with Ep.同样是factio真正的“haereticae pravitatis nocens”按照EP。liii.第53号。In Ep.在内啡肽。liv, Cyprian found it necessary to send his book "De lapsis" to Rome, so that the question of the lapsed was already prominent, but Ep.丽芙,塞浦路斯认为有必要派遣他的著作“德lapsis”到罗马,使失效的问题已经突出,但内啡肽。 lv is the earliest in which the "Novatian heresy" as such is argued against. LV是最早在其中的“诺瓦蒂安异端邪说”等,是极力反对。The letters of the Roman confessors (Ep. liii) and Cornelius (xlix, 1) to Cyprian do not mention it, though the latter speaks in general terms of Novatian as a schismatic or a heretic; nor does the pope mention heresy in his abuse of Novatian in the letter to Fabius of Antioch (Eusebius, VI, xliii), from which so much has been quoted above.它的罗马字母坦白(插曲53号)和科尼利厄斯(第四十九章,1)塞浦路斯不提,尽管后者诺瓦蒂安说话一般条款作为一个分裂或异端,也没有提及滥用教宗在他的异端在安提阿的诺瓦蒂安信向法比尤斯(尤西比乌斯,六,四十三),其中已有不少人从被引用以上。 It is equally clear that the letters sent out by Novatian were not concerned with the lapsi, but were "letters full of calumnies and maledictions sent in large numbers, which threw nearly all the Churches into disorder"' (Cornelius, Ep. xlix).同样清楚的是,该信件诺瓦蒂安由不lapsi关心,但“信件内啡肽充满诽谤,Cornelius和maledictions派出大量抛出几乎所有的,它教会陷入混乱”'(。十九)。 The first of those sent to Carthage consisted apparently of "bitter accusations" against Cornelius, and St. Cyprian thought it so disgraceful that he did not read it to the council (Ep. xlv, 2)., The messengers from Rome to the Carthaginian Council broke out into similar attacks (Ep. xliv).发送的第一个向迦太基人显然包括“痛苦的指控”对科尼利厄斯和圣塞浦路斯认为这样不光彩的,他不念给理事会(插曲第四十五,二)。,从罗马向迦太基的使者会爆发出到四十四)类似的攻击(插曲。 It is necessary to notice this point, because it is so frequently overlooked by historians, who represent the sudden but short-lived disturbance throughout the Catholic Church caused by Novatian's ordination to have been a division between bishops on the subject of his heresy.要注意这一点,因为它是如此频繁的协调忽视了历史学家,谁是天主教会造成诺瓦蒂安的代表突如其来的干扰,但整个短命已经受到异端他一主教之间的分工上。 Yet it is obvious enough that the question could not present itself: "Which is preferable, the doctrine of Cornelius or that of Novatian?"然而,它是很明显的,这个问题不能出示自己:“哪个是最好的学说或诺瓦蒂安科尼利厄斯说什么?”If Novatian were ever so orthodox, the first matter was to examine whether his ordination was legitimate or not, and whether his accusations against Cornelius were false or true.如果诺瓦蒂安曾有这样正统的,第一个问题是要查看一下他是否是合法的协调与否,以及是否对他的指控是虚假的科尼利厄斯或真实。 An admirable reply addressed to him by St. Dionysius of Alexandria has been preserved (Eusebius, VI, xlv): "Dionysius to his brother Novatian, greeting. If it was against your will, as you say, that you were led, you will prove it by retiring of your free will. For you ought to have suffered anything rather than divide the Church of God and to be martyred rather than cause a schism woul have been no less glorious than to be martyred rather than commit idolatry, nay in my opinion it would have been a yet greater act; for in the one case one is a martyr for one's own soul alone, in the other for the whole Church".一个令人钦佩的答复给他的圣亚历山大修斯已保存(尤西比乌斯,六,第四十五):“修斯给他的弟弟诺瓦蒂安,问候。若会反对你,你说,你是领导,你会将它证明了你的自由退休。对于你应该遭受什么,而不是分裂竟被教会的神和被牺牲,而不是一个分裂的原因已不那么光荣牺牲,而不是被偶像崇拜,而不是承诺,不然我看来,这将是一个尚未更大的作为;在一个案件之一,是一个单独烈士为自己的灵魂“,在教会的其他方面的整体。 Here again there is no question of heresy.在这方面同样没有异端的问题。

But yet within a couple of months Novatian was called a heretic, not only by Cyprian but throughout the Church, for his severe views about the restoration of those who had lapsed in the persecution.但是,然而在一两个月的诺瓦蒂安是教会称为邪教,不仅是塞浦路斯,但整个,在迫害他的意见,对严重的失效恢复了那些谁。 He held that idolatry was an unpardonable sin, and that the Church had no right to restore to communion any who had fallen into it.他认为,偶像崇拜是一种不可饶恕的罪过,而且教会无权恢复共融任何在谁手里陷入。 They might repent and be admitted to a lifelong penance, but their forgiveness must be left to God; it could not be pronounced in this world.他们可能悔改,被接纳为终身忏悔,但他们的宽恕,必须留给上帝,它不能在这世界上宣布。 Such harsh sentiments were not altogether a novelty.这样苛刻的情绪并没有完全一个新事物。Tertullian had resisted the forgiveness of adultery by Pope Callistus as an innovation.良曾抵制卡利斯图斯创新作为宽恕通奸的教皇。

Hippolytus was equally inclined to severity.希波吕托斯同样倾向的严重程度。In various places and at various times laws were made which punished certain sins either with the deferring of Communion till the hour of death, or even with refusal of Communion in the hour of death.在不同的地方,有时各种法规的处罚作了某些罪孽死亡或延迟与共融小时,直到死亡,或拒绝与共融小时甚至在。Even St. Cyprian approved the latter course in the case of those who refused to do pennance and only repented on their death-bed; but this was because such a repentance seemed of doubtful sincerity.即使圣塞浦路斯批准了床后者死亡的案件在那些谁拒绝这样做,只是他们的彭纳恩斯就后悔,但是这是因为这样的忏悔诚意似乎令人怀疑。 But severity in itself was but cruelty or injustice; there was no heresy until it was denied that the Church has the power to grant absolution in certain cases.但本身的严重程度,但在残酷的或不公正,没有任何异端,直到它被剥夺了,教会有权力批地的,在某些赦免。This was Novatian's heresy; and St. Cyprian says the Novatians held no longer the Catholic creed and baptismal interrogation, for when they said "Dost thou believe in the remission of sins, and everlasting life, through Holy Church?"这是诺瓦蒂安的异端;和圣塞浦路斯说,Novatians举行不再是天主教信仰和洗礼的审讯,因为当他们说:“难道你相信罪得赦的,和永恒的生命教会通过圣?” they were liars.他们是骗子。


St. Jerome mentions a number of writings of Novatian, only two of which have come down to us, the "De Cibis Judaicis" and the "De Trinitate".圣杰罗姆提到一个诺瓦蒂安数目的著作中,只有其中两个已回落到我们,“德Cibis Judaicis”和“德Trinitate”。The former is a letter written in retirement during a time of persecution, and was preceded by two other letters on Circumcision and the Sabbath, which are lost.前者是迫害写了一封信,在一个退休时,并失去了之前,这是两个关于割礼和其他信件的安息日。It interprets the unclean animals as signifying different classes of vicious men; and explains that the greater liberty allowed to Christians is not to be a motive for luxury. The book "De Trinitate" is a fine piece of writing.它解释恶性不同阶层的人不洁净的动物的象征,并解释说,允许更多的自由基督徒是不能奢侈动机。书中“德Trinitate”是一个良好的写作部分。 The first eight chapters concern the transcendence and greatness of God, who is above all thought and can be described by no name.第一八章关注的超越和伟大的神的名字,谁是最重要的思想和不能够来描述。Novatian goes on to prove the Divinity of the Son at great length, arguing from both the Old and the New Testaments, and adding that it is an insult to the Father to say that a Father who is God cannot beget a Son who is God.诺瓦蒂安接着证明长度儿子在大的神学院,圣经争论从旧与新,加上这是一个父亲侮辱的说,一个父亲,谁是神不能生一个儿子,谁是神。 But Novatian falls into the error made by so many early writers of separating the Father from the Son, so that he makes the Father address to the Son the command to create, and the Son obeys; he identifies the Son with the angels who appeared in the Old Testament to Agar, Abraham, etc. "It pertains to the person of Christ that he should be God because He is the Son of God, and that He should be an Angel because He announces the Father's Will" (paternae dispositionis annuntiator est).但诺瓦蒂安分为子从父错误分离月初作家这么多,让他做父亲的地址给儿子的命令来创建,服从和儿子,他儿子与标识出现在谁的天使旧约以琼脂,亚伯拉罕等“这涉及到基督的人,他应该是上帝,因为他是神的儿子,并认为他应该是一个天使,因为他宣布了父亲的遗嘱”(paternae dispositionis annuntiator预测)。The Son is "the second Person after the Father", less than the Father in that He is originated by the Father; He is the imitator of all His works, and is always obedient to the Father, and is one with Him "by concord, by love, and by affection".儿子是“第二人后之父”,不如说他是父亲在父亲的起源,他的作品是模仿他的一切,总是服从于父,是他一个与和谐“的由爱,和感情。“

No wonder such a description should seem to opponents to make two Gods; and consequently, after a chapter on the Holy Ghost (xxix), Novatian returns to the subject in a kind of appendix (xxx-xxxi).难怪这样的描述似乎应该让对手两神,并因此,后一章的幽灵圣(二十九),返回到主题诺瓦蒂安在附录种(三十,三十一)。 Two kinds of heretics, he explains, try to guard the unity of God, the one kind (Sabellians) by identifying the Father with the Son, the other (Ebionites, etc.) by denying that the Son is God; thus is Christ again crucified between two thieves, and is reviled by both. Novatian declares that there is indeed but one God, unbegotten, invisible, immense, immortal; the Word (Sermo), His Son, is a substance that proceeds from Him (substantia prolata), whose generation no apostle nor angel nor any creature can declare.两个异端种,他解释说,尝试守卫神的统一,是一种(萨姆奈特)通过查明,等父亲与儿子,其他(以便尼派神)不让儿子是,因此又是基督钉在十字架上两个盗贼,既辱骂。诺瓦蒂安宣布,但的确有一位神,unbegotten,无形的,巨大的,不朽的;字(实莫河),他的儿子,是一种物质,收益由他(黑质prolata)其代使徒也没有天使也没有任何生物可以申报。 He is not a second God, because He is eternally in the Father, else the Father would not be eternally Father.他是不是第二上帝,因为他是永远的父亲,否则父亲不会永远的父亲。He proceeded from the Father, when the Father willed (this syncatabasis for the purpose of creation is evidently distinguished from the eternal begetting in the Father), and remained with the Father.他接着从父亲,当父亲意志(这创造syncatabasis的目的是明显区别于在父亲的永恒begetting),父亲依然是。 If He were also the unbegotten, invisible, incomprehensible, there might indeed be said to be two Gods; but in fact He has from the Father whatever He has, and there is but one origin (origo, principium), the Father.如果他还对unbegotten,无形的,难以理解的,有可能确实可以说是两个神,但其实他已经从父亲不管他和只有一个来源(奥里戈,原理)的父亲。 "One God is demonstrated, the true and eternal Father, from whom alone this energy of the Godhead is sent forth, being handed on to the Son, and again by communion of substance it is returned to the Father."“上帝是一个证明,真正的和永恒的父亲,而仅这神性的能量发送出,被移交到儿子,和物质的共融再次返回到它的父。” In this doctrine there is much that is incorrect, yet much that seems meant to express the consubstantiality of the Son, or at least His generation out of the substance of the Father.在这种学说很多事情是不正确的,但仍有许多似乎为了表达父同体的儿子,或者至少他这一代出的实质内容。But it is a very unsatisfactory unity which is attained, and it seems to be suggested that the Son is not immense or invisible, but the image of the Father capable of manifesting Him.但这是一个非常理想的团结是实现,这似乎是认为儿子是不是巨大的或无形的,但他的形象体现出父亲的能力。Hippolytus is in the same difficulty, and it appears that Novatian borrowed from him as well as from Tertullian and Justin.希波吕托斯是在同样的困难,而且他似乎诺瓦蒂安借用以及从良和贾斯汀。It would seem that Tertullian and Hippolytus understood somewhat better than did Novatian the traditional Roman doctrine of the consubstantiality of the Son, but that all three were led astray by their acquaintance with the Greek theology, which interpreted of the Son as God Scriptural expressions (especially those of St. Paul) which properly apply to Him as the God-Man.看来,良和希波吕托斯有所了解并诺瓦蒂安优于传统的罗马之子的学说,同体的,但所有的3人领导的儿子误入歧途的他们相识与希腊神学,圣经是上帝解释为表现形式(尤其是这些圣保罗),适当运用,人对他的上帝。 But at least Novatian has the merit of not identifying the Word with the Father, nor Sonship with the prolation of the Word for the purpose of Creation, for He plainly teaches the eternal generation.但至少诺瓦蒂安有创作的价值,不符合的识别字的父,也没有儿子名分的目的与prolation了字的,因为他清楚地教导永恒的一代。 This is a notable advance on Tertullian.这是一个良显着的进步。

On the Incarnation Novatian seems to have been orthodox, though he is not explicit.就化身诺瓦蒂安似乎已经正统,虽然他不明确。He speaks correctly of the one Person having two substances, the Godhead and Humanity, in the way that is habitual to the most exact Western theologians.他讲了一个正确的人有两种物质,神性与人性的神学家,在惯常的方式是最确切的西方。But he very often speaks of "the man" assumed by the Divine Person, so that he has been suspected of Nestorianizing.但他常常说“神圣的人,该名男子”所承担的,使他一直Nestorianizing怀疑。This is unfair, since he is equally liable to the opposite accusation of making "the man" so far from being a distinct personality that He is merely flesh assumed (caro, or substantia carnis et corporis).这是不公平的,因为他同样可作相反的指控“男人”,使肌肤远不是一个独特的人格,他只是假设(卡洛,或黑质carnis等corporis)。 But there is no real ground for supposing that Novatian meant to deny an intellectual soul in Christ; he does not think of the point, and is only anxious to assert the reality of our Lord's flesh.但没有真正的理由,在基督假设诺瓦蒂安意味着要否认一个知识分子的灵魂,他不认为该点,并只急于断言现实的血肉,我们的主的。 The Son of God, he says, joins to Himself the Son of Man, and by this connection and mingling he makes the Son of Man become Son of God, which He was not by nature.上帝的儿子,他说,加入到自己是人子的,并以此连接和交融,使该名男子,他的儿子成为上帝的儿子,而不是由他的性质。 This last sentence has been described as Adoptionism.这最后一句已被描述为Adoptionism。But the Spanish Adoptionists taught that the Human Nature of Christ as joined to the Godhead is the adopted Son of God.但是,西班牙Adoptionists教导说,基督的人性作为加入到神性是通过神的儿子。Novatian only means that before its assumption it was not by nature the Son of God; the form of words is bad, but there is not necessarily any heresy in the thought.诺瓦蒂安只表示在其假设它是不是由自然神的儿子;的话形式是坏的,但不一定在任何异端思想。Newman, though he does not make the best of Novatian, says that he "approaches more nearly to doctrinal precision than any of the writers of the East and West" who preceded him (Tracts theological and ecclesiastical, p. 239).纽曼,他虽然不会使诺瓦蒂安最好的,说他“更接近西方式”理论与精密东比任何作家之前,他是谁(大港神学和教会,第239页)。

The two pseudo-Cyprianic works, both by one author, "De Spectaculis" and "De bono pudicitiae", are attributed to Novatian by Weyman, followed by Demmler, Bardenhewer, Harnack, and others.这两个伪Cyprianic作品,都是由一位作者,“德Spectaculis”和“德公益pudicitiae”,是由于诺瓦蒂安由韦曼,其次是德姆勒,巴登黑韦尔,哈纳克,等等。 The pseudo-Cyprianic "De laude martyrii" has been ascribed to Novatian by Harnack, but with less probability.伪Cyprianic“德优秀毕业生martyrii”已被归因于诺瓦蒂安由哈纳克,但概率较低。The pseudo-Cyprianic sermon, "Adversus Judaeos", is by a close friend or follower of Novatian if not by himself, according to Landgraf, followed by Harnack and Jordan.伪Cyprianic讲道,“Adversus Judaeos”,是由一个亲密的朋友或诺瓦蒂安追随者如果不是由他本人,根据兰格拉夫,其次是哈纳克和约旦。In 1900 Mgr Batiffol with the help of Dom A. Wilmart published, under the title of "Tractatus Origenis de libris SS. Scripturarum", twenty sermons which he had discovered in two manuscripts at Orléans and St. Omer.在1900年已公布的主教Batiffol帮助大教堂甲Wilmart,标题下的SS“逻辑哲学论Origenis德藏书。Scripturarum”,20奥马尔讲道,他发现了圣和两个手稿在新奥尔良。 Weyman, Haussleiter, and Zahn perceived that these curious homilies on the Old Testament were written in Latin and are not translations from the Greek.韦曼,豪斯莱特和赞恩觉察到这些好奇的颂歌旧约就写在拉丁语和希腊语翻译不从。They attributed them to Novatian with so much confidence that a disciple of Zahn's, H. Jordan, has written a book on the theology of Novatian, grounded principally on these sermons.他们归咎于他们诺瓦蒂安这么多的信心,一个约旦弟子赞恩的,阁下,写了一本书诺瓦蒂安对神学,主要是对这些基础的说教。 It was, however, pointed out that the theology is of a more developed and later character than that of Novatian.但也有人指出,在神学诺瓦蒂安是后来性格比1和较发达。Funk showed that the mention of competentes (candidates for baptism) implies the fourth century.芬克表明,competentes提及(洗礼候选人)意味着第四世纪。Dom Morin suggested Gregorius Baeticus of Illiberis (Elvira), but withdrew this when it seemed clear that the author had used Gaudentius of Brescia and Rufinus' translation of Origen on Genesis.大教堂莫兰建议格里戈里厄Illiberis Baeticus的(埃尔维拉),但撤回了这一点似乎很清楚,提交使用了Gaudentius布雷西亚和rufinus'奥利翻译创世记。But these resemblances must be resolved in the sense that the "Tractatus" are the originals, for finally Dom Wilgory showed that Gregory of Elvira is their true author, by a comparison especially with the five homilies of Gregory on the Canticle of Canticles (in Heine's "Bibliotheca Anecdotorum" Leipzig, 1848).但这些相似之处,必须加以解决的意义上说,“逻辑哲学论”是原件,为最终大教堂Wilgory表明埃尔维拉格雷戈里是他们真正的作者在,包括:(一比较5 canticle的,尤其是与颂歌的格雷戈里的颂歌的海涅的“藏书Anecdotorum”莱比锡,1848年)。

The Novationist Sect教派的Novationist

The followers of Novatian named themselves katharoi, or Puritans, and affected to call the Catholic Church Apostaticum, Synedrium, or Capitolinum.清教徒信徒诺瓦蒂安命名自己katharoi,或致电和影响的天主教教会Apostaticum,Synedrium,或Capitolinum。 They were found in every province, and in some places were very numerous.他们被发现在每一个省,在一些地方非常多。Our chief information about them is from the "History" of Socrates, who is very favourable to them, and tells us much about their bishops, especially those of Constantinople.我们的主要信息是他们从“史他们”苏格拉底,谁是非常有利的,并告诉我们很多关于他们的主教,特别是那些君士坦丁堡。 The chief works written against them are those of St. Cyprian, the anonymous "Ad Novatianum" (attributed by Harnack to Sixtus II, 257-8), writings of St. Pacian of Barcelona and St. Ambrose (De paenitentia), "Contra Novatianum", a work of the fourth century among the works of St. Augustine, the "Heresies" of Epiphanius and Philastrius, and the "Quaestiones" of Ambrosiaster. In the East they are mentioned especially by Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, Chrysostom.他们的主要作品有257-8的书面反对圣,塞浦路斯,匿名“广告Novatianum归咎于”(由哈纳克到西斯二世),)著作的paenitentia圣Pacian巴塞罗那和圣刘汉铨(德,“魂斗罗Novatianum“,一个Ambrosiaster工作”的“Quaestiones四世纪的作品中,圣奥古斯丁异端的”“的埃皮法尼乌斯和Philastrius的,和。在东部,他们都提到,特别是由亚他那修,罗勒,Nazianzus格雷戈里,金口。 Eulogius of Alexandria, not long before 600, wrote six books against them. Eulogius的亚历山德里亚,没过多久,600人,对他们说六书。Refutations by Reticius of Autun and Eusebius of Emesa are lost.Emesa驳斥由Reticius的尤西比乌斯欧坦和丢失。

Novatian had refused absolution to idolaters; his followers extended this doctrine to all "mortal sins" (idolatry, murder, and adultery, or fornication). Most of them forbade second marriage, and they made much use of Tertullian's works; indeed, in Phrygia they combined with the Montanists.诺瓦蒂安拒绝赦免,拜偶像的,他的追随者扩大这一学说的所有“致命的罪过”(偶像崇拜,谋杀和通奸或私通)。它们大部分禁止第二次婚姻,他们大量使用良的作品,事实上,在弗里吉亚他们结合了Montanists。 A few of them did not rebaptize converts from other persuasions.甲他们几个没有rebaptize其他派别的转换。Theodoret says that they did not use confirmation (which Novatian himself hadnever received). Theodoret说,他们不使用确认(这诺瓦蒂安自己hadnever收到)。Eulogius complained that they would not venerate martyrs, but he probably refers to Catholic martyrs. Eulogius抱怨说,他们不会崇敬烈士,但他可能是指天主教的烈士。They always had a successor of Novatian at Rome, and everywhere they were governed by bishops.他们总是有一个在罗马的接班人诺瓦蒂安,他们到处主教管辖。Their bishops at Constantinople were most estimable persons, according to Socrates, who has much to relate about them.他们的主教在君士坦丁堡最难能可贵的人,按照苏格拉底,谁有很大的涉及他们。The conformed to the Church in almost everything, including monasticism in the fourth century. Their bishop at Constantinople was invited by Constantine to the Council of Nicaea.教会在几乎所有符合的,包括世纪修道在第四位。君士坦丁堡主教,他们在被邀请到尼西亚君士坦丁理事会。He approved the decrees, though he would not consent to union.他批准的法令,但他不会同意工会。On account of the homoousion the Novatians were persecuted like the Catholics by Constantius.论homoousion帐户的被迫害的Novatians像士坦提乌斯教友。In Paphlagonia the Novatianist peasants attacked and slew the soldiers sent by the emperor to enforce conformity to the official semi-Arianism.在帕夫拉戈尼亚的novatianist的攻击和农民摆阿里乌教派的士兵向皇帝执行符合官方半。Constantine the Great, who at first treated them as schismatics, not heretics, later ordered the closing of their churches and cemeteries.君士坦丁大帝,谁首先将其视为schismatics与罗马,而不是异端,后来下令关闭其墓地和教堂。After the death of Constantius they were protected by Julian, but the Arian Valens persecuted them once more.士坦提乌斯去世后,他们朱利安保护,但阿里安瓦伦斯迫害他们一次。Honorius included them in a law against heretics in 412, and St. Innocent I closed some of their churches in Rome.何诺包括法律他们对异教徒在412,和圣无辜的我关闭一些教会在罗马的。St. Celestine expelled them from Rome, as St. Cyril had from Alexandria.圣天青石驱逐他们从罗马,作为圣西里尔亚历山大是从。Earlier St. Chrysostom had shut up their churches at Ephesus, but at Constantinople they were tolerated, and their bishops there are said by Socrates to have been highly respected.此前已经关闭了圣金口在以弗所的教会,但他们在君士坦丁堡容忍,他们的主教有苏格拉底所说的已被高度尊重。The work of Eulogius shows that there were still Novatians in Alexandria about 600.该Eulogius工作表明,目前尚有约600 Novatians在亚历山德里亚。In Phrygia (about 374) some of them became Quartodecimans, and were called Protopaschitoe; they included some converted Jews.在弗里吉亚(约374)他们中有些人成为Quartodecimans,和被称为Protopaschitoe,他们包括一些转换犹太人。 Theodosius made a stringent law against this sect, which was imported to Constantinople about 391 by a certain Sabbatius, whose adherents were called Sabbatiani.狄奥多西了被称为Sabbatiani严格的法律对这一节,这是他的信徒约391进口到君士坦丁堡的,有一定Sabbatius。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息写由约翰查普曼。Transcribed by Christopher R. Huber. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.转录由克里斯托弗贝尔。天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

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