Old School Theology旧学校神学

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Old School Presbyterians maintained Calvinist orthodoxy from the 1830s to the 1860s.旧学校长老会维持到1830年代加尔文主义的正统从19世纪60年代。Princeton theologians Archibald Alexander and Charles Hodge believed that their theology faithfully reflected Reformed beliefs and should be central in American Presbyterianism. They contended that their Calvinism was historically aligned with the Westminster Confession of Faith, John Calvin, Augustine, and the Bible itself.普林斯顿神学家亚历山大和查尔斯霍奇阿奇博尔德认为,他们的神学忠实地反映了改革的信念,并应在美国长老会的中心。他们争辩说,他们的加尔文主义是历史本身也赞同他的圣经西敏寺招供的信仰,约翰加尔文,奥古斯丁和。 The very term "Old School theology" indicates that its adherents wanted to retain traditional Reformed doctrines. They wanted a "consistent Calvinism" and developed distinct views on confessionalism, revivalism, and church polity.来说,“老学校神学”表明,它的信徒要保留传统的改革理论。他们想要一个“一贯的加尔文主义”和发展,复古不同意见宗派主义,和教会的政体。 Because of their stand on these issues, the Old School faction expelled the New School from the church in 1837 for having diverged from them.由于他们在这些问题上的立场,老学校派赶出学校从偏离他们的新教堂在1837年后的。

Believing that doctrinal orthodoxy was of primary importance in Christian faith, Old School men desired a strict confessionalism or subscription to the Westminster Confession.认为正统信仰的教义是基督教最重要的,老校友男人想要一个严格的自白或订阅西敏寺供认。Several New School leaders such as Albert Barnes and Lyman Beecher were accused of holding sub - Calvinist views related to the New Haven theology of Nathaniel W Taylor.几种新学校比彻领导人,阿尔伯特巴恩斯和莱曼被指控持有子- w的泰勒加尔文意见涉及纳撒尼尔纽黑文神学的。Alexander and Hodge answered Taylor in seven articles in the Princeton Review (1830 - 31) by stressing Reformed doctrines such as the imputation of Adam's sin (Adam acted as a representative for all men and his sin was counted against them), Christ's substitutionary atonement, and the regenerating work of the Holy Spirit.亚历山大和霍奇回答)泰勒31七篇文章在普林斯顿评论(1830 - ,强调他的罪过改革理论等,并作为归责亚当的男子罪(1亚当担任代表所有被他们计算反对),基督的替代赎罪,和圣灵工作的再生。

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Many Old School men, including Alexander and Hodge, were greatly influenced by revivals in their younger days and acknowledged a continuing need for revival in the church.许多老学校男子,包括亚历山大和霍奇,受到极大影响复兴在他们年轻时,并承认一个教会需要持续的复苏。But they sharply criticized contemporary revivalists for expressing Taylorite views in their preaching.但是,他们尖锐地批评他们鼓吹复兴主义观点在当代表达Taylorite。They condemned emotional excesses and demanded that true revivals be carried out within the church guided by its confessional stance on God's sovereignty and human inability. Charles G Finney's theology and Lectures on Revivals of Religion (1835) were thoroughly criticized.他们谴责过激情绪,真正的复兴,并要求1835年进行了宗教(教会内指导其教派的立场上帝的主权和人类无力。查尔斯G芬尼和讲座的神学上恢复现象)的彻底批判。 Hodge preferred Horace Bushnell's concept of Christian nurture to revivalism as the primary means of bringing people to faith in Christ.霍奇首选霍勒斯布什内尔的基督教观念的培育,以复古为在基督信仰的主要手段,以使人民。

The Old School party also strongly supported Presbyterian polity as most consistent with a Reformed view of the church.党的老学校也大力支持教会长老政体改革的观点是一致的,因为大部分带有。 Arguing that church order was a matter of faith, they opposed a plan of union with Congregationalists and claimed that Presbyterian polity provided discipline necessary to prevent errors in doctrine and practice which Congregationalism lacked.他们认为教会的命令是一个信仰问题的,他们反对一个公理计划与工会,并声称长老政体提供了必要的纪律,防止在没有错误理论和实践的公理。 They also repudiated the social activism of voluntary societies, preferring that education and mission activities take place within the institutional church, where it also could be guided by the church's confession.他们还否定了社会的社会运动的志愿,希望把教育活动采取认罪和使命的体制教堂内举行,它也可以在遵循教堂。

In 1869 New and Old Schools reunited, primarily because during the schism New School theology had become more orthodox.在1869年新的和旧学校统一神学,主要是因为在新学校的分裂已变得更为正统。

WA Hoffecker西澳奥费克
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
A Alexander, Evidences of the Authenticity, Inspiration and Authority of the Holy Scriptures; SJ Baird, A History of the New School; AA Hodge, The Life of Charles Hodge; C Hodge, Systematic Theology; Princeton Review, 1837 - 69.阿亚历山大,证据的真实性,启示和圣经的神圣管理局,律政司司长贝尔德,学校历史上的新;机管局霍奇,查尔斯生命霍奇; c Hodge的,有系统的神学;普林斯顿评论,1837 - 69。


Lyman Beecher莱曼比彻

General Information一般信息

Lyman Beecher (1775-1863) was an American Presbyterian clergyman, born in New Haven, Connecticut, and educated at Yale College (now Yale University).莱曼比彻(1775年至1863年),美国长老会牧师,出生在康涅狄格州纽黑文,和(现就读于耶鲁大学耶鲁大学)。 He became pastor of the Presbyterian Church at East Hampton, New York, in 1798.他成了,汉普顿,纽约长老教会牧师在东于1798年。At this church, in 1804, he attained national prominence through his brilliant sermon on the death of the American statesman Alexander Hamilton, who was killed in a duel with the American statesman Aaron Burr.在这个教堂,在1804年,他取得了突出阿龙伯尔国家通过美国的政治家,他的光辉讲道在死亡的美国政治家亚历山大汉密尔顿,与谁在决斗中被打死。 Beecher held pastorates successively at Litchfield, Connecticut, and Boston between 1810 and 1832, and during this period he became known as one of the most eloquent preachers of his time.比彻在利奇菲尔德先后举行pastorates,康涅狄格州和波士顿1810年和1832年之间,在此期间,他成为当时已知他作为一个最有说服力的传道人。 He also was one of the leaders of a Presbyterian faction, called the New School, that opposed the strict doctrine and discipline of the conservative Presbyterians, called the Old School.他还派一个长老会的领导人,所谓的新学校,即反对严格的原则和纪律长老保守,被称为旧学校。

In 1832 Beecher was appointed first president of Lane Theological Seminary, near Cincinnati, Ohio, and pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Cincinnati.比彻在1832年被任命为第一任校长巷神学院辛辛那提附近辛辛那提,俄亥俄州,和牧师第二长老教会。His doctrinal liberalism soon brought him into conflict with his regional superiors.他的理论自由主义很快就使他的上司与他发生冲突的区域。In 1835 he was tried by the presbytery on charges of heresy and hypocrisy, but was acquitted. 1835年他被审判的虚伪长老和收费的异端,但被无罪释放。The Presbyterian Synod, to which the verdict was appealed, sustained his acquittal in the same year.长老主教会议,对此判决提出上诉,维持了其在同一年无罪释放。When the schism foreshadowed by the Old School - New School controversy finally developed in 1838, Beecher adhered to the New School. He continued to preach at his Cincinnati church until 1842 and retained the titular presidency of Lane Theological Seminary for the remainder of his life.当分裂预示了旧学校-新学的争论终于在1838年制定,比彻坚持新学校。他继续在他的教会传教,直到1842年辛辛那提并保留了他的生命里领衔主持的神学院的神学其余为。 He was the father of 13 children, among them the noted American writer Harriet Beecher Stowe.他是孩子的父亲13其中,在著名的美国作家著名作家。All seven of his sons became clergymen.全部7个儿子,他成了牧师。His writings include Collected Works (3 volumes, 1852) and Autobiography and Correspondence (1863).他的著作包括文集(3卷,1852年)和自传和通讯(1863年)。


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