Papacy罗马教皇

General Information一般信息

The papacy denotes the office of the pope, or bishop of Rome, and the system of central ecclesiastical government of the Roman Catholic Church over which he presides.罗马教皇表示的办公室教皇或主教,以及他主持的制度,包括政府中央教会的罗马天主教教会了。Believed by Roman Catholics to be the successor of the apostle Peter, the pope grounds his claim to jurisdictional primacy in the church in the so - called Petrine theory.天主教徒相信:罗马是使徒彼得的继承人,他的索赔理由,教宗在教会的管辖中的首要地位,以便-所谓伯多禄理论。According to that theory, affirmed by the Council of Florence in 1439, defined as a matter of faith by the First Vatican Council in 1870, and endorsed by the Second Vatican Council in 1964, Jesus Christ conferred the position of primacy in the church upon Peter alone.根据这一理论,佛罗伦萨肯定了安理会在1439年,信仰问题定义为一个由第一梵蒂冈理事会在1870年和1964年通过的第二次梵蒂冈会议中,耶稣基督赋予的至高无上的彼得在教会的立场后,孤单。 In solemnly defining the Petrine primacy, the First Vatican Council cited the three classical New Testament texts long associated with it: John 1:42, John 21:15 ff., and, above all, Matthew 16:18 ff.在庄严定义为时尚早,第一梵蒂冈会议列举了三大经典新约文本长时间相关联:约翰1:42,约翰21:15几段。,最重要的是,马修16:18几段。

The council understood these texts, along with Luke 22:32, to signify that Christ himself constituted Saint Peter as prince of the apostles and visible head of the church, possessed of a primacy of jurisdiction that was to pass down in perpetuity to his papal successors, along with the authority to pronounce infallibly on matters of faith or morals.该委员会了解这些文字,连同路加22:32,以表明基督自己的接班人构成教皇圣彼得,他作为王子的使徒可见头部和永恒的教会,一个拥有至高无上的管辖权是传承随着权力的发音道德无误或事项的信念。

Although the pope's priestly powers as bishop come from the sacramental act of ordination, the pope derives his papal authority from an act of election, which since 1179 has been the right of the Sacred College of Cardinals.虽然的祭司主教,教皇的权力,协调来自行为的圣礼,教宗的枢机主教书院源于他的神圣权力从教皇选举的行为,而自1179年以来,一直权利。 It is by virtue of their decision that each new pope inherits his official titles, ancient and modern, secular and sacred: bishop of Rome, vicar of Jesus Christ, successor of the prince of the apostles, supreme pontiff of the universal Church, patriarch of the West, primate of Italy, archbishop and metropolitan of the Roman province, sovereign of the state of Vatican City, servant of the servants of God.它是由决定凭借自己的每一个新的教皇继承他的官衔,古代和现代,世俗和神圣:罗马主教,副主教耶稣基督的元老,继承,王子普遍教会的使徒,教宗的最高西方,神灵长类意大利,罗马大主教和大城市的省,公务员是国家主权的梵蒂冈城的仆人。

The Early Papacy早期的罗马教皇

Scanty pieces of evidence dating back to the 1st century AD indicate that the church at Rome had already attained a certain preeminence in doctrinal matters even among those few churches which could lay claim to apostolic foundation.使徒基础贫瘠得粉碎的证据可以追溯到公元1世纪在罗马教会表明,一些教会自居可能已经达到了一定的领先地位,即使是在理论方面的。 The apostolic credentials of Rome, moreover, would appear to have been uniquely impressive.罗马的使徒的凭据,而且,似乎已独特的令人印象深刻。It is certain that Saint Paul had preached at Rome, and he was probably put to death there about 67 during the reign of Nero.可以肯定的是圣保罗在罗马传道,他可能是统治的尼禄处死那么,在约67。It seems likely, as well, that Saint Peter had visited Rome and had also been martyred there.看来很可能,以及,那圣彼得访问了罗马,并且还出现了牺牲。About Peter's actual position at Rome, however, and about the position of the early Roman bishops, the historical record is silent.关于彼得的实际位置在罗马,然而,对主教们的立场早期罗马,历史记录是沉默。What is unquestioned is that by the 3d century the Roman bishops were representing themselves as having succeeded to the primacy that Peter had enjoyed among the apostles and as wielding within the universal church a primacy of authority in doctrinal matters.什么是毫无疑问的是,通过三维世纪的罗马主教是代表自己是有成功的事项享有至高无上的彼得使徒和理论之间的普遍挥舞在教堂内一个至高无上的权威。

During the 4th and 5th centuries, after the Roman emperor Constantine's grant of toleration to Christianity (the Edict of Milan, 313) and its rise to the status of an official religion, a series of popes, most notably Leo I (r. 440 - 61), translated that claim into a primacy of jurisdiction over the church.在第4和第5世纪,罗马皇帝君士坦丁后的赠款,以宽容基督教(313法令米兰)及其引起的教皇地位的官方宗教,一个系列,最显着的利奥一世(河440 - 61),翻译的教会,要求优先进入一个管辖权。That claim was matched, however, by the rival claim of the church at Constantinople to a jurisdictional primacy in the East equal to that of Rome in the West.这样的说法匹配,然而,在君士坦丁堡的对手声称对教会管辖权的首要地位在东罗马等于说在西方。In fact, for at least another century, it was the Byzantine emperor of Constantinople who could actually claim to be functioning as the supreme leader of Christendom in spiritual as well as temporal matters.事实上,至少一个世纪,这是君士坦丁堡拜占庭皇帝谁实际上可以说是运作的问题作为最高领导人的基督教精神,以及在时间。

The Medieval Papacy中世纪罗马教皇

The 6th to the 16th century marked the rise of the papacy to the position of unique prominence within the Christian community that, despite vicissitudes, it has since retained.在第6至16世纪标志着教皇上升到突出位置独特的基督教社区内,尽管沧桑,但至今保留。In that complex development three broad phases may be emphasized.在这种复杂的三大发展阶段可能得到强调。The first, extending from the late 6th to the late 8th century, was marked by the turning of the papacy to the West and its escape from subordination to the authority of the Byzantine emperors of Constantinople.第一,扩大从晚6至8世纪后期,是明显的转折教皇向西方及其摆脱从属地位的君士坦丁堡拜占廷皇帝的权威的。 This phase has sometimes, but improperly, been identified with the reign (590 - 604) of Gregory I, who, like his predecessors, represented to the inhabitants of the Roman world a church that was still identified with the empire.这个阶段的时候,但是不当,已确定与帝国统治时期(590 - 604)的格雷戈里我,谁像他的前任,代表了罗马世界的居民的一个教堂,与仍在鉴定。Unlike some of those predecessors, Gregory was forced to confront the collapse of imperial authority in northern Italy.不同于前人的一些人,格雷戈里不得不面对意大利崩溃皇权北部。As the leading civilian official of the empire in Rome, it fell to him to undertake the civil administration of the city and its environs and to negotiate for its protection with the Lombard invaders threatening it.作为领先的文职官员在罗马帝国的,它下降到他的周围进行民事管理的城市和谈判,并为它的保护与伦巴第侵略者的威胁。

In the 8th century, after the rise of Islam had weakened the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards had renewed their pressure in Italy, the popes finally sought support from the Frankish rulers of the West and received (754) from the Frankish king Pepin The Short the Italian territory later known as the Papal States. With the crowning (800) by Leo III of Charlemagne, first of the Carolingian emperors, the papacy also gained his protection.在8世纪,伊斯兰教兴起后,削弱了拜占庭帝国和意大利伦巴已重申了他们压力,教皇终于寻求西方支持统治者从法兰克和收到的短的 (754)法兰克国王丕平意大利领土后来被称为查理曼的教皇国 ,首先是加洛林皇帝随着加冕(800)由利奥三世教皇也得到了保护。

By the late 9th century, however, the Carolingian empire had disintegrated, the imperial government in Italy was powerless, and the bishopric of Rome had fallen under the domination of the nobles.到9世纪末,然而,法兰克帝国已经解体,在意大利政府是无能为力的帝国,和罗马主教的有贵族的统治下倒下的。Once again the papacy sought aid from the north, and in 962, Pope John XII crowned the German king Otto I emperor.教皇再次试图从北部的援助,并在962,教皇约翰十二加冕国王奥托一世的德国皇帝。In this revived empire, soon called the Holy Roman Empire, the pope theoretically was the spiritual head, and the emperor the temporal head.在这个恢复帝国,很快被称为神圣罗马帝国,罗马教皇理论上是精神领袖,和皇帝的时间头。The relationship between temporal and spiritual authority, however, was to be a continuing arena of contention.权力关系的时间和精神,但是,将是一个持续的争论舞台。Initially, the emperors were dominant and the papacy stagnated.最初,皇帝为优势和教皇停滞不前。The emperors themselves, however, set the papacy on the road to recovery.皇帝自己,但是,设置为恢复教皇的道路上。In 1046, Emperor Henry III deposed three rival claimants to the papal office and proceeded to appoint, in turn, three successors.在1046年,英皇亨利三世被废黜的三个对手索赔教皇办公室,并着手任命之交,在三个接班人。 With the appointment in 1049 of Leo IX, the third of these, the movement of church reform, which had been gathering momentum in Burgundy and Lorraine, finally came to Rome.随着这些任命在1049年狮子座第九第三,改革运动的教会,已被收集在勃艮第和洛林的势头,最后来到罗马。It found there in Leo and in a series of distinguished successors the type of unified central leadership it had previously lacked.它发现有一个在狮子座和接班人的一系列杰出的领导风格统一的中央它以前所缺少的。

With the papacy taking the leadership in reform, the second great phase in the process of its rise to prominence began, one that extended from the mid 11th to the mid 13th century.随着教皇在以改革的领导,要突出第二阶段崛起的伟大进程的开始,一个11日延长至中期到13世纪中叶。It was distinguished, first, by Gregory VII's bold attack after 1075 on the traditional practices whereby the emperor had controlled appointments to the higher church offices, an attack that spawned the protracted civil and ecclesiastical strife in Germany and Italy known as the Investiture Controversy.这是杰出的,首先,由格雷戈里七世的Investiture争议大胆的攻击后,被称为1075的传统做法,即皇帝任命控制了更高的教会办公室,一个攻击而出现的长期内战和宗教冲突在德国和意大利。 It was distinguished, second, by Urban II's launching in 1095 of the Crusades, which, in an attempt to liberate the Holy Land from Muslim domination, marshaled under papal leadership the aggressive energies of the European nobility.这是杰出的,第二,乌尔班二世的发射,其中1095十字军东征,企图从穆斯林统治下解放圣地,教皇的领导下编组欧洲贵族的侵略力量的。 Both these efforts, although ultimately unsuccessful, greatly enhanced papal prestige in the 12th and 13th centuries.这两种努力,虽然最终没有成功,大大提高了十三世纪罗马教皇在第12和威信。Such powerful popes as Alexander III (r. 1159 - 81), Innocent III (r. 1198 - 1216), Gregory IX (r. 1227 - 41), and Innocent IV (r. 1243 - 54) wielded a primacy over the church that attempted to vindicate a jurisdictional supremacy over emperors and kings in temporal and spiritual affairs.如此强大的教皇亚历山大三世为(河1159年至1181年),英诺森三世(在位1198年至1216年),格雷戈里九(河1227年至1241年),和英诺森四世(在位1243年至1254年)挥舞教堂优先于那些试图以维护司法至上的精神事务结束,皇帝和国王的时间。

This last attempt proved to be abortive.这最后被证明是失败的尝试。If Innocent IV triumphed over Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, a mere half - century later Boniface VIII (r. 1294 - 1303) fell victim to the hostility of the French king Philip IV.如果1303年战胜了无辜四神圣罗马帝国皇帝腓特烈二世只是一个半-世纪后博尼法斯八(河1294 - )的牺牲品第四敌意的法国国王菲利普。In 1309, Pope Clement V left Rome and took up residence in Avignon, the beginning of the so - called Babylonian Captivity (1309 - 78), during which all the popes were French, lived in Avignon, and were subject to French influence, until Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome.在1309年,教皇克莱门特五离开罗马,讨论了居住在阿维尼翁,所谓的开始-所谓的巴比伦圈养(1309年至1378年),在所有的教皇是法国人,住在阿维尼翁,并受到法国的影响,直到格雷戈里席选举产生的罗马教皇。 During the 13th and 14th centuries, therefore, papal authority over the universal church was exercised increasingly at the sufferance of national rulers and local princes of Europe.在13和14世纪,因此,普世教会在罗马教皇的权力行使是在欧洲越来越多的国家的统治者默许王子和本地。This fact became dismally clear during the Great Schism of the West (1378 - 1418), when two, and later three, rival claimants disputed for the papal office, dividing the church into rival "obediences"; in their desperate attempts to win support, the claimants opened the way to the exploitation of ecclesiastical resources for dynastic and political ends.这一事实变得沉闷明确在obediences“大分裂西(1378年至1418年),当两个,后来三,索赔人提出争议的对手将对手教皇办公室,分裂教会”,在他们绝望的试图争取支持,索赔人开辟了道路两端剥削和政治的教会资源王朝。

The years of schism, then, and the related efforts of the general councils of Constance and Basel to limit the papal authority, saw the onset of the process whereby the papacy was reduced to the status of an Italian principality.在多年的分裂,那么,和康斯坦茨和巴塞尔一般议会有关努力的限制教皇的权威,认为这一进程的开始,即教皇是公国的地位降低到一个意大利人。 Its supreme authority over the universal church had come to be no more than theoretical, the power over the national and territorial churches having passed to kings, princes, and rulers of such city - states as Venice.它的普世教会的最高权威已经到了在威尼斯不超过理论,对国家权力的国王和领土教堂已通过王子,这样的城市,和统治者-国家。

The Papacy in the Age of Reformation在改革时代的罗马教皇

Such was the situation when the papacy was confronted in the early 16th century with the great challenge posed by Martin Luther to the traditional teaching on the church's doctrinal authority and much else besides.这就是和情况时,教皇在教会的教义是面临的的教学与16世纪初的伟大传统的马丁路德所带来的挑战权威其他许多。The seeming inability of Leo X (r. 1513 - 21) and those popes who succeeded him to comprehend the significance of the threat that Luther posed - or, indeed, the alienation of many Christians by the corruption that had spread throughout the church - was a major factor in the rapid growth of the Protestant Reformation.本- 21看似无力利奥X(河1513)以及教皇谁接替他理解教会的意义构成的威胁,路德-或者,确实是传遍了,腐败异化的许多基督徒的-是新教改革的主要因素,在迅速增长。 By the time the need for a vigorous, reforming papal leadership was recognized, much of northern Europe was lost to Catholicism.到时候需要一个有力的领导,改革教皇的承认,欧洲北部的大部分是输给了天主教。

Not until the election (1534) of Paul III, who placed the papacy itself at the head of a movement for churchwide reform, did the Counter - Reformation begin.直到选举(1534)保三,谁运动churchwide放置一个教皇本身的改革却在头反-改革的开始。Paul established a reform commission, appointed several leading reformers to the College of Cardinals, initiated reform of the central administrative apparatus at Rome, authorized the founding of the Jesuits, the order that was later to prove so loyal to the papacy, and convoked the Council of Trent, which met intermittently from 1545 to 1563.保罗成立了一个改革委员会,任命几个主要改革者红雀学院,罗马发起改革的仪器在中央行政,授权耶稣会的创始,命令,后来证明这样忠于教皇,并召集理事会遄达,满足1545至1563年断断续续的。 The council succeeded in initiating a far - ranging moral and administrative reform, including the reform of the papacy itself, that was destined to define the shape and set the tone of Roman Catholicism into the mid - 20th century.该委员会成功地发起一个远-广泛的道德和行政改革,包括改革本身的教皇,这是注定要确定的形状,并设置罗马天主教中旬到该音- 20世纪。The 16th century also saw the development of foreign missions, which were encouraged by the popes and enhanced their prestige.16世纪还看到了信誉求发展的外国使团,它感到鼓舞的是教皇和增强。

The Papacy in the 18th and 19th Centuries在18世纪和19世纪罗马教皇

Their diplomatic skills notwithstanding, the 17th and 18th century popes proved unable to reverse the long - established trend toward increasing royal control of national clergies and increasing autonomy of the national and local doctrines.尽管他们的外交技巧,在17和18世纪的教皇证明无法扭转长期-地方主义既定的趋势日益走向皇家神职人员和控制的国家和越来越多的自主权的国家。 National doctrines of French, German, and Austrian provenance (known respectively as Gallicanism, Febronianism, and Josephism, and all of them in some measure promoting the limitation of papal prerogatives) helped reduce these popes progressively to a state of political impotence. Their decline became manifest in 1773, when, capitulating to the Bourbons, Clement XIV suppressed the Jesuits, the papacy's most loyal supporters.国家学说的法国,德国和奥地利出处(称为Febronianism分别为Gallicanism,并Josephism,和他们都在一定程度上促进了教皇的特权限制)有助于减少这些教皇逐步向阳痿国家政治。衰败的原因,成为,表现在1773年时,投降的波旁王朝,克莱门特十四镇压耶稣会士,教皇的最忠实的支持者。 A few years later, despite the Concordat of 1801 reestablishing the church in France after the Revolution, the imprisonment of Pius VII by Napoleon appeared to foreshadow the very demise of the papal office.几年之后,尽管1801年协约重塑法国大革命后的教堂,拿破仑监禁碧岳至七似乎预示着教皇办公室非常消亡的。

What this event actually foreshadowed was the demise of the papal temporal power.究竟预示了这一事件的权力教皇消亡的时间。Although in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars the Congress of Vienna (1815) restored the Papal States, they were forcibly annexed to the new Kingdom of Italy in 1870, and not until 1929 with the Lateran Treaty was the "Roman Question" - the problem of nonnational status for the pope - solved.虽然在)之后的拿破仑战争的国会维也纳(1815年恢复了教皇国,他们被强迫附于新王国意大利于1870年,并直到1929年的拉特兰条约是“罗马问题” -问题为教宗nonnational地位 - 解决。The treaty, which created in the heart of Rome a tiny, sovereign Vatican state, restored to the papacy a measure of temporal independence but left it with political influence rather than actual political power.该条约,其中罗马制造了一个小小的心,梵蒂冈国家主权,恢复到一个独立的衡量教皇时间,但它在实际的政治权力与政治影响力,而不是。

Paradoxically, the eclipse of papal temporal power during the 19th century was accompanied by a recovery of papal prestige.奇怪的是,教皇的权力月食时间在19世纪伴随着复苏的教皇声望。The monarchist reaction in the wake of the French Revolution and the later emergence of constitutional governments served alike, though in different ways, to sponsor that development.法国大革命中的君主反应后的宪法和政府后出现同样的服务,虽然以不同的方式,赞助,发展。The reinstated monarchs of Catholic Europe saw in the papacy a conservative ally rather than a jurisdictional rival.欧洲的恢复天主教君主看到了教皇一个保守的盟友而不是对手管辖。Later, when the institution of constitutional governments broke the ties binding the clergy to the policies of royal regimes, Catholics were freed to respond to the renewed spiritual authority of the pope.后来,当政府机构的关系具有约束力的宪法打破了皇家神职人员政权的政策的,天主教徒被释放,以回应教宗的新的精神权威。

The popes of the 19th and 20th centuries have come to exercise that authority with increasing vigor and in every aspect of religious life. 20世纪的教皇19和来行使这一权力的宗教生活与增加活力和在各个方面。By the crucial pontificate of Pius IX (r. 1846 - 78), for example, papal control over worldwide Catholic missionary activity was firmly established for the first time in history.到了关键的教宗比约九(河1846年至1878年),例如,传教活动天主教罗马教皇的控制全球建立了牢固的历史在第一时间。 The solemn definition of the papal primacy by the First Vatican Council gave clear theoretical underpinnings to Pius IX's own commitment to an intensified centralization of ecclesiastical government in Rome. The council's companion definition of papal infallibility strengthened the energetic exercise of the papal magisterial power that was so marked a feature of the years between Vatican I and the assembly of the Second Vatican Council in 1962.梵蒂冈理事会的首要地位由第一庄严的定义,教皇给了明确的理论基础,以庇护九自己的承诺,一个教会的罗马加强中央集权的政府。理事会的教皇犯错误伴侣的定义加强了如此精力充沛行使教皇权威的力量标志着1962年第二次梵蒂冈的特点多年来我和梵蒂冈之间的装配会审议。

The Papacy in the 20th Century在20世纪罗马教皇

Never before had popes been quite so active in moral and doctrinal teaching, and the great encyclicals of Leo XIII (r. 1878 - 1903) and Pius XII (r. 1939 - 58) especially, dealing with an imposing range of topics from sexual morality and eucharistic teaching to economic, social, and political ideas, became determinative in shaping the development of Catholic thinking.以前从未有相当理论教学教皇如此活跃在道德和,和1878年至一九○三年伟大谕的利奥十三世(河)和比约十二世(河1939至1958年),特别是,性道德处理范围堂而皇之的主题,从教学和圣体的经济,社会和政治观念,在塑造成为决定性的思维发展的天主教徒。 The efforts of these popes, moreover, although punctuated in 1907 by Pius X's condemnation of Modernism, did much to reverse the uncompromising hostility to modern thinking that Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors, which in 1864 had condemned liberalism, socialism, modern scientific thought, biblical studies, and other liberal movements of the day, had served to dramatize.教皇的努力,其中此外,虽然1907年打断由碧岳X的现代主义的谴责,也大大扭转不妥协的敌视现代思维的庇护九的教学大纲的错误,在1864年曾谴责自由主义,社会主义,现代化的科学思想,圣经研究,以及其他自由一天的变动,起到了戏剧化。

The continuing strength of the forces within the church favoring theological innovation and energetic reform became unmistakably evident at the Second Vatican Council, convened by John XXIII (r. 1958 - 63), and found expression especially in its decrees on ecumenism, religious liberty, the liturgy, and the nature of the church.持续强劲的改革力量在充满活力的教会神学有利于创新,成为明白无误地看出在第二次梵蒂冈会议,会议由63约翰二十三世(在位1958年- ),结果发现,特别是在表达其对法令合一,宗教的自由礼仪和教会的性质。The ambivalence of some of those decrees, however, and the disciplinary turmoil and doctrinal dissension following the ending of the council, brought about new challenges to papal authority.该法令的某些矛盾的,然而,纪律和理论纷争动乱结束后,安理会,带来了新的挑战教皇的权威。The establishment of national conferences of bishops tended to erode it to some degree, and Paul VI's encyclical Humanae Vitae (1968), reaffirming the prohibition of artificial birth control, was met with both evasion and defiance.建立人工生育的控制的全国性会议的主教倾向于削弱它在一定程度上,保罗六世的通谕Humanae简历(1968年禁止),重申了,既规避了会见和蔑视。 By the late 1970s papal authority itself had become a bone of contention.到70年代末教皇权力本身已成为一个争论的。

Paul VI (r. 1963 - 78), however, continued the ecumenical efforts of John XXIII in his contacts with Protestant and Orthodox churches, as in his attempt to make discreet moves in the direction of pragmatic accommodation with the communist regimes of eastern Europe, a policy that would have been unthinkable during the reigns of Pius XI and Pius XII.保罗六世(在位63年至78年),然而,持续的接触和东正教教堂与基督教新教在他的努力约翰二十三世,在他企图使东欧谨慎举动在共产主义政权的住宿,务实的方向, 1第十二庇护政策,将被第十一和不可想象的统治期间的庇护。Paul also reorganized the curia and spoke strongly for peace and social justice.保罗还改组了教廷并讲话强烈的和平与正义的社会。With the accession of the Polish John Paul II (1978 - ) the church had, for the first time since Adrian VI in the 16th century, a non - Italian pope.随着1978年加入了波兰若望保禄二世( - )教会了,为意大利教皇艾德里安六世以来第一次在16世纪,一个非- 。

Francis Oakley弗朗西斯奥克利

Bibliography 书目
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Papacy教皇

Advanced Information先进的信息

As head of the Roman Catholic Church the pope is considered the successor of Peter and the vicar of Christ.作为教会的头的罗马天主教教皇被认为是伯多禄的继承和基督的副主教。He is also, and first of all, the bishop of Rome and, for Eastern Christians, the patriarch of the West.他也和所有第一次,罗马主教和基督信徒,东,西方的元老。The term pappa, from which the word "pope" is derived, originated in ancient colloquial Greek as an endearing term for "father," and was then applied, beginning in the third century, to Eastern patriarchs, bishops, abbots, and eventually parish priests (of whom it is still used today).一词帕帕帕斯,从这些单词“教皇”派生“,起源于古,口语希腊”父亲作为一个可爱的任期,后来被应用,在第三个世纪开始,东区元老,主教,住持,并最终教区祭司(其中它仍然沿用至今)。 In the West the term was never very common outside Rome (originally a Greek-speaking church), and from the sixth century became reserved increasingly for the bishop of Rome, until in the later eleventh century Pope Gregory VII made that official.在西方这个词都不是很常见的外部罗马(原为希腊文为母语的教堂),并从6世纪开始越来越多地保留罗马的主教第七,直到11世纪中后期,官方作出了教皇格雷戈里。 The term "papacy" (papatus), meant to distinguish the Roman bishop's office from all other bishoprics (episcopatus), also originated in the later eleventh century.所谓“教皇”(papatus),为了区分所有其他主教(罗马主教episcopatus办公室从),也世纪起源于后第11位。

For Catholics the papacy represents an office divinely instituted by Christ in his charge to Peter (Matt. 16:18-19; Luke 22:31-32; John 21:15-17), and therefore something to be revered and obeyed as a part of Christian faith and duty.对于天主教徒的教皇代表玛特泰16:18-19基督在神圣的办公室提起由他负责对彼得(;路加福音22:31-32;约翰21:15-17),因此是神圣的东西作为一个服从部分基督教信仰和责任。 But the papal role has in fact varied from age to age, and a historical survey is required first to put papal claims into perspective.但是,教皇的作用在不同年龄其实年龄,而且有历史调查是必须首先投入的角度教皇索赔。

History历史

The first three and a half centuries of papal history have left remarkably little record . 前三个和教皇在一个半世纪的历史留下的记录非常少That Peter ministered and died in Rome now seems beyond doubt, but a monarchical episcopate emerged there only in the early second century, and a half-century later still came those lists of successive bishops designed to show their preservation of the original apostolic faith.彼得事奉和罗马去世以后,似乎在现在怀疑,但一世纪,君主主教只出现在早期的第二位,一个半世纪之后仍然发生了使徒信仰的人的原始名单历届主教的目的是为了显示他们的保护。 The church at Rome nevertheless enjoyed a certain prominence, owing to its apostolic "founders" and to its political setting, and this eventually inspired its bishops to exercise greater leadership.但在罗马教会享有一定的突出,由于其使徒“创始人”和它的政治环境,而这最终启发的主教行使更大的领导。Victor (ca. 190) rebuked the churches of Asia Minor for celebrating Easter on the incorrect date, and Stephan (254-57), for the first known time explicitly claiming to stand on the Petrine deposit of faith, ruled against the churches of North Africa on sacraments administered by heretics.维克多(约190)斥不正确的日期复活节的教会为庆祝小亚细亚,和Stephan(254-57),第一次明确知道自称站在信仰伯多禄矿床,北统治教会的反对非洲异端的圣礼管理。

Between the midfourth and the midfifth centuries, the apogee of the Western imperial church, Roman popes developed and articulated those claims which were to become characteristic.之间的midfourth和midfifth世纪以来,西方教会远地点帝国,罗马教皇制定并阐明这些权利要求的人,成为特色。 Over against emperors and patriarchs in Constantinople, who claimed that their church in "new Rome" virtually equaled that of "old Rome," the popes asserted vehemently that their primacy derived from Peter and not from their political setting, making theirs the only truly "apostolic see." Siricius (384-98) and Innocent (401-17) issued the first extant decretals, letters modeled on imperial rescripts in which popes ruled definitively on matters put to them by local churches.对危害和设置始祖皇帝在君士坦丁堡,谁声称,他们的教会在“新罗马”实际上等于说“老罗马”,声称教皇强烈,他们的首要地位来自彼得政治,而不是从他们,使他们唯一的真正“使徒见。“西利修斯(384-98)和无辜(401-17)发出的第一个现存的decretals,参照当地教会的信帝国rescripts他们在教皇统治,其中明确提出来的事项。 Leo the Great (440-61), who first appropriated the old pagan title of pontifex maximus, intervened with his Tome at the Council of Chalcedon to establish orthodox Christology, told a recalcitrant archbishop that he merely "participated in" a "fullness of power" reserved to popes alone (this later to become an important principle in canon law), and provided in his letters and sermons a highly influential description of the Petrine office and its primacy, drawing in part upon principles found in Roman law.利奥伟大(440-61),谁第一拨的庞修夫鲆旧异教称号,卡尔西干预与他圣多美和普林西比局在建立正统的基督,告诉顽抗的大主教说,他只是“权力参加了”丰满的“ “仅保留给教皇(这后来成为教会法的一个重要原则),并提供了一个他的信件和说教,其首要地位具有重大影响的说明伯多禄办公室,零件图在罗马的法律原则后,发现研究。 Gelasius (492-96), finally, over against emperors inclined to intervene at will in ecclesiastical affairs, asserted an independent and higher pontifical authority in religious matters.格拉西(492-96),最后,对危害倾向于在事务进行干预皇帝将在教会,主张独立的和更高的宗座宗教事务管理局研究。

Throughout the early Middle Ages (600-1050) papal claims remained lofty, but papal power diminished considerably.在整个中世纪早期(600-1050)保持崇高的教皇的主张,但罗马教皇的权力大大减少。 All churches, East and West, recognized in the "vicar of St. Peter" a certain primacy of honor, but the East virtually never consulted him and the West only when it was expedient.所有的教堂,东,西,圣彼得承认的“牧师”的荣誉一定的首要地位,但实际上从未征询东方和西方的他只当是权宜之计。 In practice, councils of bishops, with kings often presiding over them, ruled in the various Western territorial churches.在实践中,主教议会的国王,与他们经常主持,在各教会统治西方的领土。Reform initiatives came from the outside, even when (as with Boniface and Charlemagne) they sought normative guidance from Rome.改革举措来自外界,即使(与博尼和查理曼)他们从罗马寻求规范指导。Two innovations deserve mention: in the mideighth century the papacy broke with the Eastern ("Roman") emperor and allied itself henceforth with Western royal powers; at the same time popes laid claims to the papal states, lands in central Italy meant to give them autonomy but in fact burdening them with political responsibilities which became very damaging to their spiritual mission during the later Middle Ages and were not finally removed until the forcible unification of Italy in 1870.值得一提的两个创新:在mideighth世纪教皇打破了东区(“罗马”)及有关皇室的权力,皇帝自己今后与西方,在同一时间教皇自称奠定了教皇国,意大利中部的土地给他们的意思的自主权,但实际上他们负担1870年与意大利的政治职责,成为严重损害了自己的精神使命,在中世纪晚期和不强行拆除,直至最终统一。

The papacy emerged during the High Middle Ages (1050-1500) as the real leader of Western Christendom, beginning with the so-called Gregorian reform movement (its claims neatly epitomized in twenty-seven dicta noted down by Pope Gregory VII), culminating initially in the reign of Pope Innocent III (his reforms permanently inscribed in the Fourth Lateran Council), and waning again during the Great Schism and the conciliar movement.罗马教皇出现在中世纪的西方高级基督教(1050年至1500年的实际负责人)为,法官意见首先是所谓的阳历改革运动(其索赔7整齐地体现在20 -注意到了由罗马教皇格雷戈里七),终于开始在教皇英诺森三世统治时期(他的改革永远会刻在第四次拉特兰),并再次减弱,在大分裂和大公运动。In 1059 a new election law (with modifications made in 1179, the same as that in force today) raised the pope above all other bishops, who were in principle still elected by their clergy and people.在1059年一个新的选举法1179(在作出修改,一样在今天生效)提出了上述所有其他人教皇的主教,在谁的原则,仍然选出他们的神职人员。 Henceforth the pope would be elected solely by cardinals, themselves papal appointees given liturgical and administrative responsibilities, and he could be chosen from among all eligible clergymen (preferably cardinals) rather than, as the older law held, only from among Romans.此后,教皇将完全由枢机主教当选,自己给罗马教皇任命的礼仪和行政责任,他选择了可以举行由所有合资格的老年人法律牧师(最好枢机主教),而不是作为,只能从罗马人之间。 Papal decretals replaced conciliar canons as the routine and normative form of regulation, and this "new law" (little changed prior to the new codes issued in 1917 and 1982) reached down uniformly into every diocese in the West.教皇decretals取代日常监管大公大炮和规范的形式,而这种“新法律”(1917年持平,1982年之前,在新的代码发出)达成了一致西到每一个教区研究。 The papal curia or court, reorganized and massively expanded, became the center of ecclesiastical finance and administration.罗马教皇教廷或法院,改组和大规模扩大,成为行政中心,金融和教会。Legates carried papal authority into all parts of Europe.罗马教皇的使节进行欧洲各地的权威到。The papal call to crusade brought thousands of laymen to arms, and eventually had important implications in the area of clerical taxation and the issuing of indulgences.教皇呼吁运动带来了成千上万的普通人武器,并最终有重要影响的地区的税务文书和宽容发行。Above all, this revitalized papacy constantly asserted the priority of the spiritual over the material world, and adopted for itself a new title as head of the church, that of "vicar [or placeholder] of Christ."总之,这重振教皇不断宣称世界优先的精神对物质,对自己通过了一个新的头衔教会作为头,基督的“牧师[或占位符]。”

The early modern papacy (1517-1789) began with a staggering defeat. Protestant Reformers, persuaded that the papacy had corrupted the gospel beyond all hope of reform, revolted. The so-called Renaissance papacy had largely lost sight of its spiritual mission, and was forced reluctantly into the reforms articulated by the Council of Trent (1545-63).早期的现代教皇(1517年至1789年)开始了惊人的失败。新教改革者,说服他们,教皇已损坏的改革福音希望超越一切,起义。 所谓的文艺复兴时期的教皇在很大程度上失去了其精神和视觉的使命,被迫不情愿地把 1545年至1563年)( 改革的阐述了安理会的遄达The papacy then took charge of deep and lasting reforms in, eg, training clergy, upholding new standards for the episcopal and priestly offices, and providing a new catechism.教皇接手负责深和持久的改革,例如,培训神职人员,坚持祭司办事处新标准的主教,并提供一个新的教义。The number of cardinals was set at seventy (until the last generation), and "Congregations" were established to oversee various aspects of the church's mission.枢机主教人数定为70(直到最后一代),和“毕业典礼”的建立是为了监督的使命教会的各个方面。

The critical attack of Enlightenment thinkers (Josephinism in Austria) together with growing national (Gallicanism in France) and episcopal (Febronianism in Germany) resistance to papal authority culminated in the French Revolution and its aftermath, during which time two popes (Pius VI, Pius VII) endured humiliating imprisonments.连同关键的攻击启蒙思想家Josephinism(奥地利)的日益Gallicanism法国国家()和主教(Febronianism在德国)抗教皇的权威,最终导致法国革命及其后果在此期间,两位教皇(比约六,皮乌斯七)遭受屈辱的监禁。 But the forces of restoration, combined with the official indifference or open hostility of secularized governments, led to a strong resurgence of centralized papal authority known as ultramontanism. Pope Pius IX (1846-78) made this the program of his pontificate, codified it as a part of the Catholic faith in the decrees on papal primacy and infallibility in Vatican Council I (1869-70), and enforced it with an unprecedented degree of Roman centralization that characterized the Catholic Church into the 1960s.但是,恢复部队,第九结合官方冷漠的世俗化或公开敌视庇护政府,领导教皇至上主义作为一个强有力的复苏教皇的权力集中已知(1846年至1878年)提出这个方案是为编纂成为教宗, 1到20世纪60年代的一部分信仰天主教,天主教教会在议会法令的教皇在梵蒂冈的首要地位和犯错误我(1869年至1870年)的特点,并强迫它与罗马集中了前所未有的程度。 Leo XIII (1878-1903), the first pope in centuries to have chiefly spiritual obligations following the loss of the papal states, approved neo-Thomism as an official challenge to modern philosophy and defined a Catholic position on social justice over against radical labor unions.利奥十三世(1878年至1903年),第一次在世纪教皇主要精神有以下义务的国家失去了教皇批准向现代哲学的新托马斯主义作为官方的挑战和界定社会正义战胜激进的劳动工会反对天主教的立场。 Pius X (1903-14) condemned scattered efforts to bring into the Catholic Church the critical study of Scripture and divergent philosophical views known collectively as "modernism."比约X(1903年至一九一四年)谴责分散努力使天主教教会的“现代主义批判研究统称为圣经的看法和不同的哲学。” Pius XII (1939-58) used the papacy's infallible authority for the first time to define the bodily assumption of Mary as Catholic dogma.碧岳十二(1939年至58年)使用的玛丽天主教教条的教皇的绝对权威的身体假设首次界定。 Throughout the last century mass media, mass transportation, and mass audiences have made the popes far better known and more highly reverenced in their persons (as distinguished from their office) than ever before.在整个上个世纪大众媒体,大众交通和广大观众有更好的了解和教皇更高度比赢得尊重他们的人(他们有别于办公室)是前所未有的。 Vatican Council II (1962-65) brought deep reforms, in particular a much greater emphasis upon bishops acting collegially with one another and the pope.梵二大公会议(1962至1965年)所带来的深刻改革,特别是更加重视署理主教后,教宗共事合议,其中一个。Protestants are pleased to see a return to Scripture in the papacy's conception of the church's mission and the priest's office, together with a far greater openness toward other Christian churches.新教徒高兴地看到一个教会的使命回到圣经中的教皇的观念和牧师的办公室,教堂以及其他基督教对一个更大的开放性。

Papal primacy rests upon the power of the keys which Christ conferred upon Peter and his successors, though it has obviously varied in principle and especially in practice throughout the centuries.教皇至高无上的权力接班人后休息的关键赋予他的基督和彼得,尽管它有明显不同的原则,在整个世纪,特别是在实践中。 Leo the Great and the high medieval popes claimed for themselves a "fullness of power" which Vatican Council I defined as "ordinary" and "immediate" jurisdiction over the church and all the faithful in matters of discipline and ecclesiastical authority as well as faith and morals, thus potentially transforming the pope into a supreme bishop and all other bishops into mere vicars, an imbalance which Vatican Council II sought to redress with far greater emphasis upon the episcopal office. The triumph of papal primacy has nevertheless at least three noteworthy results.利奥大和高中世纪教皇自称为自己的信仰和“丰满的权力”,这梵蒂冈作为安理会我定义为“普通”和“立即”管辖权的教会纪律和所有信徒和教会的权力的事项,以及道德,从而可能改变最高法院的主教,教皇分为A,所有其他主教成仅仅是维卡斯,一不平衡,梵二大公会议后,希望能借此解决主教办公室,更大的重视。胜利教皇的首要地位但至少有三个明显的成效。 (1) In the continuing tug of war between papal and conciliar/episcopal authority, the pope has effectively gained the upper hand.(1)在主教的权力持续/拔河和教皇之间的大公,教宗,有效地占了上风。He alone has the divinely given power to convoke councils and to authorize their decisions (something reaffirmed at Vatican Council II).只有他具有神给予的权力,召集议会,并授权他们的决定(二重申了梵蒂冈的东西会)。(2) Since the fourteenth century, and especially since the ninteenth, episcopal appointments have been removed from local clergy and laymen and reserved to Rome (which tends to preserve loyalty to the pope but also prevents churches from falling prey to local factions and national governments). (2)自14世纪,特别是自十九,主教任命国家政府被调离当地神职人员和信徒,并保留了罗马(它很容易保存,但对教宗的忠诚,也无法从堕入教会地方派系)。 (3) In general, Rome's approval is needed for all laws which govern the church's institutions, liturgies which shape its worship, courts which enforce its discipline, orders which embody its religious life, and missions sent around the world, though there has been some decentralization in the immediate aftermath of Vatican Council II. (三)在一般情况下,罗马的批准需要的所有法律事宜,教会的机构,礼仪的形成及其崇拜,法院的强制执行的纪律,命令的体现其宗教生活,世界的考察任务,周围,虽然有一些在安理会的权力下放后立即梵蒂冈第二。 Like all monarchical structures, primacy can be and usually is a very conservative force, though it can also initiate sweeping change, as in the reforms of the last two decades.像所有的君主体制,首要地位,通常可以是一个非常保守的力量,虽然它也可以启动巨大变化,如在20年改革的最后一次。

Until the last century, when papal pronouncements on a host of religious issues first became a regular feature of the Catholic Church, primacy in matters of faith and morals received far less attention than primacy of jurisdiction.直到上个世纪,罗马教皇的宗教问题时,声明对主机首次成为经常性特征和道德信仰的天主教教会,首要的事项获得更少的管辖权注意比的首要地位。 Down to the sixteenth century and beyond, popes normally adjudicated matters first argued in schools and local churches, rather than initiating legislation themselves.到16世纪以后,教皇通常审理案件中首先指出,学校和当地的教堂,而不是着手立法本身。All bishops originally possessed the magisterium, or the authority to preserve and to teach the faith handed down from the apostles, and general councils of bishops were called (usually by emperors) to resolve controverted doctrinal issues.原本拥有的所有主教训导,或有权保护和教导使徒的信仰流传下来的,一般议会和主教被称为(通常由皇帝)来解决有争议的理论问题。

Rome eventually gained a certain preeminence, owing partly to the fame of its apostolic "founders" (Peter and Paul) and partly to its enviable record of orthodoxy, though this was not always above reproach, as in the condemnation of Honorius I (625-38) for his position on monothelitism, something which entered into the debate on infallibility.罗马最终赢得了一定的上扬,部分原因是其成名的创始人使徒“”(彼得和保罗),部分由于其正统令人羡慕的纪录,虽然这并不总是无可指责,如在625谴责诺余( - 38)他的立场monothelitism,而犯错误的东西进入的辩论。In the High Middle Ages the unfailing faith Christ promised to pray for (Luke 22:31-32) was understood to apply not to the whole church but to the Roman Church and then more narrowly to the Roman pope.在中世纪的不懈高级信仰基督答应祈祷(路加福音22:31-32)被理解为不适用,而是整个教会的罗马教会,然后更窄的罗马教皇。 Infallibility was first ascribed to him in the fourteenth century and defined as binding dogma after much debate and some dissent in 1870.犯错误是第一归因于他在14世纪的和教条式定义为具有约束力经过反复讨论和1870年的一些持不同政见者研究。This was intended to guarantee and preserve the truths of the apostolic faith.这是为了保障和维护使徒信仰的真理了。 When Protestants disagree about Scripture's teaching on a certain doctrine, they appeal to a famous founder (Calvin, Wesley, etc.), their denominational creeds, or their own understanding; Catholics appeal to the authority they believe Christ conferred upon his vicar.当新教教义不同意某些关于圣经的教导上,他们吸引了著名的创始人(卡尔文,韦斯利等),他们的教派信仰,或他们自己的理解;天主教徒向当局提出上诉,他们认为基督牧师赋予他的。 Though popes are careful to distinguish fallible from infallible statements and have in fact made only one of the latter, their Petrine authority and frequent modern pronouncements can tend, as Luther first charged, to generate a new law and obscure the freedom of Christ.虽然教皇是仔细区分陈述犯错误的万无一失,而且在事实上只后者之一,其伯多禄权威和现代的声明可以倾向于频繁,作为第一路德收费,产生新的法律,掩盖了基督的自由。

Comparative Views比较次数

It is helpful to compare the position of the Eastern Orthodox, contemporary dissenting Catholics, and Protestants with the traditional view of the papacy. 它有利于比较,位置东正教当代反对天主教徒,新教徒与教皇的传统观点。

The Orthodox considered the church to be organized around five patriarchates, with the see of Peter in the West holding a certain primacy of honor but not final authority. They have consistently refused to recognize any extraordinary magisterial authority (which resides in the teachings of general councils). 东正教教堂被认为是围绕五个大主教的权威与在西看到彼得举行的一个至高无上的荣誉,但并不一定决赛。他们始终拒绝承认任何特殊权威的机构(一般是在议会所在的教诲)。 The catalyst which finally divided the Eastern and Western churches in 1054 was Rome's revitalized claim to primacy, worsened by papal support for the crusades and establishment of a Latin hierarchy in the East.东催化剂,最终分为东区和西区教堂在1054年被罗马的振兴声称至高无上的,等级的恶化由教皇支持拉丁并建立了十字军东征。 As hostility toward Rome increased, the Orthodox became ever clearer in their exegesis of the keys: the church was built upon Peter's confession of faith (which the Orthodox had preserved intact), not upon Peter himself or his sometime wayward successors.由于罗马敌视增加,东正教成为有史以来键的注释中明确的:教会是建立在完整的彼得招供的信仰(其中保留了东正教)继承人,而不是彼得本人或他的某个时候任性。 More recently, the Orthodox found the declaration of infallibility almost as offensive as did Protestants.最近,东正教发现犯错误宣言进攻几乎一样新教徒。

Catholics have never uniformly reverenced the papacy to the degree that most Protestants believe and that the ultramontane movement of the last century might have suggested .天主教徒从来没有一致赢得尊重教皇的程度,大多数新教徒相信,而上个世纪ultramontane家庭运动的可能建议。Outright repudiation nevertheless was rare.夺标休妻不过是罕见的。The so-called Old Catholics split away after the infallibility decree, and a small conservative group has denounced the changes wrought by Vatican Council II.所谓旧的天主教徒拆散后犯错误的法令,以及一小群保守的第二梵蒂冈谴责安理会的变化造成的。But in the last generation some theologians, led by Hans Kung, have openly questioned infallibility, and many faithful Catholic have rejected the stand on contraception enunciated in Pope Paul VI's Humanae vitae (1968).但在上一代的一些神学家,区领导的汉斯,曾公开质疑犯错误,许多天主教教友都拒绝了)站在1968年(关于避孕的阐述了教皇保罗六世的Humanae简历。 There is increased suspicion of Roman primatial claims and considerable ferment in favor of episcopal and conciliar authority.人们越来越怀疑权威的灵长类索赔和罗马大公发酵和主教相当赞成。But whether this is merely a momentary reaction or something of lasting significance is not yet clear.但是,这是否只是一个短暂的反应或有意义的事情持久,目前尚不清楚。

Until the last generation Protestants have had almost nothing but evil to say of the papacy. Luther, contrary to popular myth, did not revolt easily against papal authority and for a long time held to the conviction of a Petrine office charged with the care of souls in the church; but when he became convinced that the vicar of Christ had in fact distorted and obstructed the proclamation of the gospel, he labeled him instead the "antichrist," and that label stuck for centuries. 直到最后一代新教徒几乎没有,但邪恶教皇说的。路德,和流行的神话,不容易对付反抗教皇的权威和今后相当长的时间举行的灵魂定罪的关怀与伯多禄的收费办公室在教堂,但是当他开始相信,基督牧师曾在扭曲的事实和阻挠福音宣布的,他反而将他称为“反基督者”,而标签上世纪坚持的。 Indeed "popery" and its equivalent in other languages came to stand for all that was wrong with the Roman Catholic Church.事实上,“popery”及其相当于其他语言来捍卫这一切是错误的教会与罗马天主教。

Liberal Protestants have meanwhile dismissed the papacy as a vestige of superstition, while several extremely conservative groups, often in gross misunderstanding of the papacy and its actual function, continue to link it with all that is evil in the world. 自由派新教徒同时驳回了迷信教皇,作为一个痕迹,而一些非常保守的团体,经常在总功能误解了教皇和实际,继续它与世界上所有链接的是邪恶的研究。

Since Vatican Council II evangelical Christians have come better to understand and to appreciate the pope as a spokesman for Christ's church, yet few would go so far as some ecumenically minded Lutherans, who suggested that a less authoritarian papacy could function as the rallying point for a reunited church. 由于梵蒂冈理事会第二福音派基督徒都来更好地理解和欣赏教堂教皇作为一个发言人的基督,但很少有人会走那么远一些基督信仰合一运动头脑路德会,谁建议,减少独裁教皇可以点函数作为凝聚为一统一教会。 Most Protestants still consider the notion of a primatial Petrine office, instituted by Christ and conferred upon the bishops of Rome, to be scripturally and historically unfounded. Therefore the doctrine and office of the papacy will probably continue to divide Catholic from Protestant and Orthodox Christians for the foreseeable future.大多数新教徒仍然认为办公室概念的灵长类伯多禄,由基督提起授予主教和罗马后,将scripturally和历史根据的。因此,理论和教皇办公室将可能继续分裂基督徒天主教和东正教的新教在可预见的未来。

J Van EngenJ范恩根
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
NCE, X, 951-70; XI, 779-81; LTK, VIII, 36-48; VI, 884-90; DTC, XI, 1877-1944; XIII, 247-391; RGG, V, 51-85; TG Jalland, The Church and the Papacy; K. von Aretin, The Papacy and the Modern World; JD Holmes, The Triumph of the Holy See; S. Hendrix, Luther and the Papacy; PC Empie, ed., Papal Primacy and the Universal Church; C. Mirbt and K. Aland, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums und des romischen Katholizismus.罗富国教育学院,第十,951-70;十一,779-81,乐庭,八,36-48;六,884-90,接受存款公司,十一,1877至1944年,十三世,247-391; RGG,五,51-85;甘油三酯贾兰,教会和罗马教皇的K.冯阿雷廷,教皇与现代世界;第纳尔霍姆斯,领略凯旋的圣地;南克斯,路德和教皇;电脑恩派,编辑。,教皇至高无上的普世教会;三米尔布特和K.奥兰,Quellen祖尔历史馆万Papsttums北达科德romischen Katholizismus。


Papacy教皇

Catholic Information天主教信息

This term is employed in an ecclesiastical and in an historical signification. In the former of these uses it denotes the ecclesiastical system in which the pope as successor of St. Peter and Vicar of Jesus Christ governs the Catholic Church as its supreme head.这个术语是受雇于一个教会和历史意义。在这前这些用途是指在教会的制度,即教皇为基督耶稣圣彼得继承和牧师的管辖其最高领导天主教会。 In the latter, it signifies the papal influence viewed as a political force in history.在后者,它标志着教皇影响力的历史看作是一个政治问题。(See APOSTOLIC SEE; APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION; CHURCH; PAPAL ARBITRATION; POPE; UNITY.) (见使徒见;使徒继承;教会,教皇年内仲裁;教宗;统一。)

Publication information Written by GH Joyce.出版信息乔伊斯写生长激素。Transcribed by Marcia L. Bellafiore. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.转录由马西娅属贝拉菲奥里。天主教百科全书,卷席。 Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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Popes 教皇

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