Perfection, Perfectionism完美,完美主义

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The quest for religious perfection has been an important goal throughout Judeo - Christian history.在追求完美的目标已在整个宗教犹太教的一个重要-基督教的历史。Both biblical and theological evidence reflects this continuous concern.圣经和神学的证据都反映了这种持续的关注。Although interpretations have varied with reference to methods and chronology of attainment, most Christian traditions recognize the concept.虽然有程度不同的解释,参照方法与年代,大多数的基督教传统认识到这一概念。

The Biblical Emphasis圣经的重点

The OT roots for religious perfection signify wholeness and perfect peace.和平的催产素和完善基层宗教完美象征整体性。The most frequently used term for "perfect" is tamim, which occurs eighty - five times and is usually translated teleios in the LXX.最常用的词语,是“完美”是塔米姆,发生85次,通常是在teleios LXX的翻译。 Of these occurrences fifty refer to sacrificial animals and are usually translated "without blemish" or "without spot."在这些事件发生50指祭祀的动物,是“无污点,通常译为”或点“没有。”When applied to persons the term describes one who is without moral blemish or defect (Ps. 101:2, 6; Job 1:1, 8; 2:3; 8:20, etc.).当应用到人的术语描述一个缺陷是谁没有道德污点或(诗篇101:2,6,职业1:1,8; 2:3; 8:20,等等)。This term is also applied to Jehovah's character, and this dual usage may suggest the resemblance between persons and God.这个术语也适用于耶和华的性格,这双重用途的可能建议者和上帝之间的相似性。

Cognate forms of tamim are tom, tam, and tumma.塔米姆同源形式的汤姆,谭和tumma。These terms have connotations of "integrity," "simple," "uncalculating," "sincere," and "perfect."这些术语进行一些简单的内涵“诚信”,“”,“uncalculating”,“真诚”和“完美”。This spiritual wholeness and uprightness, especially as one is in right relationship to God, reflect a relational / ethical perfection which is patterned after the character of God.这种整体性和正直的精神,特别是一对一的关系是正确的上帝,反映一个关系/道德完善是神图案后的字符。

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Another Hebrew term for perfect is salem, an adjectival form of the root slm, which means "peace."另一种完美的希伯来语任期塞勒姆,一个“和平的形容词形式的根苏丹解放运动,这意味着”。This term has a covenant background and indicates the loyalty and purity of motive which are characteristic of a moral and intellectual life of integrity before God (1 Kings 8:61; 11:4; 15:3).这个名词有一个公约的背景和动机表示忠诚和纯洁的是完整的特点和知识生活的道德上帝面前(1国王8:61,11:4,15:3)。 The root idea connotes fellowship between God and his people and a right relationship with the One who is the model of perfection.金根的想法意味着与上帝和他的人民,并以完美的一个正确的关系模型是谁。

The NT vocabulary reflects the OT interpersonal concepts rather than the Greek ideal of static and dispassionate knowledge.新台币词汇反映了催产素和冷静的人际知识,而不是静态的概念,希腊理想。The emphases are on obedience, wholeness, and maturity.重点讨论了服从,整体性,和成熟。The Greek words derived from telos reflect the ideas of "design," "end," "goal," "purpose." These words describe perfection as the achievement of a desired end. Paul uses teleios to describe moral and religious perfection (Col. 1:28; 4:12).来自希腊字特洛斯反映“的设计理念”,“结束”,“目标”,“目的。”这句话形容年底根据需要完善的成就的一个。保罗用teleios来形容道德和宗教的完美(上校1:28,4:12)。 He contrasts it to nepios, "childish," which connotes moral immaturity and deficiency.他对比到nepios,“幼稚”,这意味着道德不成熟和不足。The "perfect man," teleion, is the stable person who reflects "the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ" in contrast to the children who are tossed about by every new wind of doctrine (Eph. 4:13 - 14). “完美的人,”teleion,是稳定的人谁反映了“14个测量-身材丰满的4:13基督”的对比,在以弗所书(儿童有关的是谁扔每个新风学说) 。 James uses teleios to describe the end result of spiritual discipline.詹姆斯使用teleios纪律的精神来形容的最终结果。The trying of faith develops patience and character that the disciple may be "perfect and entire, wanting in nothing" (James 1:3 - 4).在努力发展的信心和耐心的特点,即弟子可能是“完美和完整的,没有希望的”(詹姆斯1:3 - 4)。

Responsible, spiritual, intellectual, and moral development which conforms to the desired pattern is perfection.负责,精神,智力和道德发展,符合预期的模式是完美的。In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus uses teleios to exhort believers to be perfect as the Heavenly Father is perfect (Matt. 5:48).在登山宝训上,耶稣使用teleios勉励信徒是完美的,就像天父那样完美(马太福音5:48)。This use of the future tense indicates a moral obligation, however, and not an absolute perfection identical to that of God.使用这种紧张的未来表示道义上的义务,但是,而不是一个绝对的完美完全相同的神。Jesus is emphasizing the need for having right attitudes of love which are acceptable to God, not the accomplishment of perfect conduct.耶稣是强调进行必要的完善有正确的态度是可以接受的爱,对上帝的成就,而不是。

The concept of corporate perfection seen in a community united in love is expressed by the verb katartizein.美的爱的概念在社会中的一看到企业完善是动词所表达的katartizein。The moral integrity and spiritual unity of the community are aspects of wholeness and completeness connoted by this term.道德操守和社会团结的精神是长期方面的整体性和完整性这一这个意思。Interrelatedness in love is a necessary part of the "perfecting of the saints" (1 Cor. 1:10; Eph. 4:12; Heb. 13:21).在爱的相关性考察是必要的圣人部分的“完善”(1肺心病。1:10,弗。4:12,希伯来书。13:21)。Other usages imply putting into order those things which are imperfect (1 Thess. 3:10 - 13), fitting and adjusting (Heb. 11:3), and mending (2 Cor. 13:11; Mark 1:19).其他惯例意味着这些东西放进秩序的不完善(1帖。3:10 - 13),装修和调整(希伯来书11:3),和修补(2肺心病。13:11;马克1:19)。

Ethical righteousness is expressed by the words amemptos and amemptos, "blameless" or "without fault or defect."道德正义所表达的话amemptos和amemptos,“清白”或“无过错或缺陷。”The piety of Zacharias and Elizabeth is amemptoi (Luke 1:6).在撒迦利亚虔诚和伊丽莎白是amemptoi(路加福音1:6)。

Personal fitness and perfection in the sense of properly using spiritual resources is denoted by artios (2 Tim. 3:17).个人健身和完善资源在精神意义上的正确使用是指由artios(2添。3:17)。The believer who is sound and lacks nothing needed for completeness is holokleros (James 1:4; 1 Thess. 5:23).信徒谁是健全,缺乏完备的任何需要的是holokleros(詹姆斯1:4;一帖。5:23)。

The biblical emphasis on perfection, then, does not imply absolute perfection but an unblemished character which has moral and spiritual integrity in relationship to God.重点对完善圣经,那么,并不意味着绝对的完美,但一无暇疵的品格和精神的关系具有道德操守的上帝。The goal of spiritual maturity is set forth, and the believer is charged with making sincere and proper use of the spiritual resources available through Christ in order to attain this maturity in fellowship with Christ and the Christian community.在成熟的目标是提出的精神,而真正的信徒是社区控告和通过正确使用现有资源的精神作出真诚的基督,以基督教达到成熟,这在基督相交。

Theological Issues and Historical Heritage神学问题及历史文物

The Command of Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount, "Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect" (Matt. 5:48), is central to the issue of human perfection.耶稣的讲道司令部在山上,“所以你们要完全,像你们在天上的父,是完美的”(太5:48),是中央的完善问题的人。 This text has been variously interpreted and even rejected as inauthentic in the attempts to arrive at theological understanding.这个文本已不同的解释和理解,甚至拒绝为不真实在试图到达神学。

Christian Platonism基督教的柏拉图主义

Clement of Alexandria and the Christian Platonists sought for perfection in the transfiguration of earthly life, a hallowing of the secular.克莱门特的亚历山德里亚和世俗哈洛宁波恩的一个基督教柏拉图主义,寻求完美的人生变形的属地。Faith and knowledge lifted some believers to an experience of religious perfection in which the purposes and desires of the soul were harmonized in love.信仰和知识解除一些信徒的宗教体验完美的爱情,其中目的和愿望的灵魂进行了统一。In his Miscellanies, the ideal was the attainment of uninterrupted communion with God.在他的杂记,共融的理想是实现不间断的与上帝。Paradoxically, Clement insisted on God's unlikeness to man while insisting on the possibility of the perfected Gnostic's becoming like God.奇怪的是,克莱门特坚持上帝的不似人类的可能性,而坚持在完善的诺斯底的成为像神。

Thus perfection was obedientiary, not absolute, and was attained through obedience to God in prayer and keeping the commandments.因此,完善了obedientiary,不是绝对的,并取得通过服从上帝在祈祷和保持诫命。The weakness in Clement's view follows from his Platonic tendency to view God as apathetic and without predicates. Although God was active for the salvation of men, Clement emptied both Father and Son of emotions.克莱门特的观点疲软的如下趋势,从他的柏拉图认为谓词上帝冷漠,没有。虽然神是男子活跃的救恩,克莱门特空既当父亲和儿子的情绪。 This hellenization of God is somewhat incongruous with his view of God as the Father persevering in love.这是希腊化神的爱有点不相称,他持之以恒以神之父的。His view of perfection, then, emphasizes that the "Christian Gnostic" rises above human emotions by contemplation of God and is "translated absolutely and entirely to another sphere."他认为完美的,那么,强调“基督教诺斯底”沉思上述情绪的上升人类的上帝,是“绝对和完全翻译到另一个领域。”

Clement's illustrious pupil, Origen, proposed a view of perfection which explicitly reflected the presuppositions of Platonic philosophy.克莱门特的杰出学生,渊源,提出了一种哲学观的完美体现其中明确柏拉图的前提。He separated faith and knowledge, with faith being the basis of salvation and knowledge being the means to perfection.他分开信仰和知识,信仰与完善的基础上被拯救和知识的手段作为。A prerequisite to perfection is an ascetic rejection of the external world and all human emotions.一个完美的先决条件是外部世界的苦行拒绝和所有人类的情感。His approach was basically humanistic, even though he asserted that human effort must be assisted by grace.他的做法基本上是人文,尽管他声称,人类必须努力宽限期协助。Also, his Platonic negative evaluation of the human creature required that perfection be essentially a victory over the body, and more specifically over the sex drive. Furthermore, he anticipated the monastic emphasis of perfection through asceticism and a distinction between the ordinary and the spirtually elite Christian.此外,他的负面评价柏拉图的人造物的本质要求,是一个完美的身体战胜的,更具体地说在性欲。此外,他预计,通过重点完善了寺院的禁欲主义和精英之间的区别与普通的spirtually基督徒。 This tendency toward a double standard of morality reflected the influence of Gnosticism on early Christian thought in that ordinary Christians lived by faith while the enlightened elect lived by gnosis.这个趋势对道德标准的双重影响,反映了灵知诺斯替主义对居住过的早期基督教思想在基督徒的信仰生活,而普通选举的开明。 This dual level of spirituality became more pronounced as the chasm between clergy and laity widened in the medieval period.这种精神的双重层面更加突出的中世纪时期之间的鸿沟扩大神职人员和信徒研究。


One of the most extensive attempts at attaining Christian perfection is found in monasticism.一个企图在实现最广泛的基督教修道院中发现的完善。Leaders such as Antony of Egypt and Pachomius went into solitude to practice their disciplines with the aim of achieving spiritual perfection.帕科谬斯领导人,如埃及和安东尼进入孤独实践精神完美的学科,目的是实现的。They were overwhelmed by the sense of their own unworthiness and by the increasing worldliness of the church.他们不知所措的无价值感和自己的教会世俗的增加。The attaining of their goal involved renouncing all encumbrances of the world, taking up their cross, and praying without ceasing.实现他们的目标放弃参与世界所有产权负担的,占用,并没有停止他们的十字架祈祷。The ideal of perfection became socialized as expressed in the rules of Basil and Benedict. Monastic communities developed which not only sought perfection by resignation from the world and asceticism, but also attempted to transform the world through extensive missionary efforts and the preservation of spiritual, aesthetic, and intellectual life.在完善社会化的理想成为本笃表示巴西尔和规则。寺院的社区发展,不仅要求禁欲主义和完善辞职离开这世界,而且还企图改变,审美世界的精神,通过广泛的传教努力和保存和智力的生活。

Some of the most profound spiritual insights are found in the Fifty Spiritual Homilies of Macarius the Egyptian.洞察一些最深刻的精神发现在50精神米加利阿斯颂歌的埃及人。Greatly admired by William Law and John Wesley, Macarius stressed the worth of the individual human soul in the image of God, the incarnation as the basis of the life of the soul, moral purity, and love as the highest measure of the Christian life.大力米加利阿斯钦佩威廉法和约翰卫斯理,值得强调的神的形象个别人的灵魂,作为道德的纯洁化身的基础上,生命的灵魂和生命的爱作为基督教的最高衡量。 His stress on union with Christ is commendable, but his goal of perfection still is a retreat from reality into ecstasy, lacks a relevant ideal for common humanity, and is excessively individualistic.他强调工会与基督是值得称赞的,但他的完美目标,仍然是一个从现实到摇头丸撤退,缺乏一个共同的人性有关理想,是过度的个人主义。

Gregory of Nyssa was one of the greatest Eastern leaders in the struggle for perfection.尼萨格雷戈里是一个完美的斗争的最伟大的国家领导人。He saw Christ as the prototype of the Christian life in his On What It Means to Call Oneself a Christian and On Perfection.他看到完善基督为生命的原型在其关于基督教意味着什么呼叫自己一个基督教和作者。The responsibility of the Christian is to imitate the virtues of Christ and to reverence those virtues which are impossible to imitate.基督教责任的是模仿基督的美德和崇敬的美德是不可能模仿。Gregory saw the truth of the participation in Christ, which results from rebirth "by water and the Spirit."格雷戈里看到,基督的真理参与所在再生结果从精神“水和。”In this interpersonal sharing the Christian perfects the resemblance to Christ which comes through the continual transformation into his image.在此际分享基督教完善了基督相似的形象是通过他的不断转变。

Augustine and Pelagius奥古斯丁和伯拉纠

In the fourth century the reaction against perfectionism was typified by the controversy between Augustine and Pelagius. Although Augustine affirmed an ideal of perfection, the summum bonum, it was a perfection attainable only in eternity. He felt that human perfection was an impossible moral ideal in this life because of the sinfulness of mankind resulting from the fall.在第四世纪的完美主义的反应是伯拉纠对典型的奥古斯丁之间的争议。 奥古斯丁虽然肯定了完美理想的萨默姆博纳姆,这是一个完美的永恒只有实现。他认为,人权是不可能的完美道德理想今年秋天的生活,因为从人类造成的罪恶。

Pelagius attributed the moral laxity of the church to the kind of blasphemy which told God that what he had commanded was impossible. He rejected the concept of original sin and asserted that persons are born with the free capacity to perfect themselves or corrupt themselves as they choose. Sin is simply a bad habit which can be overcome by an act of the will. 贝拉基归咎于教会道德松弛向不可能的一种亵渎的告诉上帝,他所指挥的。罪的概念,他拒绝了原,并声称有能力的人与生俱来的自由,以完善自己或败坏了自己,因为他们选择。仙只是一个坏习惯,可将克服了一个行为。 Since sin is avoidable, however, Pelagius tended to judge severely those who fell into the slightest sin.由于罪恶是可以避免的,但是,伯拉纠趋于严重的判断谁的罪落入丝毫。

The response of Augustine was that neither education nor human effort could lead to perfection and the only moral progress persons could make in this life was solely the result of God's grace.奥古斯丁反应是,既不是教育人的努力也可能导致道德的完善和进步的唯一的人可以生活在这完全是上帝的恩典结果的。He tended to equate sinfulness with humanness in general and with concupiscence in particular, and saw the path to perfection as one of celibacy and virginity.他往往等同于一般的罪恶与人性并特别concupiscence中,看到完善的路径作为一个贞洁和禁欲。While rejecting the attainment of perfection in this life, Augustine made great contributions to spirituality with his emphasis on contemplation, although he tended to diminish the humanity of Christ because of his aversion to the physical.虽然拒绝实现完美的生命在此,奥古斯丁就沉思了巨大贡献,他强调,以灵性,但他倾向于削弱厌恶人类的基督,因为他的身体。 He was certainly correct in his rejection of Pelagius's exclusive emphasis on moral effort and in his emphasis on grace, but his tendency to identify sinfulness with the physical world is an unnecessary vestige of Greek philosophy.他肯定是正确的他的优雅排斥贝拉基强调独有强调他和在道德上的努力,但他的倾向,找出与物理世界的罪恶,是希腊哲学的不必要的痕迹。


Often called the "Angelic Doctor," Thomas Aquinas has greatly influenced Roman Catholic theology.通常被称为“天使博士,”托马斯阿奎那极大地影响罗马天主教神学。He was convinced that although Adam lost the gift of divine grace which enabled mankind to enjoy God fully, the free grace of God can restore humanity to God's favor and enable the Christian to follow God's precepts in perfect love.他深信,尽管亚当失去了充分的礼物,神的恩典,这使人类享受神,神的恩典才能恢复自由人类对上帝的青睐,使基督徒跟随完美的爱上帝的戒律。 Final perfection and the beatific vision of God were reserved for the life to come, but through contemplation a perfect vision of God and perfect knowledge of truth can be enjoyed in this life.最后的完善和幸福的愿景是留给神来的生命,而是通过沉思真理的完美视力神完美的知识,可以在此享受生活。His concept of perfection, however, involved a disparagement of the world and an understanding of the desires of flesh as evil.他的完美概念,但是,涉及蔑视世界的理解和肉作为一个邪恶的愿望。Thus the elimination of bodily desires was a prerequisite to perfection, and in this aspect he equated perfection with renunciation.因此,消除身体的欲望是一个完美的先决条件,并在这方面,他等同于放弃与完善。Furthermore, he saw perfection as carrying with it human merit, and thus he contributed to the idea of the treasury of merits from which the imperfect can draw at the discretion of the church.此外,他看见账面价值作为它的完善与人,他也因此促成了可取的国库从中可以得出的不完善在教堂决定的。

Finally, he formed a hierarchy of the state of perfection which corresponded to the levels of the religious orders.最后,他成立了一个订单层次宗教的国家的完善哪些相应的水平。Although he did not deny the possibility of perfection for all persons, religious vows were certainly the shortcut to meritorious perfection.虽然他不否认人有可能为所有的完美,宗教誓言无疑是完美的快捷方式有功。He thus perpetuated the spiritual dichotomy between clergy and laity.因此,他犯下的俗人精神和神职人员之间的对立。

Francis of Sales弗朗西斯销售

The possibility of perfection for all Christians was emphasized by Francis of Assisi and the Friars Minor, and Francis of Sales presented this doctrine with clarity in his treatise On the Love of God.完美的基督徒为所有的可能性强调了方济各和天主教方济会,和销售弗朗西斯提出这个上帝的学说在他与清晰论文论爱情。He rejected the banishment of the devout life from the experience of common people, and opened up the benefits of spiritual contemplation to all Christians.他拒绝了人们的虔诚的流放生活在共同的经验,开拓精神的沉思的好处向所有基督徒。

Francois Fenelon弗朗索瓦芬尔隆

Amid the profligacies of the court of Louis XIV, Fenelon taught his followers to live a life of deep spirituality and introspection.路易十四的profligacies中的法院,芬尔隆教导他的追随者过深刻的反省精神和生活。He saw perfection as totally a work of God's grace, not meritorious human effort.他看到了努力完善工作作为完全是上帝的恩典,而不是人类的功臣。The perfect life is carefree and Christlike loving fellowship with others.完美的生活是无忧无虑的和基督的爱与他人的友谊。 In Christian Perfection he presented single - minded devotion to God as the ideal in attaining perfect love.在基督教的完善,他提出了单-头脑奉献给上帝的爱中实现完美的理想。This perfect life is the imitation of Jesus, and its main obstacle is egocentricity, which must be overcome by an inward act of sanctification by God's Spirit.这完美的生活是耶稣模仿,其主要障碍是自我中心,必须克服成圣行为的外来上帝的精神。Thus Fenelon moved the quest for perfection away from its preoccupation with renunciation of the physical and its monopoly by the elite, and focused on God's work of grace which is universally available to the seeker.因此芬尔隆提出完美的追求偏离其垄断关注与放弃的物理和精英,并集中在神的恩典的工作是普遍提供给求职者。

The Reformers改革者

Both the Lutheran and Calvinist Reformers reflected the Augustinian position that sin remains in humanity until death, and therefore spiritual perfection is impossible in this life. Calvin explicitly stated that while the goal toward which the pious should strive was to appear before God without spot or blemish, believers will never reach that goal until the sinful physical body is laid aside.路德和加尔文都反映了改革者奥古斯丁的立场,即保持人类罪,直到死亡,因此精神完美是生活在这不可能。卡尔文明确表示,虽然对这些虔诚的目标应该是争取出现在神面前没有现货或污点,信徒将永远不会达到这一目标,直到身体的罪恶是搁置。 Since he saw the body as the residence of the depravity of concupiscence, perfection and physical life are mutually exclusive.由于他看到了生命体的物理居留堕落的concupiscence,完善和相互排斥的。

Luther also retained the connection between sin and the flesh. However, he did emphasize a new center of piety, the humanity and work of Jesus Christ.路德还保留了肉体和罪恶之间的联系。然而,他强调一个新的中心的虔诚,对人性和基督耶稣的工作。While the previous seekers after perfection focused on the knowledge and love of God which was grasped through contemplation, Luther focused on the knowledge of God through God's revelation in Christ.虽然以前完善后的沉思者集中的知识和上帝的爱是通过掌握,路德的重点是认识神透过神的基督启示研究。Faith in Jesus Christ therefore brings an imputed perfection which truly worships God in faith. This true perfection does not consist in celibacy or mendicancy. Luther rejected the distinction between clerical and lay perfection and stressed that proper ethical behavior was not found in renunciation of life, but in faith and love of one's neighbor.基督耶稣的信仰,因此带来了一个完美的估算真正崇拜上帝的信仰。这种真正的完美不在于独身或行乞。路德拒绝了文书和行为之间的区别在于完善,并强调没有找到正确的道德生活中放弃的,但在信仰和邻居的热爱的。

The Pietists在虔诚主义

With the pietists arose a Protestant rejection of the pessimism with which the Lutherans and Calvinists viewed the quest for perfection.随着虔诚主义产生一对完美的悲观主义新教拒绝与该路德和加尔文教派的追求效果。Marked by the quest for personal holiness and an emphasis on devotion rather than doctrine, seventeenth century leaders such as Jakob Spener and AH Francke stressed personal holiness marked by love and obedience.标记的学说不是追求个人的重点,而对奉献的圣洁和一,和AH弗朗克17世纪的领导人,如雅各布施佩纳强调个人服从特点是圣洁的爱。 Perfection was reflected in works done solely for the glory of God and in the ability to distinguish good from evil.完善反映在作品作恶只为上帝的荣耀和能力从区分好。

While tending toward narrowness and provincialism and often deteriorating into a negative scrupulosity, the pietists developed strong community contexts for nurtue and motivated extensive missionary endeavors.虽然scrupulosity趋向狭隘和省籍和消极往往蜕变为一个,发展广泛的虔诚传教浓厚社会背景为nurtue和积极性。

The Quakers贵格会

Inspired by a desire to return to the attitude of the NT, George Fox taught both personal responsibility for faith and emancipation from sin in his doctrine of the inner light.新台币灵感来自一个愿望回到了态度,乔治福克斯都内光教授个人解放的信念和责任,从他的学说中的罪的。He declared a doctrine of real holiness rather than imputed righteousness.他宣布一个真正的圣洁公义的教义,而不是输入的。This perfection was relative in that it dealt with victory over sin rather than absolute moral development.这是发展的相对完善的,道德是绝对的处理,而不是战胜罪恶。Fox believed that as a result of the new birth into Christ by the Spirit the believer was free from actual sinning, which he defined as transgressing the law of God, and is thus perfect in obedience. This perfection, however, did not remove the possibility of sinning, for the Christian needed constantly to rely on the inner light and must focus on the cross of Christ as the center of faith. Fox tended toward fanaticism with his teaching that a Christian may be restored to the innocency of Adam before the fall, and could be more steadfast than Adam and need not fall.福克斯认为,作为精神的结果出生到新的基督信徒是神的自由的犯罪,从实际的,哪些是他界定为法律逾越的,因而是完美的服从。这完美,然而,并不能消除的可能性对犯过失,对于基督徒需要不断地依靠内在光,必须着眼于福克斯十字架的基督信仰为中心。趋于秋天对他的教学方式,是狂热基督徒愿无罪的亚当之前恢复到,亚当和可以更坚定,需要比不跌。 William Penn and other Quakers qualified the doctrine to guard it from such overstatement.威廉佩恩和其他谊合格的学说,以防止它从这种夸大其词。

The strength of Fox's emphasis is that the center of perfection was in the cross of Christ.重点强度福克斯的是,完善中心基督在十字架上。The cross was no dead relic but an inward experience refashioning the believer into perfect love.没有死在十字架遗迹,而是一个外来的经验重塑完美的爱的信徒进入。This is a celebrating of the power of grace.这是一个宽限期庆祝的权力。While his refusal to be preoccupied with sin was a needed corrective to the Puritan pessimism over the profound sinfulness of man, Fox did tend to distrust the intellect and to suspect all external expressions of faith such as the sacraments.虽然他拒绝成为罪专注是一个需要纠正的深刻罪恶的人比悲观的清教徒,福克斯也倾向于不信任的智慧和怀疑的圣礼信仰等所有对外表达。 His refusal to be satisfied with sin and his concentration upon a perfection of life through grace found direct application in commendable attempts at social justice.他拒绝满足后,一个完美的生活与罪恶浓度和通过恩发现他的直接应用在社会正义值得称赞企图。This message of renewal and hope for the poor and disenfranchised was certainly motivated by the conviction that the quality of life and faith is not predetermined by a radical sinfulness which is resistant to actual moral transformation by grace.这和希望为穷人和被剥夺权利的信息更新的动机当然是宽限期由信念品质的生活和信仰的转变,是不是预先确定的由一个激进的罪恶是真实的道德抵抗。

William Law威廉法

The author of A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life and Christian Perfection, William Law was an eighteenth century Anglican nonjuring cleric who influenced John Wesley and was admired by Samuel Johnson, Edward Gibbon, John Henry Newman, and many others.该呼吁书的作者阿严重到一个虔诚和神圣的生命和基督教的完善,威廉法是18世纪的英国圣公会牧师nonjuring谁影响了约翰卫斯理和纽曼钦佩塞缪尔约翰逊,爱德华吉本,约翰亨利,等等。 Positively, he affirmed the necessity of divine grace for performing the good and the importance of taking up the cross of Christ.积极,他肯定了基督十字架的必要性神的恩典采取执行好和重要性。He called for absolute dedication of one's life to God and complete renunciation of every aspect of the world.他呼吁生命的绝对奉献一对上帝和世界完全放弃对每一个方面。He saw Christian perfection functioning in common ways of life.他看到基督教完善生活在共同的运作方式。He rejected the need for retirement to the cloister or the practice of a particular form of life.他拒绝为退休生活需要的回廊或特定形式的做法。The whole life is rather an offering of sacrifice to God and praying without ceasing.整个生活是相当一个祭祀的神和祈祷没有停止。 Christlikeness is the ideal of perfection, and this is accomplished by performing one's human duties as Christ would.像基督是完美的理想,这是基督完成自己的职责,由人表演会。

The weaknesses of Law's system are in his somewhat unrealistic ideals for human achievement, his failure to see meaning in actual life itself, and his tendency to see grace as a means of supplanting nature rather than transforming it.的法律制度的弱点在他的成绩是不切实际的理想,有些人,他没有看到自己的意义,在实际生活中,他倾向于把它作为改造的一种手段恩典的性质,而不是取代。 Furthermore, he tended to deprecate religious fellowship and all institutional religion.此外,他倾向于贬低宗教团契和所有体制的宗教。

The Wesleyans该卫斯理

John Wesley was inspired by the perfectionist themes of the early saints and by the devotional literature of Thomas a Kempis, Jeremy Taylor, and William Law.约翰卫斯理的灵感来自于早期圣人的完美主义的主题和由托马斯一个虔诚的文学肯皮斯,杰里米泰勒和威廉法。Seeing self - love, or pride, as the root of evil, Wesley taught that "perfect love" or "Christian perfection" could replace pride through a moral crisis of faith.看着自己-爱,或自豪,因为邪恶的根源,韦斯利教导说:“完美的爱”或“基督教完善”能取代信仰的骄傲,通过一个道德危机。 By grace, the Christian could experience love filling the heart and excluding sin.由恩典,基督教可以体验爱的心,不包括油罪。He did not see perfection as sinlessness, nor did he understand it to be attained by merit. He thus combined some aspects of the Catholic emphasis on perfection with the Protestant emphasis on grace.他没有看到完美的清白,他也不明白它是价值实现的。因此,他优雅的完美结合上,重点是天主教的新教的某些方面的重点。

In contrast to Augustine's Platonic view of sin as being inseparably related to concupiscence and the body, Wesley saw it as a perverted relationship to God.相比之下有着密不可分的关系concupiscence机构和奥古斯丁的柏拉图认为是罪恶的,韦斯利看到上帝它作为一个扭曲的关系。 In response to God's offer of transforming grace, the believer in faith was brought into an unbroken fellowship with Christ.在回应上帝的恩典提供的转化,在信徒的信仰被带进一个与基督团契从未间断。This was not an imputed perfection but an actual or imparted relationship of an evangelical perfection of love and intention.这不是一个完美的,但一估算的爱和实际意图或完善传授福音的关系。In this life the Christian does not attain absolute Christlikeness but suffers numerous infirmities, human faults, prejudices, and involuntary transgressions.在这生命的基督徒没有达到绝对像基督,但受到许多毛病,人的错误,偏见,和非自愿越轨行为。These, however, were not considered sin, for Wesley saw sin as attitudinal and relational.不过,这些不被认为是罪恶,对罪恶的态度看到韦斯利和关系。In A Plain Account of Christian Perfection he stressed that Christian perfection is not absolute, nor sinless, nor incapable of being lost, is not the perfection of Adam or the angels, and does not preclude growth in grace.在基督教的完善平原帐目,他强调说,基督教完善是不是绝对的,也不无罪的,也不丢失无法被,是不是完美的天使或亚当,不排除恩典增长。

In removing from the idea of perfection any idea of meritorious effort, Wesley resisted any tendency to exclusiveness and elitism. His relational understanding of sin resisted the hellenistic equation of sin with humanity.在努力消除从构思完美的有功任何想法,韦斯利拒绝任何排斥和精英化的倾向。他的罪恶关系的理解与人类抵抗希腊罪方程。 A reform of personal and social morality resulted to a large degree from the spiritual renewal which accompanied his work.阿工作的改革,导致个人和社会道德向陪同他的一大程度的精神重建的。Thus perfection for Wesley was not based on renunciation, merit, asceticism, or individualism. It was instead a celebration of the sovereignty of grace in transforming the sinful person into the image of Christ's love.因此,韦斯利的完善是不放弃的基础上,择优,禁欲主义,或个人主义。这是爱,而不是一个庆祝的主权的恩典在基督的形象有罪的人转变到。

Wesleyan perfectionist thought was, however, not without liabilities.卫斯理完美主义者的想法是,但是,并非没有责任。Although Wesley defined sin as involving relationships and intentions, he did not adequately guard against allowing it to become understood as a substance or entity which was separate from the person and which must be extricated.虽然韦斯利罪的定义是:为涉及的关系和意图,他没有和充分的警惕,允许它的人成为理解为一种物质或实体,是分开的,必须摆脱。 Some of his followers did tend to develop this substantialist understanding of sin and a resulting static concept of sanctification.他的一些追随者也倾向于发展这一内容主义的理解和罪恶造成的成圣静止的概念。He also tended to narrow sin to include only conscious will and intent.他还倾向于缩小到只包括罪的自觉意志和意图。Consequently, some of his interpreters have been led to rationalize serious attitudinal aberrations as expressions of unconscious or unintentional human faults.因此,翻译他的一些合理化已导致严重的或无意的人为错误态度畸变的无意识表达。Finally, Wesley expressed an inward asceticism which tended to derogate the aesthetic, and his emphasis on simplicity was too easily distorted by his followers into a legalistic externalism.最后,韦斯利表示有外来禁欲主义的倾向减损的审美,他的重点是太简单容易被他的追随者歪曲成一个墨守成规的外在。

Wesley's emphasis on perfection has been preserved in some circles of Methodism, and continues to be promoted in the denominations associated with the Christian Holiness Association.韦斯利的完美强调一直保存在一些圈子里的方法论,并将继续成为推动基督教圣洁协会在面额关联。

Heterodox Sects异端教派

In addition to the Gnostic dualism of the early centuries, perfectionism has expressed itself in varying forms on the fringes of Christianity.除了早期的几个世纪的诺斯底的二元论,完美表达了基督教本身在不同形式的边缘。 The second century Montanists taught that men could become gods.第二个世纪Montanists告诉我们,男人可以变成神。In the twelfth through the fourteenth centuries the Albigensian heresy contended that the human spirit was capable of freeing itself from the flesh in order to become one with God.在第十二届异端通过阿尔比根西亚14世纪争辩说,人类的精神是一个能够从肉体的解放自己,以成为上帝。The late medieval period also saw the condemnation of the Brethren of the Free Spirit, who believed that man could advance in perfection beyond God, who then became superfluous. The English Ranters saw it as logically impossible for perfected man to sin.已故的中世纪时期也看到了完美谴责在弟兄的自由精神,谁相信,人可以提前超越上帝,谁后来成为多余。英语Ranters看到它作为逻辑上不可能完美男人的罪恶。 Other communal approaches such as the nineteenth century Oneida community sought for ways of reconciling perfected sinlessness with the impulses of the flesh.肉体的其他公共方法,如冲动为19世纪奥奈达社会寻求和解的途径清白与完善。

All these heterodox expressions of perfectionism contained forms of antinomianism and egoism.所有这些异端的完美表现形式中的antinomianism和利己主义。They were condemned by orthodox Christianity with varying degrees of severity.他们谴责了正统基督教的不同严重程度的影响。Characterized by utopian views of human ability and by mystical practices, they tended to ignore divine grace and ethical integrity, and deteriorated because of their own inherent weaknesses.特点是人的能力乌托邦意见和神秘的做法,他们往往忽视神的恩典和道德操守和弱点恶化,因为他们自己的内在。

RL Shelton汤顿谢尔顿
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
L Lemme, SHERK , VIII; LG Cox, John Wesley's Concept of Perfection; WS Deal, The March of Holiness Through the Centuries; RN Flew, The Idea of Perfection in Christian Theology; R Garrigou - Lagrange, Christian Perfection and Contemplation; WM Greathouse, From the Apostles to Wesley; JA Passmore, The Perfectibility of Man; WE Sangster, The Path to Perfection; M Thornton, English Spirituality; GA Turner, The Vision Which Transforms; BB Warfield, Perfectionism; MB Wynkoop, A Theology of Love; JK Grider, Entire Sanctification. L让我瞅瞅,谢尔克,第八,LG电子考克斯,约翰卫斯理的完美概念,是新政,通过世纪三月圣洁;氡飞抵,在神学思想基督教的完善与r加里古-拉格朗日,基督教完善和思考;西医格雷特,从使徒到韦斯利,司法机构政务长帕斯莫尔,该男子的完善的,我们桑斯特,完善的路径,间顿,英国灵性;遗传特纳,变换的视野; BB心跳沃菲尔德,完美主义; MB的温库普,阿爱神学; jk的格里德,整个成圣。

Christian and Religious Perfection基督教与宗教的完善

Catholic Information天主教信息

A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end. It may be perfect in nature, yet imperfect inasmuch as it has not yet attained its end, whether this be in the same order as itself, or whether, by the will of God and His gratuitous liberality, it be entirely above its nature, ie in the supernatural order.一个东西是完美的,这没有什么希望结束其性质,目的,或。这可能是自然的完美的,但不完善的,因为它尚未达到其目的,这是否将其作为自己的顺序,或是否由上帝的意志和他的无偿慷慨,是一个完全超出其性质,即在超自然的秩序。 From Revelation we learn that the ultimate end of man is supernatural, consisting in union with God here on earth by grace and hereafter in heaven by the beatific vision.从启示我们知道,人的最终目的是超自然的,由工会与上帝在地球上的恩典和幸福的远景以后在天上的。Perfect union with God cannot be attained in this life, so man is imperfect in that he lacks the happiness for which he is destined and suffers many evils both of body and soul.完善工会与上帝不能达到生活在此,因此是不完美的人在他缺乏灵魂幸福,他是注定和身体都受到许多罪恶。Perfection therefore in its absolute sense is reserved for the kingdom of heaven.因此,在完善其绝对意义上是保留给天国的。


Christian perfection is the supernatural or spiritual union with God which is possible of attainment in this life, and which may be called relative perfection, compatible with the absence of beatitude, and the presence of human miseries, rebellious passions, and even venial sins to which a just man is liable without a special grace and privilege of God.基督教的完善是超自然的工会与上帝或精神是实现这一可能的生活,这可称为相对完善,beatitude的兼容的情况下,在场的激情和人类的苦难,反抗,甚至venial罪孽哪些一个公正的人,一经定罪没有一个特殊的恩典,神的特权。 This perfection consists in charity, in the degree in which it is attainable in this life (Matthew 22:36-40; Romans 13:10; Galatians 5:14; 1 Corinthians 12:31, and 13:13).这包括完善在慈善22:36-40,在它在不同程度上是可以实现的马修在此生活(罗马书13:10;加拉太书5:14,哥林多前书12:31和13:13)。 This is the universal teaching of the Fathers and of theologians.这是普遍的神学家的父亲和教学。Charity unites the soul with God as its supernatural end, and removes from the soul all that is opposed to that union.慈善团结的灵魂与上帝为超自然结束,工会去除所有的灵魂是反对的。"God is charity; and he that abideth in charity abideth in God, and God in him" (1 John 4:16). “上帝是爱,以及他在慈善事业是常存的就是住在神里面,神在他”(约翰一书4:16)。Francisco Suárez explains that perfection can be attributed to charity in three ways: (1) substantially or essentially, because the essence of union with God consists in charity for the habit as well as for the endeavour or pursuit of perfection; (2) principally, because it has the chief share in the process of perfection; (3) entirely, for all other virtues necessarily accompany charity and are ordained by it to the supreme end.弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯解释说,完善可以归因方式:给慈善机构在3(1)大幅或本质,因为完善工会与上帝的本质在于对慈善的习惯以及追求的努力或(2)主要是,因为它具有完善的过程,主要的份额;(3)完全,对于所有其他美德必然伴随慈善机构,并通过它向最高法院受戒结束。 It is true that faith and hope are prerequisites for perfection in this life, but they do not constitute it, for in heaven, where perfection is complete and absolute, faith and hope no longer remain.的确,信念和希望是这对完美生活的先决条件,但它们并不构成它,因为在天上,在那里完成的,绝对的完美,信念和希望不再存在。 The other virtues therefore belong to perfection in a secondary and accidental manner, because charity cannot exist without them and their exercise, but they without charity do not unite the soul supernaturally to God.其他美德是属于一个完美的中学和偶然的方式,因为慈善离不开他们和他们的工作,但他们没有慈善不团结的灵魂超自然神。(Lib. I, De Statu Perfectionis, Cap. iii).(Lib.我,代斯塔完美主义章。三)。

Christian perfection consists not only in the habit of charity, ie the possession of sanctifying grace and the constant will of preserving that grace, but also in the pursuit or practice of charity, which means the service of God and withdrawal of ourselves from those things which oppose or impede it.基督教完善不仅包括在慈善习惯,即拥有神圣的恩典恩典和维护,该常数的,而且在实践中追求或慈善机构,这意味着上帝的服务和我们自己撤出从那些事反对或阻挠。 "Be it ever remembered", says Reginald Buckler, "that the perfection of man is determined by his actions, not by his habits as such. Thus a high degree of habitual charity will not suffice to perfect the soul if the habit pass not into act. That is, if it become not operative. For to what purpose does a man possess virtue if he uses it not? He is not virtuous because he can live virtuously but because he does so." “即使是回忆”说,雷金纳德巴克勒,“该名男子的完善是取决于他的行为习惯,而不是由他这样。因此,一个习惯性的慈善高度是不够完善的灵魂,如果没有把这种习惯通过行为。也就是说,如果它变得不执行的。为了什么目的,并具有美德的人,如果他不使用它?他不是因为他生活的良性才德,而是因为他做的。“ (The Perfection of Man by Charity. Ch. vii, p. 77). The perfection of the soul increases in proportion with the possession of charity.(该文由慈善完善。总。七,第77页)。灵魂的慈善机构拥有完善的增加的比例的。 He who possesses the perfection which excludes mortal sin obtains salvation, is united to God, and is said to be just, holy, and perfect.谁拥有完善而得到拯救排除弥天大罪,是团结的上帝,并说是公正,圣洁,和完善。The perfection of charity, which excludes also venial sin and all affections which separate the heart from God, signifies a state of active service of God and of frequent, fervent acts of the love of God.该慈善组织的完善,这也排除了所有的情感和venial罪孽的心从神分开,标志着一个国家的爱上帝服现役的上帝和频繁的行为,强烈。 This is the perfect fulfilment of the law (Matthew 22:37), as God is the primary object of charity.这是),完善履行法律(马太福音22:37因为上帝是慈善机构的主要对象。The secondary object is our neighbour.在第二个对象是我们的邻居。This is not limited to necessary and obligatory duties, but extends to friends, strangers, and enemies, and may advance to a heroic degree, leading a man to sacrifice external goods, comforts and life itself for the spiritual welfare of others.这不仅限于必要的,强制性的义务,而是延伸到朋友,陌生人,和敌人,并可能提前到一个英雄的程度,导致一人牺牲自己为他人的精神福利对外商品和生活,舒适。 This is the charity taught by Christ by word (John 15:13) and example.这是由慈善基督教字(约翰15:13)和榜样。(See THEOLOGICAL VIRTUE OF LOVE).(见爱的神学美德)。


Christian perfection, or the perfection of charity as taught by our Saviour, applies to all men, both secular and religious, yet there is also religious perfection.基督教完善,或慈善机构的完善作为救世主教导我们,适用于所有的人,世俗和宗教,但也有宗教的完善。The religious state is called a school (disciplina) of perfection and it imposes an obligation, more strict than that of the secular state, of striving after perfection.宗教状态被称为学校(disciplina完善),它规定的义务,更完善严格的世俗比国家,经过努力。Seculars are obliged to perfection by the observance of the precepts or commandments only; while religious are obliged to observe also the evangelical counsels to which they freely bind themselves by the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Seculars有义务或戒律,以完美的遵守戒律的唯一,而宗教也有责任遵守福音的法律顾问,他们可以自由绑定自己的服从,贞洁的誓言贫穷和。The counsels are the means or instruments of perfection in both a negative and positive sense.该律师是完善的手段或工具在这两个消极和积极意义。Negatively: the obstacles in the way of perfection, which are (1 John 1:16) concupiscence of the eyes, concupiscence of the flesh, and pride of life, are removed by the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, respectively.负:分别障碍服从完美的方式,其中包括:(1约翰1:16)concupiscence的concupiscence的角度来看,和肉,自豪感和生活,发誓除去贫穷,贞洁。 Positively: the profession of the counsels tends to increase the love of God in the soul.积极:在律师界的趋向,增加的灵魂在上帝的爱。The affections, freed from earthly ties, enable the soul to cling to God and to spiritual things more intensely and more willingly, and thus promote His glory and our own sanctification, placing us in a more secure state for attaining the perfection of charity.在情感,关系摆脱了尘世,让灵魂坚持上帝和精神上的东西更强烈,更自觉,从而推动他的荣耀和我们自己的圣洁,把我们的慈善更安全的状态达到了完美。

It is true that seculars who also tend to perfection have to perform many things that are not of precept, but they do not bind themselves irrevocably to the evangelical counsels.诚然,seculars谁也趋于完善必须履行戒律很多事情不是,但它们不约束自己不可撤销地向福音派律师。It is, however, expedient only for those who are called by God to take upon themselves these obligations.它是,但是,只对那些权宜谁被称为上帝对自己承担起这些义务。In no state or condition of life is such a degree of perfection attainable that further progress is not possible. God on his part can always confer on man an increase of sanctifying grace, and man in turn by cooperating with it can increase in charity and grow more perfect by becoming more intimately and steadfastly united to God.在任何国家或生活条件是如此的完美程度达到进一步的进展是不可能的。一部分上帝赋予他的人就可以随时增加圣洁的宽限期,并打开男子所合作,可以提高在慈善和成长更完美的日益密切,坚定不移地团结上帝。

Publication information Written by Arthur Devine.出版信息迪瓦恩写阿瑟。Transcribed by Thomas J. Bress. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.转录由托马斯J Bress。天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


BUCKLER, The Perfection of Man by Charity (London, 1900); DEVINE, A Manual of Ascetical Theology (London, 1902); IDEM, Convent Life (London, 1904); ST. FRANCIS DE SALES, Treatise on the Love of God (Dublin, 1860); SUAREZ, De religione, tr.巴克勒,民慈善完善(伦敦,1900年);迪瓦恩,一个神学手册的ascetical(伦敦,1902年),同上,修道院生活(伦敦,1904年); ST段。销售弗朗西斯代,伤寒论神的爱(都柏林,1860年),苏亚雷斯,德religione,文。7, LI; ST.7,李,意法半导体。 THOMAS, Summa, II-II, Q. clxxxiv; IDEM, Opus De perfectione vitæ spiritualis; VERMEERSCH, De religiosis institutis et personis tractatus canonico moralis (Rome, 1907); RODRIGUEZ, The Practice of Christian and Religious Perfection (New York); HUMPHREY, Elements of Religious Life (London, 1905).托马斯,大全,问:clxxxiv二,二;同上,主业德perfectione简历spiritualis;维美,德religiosis institutis等personis维特根斯坦卡诺尼科莫拉利斯(罗马,1907年);罗德里格斯的)基督教和宗教实践的完善(纽约;汉弗莱,生命元素宗教(伦敦,1905年)。

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