Orthodox Church东正教教堂

dōngzhèngjiào jiàotáng

Orthodox Catholic Church, Greek Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox Church东正教天主教,希腊东正教,东正教堂

General Information一般信息

One of the three branches of world Christianity and the major Christian church in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, the Orthodox church, also sometimes called the Eastern church, or the Greek Orthodox, or Orthodox Catholic church, claims to have preserved the original and apostolic Christian faith. Figures for its worldwide membership range from 100 to 200 million, depending on the method of accounting.教堂的三个分支之一,世界基督教和东正教天主教基督教教堂主要在中东和东欧,所谓的东正教教堂,有时也东部教会,或希腊东正教,或声称已保留了原有的和使徒基督教信仰。数字其全球成员范围从100至200亿美元,根据会计法。

Structure and Organization结构和组织

The Orthodox church is a fellowship of administratively independent, or autocephalous (self - governing) local churches, united in faith, sacraments, and canonical discipline, each enjoying the right to elect its own head and its bishops. Traditionally, the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople (Istanbul) is recognized as the "first among equal" Orthodox bishops.东正教教堂是一个独立的行政联谊会理事,或独立的(自我- )当地教会,圣礼团结的信念,规范和纪律,各自享有的权利,选出自己的头部和主教。传统, 君士坦丁堡普世牧首(伊斯坦布尔)是公认的东正教主教“第一之间的平等”。He possesses privileges of chairmanship and initiative but no direct doctrinal or administrative authority.他拥有的权力和特权的主席倡议,但没有直接的理论或行政责任。

The other heads of autocephalous churches, in order of precedence, are: the patriarch of Alexandria , Egypt, with jurisdiction over Africa; the patriarch of Antioch , now residing in Damascus, Syria, and heading Arab - speaking Orthodox Christians in Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq; the patriarch of Jerusalem , with jurisdiction over Palestine; the patriarch of Moscow and all Russia ; the patriarch - catholicos of Georgia ( USSR ); the patriarch of Serbia (Yugoslavia); the patriarch of Romania ; the patriarch of Bulgaria ; the archbishop of Cyprus ; the archbishop of Athens and all Greece ; the metropolitan of Warsaw and all Poland ; the archbishop of Albania (presently suppressed); the metropolitan of Prague and all Czechoslovakia ; and the archbishop of New York and North America.其他的独立的教会的元首优先,按顺序是:埃及,具有管辖权非洲元老, 亚历山大安提阿牧,目前居住在大马士革的阿拉伯,叙利亚和标题-讲东正教基督徒在叙利亚黎巴嫩,和伊拉克; 耶路撒冷宗主教的,与巴勒斯坦的管辖权; 俄罗斯莫斯科宗主教和所有 ;的元老- )大主教格鲁吉亚 (苏联;的)元老塞尔维亚 (南斯拉夫, 罗马尼亚的元老,在保加利亚的元老;的塞浦路斯大主教,大主教在希腊雅典和所有 ;大都市的波兰华沙和所有 ;的阿尔巴尼亚大主教(目前抑制);在捷克斯洛伐克布拉格和所有大城市,以及美国纽约大主教和北。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
Three autonomous churches also enjoy a large degree of independence, although the election of their primate is subject to nominal approval by a mother church.三自主教堂也享有很大程度的独立性,尽管选举的灵长类动物是受母亲教会名义批准一个。These are the churches of Crete and Finland, under Constantinople, and the church of Japan, under Moscow.这些都是和芬兰教会的克里特,在君士坦丁堡,和日本的教会,在莫斯科。The autocephalous and autonomous churches differ greatly in size and membership.在独立的和自主的教会很大的不同规模和成员。The churches of Russia (50 - 90 million) and Romania (21 million) are by far the largest, whereas some of the ancient patriarchates of the Middle East, including Constantinople, are reduced to a few thousand members.俄罗斯教堂(50 - 90万美元)和罗马尼亚(2100万)是目前为止最大的,而君士坦丁堡东部分,包括古牧首辖区的中,已被减少到几千个成员。

The patriarch of Constantinople, however, also exercises jurisdiction over Greek - speaking churches outside Greece and controls, for example, the Greek archdiocese of America, which is distinct from the Orthodox church in America, listed among the autocephalous churches.在君士坦丁堡牧首的,不过,也行使管辖权的希腊-例如教堂外面讲希腊和控制,希腊教区的美国,这是有别于美国的东正教教堂,教堂名列独立的。 In Greece the Orthodox church is the established religion.在希腊东正教教堂是既定的宗教。Long repressed in the USSR and the Communist countries of Eastern Europe, it experienced renewed freedom with the removal of restrictions on religion during the Gorbachev era.长期压抑在苏联和东欧的共产党国家,它经历了新时代的自由与宗教的限制,取消在戈尔巴乔夫。

History历史

Historically, the contemporary Orthodox church stands in direct continuity with the earliest Christian communities founded in regions of the Eastern Mediterranean by the apostles of Jesus. The subsequent destinies of Christianity in those areas were shaped by the transfer (320) of the imperial capital from Rome to Constantinople by Constantine I. As a consequence, during the first 8 centuries of Christian history most major intellectual, cultural, and social developments in the Christian church also took place in that region; for example, all ecumenical councils of that period met either in Constantinople or in its vicinity. Missionaries, coming from Constantinople, converted the Slavs and other peoples of Eastern Europe to Christianity (Bulgaria, 864; Russia, 988) and translated Scripture and liturgical texts into the vernacular languages used in the various regions.从历史上看,当代东正教教堂坐落在直接的连续性与耶稣的使徒,在地区成立最早的基督教社区的地中海东部。命运从罗马帝国的首都随后的基督教在这些领域是:(形由转让320)君士坦丁堡因此由君士坦丁一历史,在8世纪的第一个基督教最重要的智力,文化和社会发展中的基督教教堂也发生在该地区发生,例如,该期间所有基督教会举行会议,无论是在君士坦丁堡或在其附近。传教士,来自君士坦丁堡,转换的斯拉夫人和东欧其他国家人民对基督教(保加利亚,864,俄罗斯,988)和翻译圣经和各地区的礼仪中使用的语言文字成白话文。 Thus, the liturgy, traditions, and practices of the church of Constantinople were adopted by all and still provide the basic patterns and ethos of contemporary Orthodoxy.因此,礼仪,传统和做法的君士坦丁堡教会通过了所有的,仍然提供了基本模式和东正教精神的当代。

These developments, however, were not always consistent with the evolution of Western Christianity, where the bishop of Rome, or pope, came to be considered the successor of the apostle Peter and head of the universal church by divine appointment.这些事态发展,然而,并不总是一致的任命与神圣的演变西方基督教,在罗马的主教或教皇,来到被认为是继承了由使徒彼得和普世教会的头。 Eastern Christians were willing to accept the pope only as first among patriarchs.东部基督徒愿意接受教皇只作为元老之首。 This difference in approach explains the various incidents that grew into a serious estrangement.这种方法的差异解释了严重隔阂的各种事件,成长为一个。One of the most vehement disputes concerned the filioque clause of the Nicene Creed, which the Western church added unilaterally to the original text.一个原始文本最激烈的纠纷单方面增加有关filioque条款的尼西亚信经,而西方的教堂。

The schism developed gradually.逐步发展的分裂。The first major breach came in the 9th century when the pope refused to recognize the election of Photius as patriarch of Constantinople.第一个重要突破口来在9世纪时,教皇拒绝承认君士坦丁堡牧首的Photius选举。Photius in turn challenged the right of the papacy to rule on the matter and denounced the filioque clause as a Western innovation.photius在反过来挑战教皇的统治权就此事,并谴责西方创新filioque条款为。The mounting disputes between East and West reached another climax in 1054, when mutual anathemas were exchanged (Great Schism).东,西方之间的纠纷越来越多在1054年达到另一个高潮时,相互交换了anathemas(大分裂)。The sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade (1204) intensified Eastern hostility toward the West.在西方被解职君士坦丁堡的第四次十字军东征(1204敌视)加强东部。Attempts at reconciliation at the councils of Lyon (1274) and Florence (1438 - 39) were unsuccessful. When the papacy defined itself as infallible (First Vatican Council, 1870), the gulf between East and West grew wider. Only since the Second Vatican Council (1962 - 65) has the movement reversed, bringing serious attempts at mutual understanding.和解企图在议会的里昂(1274)和佛罗伦萨(1438年至1439年)都没有成功。 当教皇定义本身犯错(第一梵蒂冈会议,1870年),西东,增长之间的差距扩大。只在第二次梵蒂冈会(1962 - 65)有运动的逆转,使相互理解严重企图。

Doctrines and Practices理论和实践

The Orthodox church recognizes as authoritative the decisions of the seven ecumenical councils that met between 325 and 787 and defined the basic doctrines on the Trinity and the Incarnation. In later centuries Orthodox councils also made doctrinal definitions on Grace (1341, 1351) and took a stand in reference to Western teachings. 东正教教堂承认三位一体和化身为权威对决定会见了七个合一议会之间的基本教义325和787和界定。在后来的几个世纪的东正教议会还就格雷斯理论的定义(1341,1351),并注意到一站在参照西方的教义。 The Orthodox church accepts the early traditions of Christianity, including the same sacraments as the Roman Catholic church - although in the Orthodox church infants receive the Eucharist and confirmation - and the episcopate and the priesthood, understood in the light of Apostolic Succession.东正教教堂接受传统的天主教教会的早期基督教的罗马,包括同一圣礼-尽管在东正教教堂的圣体和婴儿获得确认-与主教和神职人员,继承使徒理解光的。 Married men may become priests, but bishops and monks may not marry. The veneration of Mary, as Mother of God is central to Orthodox worship, and the intercession of saints is emphasized in the Orthodox liturgical tradition.已婚男子可能成为神父,但主教和僧侣不得结婚。 奉祀的玛丽,因为母神崇拜是东正教的中心,而圣徒祈求的是传统强调在东正教礼仪。

After an early controversy on the subject, the images, or Icons, of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints are now seen as visible witnesses to the fact that God has taken human flesh in the person of Jesus. The Liturgy used by the Orthodox church is known as the Byzantine rite. It has been translated from Greek into many languages, including the Old Church Slavonic used by the Russian Orthodox church. The liturgy is always sung, and communion is distributed to the congregation in both kinds (bread and wine).经过了中早日争议时,图像或图标基督,属于,圣母玛利亚和圣人现在被视为耶稣有形的人,以证人的事实,即在上帝的人采取了肉。案件由使用的礼仪东正教教堂被称为拜占庭仪式。据教堂从希腊翻译成多种文字,包括旧教会斯拉夫东正教所用的俄语。 总是唱的礼仪,与共融的分布和聚集于这两种(面包葡萄酒)。

Monasticism, which had its origins in the Christian East (Egypt, Syria, Cappadocia), has since been considered in the Orthodox church as a prophetic ministry of men and women, showing through their mode of life the action of the Holy Spirit.修道,该),它起源于基督教东(埃及,叙利亚,卡帕多西亚已经被考虑在东正教教堂作为一个预言部和妇女与男子,通过展示他们的精神生命神圣的方式行动的。 The monastic republic of Mount Athos, Greece, is still viewed among Orthodox Christians as a center of spiritual vitality.在希腊,寺院共和国的圣山,是仍然被认为东正教徒之间的精神生命力,作为一个中心。

The Orthodox church has been generally quite open to the contemporary Ecumenical Movement.东正教教堂已相当普遍开放给当代基督教运动。One by one, the autocephalous churches have all joined the Protestant - initiated World Council Of Churches, without modifying their own view on Christian unity, but considering the council as an acceptable forum for dialogue and cooperation with other Christians.由一个接一个的独立的教会都加入了新教-世界基督教协进会发起,而不需要修改他们的基督教团结在自己的意见,但考虑到与其他基督徒会接受的对话与合作论坛。 The recent steps taken by the Roman Catholic church and the decrees of the Second Vatican Council were seen by the Orthodox as promising groundwork for the future, and this positive reaction was witnessed by several meetings between Orthodox and Catholic leaders, including participation by Vatican representatives in ceremonies marking the thousandth anniversary of Russian Christianity in 1988.第二次梵蒂冈会议最近通过的法令而采取的步骤的罗马天主教会和东正教人认为是充满希望的未来奠定基础的,而这种积极的反应,在目睹了几次会议梵蒂冈代表,由东正教和天主教之间的领导人参加,包括纪念仪式在1988年2000周年俄罗斯基督教。

John Meyendorff约翰Meyendorff

Bibliography 书目
D Attwater, The Christian Churches of the East (1962) and Saints of the East (1962); D Constantelos, Understanding the Greek Orthodox Church (1982); D Drillock and J Erickson, eds., The Divine Liturgy (1982); J Ellis, The Russian Orthodox Church: A Contemporary History (1986); J Forest, Pilgrim to the Russian Church (1988); JM Hussey, The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire (1986); N Lernor, Eastern Christendom (1961); J Macha, Ecclesiastical Unification: A Theoretical Framework (1974); J Meyendorff, Byzantine Theology: Historical Trends and Doctrinal Themes (1987), and The Orthodox Church, Its Past and Its Role in the World Today (1962); J Paraskevas, and F Reinstein, The Eastern Orthodox Church (1969); LJ Rogier, ed., The Christian Centuries (1962 - 78); S Runciman, Byzantine Style and Civilization (1975) and The Great Church in Captivity (1968); S Salaville, An Introduction to the Study of Eastern Liturgies (1938); T Ware, The Orthodox Church (1963); N Zernov, Eastern Christendom (1961). Ð阿特沃特,(1962)基督教东(1962年)和圣东; Ð Constantelos,了解希腊东正教教会(1982年); Ð Drillock和J埃里克森合编。,神圣的礼仪(1982年); J埃利斯,俄罗斯东正教教会:当代历史(1986年); J森林,朝圣者向俄罗斯教会(1988年); 1986)JM赫西帝国(东正教教会在拜占庭; ñ Lernor,东基督教(1961年); J马查,教统:一个理论框架(1974年);拜占庭神学J Meyendorff:历史趋势和1987年)的学理主题(和东正教教堂,它的过去和今日世界中的作用(1962年); J帕拉斯凯瓦斯,和F莱因斯坦,东部东正教教会(1969年);洛伊罗吉尔,编辑。,基督教世纪(1962 - 78)中,S朗西曼,拜占庭风格与文明(1975年)和在圈养大教会(1968年)中,S Salaville,导论向)研究(1938年东礼仪; T波,东正教堂(1963)氮焦尔诺夫,东基督教(1961年)。


The Orthodox Church东正教教会

General Information一般信息

Introduction介绍

The Orthodox Church is one of the three major branches of Christianity, which stands in historical continuity with the communities created by the apostles of Jesus in the region of the eastern Mediterranean, and which spread by missionary activity throughout Eastern Europe. The word orthodox (from Greek, "right-believing") implies the claim of doctrinal consistency with apostolic truth.东正教教堂之一,是欧洲东部各地三大分支活动由基督教传教士,耶稣使徒在其中创造了坐落在社区的历史连续性与该区域,东地中海和它的蔓延。正统字(从希腊,“右相信”)意味着索赔真相与使徒教义的一致性。 The Orthodox church has also established communities in Western Europe, the western hemisphere, and, more recently, Africa and Asia, and it currently has more than 174 million adherents throughout the world. Other designations, such as Orthodox Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Eastern Orthodox, are also used in reference to the Orthodox church.东正教教堂还建立了社区在欧洲西部,西半球,以及最近,非洲和亚洲,它目前拥有百万信徒遍及全球超过174个。其他名称,如东正教天主教,希腊东正教,和东欧东正教,还用在参考了东正教教堂。

Structure and Organization结构和组织

The Orthodox church is a fellowship of independent churches.东正教教堂是一个独立的教会团契。Each is autocephalous, that is, governed by its own head bishop.每个人都是独立的,即受它自己的主教头。These autocephalous churches share a common faith, common principles of church policy and organization, and a common liturgical tradition. Only the languages used in worship and minor aspects of tradition differ from country to country.这些独立的教会都有一个共同的信念,共同的原则和组织教会的政策,一个共同的礼仪传统。只有传统方面所用的语言和小规模崇拜不同国家的国家。 The head bishops of the autocephalous churches may be called patriarch, metropolitan, or archbishop.主教头大都市,或大主教的独立的教会可称为元老。These prelates are presidents of episcopal synods, which, in each church, constitute the highest canonical, doctrinal, and administrative authority.这些主教是总统权力的主教的主教会议,其中,在每一个教堂,构成了最典型,理论,和行政责任。Among the various Orthodox churches there is an order of precedence, which is determined by history rather than by present-day numerical strength.在各种不同的东正教教堂有一个优先顺序的,这是由历史决定的,而不是现在的兵力。

The Patriarch of Constantinople在君士坦丁堡牧首

A "primacy of honor" belongs to the patriarch of Constantinople (now Ýstanbul, Turkey), because the city was the seat of the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire, which between AD320 and 1453 was the center of Eastern Christendom.一个“荣誉至上”属于君士坦丁堡牧首的(现在Ýstanbul,土耳其),因为这个城市的,所在地的东罗马,拜占庭或帝国之间的AD320和1453年这是基督教中心东区。 The canonical rights of the patriarch of Constantinople were defined by the councils of Constantinople (381) and Chalcedon (451).君士坦丁堡牧首的权利的规范定义了由两个市政局君士坦丁堡(381)和迦克墩(451)。In the 6th century he also assumed the title ecumenical patriarch.在50-59世纪,他还承担了所有权合一元老。Neither in the past, nor in modern times, however, has his authority been comparable to that exercised in the West by the Roman pope: The patriarch does not possess administrative powers beyond his own territory, or patriarchate, and he does not claim infallibility.无论在过去,还是在当今时代,然而,他的权威受到相若,即西行使由罗马教皇:不具备的元老或东正教行政权力超出了他自己的领土,并要求他不犯错误。 His position is simply a primacy among equals.他的立场仅仅是其中的首要地位平等。The other churches recognize his role in convening and preparing Pan-Orthodox consultations and councils.其他教会承认他的作用和议会召开和筹备泛东正教磋商。His authority extends over the small (and rapidly vanishing) Greek communities in Turkey; over dioceses situated in the Greek islands and in northern Greece; over the numerous Greek-speaking communities in the United States, Australia, and Western Europe; and over the autonomous church of Finland.他的权力延伸到小(和迅速消失)希腊土耳其社区,超过希腊的岛屿和教区坐落在希腊北部,在众多的希腊讲社区在欧洲,美国,澳大利亚和西方,以及在自治芬兰教堂。

Other Ancient Patriarchates其他古牧首

Three other ancient Orthodox patriarchates owe their positions to their distinguished pasts: those in Alexandria, Egypt; Damascus, Syria (although the incumbent carries the ancient title patriarch of Antioch); and Jerusalem.古老的东正教牧首辖区其他三个欠他们的立场,他们杰出的过去:那些在亚历山大,埃及,大马士革,叙利亚(现任携带虽然元老安提古标题);和耶路撒冷。 The patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem are Greek speaking; the patriarch of Antioch heads a significant Arab Christian community in Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq.亚历山大元老和耶路撒冷的希腊来说,安提阿牧首的头一个重要的阿拉伯和伊拉克基督教社区在叙利亚,黎巴嫩。

Russian and Other Orthodox Churches俄罗斯东正教教堂及其他

The patriarchate of Moscow and all Russia is the largest Orthodox church today by far, having survived a difficult period of persecution after the Russian Revolution of 1917.莫斯科东正教会和所有俄罗斯是最大的东正教教堂今天为止,有生还1917年俄国革命后一个困难的时期迫害。It occupies the fifth place in the hierarchy of autocephalous churches, followed by the patriarchates of the Republic of Georgia, Serbia (part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), Romania, and Bulgaria.它占据了第五名的独立的教会在层次结构中,南斯拉夫其次共和国联邦牧首辖区的格鲁吉亚共和国的一部分,塞尔维亚(),罗马尼亚和保加利亚。 The nonpatriarchal churches are, in order of precedence, the archbishoprics of Cyprus, Athens (Greece), and Tirana (Albania; established 1937, this see was suppressed during Communist rule), as well as the metropolitanates of Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and America.教堂的nonpatriarchal优先,在秩序,塞浦路斯archbishoprics,雅典(希腊),地拉那(阿尔巴尼亚,确立1937年,这期间看到被镇压共产党统治),以及波兰的metropolitanates,捷克共和国,斯洛伐克和美国。

The autocephalous Orthodox Church in America, officially established in 1970, has as its stated goal the unification of all Orthodox Christians in the US and Canada on a territorial basis. Nonetheless, large ethnic jurisdictions, particularly the Greek Archdiocese of America, are administratively connected with mother churches abroad.美国的独立的东正教教堂,正式成立于1970年,作为其既定目标的统一,美国和加拿大的所有东正教基督徒以领土为基础。尽管如此,大型民族地区,特别是美利坚希腊大主教区,是连接行政母亲教会国外。

Doctrine学说

In its doctrinal statements and liturgical texts, the Orthodox church strongly affirms that it holds the original Christian faith, which was common to East and West during the first millennium of Christian history.在其教义和礼仪声明文本,东正教教堂强烈申明,它拥有原始基督教的信仰,这是第一个千年的基督教历史中常见的东西。 More particularly, it recognizes the authority of the ecumenical councils at which East and West were represented together.尤其是,它承认一起权威的代表出席了合一议会在这东方和西方。These were the councils of Nicaea I (325), Constantinople I (381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II (553), Constantinople III (680), and Nicaea II (787). Later doctrinal affirmations by the Orthodox church - for instance, the important 14th-century definitions concerning communion with God - are seen as developments of the same original faith of the early church.这是)我的尼西亚议会(325),君士坦丁堡口(381),以弗所(431),卡尔西(451,君士坦丁堡第二(553),君士坦丁堡三(680),和第二尼西亚(787)。后来誓词的教义东正教教堂-例如,最重要的14世纪的定义,关于与上帝-是教会的出现早发展了相同的原始信仰。

Tradition传统

The concern for continuity and tradition, which is characteristic of Orthodoxy, does not imply worship of the past as such, but rather a sense of identity and consistency with the original apostolic witness, as realized through the sacramental community of each local church. The Holy Spirit, bestowed on the church at Pentecost, is seen as guiding the whole church "in all truth" (John 16:13). The power of teaching and guiding the community is bestowed on certain ministries (particularly that of the bishop of each diocese) or is manifested through certain institutions (such as councils). Nevertheless, because the church is composed not only of bishops, or of clergy, but of the whole laity as well, the Orthodox church strongly affirms that the guardian of truth is the entire "people of God."关心的连续性和东正教的传统,哪些是特色,并不意味着过去的崇拜等,而是社会的每一个地方教会身份感和一致性圣with实现了原来通过使徒的见证,作为。 圣精神,赋予了教会在圣灵降临节,是被视为所有指导整个教会“在真理”(约16:13。社会力量的教学和指导是(对某些部委授予特别是各教区主教),或通过某些机构表现议会(如)。然而,由于教堂不仅是组成主教,或神职人员,而且是整个俗人也,东正教教堂强烈申明,真理监护人,是整个“神人”。

This belief that truth is inseparable from the life of the sacramental community provides the basis for the Orthodox understanding of the apostolic succession of bishops: Consecrated by their peers and occupying the "place of Christ" at the Eucharistic meal, where the church gathers, they are the guardians and witnesses of a tradition that goes back, uninterrupted, to the apostles and that unites the local churches in the community of faith.这种信念,真理是离不开社会生活的圣主教的基础上提供了继任的东正教宗徒了解:,献给他们的同行和占领的地方的“吃饭”基督在圣体圣事在教会聚集,他们是证人的监护人和信仰的传统,可追溯到,不间断地向使徒和团结的社区,在当地教堂。

Christ and Mary基督和玛丽

The ecumenical councils of the first millennium defined the basic Christian doctrines on the Trinity, on the unique Person and the two natures of Christ and on his two wills, expressing fully the authenticity and fullness of his divinity and his humanity (see Christology).第一个千禧年的基督教议会界定的基础上三位一体的基督教教义,人的独特性质和基督的两个和他的两个遗嘱,表示充分的真实性和丰满的人性,他和他的神(见基督)。 These doctrines are forcefully expressed in all Orthodox statements of faith and in liturgical hymns.这些理论是在发言中强烈地表达了所有的东正教信仰和礼仪赞美诗。Also, in light of this traditional doctrine on the Person of Christ, the Virgin Mary is venerated as Mother of God Mary.此外,在基督之光的人这种传统的学说上,圣母玛利亚的崇敬作为母神。Further Mariological developments, however, such as the more recent Western doctrine of the immaculate conception of Mary, are foreign to Orthodoxy.此外Mariological发展,但是,如最近的西方学说的玛丽的圣母无原罪,是外国对正统。Mary's intercession is invoked because she was closer to the Savior than anyone else and is, therefore, the representative of fallen humanity and the most prominent and holiest member of the church.玛利亚的代祷,因为她是援引接近的比任何人都和其他救主,因此,教会代表人类的下降,最突出,最神圣的成员。

Sacraments圣礼

The doctrine of seven sacraments is generally accepted in the Orthodox church, although no ultimate authority has ever limited the sacraments to that number. 圣礼学说7一般公认的东正教教堂,但从来没有最终权力有限的圣礼这一数字的。The central sacrament is the Eucharist ; the others are baptism, normally by immersion; confirmation, which follows baptism immediately in the form of anointment with chrism; penance; Holy Orders ; marriage; and anointment of the sick. Some medieval authors list other sacraments, such as monastic tonsure, burial, and the blessing of water.中央是体圣事,其余的洗礼浸泡通常由; 确认,遵循洗礼立即涂油与chrism在形式, 忏悔,神圣的命令 ; 婚姻;病人的涂油。其他一些中世纪的作者列表圣礼,如寺院剃度,丧葬,水的祝福。

Celibacy独身

Orthodox canonical legislation admits married men to the priesthood. Bishops, however, are elected from among celibate or widowed clergy.正统规范立法承认已婚男性的神职人员。神职人员主教,然而,从其中选出丧偶或独身。

Practices实践

According to a medieval chronicle, when representatives of the Russian prince Vladimir visited the Hagia Sophia (Church of the Holy Wisdom) in Constantinople in 988, they did not know "whether they were in heaven, or on earth."据纪事中世纪时,代表,俄罗斯王子弗拉基米尔参观圣索非亚大教堂(教会在圣地智慧)988君士坦丁堡到一个,他们不知道“他们是否在天上,或在地上。” Most effective as a missionary tool, the Orthodox liturgy has also been, throughout the centuries of Muslim rule in the Middle East, an instrument of religious survival. Created primarily in Byzantium and translated into many languages, it preserves texts and forms dating from the earliest Christian church.最有效的工具,作为一个传教士,东正教礼仪也,在整个生存文书世纪穆斯林的宗教统治,中东。创建主要是在拜占庭和语言翻译成多,它保留文本和形式最早可以追溯到基督教教堂。

Liturgy礼仪

The most frequently used Eucharistic rite is traditionally attributed to St.最常用的是圣仪式的传统归因于John Chrysostom. Another Eucharistic liturgy, celebrated only ten times during the year, was created by St.约翰金口。另一个圣体礼仪,庆祝只有十年时间中,创造了Basil of Caesarea. In both cases, the Eucharistic prayer of consecration culminates with an invocation of the Holy Spirit (epiclesis) upon the bread and wine. Thus, the central mystery of Christianity is seen as being performed by the prayer of the church and the action of the Holy Spirit, rather than by "words of institution," pronounced by Christ and repeated vicariously by the priest, as is the case in Western Christendom. 罗勒的恺撒。在这两种情况下,祝圣圣体祈祷高潮与一epiclesis调用的圣灵()后,面包和酒。 因此,基督教的中心,被视为神秘感与工作由教会的祷告了圣灵的行动,而不是“字的机构,”基督明显的和重复的牧师转承,因为是在西方基督教的情况。

One of the major characteristics of Orthodox worship is a great wealth of hymns, which mark the various liturgical cycles.崇拜一个特点东正教主要是礼仪周期的巨大财富的赞美诗,这标志着多方面的。 These cycles, used in sometimes complicated combinations, are the daily cycle, with hymns for vespers, compline, the midnight prayer, matins, and the four canonical hours; the paschal cycle, which includes the period of Lent before Easter and the 50 days separating Easter and Pentecost and which is continued throughout the Sundays of the year; and the yearly, or sanctoral, cycle, which provides hymns for immovable feasts and the daily celebration of saints.这些周期,组合使用,有时复杂的,是每天循环,compline赞美诗的晚祷,午夜的祈祷,晨祷,四个典型小时,在逾越节的周期,其中包括复活节前的大斋期和50天分离复活节和圣灵降临节,哪些是持续整年的星期日,以及每年或sanctoral,周期,其中规定圣人赞美诗为不动产和庆祝节日的每日。 Created during the Byzantine Middle Ages, this liturgical system is still being developed through the addition of hymns honoring new saints. Thus, two early missionaries to Alaska, St. Herman and St. Innocent, were recently added to the catalog of Orthodox saints.创建于中世纪拜占庭,这礼仪制度仍在圣人通过新开发的履行增补赞美诗。因此,两个早期传教士到阿拉斯加,圣赫尔曼和圣无辜的,最近被列入目录的东正教的圣人。

Icons图标

Inseparable from the liturgical tradition, religious art is seen by Orthodox Christians as a form of pictorial confession of faith and a channel of religious experience.传统分不开的礼仪,宗教艺术,是看到东正教基督徒作为一个经验形成图案招供的信仰和宗教的一个渠道。This central function of religious images (icons) - unparalleled in any other Christian tradition - received its full definition following the end of the iconoclastic movement in Byzantium (843).这个基督教传统中的核心功能的宗教图像(图标除外) -无与伦比的任何-收到了它的完整定义后)结束运动的反传统的拜占庭(843。The iconoclasts invoked the Old Testamental prohibition of graven images and rejected icons as idols. The Orthodox theologians, on the other hand, based their arguments on the specifically Christian doctrine of the incarnation: God is indeed invisible and indescribable in his essence, but when the Son of God became man, he voluntarily assumed all the characteristics of created nature, including describability.在反传统主义者援引了雕刻的偶像旧Testamental禁止和反对偶像图标为。 东正教神学家,另一方面,他们的论点为基础的化身基督教教义对具体是:上帝确实是无形的,在他的难以形容的本质,但是当上帝之子成为人,他自愿承担,包括describability所有特点创造的性质。 Consequently, images of Christ, as man, affirm the truth of God's real incarnation. Because divine life shines through Christ's risen and glorified humanity, the function of the artist consists in conveying the very mystery of the Christian faith through art. 因此,基督形象的人,因为,肯定真理的化身上帝的真实。由于神圣的生命闪耀通过基督的复活和美化人类,艺术家的功能在于通过艺术传达基督信仰非常神秘的。 Furthermore, because the icons of Christ and the saints provide direct personal contact with the holy persons represented on them, these images should be objects of "veneration" ( proskynesis), even though "worship" (latreia) is addressed to God alone. The victory of this theology over iconoclasm led to the widespread use of iconography in the Christian East and also inspired great painters - most of whom remain anonymous - in producing works of art that possess spiritual as well as artistic value.此外,由于基督圣徒的画像和神圣的人提供直接的个人接触与他们派代表参加, 这些照片应该是)对象的“崇拜”(proskynesis,即使“崇拜”(latreia)是写给上帝。的在这个反传统的胜利导致了基督教神学东广泛使用的意象,也启发了伟大画家-其中大部分保持匿名-生产价值的艺术作品拥有精神和艺术。

Monasticism修道

The liturgical and, to a certain degree, the artistic developments in Orthodoxy are connected with the history of monasticism. Christian monasticism first began in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Asia Minor and, for centuries, attracted the elite of Eastern Christians into its ranks.的礼仪,并在一定程度上,在正统的艺术发展,连接历史与修道。基督教修道首次开始在埃及,巴勒斯坦,叙利亚和小亚细亚,并为百年来,吸引到它的东部队伍基督徒的精英。 Based on the traditional vows of celibacy, obedience, and poverty, it took different forms, ranging from the disciplined community life of monasteries such as the Stoudios, in Constantinople, to the eremitic and individual asceticism of the Hesychasts (from Greek hesychia,"quietude").基于传统的禁欲誓言,服从和贫困,它采取了不同形式,从社会生活的寺院纪律,如Stoudios,在君士坦丁堡,在隐士和个人hesychia禁欲主义(从希腊的Hesychasts,“宁静“)。 Today, the monastic republic of Mount Athos, in northern Greece, where more than 1000 monks live in 20 large communities as well as in isolated hermitages, bears witness to the permanence of the monastic ideal in the Orthodox church.今天,阿索斯山寺院共和国,希腊北部,那里有超过1000名僧侣生活在20个大社区,以及在孤立的秘境见证了永恒的东正教教堂寺院理想的研究。

History历史

Because a majority of non-Greek-speaking Christians of the Middle East rejected the Council of Chalcedon, and because, after the 8th century, most of the area where Christianity was born remained under the rule of Muslims, the Orthodox patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem kept only a shadow of their former glory. Constantinople, however, remained, during most of the Middle Ages, by far the most important center of Christendom.因为大多数东讲基督徒中的非希腊拒绝了安理会的chalcedon的,而且因为,在8世纪,穆斯林多数的基督教统治的地方仍然下诞生的,东正教安提阿牧首辖区的亚历山大, ,耶路撒冷一直只是他们以前的影子君士坦丁堡的荣耀。然而,依然存在,在时代的最中间,是迄今为止最重要的基督教中心。The famous Byzantine missionaries, St. Cyril and St. Methodius, translated (circa 864) Scripture and the liturgy into Slavonic, and many Slavic nations were converted to Byzantine Orthodox Christianity.著名的拜占庭的传教士,圣济利禄和圣丢,翻译(大约864)圣经和礼仪的斯拉夫到,许多斯拉夫国家转化为拜占庭东正教。 The Bulgarians, people of Turkic stock, embraced it in 864 and gradually became Slavicized.保加利亚人,突厥人股票,它在864拥抱,逐渐成为Slavicized。The Russians, baptized in 988, remained in the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the patriarchate of Constantinople until 1448.俄国,在988洗礼,留在教会的君士坦丁堡东正教会的管辖,直到1448年。The Serbs received ecclesiastical independence in 1219.塞族人在1219年获得独立的教会。

Schism Between Constantinople and Rome君士坦丁堡和罗马之间的分裂

Tensions periodically arose after the 4th century.定期出现的紧张局势后4世纪。After the fall of Rome (476) to Germanic invaders, the Roman pope was the only guardian of Christian universalism in the West.倒台后,罗马(476),以日耳曼入侵者,罗马教皇是西方唯一的普遍性在监护人的基督徒。He began more explicitly to attribute his primacy to Rome's being the burial place of St. Peter, whom Jesus had called the "rock" on which the church was to be built (see Matthew 16:18).他开始更明确地向他的首要属性罗马被埋葬的地点兴建的圣彼得,耶稣的人被称为“岩石”上的教堂为:(见马太福音16:18)。 The Eastern Christians respected that tradition and attributed to the Roman bishop a measure of moral and doctrinal authority.东部基督徒尊重这一传统,并归因于罗马主教的权威衡量一个道德和教义。They believed, however, that the canonical and primatial rights of individual churches were determined above all by historical considerations.他们认为,但是,灵长类权利个别教会的典型,并决定首先由历史因素。 Thus, the patriarchate of Constantinople understood its own position to be determined exclusively by the fact that Constantinople, the "new Rome," was the seat of the emperor and the Senate.因此,君士坦丁堡东正教会的理解自己的立场,以确定完全由参议院君士坦丁堡的事实,“新罗马”,是皇帝的座位和。

The two interpretations of primacy - "apostolic" in the West, "pragmatic" in the East - coexisted for centuries, and tensions were resolved in a conciliar way.解释的至高无上的两个- “使徒”在西方,“务实”在东-共存了几百年,和紧张局势得到解决的一个大公的方式。Eventually, however, conflicts led to permanent schism. In the 7th century the universally accepted creed was interpolated in Spain with the Latin word filioque, meaning "and from the Son," thus rendering the creed as "I believe in the Holy Spirit who proceeds from the Father and the Son." The interpolation, initially opposed by the popes, was promoted in Europe by Charlemagne (crowned emperor in 800) and his successors.但最终,冲突导致永久分裂。 公元7世纪的普遍接受的信条是插在西班牙与拉丁词Filioque,意思是“从子”,从而使神圣的信条为“我相信 儿子的精神 谁收益来自父亲和。“内插,最初反对由教皇,是促进欧洲的查理曼(皇帝加冕800)和他的继任者。 Eventually, it was also accepted (circa 1014) in Rome.最后,大家也接受(约1014)在罗马举行。The Eastern church, however, considered the interpolation heretical.东部教会,但是,考虑到插值邪教。Moreover, other issues became controversial: For instance, the ordination of married men to the priesthood and the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist.此外,其他问题成为争议的:例如,男子结婚的协调铎和圣体使用无酵面包研究。Secondary in themselves, these conflicts could not be resolved because the two sides followed different criteria of judgment: The papacy considered itself the ultimate judge in matters of faith and discipline, whereas the East invoked the authority of councils, where the local churches spoke as equals.自己在中学,这些冲突得不到解决,因为双方遵循不同的判断标准:罗马教皇认为自己的信仰和纪律的最终判断事项,而东方援引权威的议会发言,其中地方教会平起平坐。

It is often assumed that the anathemas exchanged in Constantinople in 1054 between the patriarch Michael Cerularius and papal legates marked the final schism. 人们常常想当然地认为anathemas交换了教皇的使节在1054年君士坦丁堡宗主教迈克尔Cerularius之间,标志着最终分裂。 The schism, however, actually took the form of a gradual estrangement, beginning well before 1054 and culminating in the sack of Constantinople by Western Crusaders in 1204. 的分裂,但是,实际上采取了一个逐步形成的隔阂,甚至远在1054和十字军终于在西方被解雇的君士坦丁堡在1204年。

In the late medieval period, several attempts made at reunion, particularly in Lyons (1274) and in Florence (1438-39), ended in failure.在中世纪晚期,几次试图在团聚了,特别是在里昂(1274)和佛罗伦萨(1438年至1439年),失败而告终研究。 The papal claims to ultimate supremacy could not be reconciled with the conciliar principle of Orthodoxy, and the religious differences were aggravated by cultural and political misunderstandings.到最终至高无上的教皇声称无法调和与东正教大公原则,与宗教差异的误解加剧文化和政治。

After the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453, they recognized the ecumenical patriarch of that city as both the religious and the political spokesman for the entire Christian population of the Turkish empire.奥斯曼土耳其人征服后,1453年在君士坦丁堡,他们承认的宗教城市,君士坦丁堡宗主教都该和政治发言人对整个基督教人口的土耳其帝国的。 The patriarchate of Constantinople, although still retaining its honorary primacy in the Orthodox church, ended as an ecumenical institution in the 19th century when, with the liberation of the Orthodox peoples from Turkish rule, a succession of autocephalous churches was set up: Greece (1833), Romania (1864), Bulgaria (1871), and Serbia (1879).在君士坦丁堡东正教的,但仍保留其设立的荣誉是至高无上的东正教教堂,独立的教会,作为一个基督教机构结束在土耳其统治人民从19世纪时,随着东正教的解放,继承:希腊(1833年人),罗马尼亚(1864年),保加利亚(1871年)和塞尔维亚(1879年)。

The Orthodox church in Russia declared its independence from Constantinople in 1448.在俄罗斯东正教教会宣布从1448年君士坦丁堡在其独立性。In 1589 the patriarchate of Moscow was established and formally recognized by Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople.1589年莫斯科东正教会的成立,并正式承认君士坦丁堡牧首赫雷米亚斯二世。For the Russian church and the tsars, Moscow had become the "third Rome," the heir to the imperial supremacy of ancient Rome and Byzantium.对俄罗斯教会和沙皇,莫斯科已成为“第三罗马”,罗马和拜占庭的继承人古代帝王至高无上。The patriarchate of Moscow never had even the sporadic autonomy of the patriarchate of Constantinople in the Byzantine Empire.莫斯科东正教会的甚至从未有过的拜占庭帝国君士坦丁堡东正教的零星的自主权。Except for the brief reign of Patriarch Nikon in the mid-17th century, the patriarchs of Moscow and the Russian church were entirely subordinate to the tsars.除了简短的统治17世纪的主教尼康中期,莫斯科宗主教和俄罗斯教堂是完全从属于沙皇。In 1721, Tsar Peter the Great abolished the patriarchate altogether, and thereafter the church was governed through the imperial administration. The patriarchate was reestablished in 1917, at the time of the Russian Revolution, but the church was violently persecuted by the Communist government. 1721年,沙皇彼得大帝完全取消了东正教,并在其后的教堂被政府通过帝国统治。重建的东正教是在1917年,在大革命时期的俄罗斯,但教堂被暴力迫害的共产党政府。 As the Soviet regime became less repressive and, in 1991, broke up, the church showed signs ofrenewed vitality.随着苏维埃政权变得不那么压抑和1991年,中,打破了,教会的生命力迹象表明ofrenewed。(The Orthodox church in Eastern Europe had a similar but foreshortened history, restricted by Communist governments after World War II but gaining freedoms in the late 1980s.) (东正教教堂东欧曾在类似的历史,但被缩短,政府受制于中共第二次世界大战后获得自由,但20世纪80年代末在。)

Relations with Other Churches与其他教会的关系

The Orthodox church has always seen itself as the organic continuation of the original apostolic community and as holding a faith fully consistent with the apostolic message.东正教教堂一直认为自己作为社会的有机延续原来的使徒的和持有的使徒信仰完全一致的消息。Orthodox Christians have, however, adopted different attitudes through the centuries toward other churches and denominations.东正教基督徒,但是,通过和其他教派的不同教会的态度,通过对几个世纪。In areas of confrontation, such as the Greek islands in the 17th century, or the Ukraine during the same period, defensive Orthodox authorities, reacting against active proselytism by Westerners, declared Western sacraments invalid and demanded rebaptism of converts from the Roman or Protestant communities. The same rigid attitude prevails, even today, in some circles in Greece.在西方人的对抗领域,例如,或作为希腊岛屿在17世纪乌克兰在同一期间,当局正由防御性,积极改变宗教信仰的反应反对,宣布圣礼无效,并要求社区或西方新教rebaptism的转换从罗马。同样的僵硬态度普遍存在,即使在今天圈子,在一些在希腊。 Nevertheless, the mainstream of Orthodox thought has adopted a positive attitude toward the modern ecumenical movement.不过,东正教的主流思想已经采取了积极态度合一运动的现代化。Always rejecting doctrinal relativism and affirming that the goal of ecumenism is the full unity of the faith, Orthodox churches have been members of the World Council of Churches since 1948.始终拒绝教义相对主义和申明合一的目标是完全合一的信念,东正教教堂已被1948年以来世界基督教协进会的成员。They generally recognize that, before the establishment of full unity, a theological dialogue leading in that direction is necessary and that divided Christian communities can cooperate and provide each other with mutual help and experience, even if sacramental intercommunion, requiring unity in faith, appears to be distant.他们普遍认识到一点,在建立的方向完全合一,一个神学对话领导是必要的,分为基督教communities can provide each to合作和其他有相互帮助和经验,即使交流的圣事,在需要团结faith,似乎是遥远的。

The Protestant majority in the World Council of Churches has occasionally made Orthodox participation in that body awkward, and the ecumenical attitude adopted during the reign of Pope John XXIII by the Roman Catholic church (which does not belong to the council) has been welcomed by Orthodox officials and has led to new and friendlier relations between the churches. Orthodox observers were present at the sessions of the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), and several meetings took place between popes Paul VI and John Paul II on the one side, and patriarchs Athenagoras and Demetrios on the other. In another symbolic gesture, the mutual anathemas of 1054 were lifted (1965) by both sides. The two churches have established a joint commission for dialogue between them.大部分的新教教会世界理事会在东正教尴尬已偶尔参与该机构,以及基督教的态度,安理会通过的统治期间,罗马教皇约翰二十三世的罗马天主教会(不属于)被东正教欢迎官员,并导致新和教会友好关系。东正教的观察员出席了会议并在会议的几个第二次梵蒂冈会议(1962年至1965年),之间放置了教皇保罗六世和若望保禄二世的一方,始祖山那哥拉和其他德米特里在。 在另一象征性的姿态,anathemas的1054年被取消的相互(1965)双方。两国教会之间建立了联合委员会对话。Representatives met on at least 11 occasions between 1966 and 1981 to discuss differences in doctrine and practice.代表会见了至少11次1966年至1981年,并讨论在理论和实践的差异。The claim to authority and infallibility made by the pope is generally seen as the primary obstacle to full reconciliation.教皇自称为权威所犯错误,并作出了通常被认为是主要障碍全面和解。

Rev. John Meyendorff牧师约翰Meyendorff


The Orthodox Tradition东正教的传统

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Orthodox Tradition is the theological tradition, generally associated with the national churches of the eastern Mediterranean and eastern Europe and principally with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, whose distinguishing characteristic consists in preservation of the integrity of the doctrines taught by the fathers of the seven ecumenical councils of the fourth through eighth centuries.东正教的传统是神学的传统,一般东欧联系的父亲教会与国家的东部地中海和欧洲的主要讲授与君士坦丁堡普世牧首的学说,它的显着特征在于完整保存了7合一第四十八世纪议会通过的。 Through medieval times the churches of the Orthodox tradition were mainly Greek - speaking; in modern times they have been predominantly Slavic.通过传统的东正教教堂的中世纪时代,主要是希腊-来说,在现代的时候,他们绝大部分是斯拉夫。

Nature of Orthodox Theology东正教神学性质

The first two councils, Nicaea I (325) and Constantinople I (381) , laid the foundation of Orthodox theology by adoption of the statement known commonly as the Nicene Creed. This formula established the primary principle of Trinitarianism, declaring the substantial equality of God the Son with God the Father, specifically in refutation of Arianism.前两个委员会, 尼西亚口(325)君士坦丁堡口(381),一般规定为尼西亚信条的基础的声明称东正教神学所采用。这个公式建立了三位一体的首要原则,宣告神的实质平等与上帝的儿子的父亲,特别是在阿里乌教派驳斥。

The third council, Ephesus (431) , rejected Nestorianism by affirming that in Christ divinity and humanity united in a single person, the Word made flesh.第三局, 以弗所(431),拒绝肉体景教申明,在基督的神性和人性单身一人团结一致,在Word的。 In its primary thrust this affirmation set the premise of Orthodox Christology; it also set the premise for the development of doctrine concerning Mary.在肯定其主要主旨的前提下设置基督东正教,还设置关于玛丽的前提学说的发展。In that the Christ was God incarnate, the Virgin was "Mother of God" (Theotokos, "god - bearer"); she was not simply mother of an ordinary human.在这基督是神的化身,维尔京是“上帝之母”(圣母,“神-旗手”),她并不只是一个普通的人的母亲。In consequence of this declaration Orthodoxy expressed high regard for Mary, positing her perpetual virginity and sinless life while remaining skeptical of the later Catholic dogmas of the immaculate conception and assumption.因此在这个正统声明表示玛丽高度重视,定位她永远童贞和无罪的生活,而其余的假设持怀疑态度的完美无暇的概念和后来天主教教条的。

The next three councils, Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II (553) , and Constantinople III (680) , confronted the heresy of monophysitism in its evolving forms, further defining for Orthodoxy its Christology, which states that in the one person of Christ there are two entire natures, the human and divine, including two wills.接下来的3个议会, 卡尔西(451),君士坦丁堡第二(553)君士坦丁堡三(680),面对异端的基督一性的形式在不断变化,进一步明确了东正教的基督,其中规定,在一个人有基督有两个整个性质的人力和神圣的,包括两个遗嘱。

The seventh council, Nicaea II (787) , in the midst of the struggle over iconoclasm, defined the doctrine of images representing Christ and the saints, requiring that the faithful venerate, but not worship, them.第七局, 第二尼西亚(787),在反传统中超过斗争,确定了圣人学说的基督的形象代表,并要求信徒祭拜,但不是崇拜他们。In the aftermath of this council, whose decrees were not approved by the Roman papacy (although they did not conflict with Catholic teaching), the divergence of Orthodoxy from Western Christian theology became increasingly pronounced.之后在教皇本会,罗马的法令不批准的(虽然他们没有教学冲突与天主教),东正教的神学分歧,从西方基督教变得日益突出。 In a special way painted icons became symbols of Orthodoxy, inasmuch as they united correct doctrine and correct worship, the twin meanings of the word, and this perception led to the designation of the final restoration of icons in Byzantine churches on the first Sunday of Lent in 843 as the "triumph of Orthodoxy."在这样一个特殊的画像成为正统的象征,因为它们团结的正确理论和正确的崇拜,这个词的双重含义,这种看法导致了在拜占庭教堂指定的最终恢复的图标在大斋节的第一个星期日在843作为正统“的胜利。”

For Orthodoxy, the artistic image reiterated the truth that the invisible God had become visible in the incarnate Son of God who was the perfect image of God; the image channeled the presence of the person depicted to the one contemplating it, as the incarnate Word had brought God to man.对于东正教而言,艺术形象重申了儿子的真理,即无形的神的化身成为可见的上帝谁是神的完美形象,图像引导的话语体现了在场的人描述为一个考虑到它,有把上帝的人。

Since Nicaea II no genuinely ecumenical council has been possible, owing to the defection (in Orthodoxy's view) of the Roman See, and thus no new absolutely definitive declaration of Orthodox dogma has been possible.由于第二尼西亚大公会议没有真正有可能,由于认为叛逃(在正统)的罗马教廷,因此没有新的绝对权威教条宣言东正教成为可能。 From this fact derives Orthodoxy's self - conscious identity as the church of the seven councils and its sense of mission in preserving the faith of the ancient fathers of the church.从这个事实得出正统的自我-身份意识的教堂作为教会的七个议会和其父亲的使命意识古老的信念在维护。But Orthodox theology did not stagnate in subsequent centuries, as changing circumstances and developments in others' theologies challenged Orthodox thinkers to refine and restate their conceptions of the faith presupposed by the patristic decrees.但是,东正教神学没有停滞在随后的几个世纪,为不断变化的情况和神学的发展在别人的挑战正统的思想家,完善和重申了他们的教父法令前提观念的信仰。

Such formulations have acquired considerable authority by approvals enunciated in local councils or by long - term common consent within Orthodoxy, although they do not have the canonical authority of the ecumenical decrees which Orthodoxy views to have been divinely inspired and therefore infallible.这种配方已经获得了相当长的权威,在阐述地方议会的批准或-在长期共同同意东正教,虽然他们没有意见,规范权力的正统的基督教法令已被神圣的,因此不会犯错误的。 When a statement receives widespread acceptance among Orthodox churches, it acquires the status of "symbolic book."当收到一份声明中得到普遍接受的东正教教堂,它收购了书籍状态的“象征”。

The theological dimension of the schism with Western Catholicism rested primarily in Orthodoxy's rejection of Rome's claim that its bishop was the unique successor of Peter with the consequent prerogative to define dogma.西方天主教神学方面的分裂与休息的索赔主要是在正统的否决,其罗马主教是随之而来的特权独特的继任者彼得与界定教条。 While granting a certain primacy of honor to the papacy, Orthodoxy saw all right - teaching bishops as equally successors of Peter, from which derived the requirement that only genuinely ecumenical, episcopal councils possessed the power of binding the conscience of the faithful.同时给予一定的荣誉至高无上的教皇,东正教看到所有的权利-忠实教学主教同样继承人彼得,从中派生的规定,只有真正合一,主教的良心议会所拥有的权力具有约束力。 Therefore Orthodoxy has resisted those doctrines which it views as Roman innovations.因此,东正教一直抵制它的理论创新观点的罗马。

The most celebrated point of controversy between Orthodoxy and Western theology arose over the insertion of the filioque clause into the Nicene Creed sometime after the eight century.这和西方神学最正统庆祝点之间产生争议后的某个时间尼西亚世纪八对插入的filioque条款到Besides rejecting this nonconciliar tampering with the decrees of the fathers, Orthodoxy saw in the assertion that the Holy Spirit "proceeds from the Father and the Son" the presupposition of two originating principles within the Godhead, negating the integrity of the Trinity.除了拒绝这一nonconciliar篡改的父亲与法令,东正教看到了断言,圣灵“三位一体的收益来自父亲和儿子”的前提之内的两个原神性原则,否定的完整性。 Most Orthodox thinkers could accept a formulation whereby the Spirit proceeds "from the Father through, or with, the Son," following the chief medieval Orthodox teacher, John of Damascus.最正统的思想家,即制定一个可以接受的精神收益“的父亲通过,或,儿子,”首席中世纪东正教以下教师,大马士革的约翰。 But until an ecumenical council acted, this would remain merely "theological teaching" (theologoumena).但是,直到基督教会采取行动,这将仍然只是“神学教义”(theologoumena)。

On the other doctrinal questions where Catholic innovations might be identified, Orthodoxy has been less firm in its denunciations than in the filioque issue.在其他地方天主教创新理论问题可能查明,东正教一直filioque问题少了坚定的谴责比。Regarding the state of persons after death, Orthodoxy rejects the notion of purgatory as a place distinct from heaven and hell.关于死亡人数的状态后,东正教拒绝来自地狱天堂与地狱的概念作为一个独特的地方。At the same time it concedes that there is an intermediate period of temporal pain in which penance for sins is carried out by those destined for heaven; moreover, full blessedness, even for saints, is not achieved until after Christ's final judgment. Prayers for the dead, therefore, can have efficacy. Following the Western resolution of the dogma of the real presence in the Eucharist, Orthodox writers adopted the literal translation of "transubstantiation" into Greek (metousiosis).同时也承认,有一个天堂中间时期的时空痛苦忏悔中捷联惯导系统注定是那些通过开展;此外,全幸福,即使是圣人,是没有实现,直到基督之后的最后判决。 的祈祷死了,因此,可以有疗效。继圣体西决议的真实存在的教条,东正教作家通过了metousiosis)直译希腊“质变”到(。 But in a distinction that had both theological and liturgical significance, Orthodoxy insisted that the miracle of transformation did not occur through the celebrant's enunciation of the words, "This is my body," but by the invocation of the Holy Spirit in the epiclesis: "Send thy Holy Spirit so as to make the bread to be the body of thy Christ." This difference signifies Orthodoxy's greater sensitivity of the Spirit than has generally been evident in the West.但是,在区分了这两个神学和礼仪的意义,东正教坚持转型奇迹没有出现通过礼的话阐述的,“这是我的身体”,而是由epiclesis援引圣灵的:“发送你的圣灵,使面包是基督的身体你的。“ 这种差异意味着正统的更大的精神灵敏度比一般是在西明显。

Orthodoxy agreed with Catholicism in acknowledging seven sacraments while not insisting upon the absolute significance of the number. The two sacraments which were clearly evangelical, baptism and Communion, along with confirmation (called chrismation by Orthodoxy and administered immediately after baptism), occupied a higher place than the rest. 正统天主教圣礼同意在不承认7时后的数坚持的绝对意义。两个圣礼其中明确福音,洗礼和圣餐,并确认(由东正教称为chrismation和管理的洗礼后立即),占较高的地方比其他人。 Orthodox writers regularly criticized the West's failure to use immersion as the proper mode of baptism, although most acknowledged the validity of aspersion in the Trine name. The Orthodox baptize by triple immersion, baptizing both adults and infants. Orthodoxy's use of leavened bread in the Eucharist, instead of the unleavened wafers of the West, was mostly a liturgical matter, although it was given theological meaning by the explanation that the leaven signified evangelical joy in contrast to the "Mosaic" regime of Catholic practice.东正教作家经常批评西方未能使用洗礼沉浸作为模式正确,虽然大多数承认名称有效性中伤的特丽。 东正教洗礼的三重浸泡,洗礼成人和婴儿。正统的使用酵面包圣体,而不是西方的无酵薄饼,主要是一个礼仪问题,但它是天主教神学实践意义的解释,该制度的酵标志着福音喜悦对比“的”马赛克。

Its doctrine of the church distinguishes Orthodoxy most clearly from all other theologies. According to this doctrine the visible church is the body of Christ, a communion of believers, headed by a bishop and united by the Eucharist, in which God dwells. 它教会正统教义的最明显区别其他所有神学。根据这一学说,有形教会的主教是基督的身体,一个由信徒共融,领导和团结住在圣体圣事,在上帝。 As such, although individual members are fallible sinners, the church is held to be infallible. This true church by definition is the Orthodox Church, which is "one, holy, catholic, and apostolic," from which other churches are separated.因此,虽然个别成员犯错误的罪人,教会认为是万无一失的。 顾名思义,这是真正的教会的东正教教堂,这是“一,至圣,至公,从宗徒”,从其他教会的分离。That is, the church consists of those believers who remain in fellowship with, and submission to, the concert of historic patriachates, Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople, and Rome.也就是说,包括那些教会与信徒谁留在金,并提交,音乐会的罗马历史patriachates,耶路撒冷,安提阿,亚历山大,君士坦丁堡和。 (When Rome separated from the concert, Moscow assumed membership in the pentarchy, although Rome's place remains reserved for it to resume if it will renounce its obstinacy.) (当罗马脱离音乐会,莫斯科承担pentarchy成员的,虽然罗马的位置仍然是留给恢复若会放弃自己的固执。)

The infallibility of the church validates the authority of tradition on a par with that of Scripture.这座教堂犯错误的验证与圣经,管理局的传统标准杆1。Moreover, tradition established both canon and interpretation of that Scripture and thus takes logical precedence over it. How to determine precisely what tradition teaches, however, remains a partially open question for Orthodoxy, since no single office is acknowledged to have definitive authority for the whole church, such as the papacy has for Roman Catholicism. 此外,传统需要建立既符合逻辑优先于佳能和解释的经文,因此。如何准确地确定什么教的传统,但是,仍然是一个悬而未决的问题部分为正统,因为没有单一的办公室承认有明确的权力为整个教会的教皇,如已为罗马天主教。 In principle the church speaks authoritatively through episcopal councils; but this claim only moves the issue back one step because it raises the question of what validates which meetings of bishops as genuine rather than "robber" councils (as the Council of Constantinople of 754 is regularly designated).在讲原则的权威性through教会主教议会,但这种说法只是问题重新移动一步,因为它提出的问题,定期对其中的what验证君士坦丁堡的主教作为meetings真正的而不是“强盗”作为安理会议会(754是指定)。 In the end, Orthodoxy trusts that the Holy Spirit abides in the church and in his own mysterious way leads and preserves his people in all truth.最后,东正教相信,圣灵恪守在教会和在自己神秘的方式引导并保留一切真理的人研究。

This trust produces, in practice, a measure of freedom within what could otherwise be a stifling traditionalism.这种信任产生,在实践中,在一个自由衡量什么本来是一个令人窒息的传统主义。

History of Orthodox历史的东正教

Theology of Orthodoxy may be divided into two periods: Byzantine and modern.正统神学可分为两个时期:拜占庭和现代。During the millennium of the Empire of Byzantium, to 1453, Orthodox theology matured in close association with it.在拜占廷帝国的千年,到1453年,东正教神学的成熟与它密切关联。Emperors convoked councils, after the example of Constantine I and the Nicene Council, and pronounced on theological matters, providing some weak basis for speaking of "caesaropapism" in the Byzantine age. In this period three distinctive emphases of Orthodoxy emerged: theology as apophacticism, knowledge as illumination, and salvation as deification.皇帝召集议会,在议会的例子,君士坦丁一世和尼西亚,并宣布对神学的问题,提供了拜占庭时代的一些基础薄弱的“讲”caesaropapism。 在此期间三个鲜明的重点东正教出现:apophacticism神学,照明知识,为拯救和神化。

Relying principally on the sixth century writer Dionysius the Pseudo - Areopagite, Orthodox writers insisted that God in his nature is beyond any understanding. Humans can know nothing about the being of God, and therefore all theological statements must be of a negative, or apophactic, form: God is unchanging, immovable, infinite, etc. Even a seemingly positive affirmation has only negative significance; for example, to say, "God is Spirit," is actually to affirm his noncorporeality. Theology, then, is not a science of God, which is impossible, but of his revelation. That which is known is not necessarily true of God but is what God chooses to disclose, although in that sense it is indeed true knowledge.主要依托Areopagite在第六世纪作家的伪狄奥尼- 东正教作家坚持认为,上帝在他的性质的理解是超越任何。人类可以知道目前的发言没有什么上帝,因此所有的神学必须是否定的,或者apophactic,形式:上帝是不变的,不动产,无限的,等等 ,即使这个看似积极的肯定只有负面意义,例如,说,“上帝是个灵,”其实是肯定他的noncorporeality。 神学,那么,是不是一门科学上帝,这是不可能的,但他的启示。这是已知不一定是真正的上帝,但上帝是选择披露,尽管在这种意义上,它确实是真正的知识。

Such a theology of negation led to the elevation of spiritual experience to at least an equal role with rationality as an epistemological principle in theology.这种否定神学导致精神海拔的经验,至少在神学平等原则的作用与认识论的理性作为。Maximus Confessor, orthodoxy's chief twelfth century teacher, affirmed: "A perfect mind is one which, by true faith, in supreme ignorance knows the supremely unknowable one." Knowledge of God comes from illumination, the inner vision of true light, for "God is light." From this perception derived Orthodoxy's characteristic fascination with the transfiguration of Jesus, when the light of his deity was supremely revealed to the apostles.马克西姆斯忏悔,正统的首席12世纪的教师,肯定说:“一个完美的心灵是其中一个,由真正的信仰,在最高无知知道超级不可知之一。” 知识神光照来自中,真光内心视觉的,因为“上帝就是光。“从耶稣,这与变形的正统观念产生魅力的特点时,鉴于他是神超级透露给使徒。 It also fostered Heyschasm, in which the mystic's vision of divinity became a theologically significant enterprise. It is for this reason that what is called Orthodox theology is also designated with equal validity "Orthodox spirituality." The chief synthesizer of this aspect of Orthodoxy was Gregory Palamas in the fourteenth century.它也促进Heyschasm,其中神秘的神性的眼光,成为神学重要的企业。 格雷戈里基于这个原因,什么是所谓的东正教神学是东正教还指定具有同等效力“灵性。”方面的行政这个合成东正教是帕拉马斯在14世纪。

The Orthodox concept of salvation as deification undergirded the contemplative methodology implied in the illumination view. Only the "pure in heart" see God, and purity comes only by divine grace in the economy of redemption. 拯救的东正教概念神化undergirded的沉思方法论的角度看隐含在照明。只有在心里“纯”见上帝,和纯洁性只能由赎回经济在神的恩典。 Those who are redeemed through the incarnation, whom the NT designates "sons of God" and "partakers of the divine nature," are deified; that is, they become created, in contrast to uncreated, gods. "God became man that we might be made God," said Athanasius of Alexandria; and Maximus Confessor declared: "All that God is, except for an identity in nature, one becomes when one is deified by grace." With this personalistic view of salvation, Orthodoxy diverged from the juridical emphasis which the West inherited through Augustine of Hippo, whom Orthodoxy could not comfortably accept as a Doctor of the Church. Orthodox theology viewed man as called to know God and share his life, to be saved, not by God's external activity or by one's understanding of propositional truths, but by being himself deified.谁是这些通过赎回性质的化身,其中新台币指定的“儿子”上帝和神圣的“有分的,”是神化,这就是他们成为创造神,相对于非受造的。“神成为人,我们可能作神,:“亚历山大亚他那修;及马克西姆斯忏悔者宣布:”所有这一切是上帝,除了身份的性质,当一个人成为一个神化的宽限期。救赎随着鉴于此personalistic,东正教偏离了法律重点是西方神学继承东正教通过奥古斯丁的河马,其中东正教会不舒服医生接受一个教会。 视为生命的人的要求,知道上帝和他一样,被保存,而不是由上帝的对外活动或一个人的理解命题的真理,而是被自己神化。

In sum, the Byzantine period established Orthodoxy's greater mysticism, intuition, and corporatism in contrast to the West's philosophical, scholastic, and forensic orientation. 总之,拜占庭时期设立的正统的更大的神秘主义,直觉,社团和方向相对于西方的哲学,学术,和法医。

In the period after 1453 the two events which most influenced the evolution of Orthodoxy were the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the division of Western Christianity.1453年后一段时间内的两个事件影响最正统的演变是拜占庭帝国倒台和西方的基督教分工。Termination of imperial patronage increased the autonomy of the episcopacy and promoted the Russian contribution to the Orthodox heritage; Reformation theology made it possible for Orthodoxy to select from several alternative expressions of Christian doctrine.载客量增加了终止帝国主教的自主权,促进了俄罗斯东正教遗产贡献;改革神学使得东正教会选择一些替代的基督教教义的表达。 To be sure, these developments tended to place Orthodoxy on the defensive and cast it in the role of respondent rather than actor, in which it frequently appeared to be the reactionary wing of Christendom.可以肯定的是,这些事态发展往往把正统的防守和投它比演员的角色,而答辩人,其中频繁出现是反动的基督教右翼。 Nevertheless, that Orthodoxy's vigor remained was evidenced in the writings of several theologians, and the ecumenism of the twentieth century has opened new possibilities for an Orthodox contribution to theology.然而,这种正统的活力仍然是体现在几个神学家的著作,以及在20世纪合一开辟新的可能性,以神学为东正教的贡献。

Melanchthon made the initial Protestant overture to Orthodoxy when he sent a Greek translation of the Augsburg Confession to Patriarch Joasaph of Constantinople, requesting that the latter find it a faithful rendition of Christian truth.梅兰希的初步新教东正教序曲时,他发出了希腊翻译的奥格斯堡供认向君士坦丁堡宗主教Joasaph的,要求后者觉得这是基督教真理的忠实翻译。 His successor, Jeremiah, responded over twenty years later, condemning numerous Protestant "errors," including justification by faith alone, sola Scriptura, rejection of icons and invocation of saints, Augustinian predestination, and filioque.他的继任者,耶利米,回答了20年后,许多新教谴责“错误”,包括单独的理由的信仰,唯独圣经,拒绝宿命的图标和援引圣人,奥古斯丁,并filioque。

A quite different response to the Reformation came from the patriarch elected in 1620, Cyril Lucaris, who composed a confession which articulated an essentially Calvinist system.一种完全不同的应对改革来自于1620年选出的元老,西里尔卢卡里斯,谁组成的供词是阐明一个基本加尔文制度。Cyril's work proved to be an aberration in the history of Orthodoxy; it was formally condemned after his death in 1638 by a synod in Jerusalem thirty - four years later. But it elicited two important statements of Orthodox doctrine. In the first, Russian leadership appeared when Metropolitan Peter Mogila of Kiev composed his confession, a thorough refutation of Cyril's, in affirmation of the received body of Orthodoxy.西里尔的工作证明是正统畸变的历史,它被正式后来谴责后,在他去世1638年由耶路撒冷主教在三四年。 但我得到两个东正教教义重要的发言。第一,俄罗斯领导层出现当彼得莫吉拉大都会基辅组成他的供词,肯定身体所收到的东正教在彻底驳斥的,西里尔。 Mogila's work was approved, with amendments, by the Eastern patriarchs in 1643.莫吉拉的工作获得批准,修订,由元老在1643年东部。The second was the confession of Patriarch Dositheos of Jerusalem, approved by the synod of 1672.第二次是1672年供认主教会议的主教Dositheos批准的耶路撒冷。

These two documents remained the standard definition of Orthodoxy in the modern period.这两个文件仍然是现代时期的正统标准定义在。They aligned Orthodoxy with the Catholic side in most of its chief doctrinal disputes with Reformed theology, eg, the relation of tradition to Scripture, veneration of saints and images, number and meaning of sacraments, faith and works in salvation. On only two questions did they sympathize with Protestants: papal authority and canon of Scripture. 他们一致东正教与天主教神学改革与方在大多数纠纷的主要教义,例如,传统关系的经文,图像崇拜的圣人和,数量和意义圣礼,信仰和救赎工程中的问题论也只有2他们同情新教徒:罗马教皇的权威和教会的圣经。 Orthodoxy continued to resist both Protestants and Catholics in their mutual agreement on filioque and the Augustinian understanding of original sin. Orthodoxy rejects original sin; man is born mortal and therefore sins, instead of the other way around, as the West commonly states the matter.正统继续抵制相互协议filioque都新教徒和天主教徒和他们的理解奥古斯丁的原罪。 东正教拒绝原罪;人是凡人,所以出生的罪,而不是倒过来的问题,因为西方国家的普遍。

But the significance of Orthodoxy's agreements with either Catholicism or Protestantism was more apparent than real inasmuch as the respective principles of authority differed fundamentally. For Orthodoxy, dogmatic authority remained rooted in the community of the church, represented by the episcopal succession from the apostles, not in the supremacy of the papacy nor in evangelical exegesis of Scripture, both of which to the Orthodox mind represented the domination of rationalism, legalism, and individualism over the true believing and worshipping fellowship of the faithful.但是,新教的意义不是天主教或东正教的协定,更因为明显比实际为原则的权力各自不同根本东正教。因为,教条式的权力仍然是教会植根于社区的,不是代表的使徒,主教继承从在教皇至高无上的,也不在福音的经文注释,这两者的正统思想所代表的法家思想统治的理性主义,个人主义和对真正相信和崇拜的信徒团契。 To designate this community principle modern Russian theologians provided the definitive, but untranslatable, word sobornost' (approximately, "communion").要指定这个社会原则的现代俄罗斯神学家所提供的明确的,但不可译,文字称之为聚议'(约,“共融”)。 "Sobornost' is the soul of Orthodoxy," declared the nineteenth century lay theologian Alexis Khomiakov. “称之为聚议'是正统灵魂”,宣布19世纪奠定神学亚历克西斯Khomiakov。

After the middle of the nineteenth century the most creative developments within Orthodoxy came from Russian writers, such as Vladimir Solovyev, Nikolai Berdyaev, Sergei Bulgakov, Georges Florvosky, and from professors of the Russian seminaries in Paris and New York, notably Alexander Schmemann and John Meyendorff.之后,在19世纪中叶内发展创意来自东正教最俄国作家Florvosky,如弗拉基米尔Solovyev,尼古拉别尔佳耶夫,谢尔盖布尔加科夫,乔治和约翰教授从巴黎和新俄罗斯神在纽约,特别是与亚历山大舒梅曼Meyendorff。 Their work is too recent for it to be incorporated into the essence of Orthodoxy, but it testifies to the continuing vitality of the tradition.他们的工作太为它最近被纳入正统的本质,但它证明了传统的持续活力。These men have, each in his own way, worked actively for the reunification of Christendom.这些男人,每一个在他自己的方式,工作积极基督教的统一。The burden of their ecumenical testimony has been that genuine unity can be achieved not on the basis of the least common denominator among Christian churches but in agreement upon the totality of the common tradition contained in the ecumenical councils and authentically preserved only by Orthodoxy.他们的证词负担一直是基督教团结,才能实现真正的不是在教堂的基础上分母中最常见的基督教,而是由东正教在协议中所载的对传统的共同的整体合一议会中唯一保存和真实。

PD Steeves帕金森斯蒂夫斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
John of Damascus, Writings; G Maloney, A History of Orthodox Theology Since 1453; V Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church; J Meyendorff, Byzantine Theology; J Pelikan, The Christian Tradition III, The Spirit of Eastern Christendom; The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church, NPNF , XIV; P Schaff, ed., The Creeds of Christendom, II, 445 - 542; A Schmemann, The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy; N Zernov, Eastern Christendom; K Ware, The Orthodox Way.约翰大马士革,写作; Ğ马洛尼,东正教神学的1453年以来历史; V Lossky,神秘的东方教会的神学; J Meyendorff,拜占庭神学; J伯利坎,在基督教传统第三,基督教精神的东方;的七个,NPNF合一议会的不可分割的教会,第十四条; p沙夫,编辑。,在基督教教义的,二,445 - 542,一个舒梅曼,在东正教的历史之路; ñ焦尔诺夫,东基督教; K表洁具,东正教路。


Orthodox Church东正教

Catholic Information天主教信息

The technical name for the body of Christians who use the Byzantine Rite in various languages and are in union with the Patriarch of Constantinople but in schism with the Pope of Rome.罗马教皇技术名称,对身体的基督徒谁使用拜占庭礼仪中,各种语言在工会与君士坦丁堡宗主教同分裂,但研究。 The epithet Orthodox (orthodoxos), meaning "right believer", is, naturally, claimed by people of every religion.东正教的形容词(orthodoxos),意思是“正确的信仰”,是自然,宗教的人都声称。It is almost exactly a Greek form of the official title of the chief enemies of the Greeks, ie the Moslems (mu'min, fidelis).它几乎就是一个敌人,希腊人对希腊的形式对行政的正式名称,即穆斯林(穆民,菲德利斯)。The Monophysite Armenians called themselves ughapar, meaning exactly the same thing.亚美尼亚人的基督一自称ughapar,意思完全一样的东西。

How "Orthodox" became the proper name of the Eastern Church it is difficult to say.如何“正统”,成为东方教会正确的名称是很难说。It was used at first, long before the schism of Photius, especially in the East, not with any idea of opposition against the West, but rather as the antithesis to the Eastern heretics - Nestorians and Monophysites.这是用在第一,早在Photius分裂的,尤其是在东部地区,不与任何西方思想的反对派反对,而是作为异端对立面到东区-景教and基督一性。 Gradually, although of course, both East and West always claimed both names, "Catholic" became the most common name for the original Church in the West, "Orthodox" in the East.渐渐地,当然,东,西两个名称一直声称,“天主教”成为在西方最常见的原教会的名称为“正统”的地区。

It would be very difficult to find the right name for this Church.这将是非常难以找到这一教会的正确名称。"Eastern" is too vague, the Nestorians and Monophysites are Eastern Churches; "Schismatic" has the same disadvantage.“东方”过于模糊,景教是东方教会和基督一性说,“分裂的”具有同样的缺点。"Greek" is really the least expressive of all.“希腊”的确是所有最不表达。The Greek Church is only one, and a very small one, of the sixteen Churches that make up this vast communion.希腊教会只有一个,和一个非常小的一共融,这个庞大的16个教会组成。The millions of Russians, Bulgars, Rumanians, Arabs, and so on who belong to it are Greek in no sense at all.数以百万计的俄罗斯人,保加利亚人,罗马尼亚人,阿拉伯人等,谁属于它的意义在没有任何希腊。According to their common custom one may add the word "Eastern" to the title and speak of the Orthodox Eastern Church (he orthodoxos anatolike ekklesia).根据他们的一个共同的习俗可能加上“东方”的标题和谈论的东正教教堂(他orthodoxos anatolike ekklesia)。

The Orthodox, then, are the Christians in the East of Europe, in Egypt and Asia, who accept the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon (are therefore neither Nestorians nor Monophysites), but who, as the result of the schisms of Photius (ninth cent.) and Cerularius (eleventh cent.), are not in communion with the Catholic Church.东正教,那么,欧洲的基督徒在东(在埃及和亚洲,谁和卡尔西接受安理会的以弗所景教,也不是因此既基督一),但谁,因为百分之结果(第九届分裂的photius 。)和Cerularius(11美分。),是不是与天主教教会的共融。There is no common authority obeyed by all, or rather it is only the authority of "Christ and the seven Ecumenical Synods" (from Nicæa I in 325, to Nicæa II in 787).有没有共同的权力都听从了,或者说这仅仅是基督的权威“和7合一主教会议”(由尼西亚在325至787尼西亚二中)。

These sixteen Churches are: (1) The four Eastern patriarchates - Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem - and the Church of Cyprus, independent since the Council of Ephesus.这些16教会是:(1)东部四个牧首辖区-君士坦丁堡,亚历山大,安提阿,耶路撒冷-和塞浦路斯教会,以弗所独立以来的理事会。 (2) Since the great schism eleven new Churches have been added, all but one formed at the expense of the one vast Patriarchate of Constantinople. (2)由于11个新教会大分裂增加了,但所有的一个建制君士坦丁堡主教在一个巨大的牺牲。They are the six national churches of Russia, Greece, Servia, Montenegro, Rumania, and Bulgaria, four independent Churches in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, namely Carlovitz, Hermannstadt, Czernovitz, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and lastly the Church of Mount Sinai, consisting of one monastery separated from Jerusalem.他们是六个国家的教堂和保加利亚,俄罗斯,希腊,塞尔维亚,黑山,罗马尼亚,4个独立的教会在奥匈君主,即Carlovitz,赫曼施塔特,Czernovitz,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那,最后的,教会组成的西奈山耶路撒冷的一个修道院分开。 One of these Churches, that of Bulgaria, is in schism with Constantinople since 1872.这些教堂之一,保加利亚认为,与1872年分裂以来君士坦丁堡。The total number of Orthodox Christians in the world is estimated variously as 95 to 100 millions.在世界总数东正教基督徒在不同程度估计为95至100万元。(See EASTERN CHURCHES; GREEK CHURCH; CONSTANTINOPLE, Heresy and Schism; RUSSIA.) (见东方教会,希腊教会,君士坦丁堡,异端和分裂,俄罗斯)。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息福特斯丘写阿德里安。Transcribed by Geoffrey K. Mondello, Ph.D. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.转录由杰弗里光蒙德洛,博士学位。天主教百科全书,体积十一。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html