Pantheism泛神论

General Information一般信息

Pantheism is the belief that everything is divine, that God is not separate from but totally identified with the world, and that God does not possess personality or transcendence.泛神论是相信一切都是神圣的,神是不分开的,但完全等同于世界,而且上帝不具备个性或超越。

Pantheism generally can be traced to two sources.泛神论一般可以追溯到两个来源。The first is the Vedic tradition (Hinduism), which begins with the belief that the divine principle from which everything arises is a unity and that the perception of multiplicity is illusory and unreal.首先是吠陀传统(印度教),这与信仰开始的神圣原则,从中产生的一切是一个团结,而多重看法是虚幻的,不现实的。 In the Vedanta, Brahman is the infinite reality behind the illusory and imperfect world of perception.在韦丹塔,婆罗门是无限的感知现实世界的虚幻和不完美的背后。Our knowledge is imperfect because we experience subject and object as distinct.我们的知识是不完善的,因为我们的经验作为不同的主体和对象。When subject and object are equated, however, all distinctions are eliminated and we know Brahman.当主体与客体是等同起来,但是,所有的区别被淘汰,我们知道婆罗门。

In the Western tradition the cosmology of the Stoics and, more importantly, the emanationist hierarchy of Neoplatonism tend toward pantheism. In Judeo - Christian thought the emphasis on the transcendence of God inhibits pantheism. Nevertheless, a form of pantheism is found in the thought of the medieval scholastic John Scotus Erigena, who viewed the universe as a single, all - inclusive system with various simultaneous stages. The most important modern version of pantheism is that of Baruch Spinoza.在西方传统的宇宙观的Stoics,更重要的是,柏拉图emanationist层次结构趋向泛神论。 在犹太教-基督教思想的重点是抑制泛神论上帝的超越。然而,泛神论的形式,是思想中找到中世纪的学术约翰司各脱埃里杰纳,谁看阶段的宇宙同时作为一个单一的,不同的所有-包容性的制度。最重要的现代版,是泛神论的巴鲁克斯宾诺莎。 For him nature is infinite, but because the only being capable of genuine infinity is God, God must be identical, in essence, with nature.对他来说自然是无限的,但因为唯一能真正被无限是上帝,上帝必须是相同的,在本质上与自然。 In the 18th and 19th centuries the various forms of Idealism sometimes tended toward pantheism, often in the form of a theory of cosmic evolution.在18世纪和19世纪的各种形式的唯心主义有时趋向泛神论,常常在宇宙演化的理论形成的。

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Bibliography 书目
AH Armstrong, ed., The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy (1967); EM Curley, Spinoza's Metaphysics (1969); AO Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being (1936); N Smart, Doctrine and Argument in Indian Philosophy (1964).啊阿姆斯特朗,编辑。,1967年)剑桥历史后来希腊和中世纪早期哲学(;电磁柯利,斯宾诺莎的形而上学(1969年);敖洛夫乔伊,在(1936年大链的存在); ñ智能,学说争论的印度哲学(1964年)。


Pantheism泛神论

Advanced Information先进的信息

The word, coming from the Greek pan and theos, means "everything is God."这个词,西奥斯来自希腊泛和,意思是“一切都是上帝。”It was coined by John Toland in 1705 to refer to philosophical systems that tend to identify God with the world.这是创造与世界的约翰托兰在1705年确定神指哲学的系统往往。Such doctrines have been viewed as a mediating position between atheism and classical theism by some, while others have concluded that pantheism is really a polite form of atheism because God is identified with everything.这种理论已被视为经典的一些中介地位无神论与有神论之间的,而另一些则认为泛神论确实是一个无神论的礼貌的形式,因为上帝就是一切的认同。

Pantheism may be contrasted with biblical theism from a number of perspectives.泛神论可能与圣经有神论的观点从一数。Pantheism either mutes or rejects the biblical teaching of the transcendence of God in favor of his radical immanence.泛神论要么静音或拒绝激进的内在上帝对他有利的超越圣经的教学。It is typically monistic about reality, whereas biblical theism distinguishes between God and the world.它通常是一元左右的现实,而圣经有神论区分上帝和世界。Because of pantheism's tendency to identify God with nature, there is a minimizing of time, often making it illusory.由于泛神论的倾向,自然神,有一个最小的时间,往往使虚幻的。The biblical understanding of God and the world is that God is eternal and the world finite, although God acts in time and knows what takes place in it.圣经中的上帝和世界的理解是,上帝是永恒的和有限的世界,虽然在时间上帝的行为,并且知道它什么地方需要研究。In forms of pantheism where God literally encompasses the world, man is an utterly fated part of the universe which is necessarily as it is.在世界各种形式的泛神论上帝在字面上包含了,人是因为它是完全注定的一部分,这是宇宙的必然。In such a world freedom is an illusion. Biblical theism, on the other hand, holds to the freedom of man, insisting that this freedom is compatible with God's omniscience.在这样一个世界的自由是一种幻想。圣经有神论一方面,另一方面,坚持以人的自由,这种自由是坚持兼容与上帝的无所不知。

It would be erroneous to conclude, however, that pantheism is a monolithic position.这将是错误的结论,然而,泛神论是单片的立场。The more important forms are as follows:更重要的形式如下:

Hylozoistic pantheismHylozoistic泛神论

The divine is immanent in, and characteristically regarded as the basic element of, the world, giving movement and change to the whole.神圣的是内在的,并且被视为典型的基本要素,面向世界,让运动和变化的整体。The universe, however, remains a plurality of separate elements.宇宙,但是,仍然是一个多元化的元素分开。This view was popular among some of the early Greek philosophers.这种观点是深受哲学家一些早期希腊。

Immanentistic pantheismImmanentistic泛神论

God is a part of the world and immanent in it, although his power is exercised throughout its entirety.上帝是世界的一部分,它和内在的,尽管他的权力是完全行使其整个。

Absolutistic monistic pantheism绝对主义一元论的泛神论

The world is real and changing.世界是真实的,不断变化的。It is, however, within God as, for example, his body.它是,但是,在上帝的例子,因为,他的身体。God is nevertheless changeless and unaffected by the world.但不变的是上帝和世界受到任何影响。

Acosmic pantheismAcosmic泛神论

God is absolute and makes up the totality of reality.上帝是绝对的,构成了现实的整体。The world is an appearance and ultimately unreal.世界是一个虚幻的外观和最终。

Identity of opposites pantheism矛盾的同一性泛神论

Discourse about God must of necessity resort to opposites.对上帝的话语,必须采取必要的对立面。That is, God and his relationship to the world must be described in formally contradictory terms. Reality is not capable of rational description.也就是说,上帝和他的关系,世界必须在正式来描述矛盾。现实的描述是不能够理性的。One must go beyond reason to an intuitive grasp of the ultimate.我们必须超越的终极原因是直观的把握。

Neoplatonic or emanationistic pantheism柏拉图或emanationistic泛神论

In this form of pantheism God is absolute in all aspects, removed from and transcendent over the world.在这种形式的泛神论上帝是绝对的所有方面,从世界上消除和超越对。It differs from biblical theism in denying that God is the cause of the world, holding rather that the universe is an emanation of God.它不同于化身神从圣经有神论否认上帝是引起了世界,不如说是一个拥有宇宙。The world is the result of intermediaries.世界是中介人的结果。These intermediaries are for a Neoplatonist like Plotinus ideals or forms. He also sought to maintain the emphasis on immanence by positing a world soul that contains and animates the universe.这些中介机构是一个柏拉图像普罗提诺理想或形式。他还要求保持和宇宙的动画效果,重点通过设定一个内在世界的灵魂,它包含。

From a biblical standpoint pantheism is deficient to a greater or lesser degree on two points.从圣经的角度泛神论不足之处,在一定程度上或多或少两点。First, pantheism generally denies the transcendence of God, advocating his radical immanence.首先,泛神论普遍否认神的超越,他主张激进的内在性。The Bible presents a balance.圣经提出了一种平衡。God is active in history and in his creation, but he is not identical with it to either a lesser or a greater degree.上帝是活跃在历史和他的创作,但他并没有与它相同的程度要么从轻或者更大。Second, because of the tendency to identify God with the material world, there is again a lesser or greater denial of the personal character of God.其次,由于材料的趋势,确定上帝与世界,这又是一个性格上帝较小或更大的不公。In Scripture, God not only possesses the attributes of personality, in the incarnation he takes on a body and becomes the God - man.圣经中,上帝不仅拥有了个性,化身,他的属性发生在一个身体,并成为上帝-男子。God is pictured supremely as a person.上帝是作为一个人合照千钧。

PD Feinberg帕金森范伯格
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
CE Plumptre, History of Pantheism; WS Urquart, Pantheism and the Value of Life; J Royce, The Conception of God.行政长官普拉普特雷,泛神论的历史,是厄克特,泛神论和人生价值; J罗伊斯,神观。


Pantheism泛神论

Catholic Information天主教信息

(From Greek pan, all; theos, god).(从希腊泛,所有;西奥斯,神)。

The view according to which God and the world are one.在根据这些上帝和世界的一种看法。 The name pantheist was introduced by John Toland (1670-1722) in his "Socinianism truly Stated" (1705), while pantheism was first used by his opponent Fay in "Defensio Religionis" (1709).这个名字泛神论介绍了约翰托兰(1670年至1722年)在他的“Socinianism真正指出,”(1705),而泛神论最早是由他的对手费伊在“Defensio Religionis”(1709)。Toland published his "Pantheisticon" in 1732.托兰出版了他的“Pantheisticon”在1732年。The doctrine itself goes back to the early Indian philosophy; it appears during the course of history in a great variety of forms, and it enters into or draws support from so many other systems that, as Professor Flint says ("Antitheistic Theories", 334), "there is probably no pure pantheism".该学说本身可追溯到早期印度哲学,它的历史过程中出现的过程中,形式多种多样,它进入或绘制系统支持许多其他的是,教授弗林特说(“无神论理论”,334 ),“有可能是没有纯粹的泛神论”。Taken in the strictest sense, ie as identifying God and the world, Pantheism is simply Atheism.采取最严格的意义上,即作为确定泛神论上帝和世界,仅仅是无神论。In any of its forms it involves Monism, but the latter is not necessarily pantheistic.在任何一种形式的它涉及到一元,但后者不一定是泛神论。Emanationism may easily take on a pantheistic meaning and as pointed out in the Encyclical "Pascendi dominici gregis", the same is true of the modern doctrine of immanence. Emanationism可以很容易地就一个泛神论的意义,正如“在通谕”Pascendi多米尼奇gregis,相同的是内在真实的现代学说。

VARIETIES品种

These agree in the fundamental doctrine that beneath the apparent diversity and multiplicity of things in the universe there is one only being absolutely necessary, eternal, and infinite.这些同意的基本理论,下方明显的多样性和宇宙的多重性的东西有一个唯一的被绝对必要的,永恒的,无限的。 Two questions then arise: What is the nature of this being?然后出现两个问题:什么是大自然的这一福利?How are the manifold appearances to be explained?如何在多方面的表现来加以解释?The principal answers are incorporated in such different earlier systems as Brahminism, Stoicism, Neo-Platonism, and Gnosticism, and in the later systems of Scotus Eriugena and Giordano Bruno.主要的答案是纳入这些不同,柏拉图早期系统作为婆罗门教,斯多亚学派,新,和诺斯替主义,并在与布鲁诺后来系统的司各脱Eriugena。

Spinoza's pantheism was realistic: the one being of the world had an objective character.斯宾诺莎的泛神论是现实的:一个是对世界有一个客观的性质。But the systems that developed during the nineteenth century went to the extreme of idealism.但是,系统在19世纪发展到极端的理想主义。They are properly grouped under the designation of "transcendental pantheism", as their starting-point is found in Kant's critical philosophy.他们得到妥善归入“指定的”先验泛神论,因为他们的出发点是康德哲学中找到的关键。 Kant had distinguished in knowledge the matter which comes through sensation from the outer world, and the forms, which are purely subjective and yet are the more important factors.康德区分了知识的事项感觉是通过从外部世界,形式,这纯粹是主观的,但也更重要的因素。Furthermore, he had declared that we know the appearances (phenomena) of things but not the things-in-themselves (noumena).此外,他还宣称,我们知道外表现象(事物)的东西,但不是自体(本体)。And he had made the ideas of the soul, the world, and God merely immanent, so that any attempt to demonstrate their objective value must end in contradiction.而他的灵魂的思想,面向世界,神只是内在的,因此,任何企图证明其客观的价值必须结束矛盾。This subjectivism paved the way for the pantheistic theories of Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel.这主观主义铺平了道路黑格尔谢林,并为泛神论理论的费希特。

Fichte set back into the mind all the elements of knowledge, ie matter as well as form; phenomena and indeed the whole of reality are products of the thinking Ego-not the individual mind but the absolute or universal self-consciousness. Through the three-fold process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis, the Ego posits the non-Ego not only theoretically but also for practical purposes, ie for effort and struggle which are necessary in order to attain the highest good. In the same way the Ego, free in itself, posits other free agents by whose existence its own freedom is limited.费希特倒退到心灵所有的知识要素,即问题以及形式;现象乃至整个现实是产品的思想自我,而不是个人的心灵,但绝对的或普遍的自我意识。通过三折叠过程论文,对立面,并合成,自我假定是必要的,以达到最高的善非自我,不仅在理论上而且在实际情况下,即对努力和斗争。同样的自我,自由本身,让其自由是有限的其他自由球员的,其存在本身。 Hence the law of right and all morality; but hence also the Divine being.因此,道德和法律的一切权利,但也因此被神。 The living, active moral order of the world, says Fichte, is itself God, we need no other God, and can conceive of no other. The idea of God as a distinct substance is impossible and contradictory.的生活,积极在世界的道德秩序,说费希特,本身就是神,我们不需要其他的神,可以想像,在没有其他。上帝的想法作为一个独特的内容是不可能的,自相矛盾。 Such, at any rate, is the earlier form of his doctrine, though in his later theorizing he emphasizes more and more the concepts of the Absolute as embracing all individuals within itself.这样,无论如何,是他的学说的早期形式,虽然在他后来的理论,他强调越来越多的所有个人本身在概念绝对是拥抱。

According to Schelling, the Absolute is the "identity of all differences"-object and subject, nature and mind, the real order and the ideal; and the knowledge of this identity is obtained by an intellectual intuition which, abstracting from every individual thinker and every possible object of thought, contemplates the absolute reason.据谢林,绝对是和心灵“身份的所有分歧”对象和主体,性质,真正的秩序和理想;和身份的知识,这是一个知识分子的直觉得到的,并从每一个人的抽象的思想家每一个想象的对象,设想的绝对理由。 Out of this original unity all things evolve in opposite directions: nature as the negative pole, mind or spirit as the positive pole of a vast magnet, the universe.出于这种原始团结一切事物发展方向相反:磁铁的性质作为负极,心广大或精神作为正极,宇宙。Within this totality each thing, like the particle of a magnet, has its nature or form determined according as it manifests subjectivity or objectivity in greater degree.在这个总体每一件事情,就像磁铁颗粒的,有其性质或形式确定根据它体现在更大程度的主观性和客观性。History is but the gradual self-revelation of the Absolute; when its final period will come to pass we know not; but when it does come, then God will be.但历史是逐渐自我揭露的绝对,当其最后期限将成为过去,我们不知道,但是当它来,那么上帝会。

The system of Hegel has been called "logical pantheism", as it is constructed on the "dialectical" method; and "panlogismus", since it describes the entire world-process as the evolution of the Idea.在黑格尔体系被称为“逻辑泛神论”,因为它是方法构造的“辩证”和“panlogismus”,因为它描述了整个世界的思想进程的演变。 Starting from the most abstract of notions, ie pure being, the Absolute developes first the various categories; then it externalizes itself, and Nature is the result; finally it returns upon itself, regains unity and self-consciousness, becomes the individual spirit of man.类别从最抽象的概念,即纯粹的存在,又发展了绝对第一的各项,然后它本身外化,与自然的是结果,最后根据它本身的回报,恢复团结和自我意识,成为个别人的精神。 The Absolute, therefore, is Mind; but it attains its fulness only by a process of evolution or "becoming", the stages of which form the history of the universe.绝对的,因此,是心灵,但它达到成为“唯一的充满”的进化过程或阶段构成宇宙的历史上。

These idealistic constructions were followed by a reaction due largely to the development of the natural sciences.这些理想化的结构之后进行了科学的反应主要是因为自然的发展的。But these in turn offer, apparently, new support to the central positions of pantheism, or at any rate they point, it is claimed, to that very unity and that gradual unfolding which pantheism has all along asserted.但把这些提议,显然,新的支持立场的泛神论中央,或无论如何他们指出,这是声称,这一非常团结,并逐步展开的泛神论一向主张。 The principle of the conservation of energy through ceaseless transformations, and the doctrine of evolution applied to all things and all phenomena, are readily interpreted by the pantheist in favour of his own system. Even where the ultimate reality is said to be unknowable as in Herbert Spencer's "Synthetic Philosophy", it is still one and the same being that manifests itself alike in evolving matter and in the consciousness that evolves out of lower material forms.在节约能源的转换,通过不懈的原则,与进化学说的适用于所有事物,一切现象,可随时由系统泛神论解释自己赞成他的。即使在最终的现实是不可知的说是在赫伯特斯宾塞的“综合哲学”,它仍然是同一个被认为表现形式都在不断发展自身的问题和意识,演变出较低的材料。 Nor is it surprising that some writers should see in pantheism the final outcome of all speculation and the definitive expression which the human mind has found for the totality of things.它也不是令人惊讶,有些作家应该看到在泛神论的最后结果的所有猜测和明确的表达,人的心灵找到了事情的全部。

This statement, in fact, may well serve as a summary of the pantheistic doctrine:这种事实的陈述,可能作为一种学说综述泛神论:

Reality is a unitary being; individual things have no absolute independence- they have existence in the All-One, the ens realissimum et et perfectissimum of which they are the more or less independent members;现实是一个统一的福利;个别事物都没有绝对的独立,但它们有一个生存在全时,护士等的perfectissimum realissimum等对它们或多或少独立的成员;

The All-One manifests itself to us, so far as it has any manifestations, in the two sides of reality-nature and history;全给我们一个表现自己,只要有任何表现,在自然和历史,双方的现实的;

The universal interaction that goes on in the physical world is the showing forth of the inner æsthetic teleological necessity with which the All-One unfolds his essential being in a multitude of harmonious modifications, a cosmos of concrete ideas (monads, entelechies).这种通用的互动,接着在物质世界是目的论的必要性,显示出的内在审美与该全一摊开至关重要(正在构思一个和谐的许多具体的修改一个宇宙,单子,entelechies)。 This internal necessity is at the same time absolute freedom or self-realization.这种内部的必要性,或自我实现的同时,绝对的自由。

CATHOLIC DOCTRINE天主教教义

The Church has repeatedly condemned the errors of pantheism.教会一再谴责泛神论的错误。Among the propositions censured in the Syllabus of Pius IX is that which declares: "There is no supreme, all-wise and all-provident Divine Being distinct from the universe; God is one with nature and therefore subject to change; He becomes God in man and the world; all things are God and have His substance; God is identical with the world, spirit with matter, necessity with freedom, truth with falsity, good with evil, justice with injustice" (Denzinger-Bannwart, "Ench.", 1701).在庇护九世的主张课程是在谴责,宣布:“没有最高,全智,全公积金作为宇宙神有别于,上帝是一个与大自然,因此受到改变,他变得神人与世界,所有的东西是上帝,并且他的物质,上帝是相同的世界,物质与精神,自由与必然,真理与谬误,善与恶的,正义与非正义“(登青格,Bannwart,”恩奇。“ ,1701)。And the Vatican Council anathematizes those who assert that the substance or essence of God and of all things is one and the same, or that all things evolve from God's essence (ibid., 1803 sqq.).而梵蒂冈理事会anathematizes那些谁主张该种物质或上帝的本质和所有东西,这是同一个,或者说一切事物发展从上帝的本质(同上,1803年时12 sqq。)。

CRITICISM批评

To our perception the world presents a multitude of beings each of which has qualities activities, and existence of its own, each is an individual thing. Radical differences mark off living things from those that are lifeless; the conscious from the unconscious human thought and volition from the activities of lower animals.为了我们的感知世界呈现多种活动的人各自有素质,自己的存在其拥有的每一个是个人的事情。激进的差异马克起飞的无生命的东西与那些生活;的意志自觉从昏迷人类思想和从低等动物的活动。 And among human beings each personality appears as a self, which cannot by any effort become completely one with other selves.而在每个人的人格表现为一个自我,不能由其他任何努力与自我成为完全之一。On the other hand, any adequate account of the world other than downright materialism includes the concept of some original Being which, whether it be called First Cause, or Absolute, or God, is in its nature and existence really distinct from the world. Only such a Being can satisfy the demands of human thought, either as the source of the moral order or as the object of religious worship.另一方面,充分考虑到任何彻头彻尾的唯物论,比其他的world世界的概念包括一些原来的Being which,whether它be called第一原因,或绝对的,或上帝的,是和它的nature from存在really distinct。Only作为这样一个能满足人类的思想的要求,宗教崇拜,无论是作为道德秩序的源或作为对象。If, then, pantheism not only merges the separate existences of the world in one existence, but also identifies this one with the Divine Being, some cogent reason or motive must be alleged in justification of such a procedure.如果,那么,泛神论不仅存在合并在一个单独的存在世界上,而且还确定了这个神圣的一与存在,一些有说服力的理由或动机必须据称在这种程序的理由。 Pantheists indeed bring forward various arguments in support of their several positions, and in reply to criticism aimed at the details of their system; but what lies back of their reasoning and what has prompted the construction of all pantheistic theories, both old and new, is the craving for unity.泛神论确实带来了几个位置不同的论据支持,并答复他们的批评对系统的细节瞄准了,但什么是回他们的论点,是什么促使了,所有的泛神论的理论建设,无论是新老团结的渴望。 The mind, they insist, cannot accept dualism or pluralism as the final account of reality.心,他们坚持认为,不能接受现实的二元论或多元论作为帐户的决赛。By an irresistible tendency, it seeks to substitute for the apparent multiplicity and diversity of things a unitary ground or source, and, once this is determined, to explain all things as somehow derived though not really separated from it.由一个不可抗拒的趋势,它试图取代它的多样性明显的多重性和从一个单一的东西或来源地,而且一旦这种决心,来解释一切事物产生某种真正分开,虽然不是。

That such is in fact the ideal of many philosophers cannot be denied; nor is it needful to challenge the statement that reason does aim at unification on some basis or other.这样其实是许多哲学家的理想不能否认,也不是需要的,以挑战的声明,因此在没有其他目的或在一些统一的基础。But this very aim and all endeavours in view of it must likewise be kept within reasonable bounds: a theoretical unity obtained at too great a sacrifice is no unity at all, but merely an abstraction that quickly falls to pieces.但这个目标,认为这一切的努力也必须保持在合理的范围内:理论团结牺牲索取太多没有全部团结在,而只是一个抽象的迅速下降到件。 Hence for an estimate of pantheism two questions must be considered:因此,对于一个泛神论的估计,必须考虑两个问题:

at what cost does it identify God and the world; and它在什么样的代价确定上帝和世界,

is the identification really accomplished or only attempted?是真的完成或只试图查明?

The answer to the first is furnished by a review of the leading concepts which enter into the pantheistic system.第一个答案的是由系统提供的审查到领导的泛神论观念的输入。

God上帝

It has often been claimed that pantheism by teaching us to see God in everything gives us an exalted idea of His wisdom, goodness, and power, while it imparts to the visible world a deeper meaning.它常常被认为是一切泛神论教我们在看到上帝给了我们一个,善良崇高的思想,他的智慧和力量,同时它赋予有形世界的更深一层的意义。 In point of fact, however, it makes void the attributes which belong essentially to the Divine nature For the pantheist God is not a personal Being.其实点,但是,它使无效的属性基本上是属于神的泛神论神圣性,因此不是个人的存在。He is not an intelligent Cause of the world, designing, creating and governing it in accordance with the free determination of His wisdom.他不是一个世界智能原因,设计,制造和执政智慧中按照其自由的决心。If consciousness is ascribed to Him as the one Substance, extension is also said to be His attribute (Spinoza), or He attains to self-consciousness only through a process of evolution (Hegel).如果意识是归因于他为一个物质的,做法也说是他的属性(斯宾诺莎),或者他达到自我意识只有通过进化过程(黑格尔)。 But this very process implies that God is not from eternity perfect: He is forever changing, advancing from one degree of perfection to another, and helpless to determine in what direction the advance shall take place.但这个过程意味着,上帝不是从永恒完美的:他永远是不断变化的,完善的程度不断从一个到另一个,无助和朝什么方向前进,以确定应采取的地方。 Indeed, there is no warrant for saying that He "advances" or becomes more "perfect"; at most we can say that He, or rather It, is constantly passing into other forms.事实上,没有任何值得说的,他“进步”或变得更“完美”,至多可以说是他,或者更确切地说,它是不断地传递到其他形式。 Thus God is not only impersonal, but also changeable and finite-which is equivalent to saying that He is not God. It is true that some pantheists, such as Paulsen, while frankly denying the personality of God, pretend to exalt His being by asserting that He is "supra-personal."因此,上帝不仅是客观的,而且多变和有限,这相当于说,他是不是上帝。诚然,诸如保尔森some泛神论,,而坦率地否认了上帝personality的,假装要发扬在他被断言他是“超个人”。 If this means that God in Himself is infinitely beyond any idea that we can form of Him, the statement is correct; but if it means that our idea of Him is radically false and not merely inadequate, that consequently we have no right to speak of infinite intelligence and will, the statement is simply a makeshift which pantheism borrows from agnosticism Even then the term "supra-personal" is not consistently applied to what Paulsen calls the All-One; for this, if at all related to personality, should be described as infra-personal.如果这意味着他自己是上帝在无限超越任何想法,我们可以形成的,该语句是正确的,但如果它意味着我们他的想法是根本错误的,而不是仅仅不足,因此我们是没有发言权的无限的智慧和意志,声明只是一个临时的泛神论借用不可知论即使这样的词“超个人”不是什么保尔森贯彻应用to calls的All - One,for this,如果在所有personality有关,should be形容红外个人。

Once the Divine personality is removed, it is evidently a misnomer to speak of God as just or holy, or in any sense a moral Being.当神圣的人格被删除,它显然是用词不当发言,向上帝为公正或神圣,或在任何意义上的道德存在。Since God, in the pantheistic view, acts out of sheer necessity--that is, cannot act otherwise--His action is no more good than it is evil.自从上帝,在泛神论的观点,行为纯粹出于必要性-也就是说,不能采取行动,否则-他的行动是没有好处多于它是邪恶的。To say, with Fichte, that God is the moral order, is an open contradiction; no such order exists where nothing is free, nor could God, a non-moral Being, have established a moral order either for Himself or for other beings.如果说,与费希特,上帝是道德秩序,是一个开放的矛盾,没有这种秩序存在的地方没有免费的午餐,上帝也不能是一个非道德的存在,其他人建立了一个道德秩序无论是对自己或。 If, on the other hand, it be maintained that the moral order does exist, that it is postulated by our human judgments, the plight of pantheism is no better; for in that case all the actions of men, their crimes as well as their good deeds, must be imputed to God.如果,另一方面,它被认为是存在的道德秩序,它是我们人类的泛神论推测判断,在没有更好的困境,在这种情况下所有行动的男人,他们的罪行,以及他们好事,一定要归罪于上帝。 Thus the Divine Being not only loses the attribute of absolute holiness, but even falls below the level of those men in whom moral goodness triumphs over evil.因此,神圣的存在,不仅失去了神圣属性绝对的,但即使是那些低于男性的水平在其中战胜邪恶的道德善良。

Man男子

No such claim, however, can be made in behalf of the moral order by a consistent pantheist.没有这样的要求,但是,可为代表的道德的一致泛神论。For him, human personality is a mere illusion: what we call the individual man is only one of the countless fragments that make up the Divine Being; and since the All is impersonal no single part of it can validly claim personality.在他看来,人的个性仅仅是一种错觉:我们所说的只是个别人是一个神圣的存在,使无数碎片了,而且由于全部是没有半点人情味的一部分可以有效索赔的个性。 Futhermore, since each human action is inevitably determined, the consciousness of freedom is simply another illusion, due, as Spinoza says, to our ignorance of the causes that compel us to act.此外,由于每个人的行为是无可避免的确定,自由意识是另一种简单的幻想,因为,正如斯宾诺莎所说,我们的无知造成的,迫使我们采取行动。 Hence our ideas of what "ought to be" are purely subjective, and our concept of a moral order, with its distinctions of right and wrong, has no foundation in reality.因此,我们的想法是什么“应该是”纯粹是主观的,我们的道德秩序的概念的一个现实,在其基础的区别正确和错误没有,有。 The so-called "dictates of conscience" are doubtless interesting phenomena of mind which the psychologist may investigate and explain, but they have no binding force whatever; they are just as illusory as the ideas of virtue and duty, of injustice to the fellow-man and of sin against God.所谓“支配的良心”无疑是有趣的调查和解释这些现象的心态心理学家可能,但他们没有任何约束力,他们的职责只是虚幻的美德,作为思想的不公正,对同胞人,是得罪神。 But again, since these dictates, like all our ideas, are produced in us by God, it follows that He is the source of our illusions regarding morality-a consequence which certainly does not enhance His holiness or His knowledge.但同样,由于这些支配,像所有的观念,是我们生产的上帝,因此,他是我们的幻想源关于道德,因此这当然不会提高他的圣洁或他的知识。

It is not, however, clear that the term illusion is justified; for this supposes a distinction between truth and error-a distinction which has no meaning for the genuine pantheist; all our judgments being the utterance of the One that thinks in us, it is impossible to discriminate the true from the false.这不,但是,显然,在长期的幻想是有道理的,对于this设一个泛神论区分真理和错误的区分已真正没有意义的,所有我们的判断是对我们的话语之一是认为,它歧视是不可能真正从假。 He who rejects pantheism is no further from the truth than he who defends it; each but expresses a thought of the Absolute whose large tolerance harbours all contradictions.他是谁反对泛神论没有进一步从谁比他捍卫真理,但对每一个矛盾思想的绝对宽容的大型港口的所有。Logically, too, it would follow that no heed should be taken as to veracity of statement, since all statements are equally warranted.从逻辑上讲,也将遵循这一不理,应采取以声明的真实性,因为所有的陈述都同样需要。The pantheist who is careful to speak in accordance with his thought simply refrains from putting his philosophy into practice.谁是认真的泛神论要按照发言与他的思想从根本不敢把他的哲学实践。But it is none the less significant that Spinoza's chief work was his "Ethics", and that, according to one modern view, ethics has only to describe what men do, not to prescribe what they ought to do.但它一点也没有少重要的是斯宾诺莎的主要工作是他的“道德”,而且根据一个现代观点,道德只为描述what men做,not来规定做什么,他们应该到。

Religion宗教

In forming its conception of God, pantheism eliminates every characteristic that religion presupposes.在形成了上帝的观念,泛神论消除一切特征,宗教的先决条件。An impersonal being, whatever attributes it may have, cannot be an object of worship.一个客观存在,无论它可能属性,不能成为崇拜对象。An infinite substance or a self-evolving energy may excite fear but it repels faith and love.一个无限的物质或自我发展的能源,但它可能激发恐惧排斥信仰和爱。Even the beneficent forms of its manifestation call forth no gratitude, since these result from it by a rigorous necessity.即使是其表现形式的呼唤善行不感激,因为这些必要性产生它通过严格的。For the same reason, prayer of any sort is useless, atonement is vain and merit impossible.出于同样的理由,任何这类的祈祷是无用的,赎罪是徒劳的和值得不可能的。The supernatural of course disappears entirely when God and the world are identified.该课程完全消失时,超自然的上帝和世界的鉴定。

Recent advocates of pantheism have sought to obviate these difficulties and to show that, apart from particular dogmas, the religious life and spirit are safeguarded in their theory.最近的主张泛神论设法避免这些困难,并表明,除了特定的教条,宗教生活和精神,保障了他们的理论。But in this attempt they divest religion of its essentials, reducing it to mere feeling.但这种企图剥夺他们的宗教必需品,减少到只有感觉。Not action, they allege, but humility and trustfulness constitute religion.不采取行动,他们声称,但谦卑和信赖构成宗教。This, however is an arbitrary procedure; by the same method it could be shown that religion is nothing more than existing or breathing.然而这是一个任意的程序;采用相同的方法可以证明,宗教只不过是现有的或呼吸。 The pantheist quite overlooks the fact that religion means obedience to Divine law; and of this obedience there can be no question in a system which denies the freedom of man's will.该pantheist相当忽略了一个事实,宗教意味着服从神圣的法律,以及本服从就不会有问题将在一个不承认的自由人。 According to pantheism there is just as little "rational service" in the so-called religious life as there is in the behaviour of any physical agent.据泛神论有一样小“合理服务”在所谓的宗教生活,有代理人的行为是在身体的任何。And if men still distinguish between actions that are religious and those that are not, the distinction is but another illusion.如果男子仍然区分宗教和行动,是那些没有,但另一个区别是幻想。

Immortality不朽

Belief in a future life is not only an incentive to effort and a source of encouragement; for the Christian at least it implies a sanction of Divine law, a prospect of retribution.在未来的人生信仰,不仅是对努力工作的激励和鼓舞的,对于基督徒至少它意味着一个神圣的法律制裁报复,一个前景。 But this sanction is of no meaning or efficacy unless the soul survive as an individual.但这种制裁是企业的灵魂作为个人的生存没有意义或疗效,除非。If, as pantheism teaches, immortality is absorption into the being of God, it can matter little what sort of life one leads here.如果像泛神论任教,永生是吸收到目前的上帝,可无论什么样的一个小生命的线索在这里。There is no ground for discriminating between the lot of the righteous and that of the wicked, when all,alike are merged in the Absolute.没有任何理由的歧视正义之间的地段,而恶人,当所有的,无论是在绝对合并。And if by some further process of evolution such a discrimination should come to pass, it can signify nothing, either as reward or as punishment, once personal consciousness has ceased.和进化过程中如果再这样的一些歧视应该通过,它可以意味着什么,无论是作为奖励或处罚,一旦个人的意识已经停止。That perfect union with God which pantheism seems to promise, is no powerful inspiration to right living when one considers how far from holy must be a God who continually takes up into Himself the worst of humanity along with the best--if indeed one may continue to think in terms that involve a distinction between evil and good. That的完美结合与上帝的泛神论似乎对承诺,是不正确的生活中强大的灵感时,一考虑如何远从神圣must是神仙,continually自己需要up into the humanity worst of一如既往地与优点-只要确实一may要在这方面认为涉及区分邪恶和好。

It is therefore quite plain that in endeavouring to unify all things, pantheism sacrifices too much.因此很清楚,在努力统一所有事情,泛神论牺牲太多。If God, freedom, morality and religion must all be reduced to the One and its inevitable processes, there arises the question whether the craving for unity may not be the source of illusions more fatal than any of those which pantheism claims to dispel.如果上帝,自由,道德和宗教都必须降低到一个和它的必然过程,但出现的问题是否渴求团结的可能不是泛神论源的幻想较多的致命比任何索赔消除。 But in fact no such unification is attained.但实际上没有这样的统一是实现。The pantheist uses his power of abstraction to set aside all differences, and then declares that the differences are not really there.用他的泛神论抽象权力放下一切分歧,然后宣布的分歧其实并不存在。Yet even for him they seem to be there, and so from the very outset he is dealing with appearance and reality; and these two he never fuses into one.然而,即使他似乎是在那里,现实使他从一开始并正在处理的外观,而这些他从来没有一两成保险丝。He simply hurries on to assert that the reality is Divine and that all the apparent things are manifestations of the infinite, but he does not explain why each manifestation should be finite or why the various manifestations should be interpreted in so many different and conflicting ways by human minds, each of which is a part of one and the same God.他只是赶着上断言,现实是神圣的,而且所有的东西明显的表现形式是无限的,但他没有解释为什么每个表现应该是有限的,为什么不同的表现如何才能在这么多不同的解释和矛盾的人类的头脑,是每一个组成部分,同样的神。 He makes the Absolute pass onward from unconsciousness to consciousness but does not show why there should be these two stages in evolution, or why evolution, which certainly means becoming "other", should take place at all.他使绝对传递到意识昏迷,但以后由不显示为什么要放在这两个阶段都在进化,或为什么演变,这当然是指成为“其他”需要,应该。

It might be noted, too, that pantheism fails to unify subject and object, and that in spite of its efforts the world of existence remains distinct from the world of thought.也许应该指出,也没有统一的泛神论主体和对象,存在,尽管其在世界上的努力,仍然认为有别于世界。But such objections have little weight with the thorough-going pantheist who follows Hegel, and is willing for the sake of "unity" to declare that Being and Nothing are identical.但是,这种反对意见如下黑格尔小,重量轻的彻底的泛神论谁,是为了对愿意为“团结”,宣布存在与任何事物一样。

There is nevertheless a fundamental unity which Christian philosophy has always recognized, and which has God for its centre.但有一个基本统一的基督教哲学一贯承认,这一点已为中心的神。Not as the universal being, nor as the formal constituent principle of things, but as their efficient cause operating in and through each, and as the final cause for which things exist, God in a very true sense is the source of all thought and reality (see St. Thomas, "Contra Gentes", I).不普遍福利,也不是正式的制宪原则的事情,但由于其有效导致经营并通过每个,并作为最后一个原因为which things exist,sense上帝在very真正is reality source的所有思想和(见圣托马斯,“魂斗罗金特斯”,我)。 His omnipresence and action, far from eliminating secondary causes, preserve each in the natural order of its efficiency-physical agents under the determination of physical law and human personality in the excercise of intelligence and freedom.他的无所不在和行动,使远离消除继发性,在维护自由,每个物理自然秩序代理人根据其效率和决心体育锻炼; Tibial情报法和人的个性在。the foundation of the moral order.对道德秩序的基础。The straining after unity in the pantheistic sense is without warrant, the only intelligible unity is that which God himself has established, a unity of purpose which is manifest alike in the processes of the material universe and in the free volition of man, and which moves on to its fulfilment in the union of the created spirit with the infinite Person, the author of the moral order and the object of religious worship.泛神论的紧张感后,团结权证是没有,唯一的理解团结就是上帝本人已建立,目的是团结的表现都在物质宇宙的过程和人的自由意志,以及哪些举措就其在履行工会的宗教崇拜的创造精神与无限的人,作者的道德秩序和对象。

Publication information Written by Edward A. Pace.出版信息撰稿爱德华佩斯。Transcribed by Tomas Hancil. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.转录由托马斯汉奇尔。天主教百科全书,体积十一。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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