PanentheismPanentheism

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Panentheism is a doctrine of God which attempts to combine the strengths of classical theism with those of classical pantheism. Panentheism是上帝的学说,其中尝试结合古典泛神论的那些优势与古典有神论。The term is particularly associated with the work of Charles Hartshorne. Hartshorne contends, however, that other philosophers and theologians have elaborated panentheistic doctrines of God, especially Alfred North Whitehead but also Nikolai Berdyaev, Martin Buber, Gustaf T Fechner, Mohammad Iqbal, Charles S Peirce, Otto Pfleiderer, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Friedrich WJ von Schelling, Allan Watts, and Paul Weiss.这个词是特别相关的哈茨霍恩工作查尔斯。哈茨霍恩争辩,不过,其他的哲学家和神学家的理论阐述神论的上帝,特别是怀特海而且尼古拉别尔佳耶夫,马丁布伯,古斯塔夫Ť费希纳,穆罕默德伊克巴尔,查尔斯S皮尔斯,奥托弗莱德尔,Sarvepalli拉达克里希南,弗里德里希冯谢林WJ通讯,阿伦瓦,保罗韦斯。

According to Hartshorne, God, while including an element which may be described as simple, is a complex reality.据哈特,上帝,而一个简单的元素,包括可能被描述为,是一个复杂的现实。God knows the world, a world in which change, process, and freedom are real elements.上帝知道的世界,一个世界中,变化,过程和自由是真实的内容。For this freedom and change to be real, and for God's knowledge of this freedom and change to be perfect, Hartshorne reasons that God's knowledge must itself grow and change.对于这种自由和变化是真实的,上帝的知识,这种自由和变化是完美的,哈茨霍恩原因,上帝的知识必须自己成长和变化。 That is, as new facts come into being, God comes to know those new facts (some of which are the result of genuinely free will), and thus God's knowledge grows.也就是说,作为新的事实被生效,上帝来知道这些新的事实(其中有些是免费的结果真正会),因此上帝的知识的增长。A perfect knower includes within himself the object which is known. Through perfectly knowing the world, God therefore includes the world (as it comes to be) within himself.一个完美能知已知包括在自己才是对象。通过完美地认识世界,因此,包括上帝的世界(因为它涉及到定)在他自己。As the world grows, God grows.作为世界的增长,神成长。God becomes.神而成。Through perfectly knowing and including the world, God is the supreme effect.通过完美的认识和包括世界,上帝是至高无上的效果。

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That is, everything that happens affects God and changes God, eg, God's knowledge changes.也就是说,所发生的一切影响和改变的神神,如神的知识的变化。Therefore, the concrete God, the complex God who is actual, is the God who knows, includes, and is changed by the world.因此,具体的神,神谁是复杂的实际,是上帝谁知道,其中包括,是世界改变了。This, according to Hartshorne, is the God who loves the world and who shares the joys and sorrows of each creature in the world.为此,根据哈特,是上帝的世界,谁爱谁共享欢乐和悲伤的世界每个生物研究。

To be the supreme effect, God must not only be affected by each event in the world, he must also retain his own integrity and wholeness during this process.是至高无上的影响,神不仅要受到世界的每一个事件,他还必须保持和整体性在这个过程中他自己的完整性。If God's reality were destroyed or his purpose (for goodness) deflected by the events in the world, then God would not be the supreme effect, the perfect receptacle for the world.如果上帝的现实被摧毁或他的目的善(为)由世界扭转了事件,那么上帝会不会是最高的影响,为世界的完美容器。Therefore, there must be some element in God which remains the same regardless of what happens in the world, ie, an element that is not affected by any particular event in the world. This element, since it is not changed by any event, is eternal.因此,必须有一些元素的神,这仍然相同的,不论发生什么事了world,即一世界元素,是不会影响事件的any particular。This元素,因为它是不改变任何情况下,是永恒的。It is also abstract.这也是抽象的。(The fact that God's eternal, abstract, essential self - identity is compatible with any state of affairs in the world is the basis for Hartshorne's well - known revival of the ontological argument.) Since God's eternal, abstract self - identity is presupposed by any state of affairs whatsoever, it follows that God is the universal and supreme cause. (事实上,上帝的永恒的,抽象的,必不可少的自我-身份是世界兼容的任何国家的事务是论据基础哈茨霍恩的好本体-著名的复兴。)由于上帝的永恒的,抽象的自我-身份的先决条件,任何任何国家的事务,因此,上帝是普遍的和最高的原因。

It should be noted that while God (as eternal, abstract, essential self - identity) is independent of any particular state of affairs in the world, he (even as abstract self - identity) still requires that a world (of some sort or the other) exist.应当指出,虽然神(如永恒的,抽象的,必不可少的自我-身份)是独立于国家事务的任何特别是在世界上,他(即使是抽象的自我-身份),仍然需要一个排序或世界(一些人的其他)存在。 We may explain as follows.我们可以解释如下。God as supreme cause refers to God's eternal, abstract, essential self - identity which is presupposed by every event in the world.上帝作为最高事业是指上帝的永恒的,抽象的,必不可少的自我-身份的先决条件是由世界的每一个事件研究。 But that which is eternal and abstract is deficient in actuality and can exist only as an element in a larger whole which is temporal and concrete.但是,这是永恒的,抽象的,是现实存在的不足,可在具体仅作为一个元素在一个更大的整体,是时间。Thus God's eternal, abstract, essential self - identity exists only as an element in the temporal, concrete, complex reality which is God in his completeness.因此,上帝的永恒的,抽象的,必不可少的自我-身份存在,只是作为一个完整的元素在时间,具体的,复杂的现实,这是上帝在他。 But God can be temporal, concrete, and complex only if there are contingent states of affairs to which he is related.但是上帝可以时间,具体的,复杂的,如果有只队伍国的事务,他是相关的。These states of affairs are the world (which is included in God).这些国家的内政是世界上(这是上帝列入)。These states of affairs are accidental (as opposed to essential) qualifiers of God's character. Thus God even as eternal, abstract, essential self - identity requires some world to exist, without requiring any particular world to exist.这些国家的内政是偶然的(而不是必不可少的)性质预选赛上帝的。因此,上帝,甚至是永恒的,抽象的,必不可少的自我-身份要求一些世界上存在,而不需要任何特定的世界存在。

Some of the events in the world are evil.在世界的一些事件是邪恶的。God knows and includes those events within himself.上帝知道,包括他自己的范围内活动。Does it follow that God is evil? Hartshorne answers no.如果说是上帝是恶?哈茨霍恩没有答案。Consider this analogy.考虑这个比喻。A certain event happens in my body.某事件发生在我身上。I know and include that event within myself.我知道,包括我自己活动范围内。And yet as a person, while including that event, I remain in an important sense distinct from that even.然而作为一个人,而包括这种情况下,我什至仍然在一个重要的意义不同于。Not only is my abstract and timeless essence as a man distinct from that event, but even my concrete and changing consciousness (while including that event) is distinct from it.不仅是抽象的和永恒的事件我作为一个人的本质区别,但连我的具体的和不断变化的意识(同时包括事件)是它有别于。Likewise, God, while including the evil event within himself, is yet distinct from that event.同样,上帝,而包括在自己的罪恶活动,又是从该事件明显。God is distinct from the event not only in his abstract, eternal, essential self - identity but also in his concrete, temporal, and complex consciousness.上帝是有别于事件不仅在他的抽象的,永恒的,必不可少的自我-身份,而且在他的具体时间,以及复杂的意识。 That is, God's consciousness, while aware of and including the evil event, is more than and distinct from that event.也就是说,上帝的意识,同时意识到,包括邪恶的事件,是多了,从该事件明显。

Is it possible for a panentheistic God to be perfect?它为一神论是上帝可能是完美的?The problem is this.问题是这样的。If God changes, and if total perfection is not compatible with change, it would follow that the panentheistic God is not perfect. Hartshorne's response runs as follows.如果上帝的变化,如果不改变总的完美兼容,它可说,神论神是不完美的。哈茨霍恩的回应运行如下。The challenge as stated assumes that there is one type of perfection, specifically, changeless perfection.所述的挑战,假定有一个类型的完善,具体而言,不变的完美。But in fact there are two types of perfection: changeless and changing perfection.但事实上有两种类型的完善:不变的和不断变化的完善。God is perfect in both senses.上帝是完美的,都感觉。God's abstract, essential, eternal self - identity is perfect.上帝的抽象,本质的,永恒的自我-身份是完美的。His drive toward goodness in general does not waver.他对善良驱动一般不会动摇。To this extent God's perfection is changeless, but this perfection is abstract.从这个意义上讲上帝的完善是不变的,但这种完美,是抽象的。As a concrete reality God changes, as does his perfection. That is, at any time, God infinitely surpasses the perfection of the world, regardless of whether we consider the perfection of the world at that same time, at some previous time, at some future time, or at any combination of these.作为一个具体的现实变化神一样,他的完美。也就是说,在任何时候,上帝超越无限完美的世界,无论我们认为,世界时间,在相同的完善的,在以前的一些时间,但在今后一个时期,或在任何这些组合。 As time progresses, however, God does surpass his own previous states of perfection, eg, his knowledge grows, and he has more opportunities to love his creatures.随着时间的进展,但是,上帝没有超越自己以前的状态完美,例如,他的知识的增长,他有更多的机会,爱他的生物。 God's perfection changes in that he perfectly surpasses his own previous states of perfection.完善的变化,上帝的,他完全超越了自己以往的完美状态。

While Whitehead's doctrine of God is quite similar to Hartshorne's, Whitehead does have several distinctives worth nothing.虽然怀特海的学说的上帝是非常相似哈茨霍恩的,也有值得白石没有几个distinctives。In Whitehead's metaphysics the basic building blocks of the universe are called actual entities.在怀特海的形而上学的宇宙的基本组成部分是所谓的实际实体。Actual entities are units of energy / experience.实际的实体单位能源/经验。Electrons, rocks, stars, and people are composed of actual entities.电子,岩石,恒星,人们都用实际实体。For Whitehead, God is a single, everlasting (but continually developing) actual entity.对于怀特黑德,上帝是一个单一的,永恒的(但不断发展)的实际实体。The contemporary theologian John B Cobb, argues that on his own principles Whitehead should have conceived God to be a series of actual entities.当代神学家约翰B科布,他认为,应该有自己的原则白石设想上帝是一个实体的一系列实际的。Cobb's proposal would make God more like a human person which, according to Whitehead, is a series of actual entities.科布的建议将使上帝更象一个人,而根据怀特黑德,是一系列的实际实体。It should be further noted that in Whitehead's system it is the very nature of an actual entity to incorporate other (past) actual entities into its own identity.应该进一步指出,在怀特海的系统是非常实际的实体性质的实际实体纳入到自己的其他身份(过去)。Therefore, whether on Whitehead's original definition of God as a single everlasting actual entity or on Cobb's revisionary understanding of God as a series of actual entities, it is the very nature of God to include the (past) world within himself as a part of his very identity.因此,无论是怀特海的上帝的原始定义为一个永恒的实际实体或Cobb的神revisionary理解为一个实体的一系列实际的,这是很自然的上帝包括)全球范围内(过去自己是一部分自己非常认同。

Perhaps the most striking aspect of Whitehead's doctrine of God is his distinction between God and creativity.也许是他最突出的方面区别怀特海的学说与上帝的神性和创造性。Creativity is, in Whitehead's metaphysics, the power of being / becoming.创意是,在怀特海的形而上学,成为权力被/。 Thus the fact that anything exists at all is ascribed not to God but to creativity (which in conjunction with the notions of the "one" and the "many" constitute Whitehead's category of the ultimate).因此,事实上,任何事情都存在的,是不是上帝,而是归因创造力(这在一个共同的“与观念的”和“许多”构成怀特海的最终类的)。 In contrast, God's primary function is to help shape the character of the world.与此相反,上帝的主要职能是帮助塑造世界性质的。 Thus that a thing exists must be referred to creativity; what a thing is must be referred, in part, to God.因此,一个事物存在必须提交创造性的东西是什么,必须提到,部分神。As a consequence, in Whitehead's system God's own existence is explained by reference not to God but to creativity.因此,在怀特海的系统上帝的存在是解释参照不是上帝,而是创造力。To put it bluntly, we may say that both God and the world are creatures of creativity.说穿了,我们可以说这两个上帝和世界的创意生物的影响。

Whitehead's postulation of creativity (in conjunction with the "one" and the "many") as an ultimate that is more fundamental than God is, perhaps, the most problematic aspect of his doctrine of God, not only for evangelical theologians but for other Christian thinkers as well.怀特海的公设的创意(一结合“”和“许多”),作为最终的that是更根本的比上帝也许是神学家,而是神,不只是福音的最大的问题,他的学说其他基督教以及思想家。 While a few Christian scholars, such as John Cobb, affirm Whitehead's distinction between God and creativity, others, such as Langdon Gilkey, insist that creativity must be "put back" into God before the panentheistic doctrine of God can really be made available for Christian theology.虽然有少数基督教学者,如约恩科布,肯定是兰登吉尔基怀特海的区分上帝和创造力,他人,这样,坚持,创意必须是“放回神”后,才神神论学说能够真正作出基督教供神学。

ST Franklin意法半导体富兰克林
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
JB Cobb, Jr., A Christian Natural Theology; JB Cobb and DR Griffin, Process Theology: An Introductory Exposition; BZ Cooper, The Idea of God: A Whiteheadian Critique of St.巴顿科布小,基督教的自然神学;巴顿科布和DR格里芬,过程神学:一个介绍博览会; BZ库珀,神理念:阿圣怀特海批判Thomas Aquinas' Concept of God; L Gilkey, Naming the Whirlwind: The Renewal of God Language and Reaping the Whirlwind: A Christian Interpretation of History; C Hartshorne and WL Reese, eds., Philosophers Speak of God; RC Neville, Creativity and God: A Challenge to Process Theology; RE James, The Concrete God: A New Beginning for Theology.托马斯阿奎那的上帝观的L吉尔基,命名旋风:更新上帝的语言和收获的旋风:历史基督教释义; ç哈特和WL里斯合编。,哲学家讲的上帝;钢筋混凝土内维尔,创造力和上帝:一个挑战过程神学;稀土詹姆斯,具体上帝:神学的一个新开端。


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