Old Catholics旧的天主教徒,

General Information一般信息

Old Catholics include several small local churches that have separated from the Roman Catholic church.旧的天主教徒,包括几个小地方教会的罗马天主教教堂已经分开。The Church of Utrecht - which was established in 1724 in a dispute over papal charges of Jansenism in Holland - was the first of these churches to separate from Rome.乌得勒支教会-这是1724年在荷兰成立争端收费超过教皇在詹森主义-是教会的第一项分开罗马。In the 1870s other Old Catholic churches were formed in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria by those Catholics who rejected the dogma of papal infallibility promulgated by the First Vatican Council (1870).在19世纪70年代其他旧天主教教会成立于德国,瑞士和奥地利的那些天主教徒谁拒绝教条犯错误的教皇)所公布的第一,梵蒂冈会(1870。 The first German bishop was consecrated (1874) by a bishop of the Church of Utrecht.第一个德国主教祝圣(1874年),由乌得勒支的主教的教会。

In the United States, Polish Roman Catholics, resentful of domination by non - Polish clergy, split in 1897 to form the National Polish church.在美国,波兰的罗马天主教徒,统治不满的非-波兰神职人员,1897年分裂,形成了波兰国家教会。Other Slavic groups have also become Old Catholics, as has the Philippine Independent Church (established 1902).其他斯拉夫团体也成为旧的天主教徒,正如菲律宾独立教会(1902年成立)。

Old Catholic churches are in communion with each other and with the Church of England and seek ecumenical relations.旧天主教教会的共融中彼此以及与英国教会和寻求合一的关系。Bishops and priests may marry; services generally follow the Roman ritual and are in the vernacular; in some both bread and wine are distributed to the congregation in communion.主教和神父可以结婚;服务普遍遵循的礼仪和罗马都在白话,在一些面包和酒都分发到共融众研究。

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Bibliography 书目
R Aubert, The Christian Centuries: The Church in a Secularized Society (1978); CB Moss, The Old Catholic Movement (1964); K Pruter, A History of the Old Catholic Church (1985).ṛ奥伯特,基督教世纪:该)教会在世俗化的社会(1978年;会CB苔,旧天主教运动(1964年); K表Pruter,A)的历史上的旧天主教教会(1985。


Old Catholics旧的天主教徒

General Information一般信息

Old Catholics are a Christian denomination organized in Munich in 1871 by Roman Catholics who protested the dogma, proclaimed the previous year by Vatican Council I, of the personal infallibility of the pope in all ex cathedra pronouncements (see Infallibility). The Munich protest, by 44 professors under the leadership of the German theologians and historians Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger and Johannes Friedrich, was directed against the binding authority of the Vatican Council.旧天主教徒是一个基督教教派于1871年在慕尼黑举办的由罗马天主教的教条谁抗议,宣布前一年梵蒂冈理事会第一,在教堂前的声明个人犯错误的教皇所有(见犯错误)。慕尼黑抗议,由44弗里德里希教授的领导下约翰内斯的德国神学家和历史学家约瑟夫Ignaz约翰冯多林格和,是针对梵蒂冈会议的有约束力的权威。 To this protest a number of professors at Bonn, Breslau (now Wroc³aw, Poland), Freiburg, and Giessen declared their adherence.为了达到这个数目,抗议波恩教授,布雷斯劳(现Wroc ³胡,波兰),弗赖堡和吉森宣布他们的坚持。At Cologne in 1873 the German theologian Joseph Hubert Reinkens was elected bishop of the Old Catholics in the ancient fashion, by "clergy and people," that is, by all the Old Catholic priests and by representatives of the Old Catholic congregations. 1873年在科隆的德国神学家约瑟夫休赖因肯斯天主教主教当选的老古代时尚,以“神职人员和人民”,即所有的旧天主教神职人员和教徒代表的旧天主教。 He was consecrated at Rotterdam by the bishop of Deventer, the Netherlands, and acknowledged by the German states of Prussia, Baden, and Hessen.他献身于荷兰鹿特丹由主教芬特尔的,并承认德国黑森州州由普鲁士,巴登和。 Döllinger refused to become involved in organized schism and eventually broke with the movement, but he never returned to the Roman Catholic church.多林格拒绝成为参与有组织的分裂运动,并最终打破了,但他再也没有回到罗马天主教教堂。

Old Catholics conduct church services in the vernacular.旧天主教教会的白话进行服务。Priests are allowed to marry.牧师被允许结婚。Intercommunion with the Church of England was accomplished at a conference in Bonn in July 1931; the concordat was ratified later by the Vienna congress of the Old Catholic church and by the convocations of Canterbury and York of the Church of England.英国暹与教会是完成在1931年7月在波恩举行会议,批准了该协约后来被天主教维也纳大会的旧的和由英格兰教会坎特伯雷征召和纽约的。 According to recent figures, the Old Catholics number fewer than 250,000, with fewer than 70,000 in the US根据最近的数字,旧的天主教徒人数不到25万,少于70000美国


Declaration of Utrecht (1889)乌得勒支宣言(1889年)

General Information一般信息

A policy statement made by the five Old Catholic bishops, which in 1897 was adopted as the doctrinal basis of the Old Catholic Churches. It affirmed loyalty to Catholicism rightly understood, that is, as found in the beliefs of the primitive church and the decrees of the ecumenical councils up to the Great Schism between Rome and Constantinople in 1054.教会作出了一项政策声明由五个旧天主教主教,这是在1897年通过的旧天主教作为理论基础。申明忠诚,以正确地理解天主教,就是因为发现的原始教会的信仰和对法令的合一议会和君士坦丁堡到大分裂与罗马在1054年。 Made at a time soon after Vatican Council I controversies had augmented the ranks of dissidents, the declaration condemned what it regarded as Roman deviations from orthodoxy. Prominent among these were the decrees on immaculate conception (1854) and papal infallibility (1870), and the Syllabus of Errors (1864), which had condemned liberal doctrines.持不同政见者的时间是在梵蒂冈会议后不久,我增强了争论的行列,声明谴责它视为偏离正统的罗马。)洁净,其中突出的是观念的法令(1854年)和罗马教皇犯错误(1870年和教学大纲的错误(1864年),其中谴责了自由主义的教条。 The Declaration of Utrecht was in large part the work of those who had earlier unsuccessfully tried to persuade Roman Catholicism to subject its history and traditions to modern criticism.乌得勒支宣言在很大程度上对这些工作的批评谁此前没能说服罗马天主教把其历史和传统,现代。

JD DOUGLAS第纳尔道格拉斯

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(埃尔韦尔福音字典)


Old Catholics旧的天主教徒

Additional Information附加信息

(We received the following two articles from Michael Nesmith, a priest in the Independent Old Catholic Church of America (IOCCA).) (我们收到了(约卡)以下两篇文章,从迈克尔美国内史密斯,一名牧师在独立旧天主教教会。)

As you know there are many offshoots of the Old Catholic Church here in the US which makes it all but impossible to determine the actual number of OC and Independent Catholic parishes.正如你知道有很多分支的旧天主教教会不可能在这里的美国使这一切而是要确定实际数量的独立天主教教区的业主立案法团和。 Our particular group has approximately 90 clergy involved in all types of ministry.我们的特别小组,所有类型的部委参与了约90神职人员。I have pasted below some additional information about the Old Catholic Church I hope you will find it beneficial.下面我粘贴一些额外的信息是有益的旧天主教教会我希望你能找到。


The Declaration of Utrecht,乌得勒支宣言

1889 1889年
of the Old Catholic Bishops旧天主教主教团
of the Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland在荷兰,德国和瑞士

  1. We adhere faithfully to the Rule of Faith laid down by St. Vincent of Lerins in these terms: "Id teneamus, quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est; hoc est etenim vere proprieque catholicum."我们坚持的信念,忠实地条规定勒兰下跌圣文森特在这些方面:为“ID teneamus,狴比克,狴森佩尔,狴从头综合creditum预测;责预测etenim维尔proprieque catholicum。” For this reason we preserve in professing the faith of the primitive Church, as formulated in the ecumenical symbols and specified precisely by the unanimously accepted decisions of the Ecumenical Councils held in the undivided Church of the first thousand years.基于这个原因,我们保留在自称教会信仰的原始,如制定了基督教的符号和特定年正是第一千不可分割的教会在议会举行的一致决定,接受了基督教。
  2. We therefore reject the decrees of the so-called Council of the Vatican, which were promulgated July 18th, 1870, concerning the infallibility and the universal Episcopate of the Bishop of Rome, decrees which are in contradiction with the faith of the ancient Church, and which destroy its ancient canonical constitution by attributing to the Pope the plentitude of ecclesiastical powers over all Dioceses and over all the faithful.因此,我们反对的是法令所谓的理事会,以便在梵蒂冈,颁布1870年7月18日,关于犯错误的,和普遍的主教教堂是罗马主教,法令是在矛盾与信仰的古老它摧毁了所有信徒的古代典型的宪法,以丰满归咎于教会的教皇的权力,对所有教区和。 By denial of this primatial jurisdiction we do not wish to deny the historical primacy which several Ecumenical Councils and Fathers of the ancient Church have attributed to the Bishop of Rome by recognizing him as the Primus inter pares.由管辖否认这个灵长类我们不想否认历史的首要地位,其中有数合一议会和教会的父亲古有原因的价调普里默斯除向他承认罗马主教。
  3. We also reject the dogma of the Immaculate Conception promulgated by Pius IX in 1854 in defiance of the Holy Scriptures and in contradiction to the tradition of the centuries.我们还反对教条观念的圣母在1854年颁布的九比约在圣经蔑视圣和矛盾的百年传统的。
  4. As for other Encyclicals published by the Bishops of Rome in recent times for example, the Bulls Unigenitus and Auctorem fidei , and the Syllabus of 1864, we reject them on all such points as are in contradiction with the doctrine of the primitive Church, and we do not recognize them as binding on the consciences of the faithful.至于其他例如主教发表的通谕最近在罗马,公牛Unigenitus和Auctorem信德奥迹,以及1864年的教学大纲,我们拒绝点他们就如所有的矛盾都与教会教义的原始,和我们不承认他们作为忠实的良心上的约束力。 We also renew the ancient protests of the Catholic Church of Holland against the errors of the Roman Curia, and against its attacks upon the rights of national Churches.我们还重申教会罗马教廷天主教抗议古代的荷兰的反对错误,反对民族教会的攻击后,其权利的。
  5. We refuse to accept the decrees of the Council of Trent in matters of discipline, and as for the dogmatic decisions of that Council we accept them only so far as they are in harmony with the teaching of the primitive Church.我们拒绝接受纪律法令特伦特在事项理事会,并作为原始教会的教条式的决定,安理会只有这样,我们接受他们,他们就在和谐的教学。
  6. Considering that the Holy Eucharist has always been the true central point of Catholic worship, we consider it our right to declare that we maintain with perfect fidelity the ancient Catholic doctrine concerning the Sacrament of the Altar, by believing that we receive the Body and Blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ under the species of bread and wine.考虑到圣体圣事始终是真正的天主教徒崇拜的中央点,我们认为这是我们的权利,宣布我们保真度保持与完善古祭坛天主教教义有关圣事的,相信通过我们收到的躯壳和血根据我们的救主耶稣基督和酒种面包。 The Eucharistic celebration in the Church is neither a continual repetition nor a renewal of the expiatory sacrifice which Jesus offered once for all upon the Cross: but it is a sacrifice because it is the perpetual commemoration of the sacrifice offered upon the Cross, and it is the act by which we represent upon earth and appropriate to ourselves the one offering which Jesus Christ makes in Heaven, according to the Epistle to the Hebrews 9:11-12, for the salvation of redeemed humanity, by appearing for us in the presence of God (Heb. 9:24). The character of the Holy Eucharist being thus understood, it is, at the same time, a sacrificial feast, by means of which the faithful in receiving the Body and Blood of our Saviour, enter into communion with one another (I Cor. 10:17).在庆祝圣体圣事在教会既不是一个不断重复,也不是跨重建的赎罪牺牲耶稣提供了一次为所有呼吁:但它是一种牺牲,因为它是跨永久纪念牺牲后提供的,它是该法通过后,地球是我们代表和适当的对自己的一个产品是使耶稣基督在天上,根据书信向希伯来9:11-12,为拯救人类的赎回,由出现在我们的存在神(希伯来书9:24)。性质的是圣体圣这样理解,它是在同一时间,一个祭祀节日,通过它的忠实接受救主的身体和血液的,共融进入与另一个(我肺心病。10:17)。
  7. We hope that Catholic theologians, in maintaining the faith of the undivided Church, will succeed in establishing an agreement upon questions which have been controverted ever since the divisions which arose between the Churches.我们希望,天主教神学家,在维护教会信仰的分割,将成功地建立了一个有争议的问题时有协议以来的分歧,它们之间发生的教会。 We exhort the priests under our jurisdiction to teach, both by preaching and by the instruction of the young, especially the essential Christian truths professed by all the Christian confessions, to avoid, in discussing controverted doctrines, any violation of truth or charity, and in word and deed to set an example to the members.我们敦促我们的管辖下教的祭司,都是由年轻的说教和指令的,特别是基督教的供述所有基本的基督教真理声称,为了避免在讨论有争议的理论,任何违反真理或慈善机构,并在言语和行动来树立一个榜样的成员。
  8. By maintaining and professing faithfully the doctrine of Jesus Christ, by refusing to admit those errors which by the fault of men have crept into the Catholic Church, by laying aside the abuses in ecclesiastical matters, together with the worldly tendencies of the hierarchy, we believe that we shall be able to combat efficaciously the great evils of our day, which are unbelief and indifference in matters of religion.通过保持和信奉基督忠实的耶稣教义层次,拒绝承认天主教的错误,错了的男子已经悄悄进入教堂,由滥用搁置在教会的世俗化倾向的问题,连同,我们相信我们将能够行之有效地打击宗教事务的伟大邪恶的一天,这是冷漠和不信。


Old Catholic or Old Roman Catholic旧天主教或旧罗马天主教

Old Catholic and Old Roman Catholic are terms used to identify independent Catholics in the United States who are not necessarily affiliated with ethnic Old Catholic communities such as the Polish National Catholic Church.旧天主教和罗马天主教的旧教会使用的术语,以确定独立的国家天主教教友在美国谁波兰不一定与种族背景的旧天主教社区,例如。 The original diocese established by the late Archbishop Carfora in the 1920's in Chicago was called the Old Roman Catholic Diocese in the United States. Because of this, most independent Catholic communities are called Old Catholic or Old Roman Catholic.原教区卡尔福拉成立由已故的大主教在1920年在芝加哥的被称为教区在美国的旧罗马天主教。这是因为,最独立的天主教社区的所谓旧天主教或旧罗马天主教。

What Old Catholics Believe旧天主教徒相信什么

The faith of Old Catholics is simply that of the Catholic Church as taught by the Church from apostolic times to the present day.旧的天主教徒的信仰很简单的天主教教会作为时代受教于使徒教会从到今天。The ecumenical Councils clearly express what Old Catholics believe without the need for apology or excuse.合一议会明确表示什么旧的天主教徒认为没有理由或需要道歉。In 1823, Archbishop Willibrord van Os of Utrecht reiterated adherence to the unchanging doctrine of Catholicism in the following words:"We accept without any exception whatever, all the Articles of the Holy Catholic Faith. We will never hold nor teach, now or afterwards, any other opinions than those that have been decreed, determined and published by our Mother, Holy Church" 1823年,大主教威利布罗德面包车锇乌得勒支重申坚持不变的天主教教义在下面的话:“我们没有接受任何异常,所有的信仰天主教的圣条款。我们绝对不会也没有教,现在或以后, ,教会 没有其他意见,比那些母亲已经颁布法令,确定并公布我们的神圣“Thus, Old Catholics, tracing their Apostolic Succession through the Roman Catholic Church to the Apostles, participated in the full sacramental ministry of the Church.因此,旧的天主教徒,追查他们的罗马天主教教会的使徒继承通过的使徒,参加了全教会的圣事部。The Rule of Faith of Old Catholics is faithful adherence to Sacred Scripture and the Apostolic Tradition.天主教徒统治的旧的信仰,是忠于圣经和使徒的传统。

How Do They Differ?它们有什么不同?

In matters of discipline, administration and procedure, Old Catholics differ from the Roman Catholic Church.在纪律事项,行政和程序,不同于旧天主教罗马天主教会。For example, clerical celibacy (which is a matter of discipline) is optional among Old Catholics.例如,文职独身(这是一个纪律问题的)是可选的天主教徒之间旧。Married men may be ordained and in many of our dioceses clergy may, with prior episcopal consent, enter into Holy Matrimony after ordination.已婚男子可能被祝圣和在许多教区神职人员的可能,事先主教同意进入神圣的婚姻后,协调。Liturgical expression is also a matter of discipline determined by the local bishop.礼仪表现也是当地的一位主教问题的纪律决定。 Consequently, many Old Catholic communities have adopted the liturgical renewal promulgated following the Second Vatican Council while still maintaining Tridentine liturgy, in Latin or direct translation into classical or modern English, in those parishes that desire it.因此,许多旧天主教社区都采用了礼仪重建颁布后,梵蒂冈第二次会议,同时仍然保持律但丁礼仪翻译,在拉丁美洲,或直接到古典或现代英语,在这些教区的这一愿望的。 Eastern rite Old Catholic parishes exist as well, which follow the ancient liturgies of that rich tradition.东方礼天主教教区旧存在,以及中,这些富有传统的古代礼仪的。Because Old Catholic communities are small, they are able to successfully implement the Ignatian model of the Church referred to earlier.由于旧天主教社区虽小,它们能够成功地执行了依纳爵教堂前面提到的模型。This concept views the faithful with their clergy and bishop as a community or family in loving concern for each other and each working together to live the Scriptural commands in their daily lives as Christians bringing the love of Christ to others.这个概念的看法互相忠实与社区神职人员和主教作为关心家庭或爱好and每个工作,共同生活的基督对他人的爱圣经bringing命令他们每天在lives作为Christians。 Old Catholic communities utilize their size and lack of highly detailed structure to the very best advantage organizationally by their ability to expedite decisions affecting the sacramental and community life of the faithful, within the revelation and authority of Holy Scripture and Apostolic Tradition.旧天主教社区利用能力,加快和决定影响的圣社区生活的忠实其规模和缺乏非常详细的组织结构,其优势是最好的,在传统的启示和圣经的权威和使徒。

Other Distinctions其他的区别

There are other distinctives by which Old Catholic communities are differentiated from Roman Catholic parishes.罗马天主教有其他distinctives其中旧天主教教区从社区区别。The matter of papal infallibility defined by Vatican Council I is a non-issue for Old Catholics, since we are independent of papal jurisdiction.安理会事项梵蒂冈教皇犯错误的定义我是一个非天主教徒发出老,因为我们是独立于教皇的管辖。All Old Catholic communities accord the Holy Father that respect due him as Successor of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles and Patriarch of the West.所有旧天主教社区给予圣父这方面由于西他作为圣彼得的继承人,王子使徒和主教。Old Catholics adhere to the teaching from apostolic times that the Church in General Council is infallible.旧时代的天主教徒坚持教学,安理会从使徒教会一般是不会犯错误的。Another difference, is that divorced people who remarry are treated in a pastoral manner and not excluded from the sacramental life of the Church.另一个区别是,离婚再婚是谁教会人们在牧区的方式对待和不排除从圣事生活。 Further, the matter of contraception is treated as a matter of personal conscience between husband and wife.此外,避孕事项被视为丈夫和妻子无论个人良知之间。Old Catholic theology recognizes that the Church's teaching magisterium has no less than two objects: the formation of conscience, in which case authority has an instructive quality; and the nurturing of a formed conscience to full maturity, in which case authority is guiding but not directive.旧天主教神学认识到教会的教学训导有不少于两个对象:良心的形成,在这种情况下,当局有一个指导性的质量,以及良心培育的成立完全成熟,在这种情况下,权威的指导,但不指令。


Old Catholics旧的天主教徒

Catholic Information天主教信息

The sect organised in German-speaking countries to combat the dogma of Papal Infallibility.该教派在德国举办葡语国家打击犯错误的教条的教皇。

Filled with ideas of ecclesiastical Liberalism and rejecting the Christian spirit of submission to the teachings of the Church, nearly 1400 Germans issued, in September, 1870, a declaration in which they repudiated the dogma of Infallibility "as an innovation contrary to the traditional faith of the Church".充满自由主义思想的教会和拒绝提交基督教教会的精神教义的,有近1400德国发行,9月,1870年,一项宣言,以信心,他们否定了传统的教条一贯正确的“作为创新相反教会“。 They were encouraged by large numbers of scholars, politicians, and statesmen, and were acclaimed by the Liberal press of the whole world.他们是学者鼓励数目大,政治家和政治家,是享誉全世界的自由记者。The break with the Church began with this declaration, which was put forth notwithstanding the fact that the majority of the German bishops issued, at Fulda on 30 August, a common pastoral letter in support of the dogma.教会开始打破了这一宣言,这是把事实提出尽管大多数的德国主教发表的富尔达,在8月30日,一个共同的教条牧区的信支持。 It was not until 10 April, 1871, that Bishop Hefele of Rotterdam issued a letter concerning the dogma to his clergy.直到1871年4月10日,即黑弗勒鹿特丹主教的信中发出的关于他的教义的神职人员。By the end of 1870 all the Austrian and Swiss bishops had done the same.到1870年底,奥地利和瑞士的所有主教已经这样做了。

The movement against the dogma was carried on with such energy that the first Old Catholic Congress was able to meet at Munich, 22-24 September, 1871.对运动的教条进行能源与这样的旧天主教代表大会第一次能够满足在慕尼黑,9月22-24日,1871年。Before this, however, the Archbishop of Munich had excommunicated Döllinger on 17 April 1871, and later also Friedrich.在此之前,不过,慕尼黑大主教曾驱逐多林格4月17日1871年,后来又弗里德里希。The congress was attended by over 300 delegates from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, besides friends from Holland, France, Spain, Brazil, Ireland, and the representatives of the Anglican Church, with German and American Protestants.出席大会的300多名代表奥地利从德国,瑞士,除了教会的朋友从荷兰,法国,西班牙,巴西,爱尔兰,英国圣公会和代表,与德国和美国新教徒。 The moving spirit in this and all later assemblies for organization was Johann Friedrich von Schulte, the professor of dogma at Prague.稍后集会的精神在这方面和所有组织的移动是约翰弗里德里希冯舒尔特,教授的教条在布拉格。Von Schulte summed up the results of the congress as follows:冯舒尔特总结,作为代表大会的结果如下:

Adherence to the ancient Catholic faith;坚持古老的天主教信仰;

maintenance of the rights of Catholics as such;维修天主教徒的权利等;

rejection of the new dogmas,拒绝新的教条,

adherence to the constitutions of the ancient Church with repudiation of every dogma of faith not in harmony with the actual consciousness of the Church;坚持在和谐的古老信仰不抛弃教会的教条与每个到宪法与教会实际意识;

reform of the Church with constitutional participation of the laity;改革与平信徒参与教会的宪法;

preparation of the way for reunion of the Christian confessions;筹备的基督教供词团聚的方式;

reform of the training and position of the clergy;改革的培训和神职人员的地位;

adherence to the State against the attacks of Ultramontanism;坚持对国家至上主义的袭击;

rejection of the Society of Jesus;拒绝耶稣会;

solemn assertion of the claims of Catholics as such to the real property of the Church and to the title to it.庄严的天主教徒主张这样的索赔对教会的不动产和它的所有权。

A resolution was also passed on the forming of the parish communities, which Döllinger vehemently opposed and voted against.还通过一项决议,关于对构成该教区的社区,这多林格强烈反对和赞成。The second congress, held at Cologne, 20-22 September, 1872, ws attended by 350 Old Catholic delegates, besides one Jansenist and three Anglican bishops, Russian clergy, and English and other Protestant ministers.第二次代表大会,1872年在德国科隆举行,9月20-22日,出席会议的350名旧天主教代表,除了一简森派圣公会主教,3,俄罗斯神职人员,英语及其他新教部长。 The election of a bishop was decided on, and among the most important resolutions passed were those pertaining to the organization of the pastorate and parishes.主教选举是决定一个,当中最重要的是那些通过决议有关的教区的牧师和组织。This was followed by steps to obtain recognition of the Old Catholics by various governments; the general feeling of that time made it easy to obtain this recognition from Prussia, Baden, and Hesse.其次是步骤,以取得政府各旧的天主教徒承认的,在当时一般的感觉,因而很容易获得此确认由普鲁士,巴登和黑森。Professor Reinkens of Bonn was elected bishop, 4 June, 1873, and was consecrated at Rotterdam by the Jansenist Bishop of Deventer, Heydekamp, 11 August, 1873.赖因肯斯的波恩教授当选主教,1873年6月4日,并在鹿特丹神圣的,1873年简森派主教芬特尔,Heydekamp,8月11日。 Having been officially recognized as "Catholic Bishop" by Prussia, 19 September, and having taken the oath of allegiance, 7 October, 1873, he selected Bonn as his place of residence.经1873年被正式确认为“天主教主教”的普鲁士,9月19日,并具有在内,宣誓效忠,10月7日,他选择了波恩作为他的居住地点。 The bishop and his diocese were granted by Prussia an annual sum of 4800 Marks ($1200).教区的主教和他被授予由普鲁士一1200)总结4800年商标($。Pius IX excommunicated Reinkens by name, 9 November, 1873; previous to which, in the spring of 1872, the archbishop of Cologne had been obliged to excommunicate Hilgers, Langen, Reusch, and Knoodt, professors of theology at Bonn. 1873年比约九驱逐赖因肯斯的名字,11月9日,这之前的1872年,在春,科隆大主教不得不破门希尔格斯,兰根,雷施,并Knoodt,在波恩教授神学。 The same fate had also overtaken several professors at Braunsberg and Breslau.同样的命运,也超越和几个教授在布雷斯劳布劳恩斯贝格。The fiction brought forward by Friedrich von Schulte that the Old Catholics are the true Catholics was accepted by several governments in Germany and Switzerland, and many Catholic churches were transferred to the sect.小说带来了弗里德里希冯舒尔特说,旧的天主教徒,是真正的天主教徒接受德国和瑞士政府在几个,很多天主教教堂被转移到该教派。 This was done notwithstanding the fact that a decree of the Inquisition, dated 17 September, 1871, and a Brief of 12 March, 1873, had again shown that the Old Catholics had no connection with the Catholic church; represented, therefore, a religious society entirely separate from the Church; and consequently could assert no legal claims whatever to the funds or buildings for worship of the Catholic Church.尽管这样做是教会一个事实,即1873年3月12日,法令的宗教裁判所,对9月17日,1871年,与略,已再次表明,旧天主教教徒有没有连接的;代表,因此,一个宗教社会完全独立于教会,并因此可以断言没有任何法律索赔的资金或建筑物天主教教会崇拜。

The development of the internal organization of the sect occupied the congresses held at Freiburg in the Breisgau, 1874; at Breslau, 1876; Baden-Baden, 1880; and Krefeld, 1884; as well as the ordinary synods.该教派发展的内部组织占领弗莱堡举行的代表大会在布赖斯高,1874年,在布雷斯劳,1876年,巴登,1880年和克雷菲尔德,1884年,以及普通主教会议。 The synodal constitution, adopted at the urgency of von Schulte, seems likely to lead to the ruin of the sect.宪法的主教会议,通过冯舒尔特的紧迫性,很可能导致破产的教派。It has resulted in unlimited arbitrariness and a radical break with all the disciplinary ordinances of Catholicism.它导致了无限的随意性和天主教彻底决裂与纪律条例所有。Especially far-reaching was the abolition of celibacy, called forth by the lack of priests.特别是深远的,是独身取消,祭司提出的所谓的缺乏。After the repeal of this law a number of priests who were tired of celibacy, none of whom were of much intellectual importance, took refuge among the Old Catholics.后废除这项法律的重要性,知识产权的数量大大祭司谁是厌倦了独身,没有一个人是的,把旧的天主教徒之间避难。 The statute of 14 June, 1878, for the maintenance of discipline among the Old Catholic clergy, has merely theoretical value.在1878年6月14日章程,神职人员,天主教维护纪律之间的老,仅仅有理论价值。A bishop's fund, a pension fund, and a supplementary fund for the incomes of parish priests have been formed, thanks to the aid given by governments and private persons.一位主教的基金,养老基金,以及一个教区神职人员的收入补充基金已经形成,人员表示感谢各国政府和私人给予的援助。 In the autumn of 1877, Bishop Reinkens founded a residential seminary for theological students, which, on 17 January, 1894, was recognized by royal cabinet order as a juridical person with an endowment of 110,000 Marks ($27,500).在1877年秋,建立了主教赖因肯斯27,500)神学院的神学学生的住宅,其中,在1894年1月17日一,内阁的命令是由英国皇家认可法人元,一个捐赠11万马克(。 A house of studies for gymnasial students called the Paulinum was founded 20 April, 1898, and a residence for the bishop was bought.一个学生家gymnasial研究为所谓的Paulinum成立于1898年4月20日,和主教官邸的是买来的。Besides other periodical publications there is an official church paper.除了其他定期出版物有一个官方教会文件。These statements, which refer mainly to Germany, may also be applied in part to the few communities founded in Austria, which, however, have never reached any importance.这些声明,这主要是指德国,也可应用到部分的重要性从来没有达成任何少数社区成立于奥地利,然而,。In Switzerland the clergy, notwithstanding the very pernicious agitation, acquitted themselves well, so that only three priests apostatized.在搅拌瑞士神职人员,尽管非常有害的,被宣告无罪自己很好,所以,只有3个祭司apostatized。 The Protestant cantons -- above all, Berne, Basle, and Geneva -- did everything possible to promote the movement.上述所有新教州-伯尔尼,巴塞尔,日内瓦-千方百计促进运动。An Old Catholic theological faculty, in which two radical Protestants lectured, was founded at the University of Berne.旧天主教神学系,其中两个激进的新教徒讲课,是在伯尔尼大学成立。At the same time all the Swiss Old Catholic communities organized themselves into a "Christian Catholic National Church" in 1875; in the next hear Dr. Herzog was elected bishop and consecrated by Dr. Reinkens.在同一时间在瑞士举办的1875年旧天主教社区自己变成了一个“全国基督教天主教教会”中,在未来听到赫尔佐克博士被选为主教和赖因肯斯神圣博士。 Berne was chosen as his place of residence.伯尔尼被选定为他的居住地点。As in Germany so in Switzerland confession was done away with, celibacy abolished, and the use of the vernacular prescribed for the service of the altar.正如德国口供,以便在瑞士掉的,独身取消,使用白话规定为坛服务的。Attempts to extend Old Catholicism to other countries failed completely.试图延长旧天主教到其他国家完全失败。That lately an apostate English priest named Arnold Matthew, who for a time was a Unitarian, married, then united with another suspended London priest named O'Halloran, and was consecrated by the Jansenist Archbishop of Utrecht, is not a matter of any importance.这最近一叛教者英语牧师名为马修阿诺德,时间为1谁是一个统一,结婚,然后再暂停团结伦敦奥哈洛伦神父命名,并于乌得勒支神圣的简森派大主教,不是任何一个重要问题。 Matthew calls himself an Old Catholic bishop, but has practically no following.马修自称是旧天主教主教,但几乎没有以下。 Some of the few persons who attend his church in London do so ignorantly in the belief that the church is genuinely Catholic.伦敦的一些教堂的少数几个人做他的出席,相信谁如此无知的,教会是真正的天主教徒。

The very radical liturgical, disciplinary, and constitutional ordinances adopted in the first fifteen years gradually convinced even the most friendly government officials that the fiction of the Catholicism of the Old Catholics was no longer tenable.非常激进的礼仪,纪律,条例和宪制年15通过了第一个逐渐相信即使是最友好的政府官员,旧的天主教徒小说天主教的不再是站不住脚的。 The damage, however, had been done, the legal recognition remained unchanged, and the grant from the budget could not easily be dropped.的损害,但是,已经完成,在法律上承认保持不变,预算的拨款从不能轻易被丢弃。In Germany, although there was no essential change in this particular, yet the political necessity which led to a modus vivendi in the Kulturkampf chilled the interest of statesmen in Old Catholics, particularly as the latter had not been able to fulfil their promise of nationalizing the Church in Germany.在德国,虽然没有在这个特殊本质的变化,但政治上的需要而导致的文化之权宜之计在冷藏天主教徒的利益老政治家,特别是后者未能履行其承诺的国有化教会在德国。 The utter failure of this attempt was due to the solidarity of the violently persecuted Catholics.在这种企图彻底失败的原因是天主教徒团结的暴力迫害。In many cases entire families returned to the Church after the first excitement had passed, and the winning power of the Old Catholic movement declined throughout Germany in the same degree as that in which the Kulturkampf powerfully stimulated genuine Catholic feeling.在许多情况下全家回到了教会后第一个兴奋已经过去了,天主教运动赢得权力的旧下降德国各地在相同程度,在该文化之有力推动了真正的天主教的感觉。 The number of Old Catholics sank rapidly and steadily; to conceal this the leaders of the movement made use of a singular device.旧的天主教徒人数迅速沉没,稳步,掩盖这一运动的领导人作出的设备使用的单数。Up to then Old Catholics had called themselves such, both for the police registry and for the census.截至当时曾称自己为老天主教徒等,都为警察登记和普查。They were now directed by their leaders to cease this and to call themselves simply Catholics.他们现在指示他们的领导人,并呼吁停止这种仅仅把自己的天主教徒。The rapid decline of the sect has thus been successfully concealed, so that it is not possible at the present day to give fairly exact statistics.该教派的迅速衰落也因此获得成功所掩盖,所以它不是有可能在目前的每天给予相当确切的统计数字。The designation of themselves as Catholics by the Old Catholics is all the stranger as in essential doctrines and worship they hardly differ from a liberal form of Protestantism.天主教徒指定自己是天主教徒,是由旧的所有新教陌生人在基本教义和崇拜,他们的自由形式大同小异从。 However, the prescribed concealment of membership in the Old Catholic body had this much good in it, that many who had long been secretly estranged from the sect were able to return to the Church without attracting attention.然而,旧的天主教机构规定的成员隐瞒了这也十分有用,有很多谁已久的秘密教派疏远的人能够返回而不引起注意的教会。 On account of these circumstances only Old Catholic statistics of some years back can be given.背面到这些情况,只有一些旧天主教统计年可以得到。In 1878 there were in the German empire: 122 congregations, including 44 in Baden, 36 in Prussia, 34 in Bavaria, and about 52,000 members; in 1890 there were only about 30,000 Old Catholics on account of a decided decline in Bavaria.1878年有在德意志帝国:122教友,包括36 44巴登,在普鲁士,巴伐利亚州34,约5.2万成员,在1890年有1只在巴伐利亚决定减少约30,000帐户旧天主教徒。In 1877 there were in Switzerland about 73,000; in 1890 only about 25,000.在1877年有7.3万,1890年在瑞士的约2.5万只左右。 In Austria at the most flourishing period there were perhaps at the most 10,000 adherents, today there are probably not more than 4000.在奥地利期间在最繁华的信徒有可能在最万,今天有可能不超过4000。It may be said that the total number of Old Catholics in the whole of Europe is not much above 40,000. It seems strange that a movement carried on with so much intellectual vigour and one receiving such large support from the State should from bad management have gone to pieces thus rapidly and completely, especially as it was aided to a large degree in Germany and Switzerland by a violent attack upon Catholics.可以说,欧洲总人数的整个旧的天主教徒所不大大高于40000。奇怪的运动进行了这么多的生机和智力支持,从一接到这样大国应该从坏管理层成碎片从而迅速和彻底,特别是因为它是辅助和瑞士的暴力袭击后,由天主教徒在德国大的程度。 The reason is mainly the predominant influence of the laity under whose control the ecclesiastics were placed by the synodal constitution.其原因主要是宪法主教会议主要影响的俗人其控制下的被放置的神职人员。The abrogation of compulsory celibacy showed the utter instability and lack of moral foundation of the sect.废除强制性的独身表明,不稳定和教派完全缺乏道德基础。Döllinger repeatedly but vainly uttered warnings against all these destructive measures.多林格一再警告,但徒劳地说出措施,对所有这些破坏性。In general he held back from any active participation in the congresses and synods.一般来说,他会从任何和主教会议的积极参与大会。 This reserve frequently irritated the leaders of the movement, but Döllinger never let himself be persuaded to screen with his name things which he considered in the highest degree pernicious.这激怒了储备经常运动的领导人,但从来没有让自己多林格说服屏幕与他的名字的东西,他认为在最高程度上有害。 He never, however, became reconciled to the Church, notwithstanding the many efforts made by the Archbishop of Munich.他从来没有,不过,达成了和解的教会,尽管慕尼黑大主教的种种努力的。All things considered, Old Catholicism has practically ceased to exist.所有的事情考虑,旧天主教实际上已经不复存在。It is no longer of any public importance.这是没有任何公开的重要性更长。

For accounts of the movements and tendencies that led up to Old Catholicism see DÖLLINGER; GUNTHER; HERMES; INFALLIBILITY; LAMENNAIS; SYLLABUS; VATICAN COUNCIL.对于天主教账户的变动情况和趋势,导致了旧看到多林格;冈瑟,赫尔梅斯,犯错误; LAMENNAIS;课程;梵蒂冈会议。

Publication information Written by Paul Maria Baumgarten.出版信息鲍姆加滕写保罗玛丽亚。Transcribed by Herman F. Holbrook. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.转录由赫尔曼楼霍尔布鲁克。天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography书目

FRIEDBERG, Aktenstucke die altkatholische Bewegung betreffend (Tubingen, 1876); VON SCHULTE, Der Altkatholizismus, Geschichte Deutchland (Giessen, 1887); IDEM, Lebenerinnerungen.弗里德贝格,Aktenstucke死altkatholische Bewegung betreffend(蒂宾根,1876年);冯舒尔特,德Altkatholizismus,历史馆Deutchland(吉森,1887年);同上,Lebenerinnerungen。 Mein Worken als Rechtsleher, mein Anteil and der Politik in Kirche und Staat (giessen, 1908); VERING, Kirchenrecht (3rd ed., 1893), gives a good summary based on the original authorities.拜见Worken阿尔斯炒面Anteil和der政治报在Kirche Rechtsleher,北达科施塔特(吉森,1908年); VERING,Kirchenrecht(第3版。,1893年),给出了一个很好的总结当局原来的基础上。Besides the statements in the statistical year-books there is a good account of Old Catholicism in MACCAFFREY, History of the Catholic Church in the Nineteenth Century.除了图书的统计年报表中的19世纪有一个良好的帐户旧天主教在MACCAFFREY,历史的天主教教会在。1789-1909, I (Dublin and Waterford, 1909); MARSHALL, Döllinger and the Old Catholics in Amer. 1789至1909年,我(都柏林和沃特福德,1909年);马歇尔,多林格和天主教徒在阿米尔旧。Cath. Quart.蛋白酶。夸脱。Review (Philadelphia, 1890), 267 sqq.; cf.评论(费城,1890年),267时12 sqq。;比照。Also files of the London Taablet and Dublin Review (1870-71); Bruck-Kissling, lGeschicte der katholischen Kirche im neunzehnten Jahrhundert (Munster, 1908); MAJUNKE, Geschicte des Kulturkampfes in Preussen-Deutchland (Paderborn, 1882); GRANDERATH-KIRCH, Geschicte des Vatikanischen Konzils (Freiburg, 1903-06); cf.同时文件在伦敦和都柏林Taablet回顾(1870至1871年);的布鲁克,起士林,lGeschicte明镜katholischen Kirche的IM neunzehnten Jahrhundert(明斯特,1908年);马容克,Geschicte德Kulturkampfes在普鲁士,Deutchland(帕德博恩,1882年);格兰德拉特,基尔希,Geschicte德Vatikanischen Konzils(弗赖堡,1903年至06年);比照。also Friedrich, Geschicte des Vatikanischen Konzils (Bonn, 1877-87); in addition, the very full polemical literature of 1868-72 concerning the council and the question of Infallibility should be examined.还弗里德里希,Geschicte德Vatikanischen Konzils(波恩,1877年至1887年),此外,非常充分的1868年至1872年文学论战关于安理会和犯错误的问题进行审查。The most important writings are briefly mentioned in the works just mentioned.最重要的著作进行了简要提及刚才提到的工程。The two biographies, from opposing points of view, of Dolllinger by FRIEDRICH (Munich, 1891-1901) and MICHAEL (Innsbruck, 1892) contain much valuable material.这两个传记),从反对意见认为,Dolllinger弗里德里希(慕尼黑,1891年至1901年)和迈克尔(因斯布鲁克,1892年包含了许多有价值的材料。


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