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The Pharisees were a major Jewish sect from the 2d century BC to the 2d century AD.法利赛是一项重大的世纪犹太节从二维到公元2世纪。The seeds of Pharisaism were planted during the Babylonian Captivity (587 - 536 BC), and a clearly defined party emerged during the revolt of the Maccabees (167 - 165 BC) against the Seleucid rulers of Syria - Palestine.的pharisaism的种子种植在巴比伦的圈养(587 -公元前536年),并明确界定党出现在公元前反抗的马加比(167 - 165)对统治者对叙利亚的塞琉西-巴勒斯坦。The origin of the name Pharisees is uncertain; one suggestion renders it as "those separated," meaning separation from impurity and defilement.法利赛人的起源的名字是不确定的;一个建议使得它为“分开”,这意味着分离杂质和污辱。The name first appeared during the reign of John Hyrcanus (135 - 105 BC), whom the Pharisees opposed because of his assumption of both the royal and high - priestly titles and because of the general secularism of the court.这个名称最早出现在公元前统治的约翰Hyrcanus(135 - 105),其中法利法院的反对,因为他的假设,无论是王室和高-祭司,因为职称和世俗主义的一般。

The Pharisees' chief rival sect was the Sadducees. Whereas the Sadducees were drawn mainly from the conservative and aristocratic priestly class, the Pharisees tended to be middle class and open to religious innovation. In the interpretation of the law the Pharisees differed from the Sadducees in their use of oral legal tradition to supplement the Torah , although their interpretations, once given, were scrupulously adhered to. Pharisaic emphasis on divine providence led to a marked fatalism, and they adopted a belief in resurrection and an elaborate angelology, all of which was rejected by the Sadducees. The struggle for power between the two groups led to rancor and, in some cases, violence.法利'节的主要竞争对手是撒都该人。 鉴于撒都该人,得出主要来自保守的阶级和贵族祭司,法利赛人往往是中产阶级和开放的宗教革新。在解释法律的法利赛人撒都该人不同于在他们的传统使用口服法律,以补充律法 ,虽然他们的解释,一经发出,被严格遵守。 自以为是的重点放在天意导致了显着宿命论,他们通过了一个复活的信念和精心天使,所有这些都撒都该人拒绝了。斗争的两个群体之间的权力导致积怨,在某些情况下,暴力。

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In the New Testament the Pharisees appear as Jesus' most vocal critics. 在新约中的法利显示为耶稣的最强烈批评。Their insistence on ritual observance of the letter rather than the spirit of the law evoked strong denunciation by Jesus; he called them "white washed tombs" (Matt. 23:27) and self - righteous lovers of display (Matt. 6:1 - 6, 16 - 18). 他们坚持遵守耶稣仪式由信而退出比的精神引起强烈的法律,他称他们为“白色坟墓洗”(马太福音23:27)和自我-正义爱好者展示(太6时01分- 6,16 - 18)。The Pharisees are portrayed as plotting to destroy Jesus (Matt. 12:14), although they do not figure in the accounts of his arrest and trial.法利赛人更被描绘成阴谋破坏耶稣(马太福音12:14),虽然他们没有数字和审判在逮捕他的账目。Despite Jesus' attacks on the Pharisees - which were possibly on unrepresentative members of the sect - he shared many beliefs with them, including the resurrection of the dead.尽管耶稣的法利赛人攻击-这是可能的节上具代表性的成员-其中许多人与他分享信仰,包括死人复活了。

The Pharisees held the Jews together after the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD.法利赛人一起举行了犹太人在公元后销毁庙70。The sect continued into the 2d century, working on the redaction of the Talmud and looking for the restoration of Israel through divine intervention.该节一直持续到2世纪,在塔木德工作的节录和以色列寻求恢复通过神圣的干预。

Douglas Ezell道格拉斯艾齐尔

Bibliography 书目
I Abrahams, Studies in Pharisees and the Gospels (1917 - 24); A Finkel, The Pharisees and the Teacher of Nazareth (1964); L Finkelstein, The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (1962); DS Russell, Between the Testaments (1960).我亚伯拉罕,法利赛人的研究和福音(1917 - 24);阿芬克尔,法利赛人与拿撒勒教师(1964年); L芬克尔斯坦,在法利赛:1962年)社会学背景他们的信仰(;德尚罗素之间的圣经(1960年)。


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The Pharisees were an important Jewish group which flourished in Palestine from the late second century BC to the late first century AD法利赛人是一个重要的犹太团体的蓬勃发展在巴勒斯坦从公元前二世纪后期到公元一世纪末期


Virtually all our knowledge about the Pharisees is derived from three sets of sources: the works of the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War (ca. AD 75), The Antiquities of the Jews (ca. AD 94), and Life (ca. AD 101); the various compilations of the rabbis (ca. AD 200 and later); and the NT.几乎所有的法利赛人的知识是从三套来源:弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫工程的犹太历史学家,犹太战争(约公元75),94)古物的犹太人(约公元,生命(约。公元101)和更高版本)的各种资料汇编的拉比(约公元200;和NT。 Other works, parts of the Apocrypha, the Pseudepigrapha, or the Dead Sea Scrolls, may also contain information concerning the Pharisees.其他工程,滚动部分伪经的Pseudepigrapha,或死海,还可能包含的信息有关法利。But since the Pharisees are never explicitly mentioned in these works, their use in constructing a picture of the Pharisees is heavily dependent on prior assumptions which are at best speculative.但由于法利从未明确提到的这些作品,他们的法利使用图片的建设在很大程度上依赖于投机上最好事先假设。

It should be noted, however, that even the use of the explicit sources is problematical.应当指出,然而,即使来源使用明确的是成问题的。Most of the NT is written from a point of view that is antagonistic to the tenets of Pharisaism.新界大部分是从一个角度写的是对立的pharisaism的信条。The rabbinic traditions about the Pharisees are also shaped by polemical forces and are often anachronistic.关于法利的拉比传统也决定了论战的力量,而且往往不合时宜。The value of Josephus's information (traditionally regarded as the most helpful) is diminished by recent studies which suggest that Josephus was not a Pharisee before AD 70 and that his eventual conversion was motivated more by political realities than by careful study of the different Jewish sects.的有益价值约瑟夫最信息(传统上被认为)是没有减少约瑟夫是最近研究的建议是法利赛人面前公元70年,他的最终转换的动机教派更多不同的犹太人的政治现实比仔细研究。 It certainly cannot be denied that Josephus's descriptions of the Pharisees are superficial. In short, therefore, our sources provide neither a complete nor a straightforward picture of the Pharisees.这当然不能否认,约瑟夫的法利赛的描述是肤浅的。简而言之,因此,既不是我们的来源提供了完整的,也不是简单的图片的法利赛。


Various etymologies have been proposed for the name "Pharisee." The only one to receive general approval is that which derives the name from the Aramaic passive participle peris, perisayya, meaning "separated."各种词源已经被提出了名称为“法利赛人。”唯一一个得到普遍赞同的是,它派生,perisayya的名字从阿拉姆被动分佩里斯,意思是“分开。” The consensus is that the Pharisees regarded themselves, or were regarded, as the "separated ones."这种共识是,法利认为自己,或者认为,作为“分隔的。”From what or whom they were separated is not as clear.他们从什么或谁分离,并不清楚。The Hasmonean rulers, the Gentiles, the common people, and non-Pharisaic Jews in general have all been suggested as possibilities.该哈斯摩尼统治者,外邦人,普通百姓,和自以为是的犹太人一般非都被建议作为的可能性。Present evidence seems to favor the last two options.目前的证据似乎有利于最后两个选项。

Nature and Influence性质及影响

The fundamental issue in Pharisaic studies is the twofold question of the nature of the group and its influence within broader Judaism. pharisaic的研究的基本问题是两个方面的问题更广泛的犹太教的性质及其影响本集团内。Two basic positions have been taken on this question.两个基本立场已经采取了这一问题。The traditional view holds that the Pharisees were the creators and shapers of late second temple Judaism.传统观点认为,法利赛人的创造者和犹太教整形晚第二圣殿。They were not so much a sect as a dominant party within Judaism.他们没有那么多一犹太教教派,在党的主导。According to the traditional view, although not all Pharisees were legal experts, Pharisaism was the ideology of the vast majority of the scribes and lawyers.根据传统观点,尽管并非所有法利赛人的法律专家,律师Pharisaism是意识形态的文士和绝大多数的。Thus, as a group the Pharisees were the guardians and interpreters of the law.因此,作为一个群体的法利赛人的监护人和法律翻译的。 Jewish institutions associated with the law, such as the synagogue and the Sanhedrin, were Pharisaic institutions. While disagreeing over whether the Pharisees were primarily politically or religiously oriented, proponents of the traditional view agree that the Pharisees commanded the loyalty of the masses in both spheres. Indeed, most proponents of the traditional view would accept Elias Bickerman's dictum: "Judaism of the post-Maccabean period is Pharisaic."公会犹太教堂和犹太机构的相关法律规定,如被自以为是的机构化。尽管不同意就是否法利赛主要是政治或宗教,传统看法的支持者认为法利指挥群众在这两个领域的忠诚。事实上,大多数传统观点的支持者会接受埃利亚斯Bickerman的格言:“犹太教的时期后,马加比是自以为是的。”

The second point of view is a relatively recent development. Proponents of this position argue that when the inherent limitations and tendencies of our sources are taken into account, the Pharisees come across not as the creators and shapers of Judaism but merely as one of its many expressions.该观点的第二点是一个相对较新的发展。立场的支持者认为,这一固有的局限性时和来源的倾向,我们都考虑到,法利赛碰到但是不能以此作为创造者和塑造者犹太教只是作为它的一个多表达式。 In essence, according to this view, the Pharisees were a rather tightly knit sect organized around the observance of purity and tithing laws; on most other issues the Pharisees reflected the range of views present within Judaism.从本质上讲,根据这种观点,法利赛人一个相当严密的邪教组织的纯洁性围绕法律的遵守和什一税,对其他大多数问题的法利反映了犹太教范围内的意见存在。 Since Josephus and the Gospels carefully distinguish between the Pharisees and the scribes, scholars of this persuasion argue that it is better not to confuse Pharisaism with the ideology of the scribes.由于约瑟夫和福音仔细区分法利赛人和文士,说服学者认为,这是最好不要混淆文士Pharisaism与思想的影响。 Pharisaism must be seen as a movement which drew from all walks of life.Pharisaism必须被看作是一个运动的生活引起了各界人士。 There were Pharisees who were political and religious leaders, but their positions of influence were due to other factors besides sectarian affiliation.有法利赛谁是政治和宗教领袖,而影响他们的职位是由于宗派背景的,除了其他因素。Proponents of this second view posit that the Judaism of Christ's day was much more dynamic and variegated than the traditional view allows and that the Pharisees were only one of several sects that influenced the development of Judaism.支持者认为这第二种观点断定这就是犹太教基督的日子更是充满活力的传统和斑比允许和犹太教的法利赛只是一个发展的若干教派的影响。

Of course, not all scholars subscribe to one of these two views; many hold mediating positions.当然,并不是所有的学者赞同的意见,其中之一是两个,很多持调解的立场。Nevertheless, these two views constitute the foundations upon which the modern study of Pharisaism is based.不过,这两种观点构成了基础研究的根基,是现代Pharisaism。


The origin of the Pharisaic movement is shrouded in mystery. According to Josephus, the Pharisees first became a significant force in Jewish affairs during the reign of Hyrcanus I (134-104 BC).该运动的起源pharisaic的是笼罩在神秘。据约瑟夫,法利赛首次成为犹太事务中一支重要力量,在)统治我的Hyrcanus(134-104年。 In an earlier work, however, Josephus places the rise of the Pharisees much later, during the reign of Salome Alexandra (76-67 BC).在早先的工作,但是,约瑟夫地法利崛起的更晚,在)统治的莎乐美亚历山德拉(76-67年。 Some scholars who view the Pharisees as the shapers of late second temple Judaism have sought to trace the beginnings of the group back to the time of Ezra and beyond.有些学者认为谁犹太教圣殿已故第二法利作为塑造者的设法追查组开始了返回以斯拉和超越时间。But such reconstructions are speculative at best.但是,这种重建是最好的投机。It is more likely that the Pharisees were one of several groups to grow out of the revival and resistance movement of the Maccabean period (ca. 166-160 BC).它更可能是法利赛人的群体之一几个成长出复苏和阻力)运动的Maccabean时期(约公元166-160年。

Whatever its origins, the Pharisaic movement seems to have undergone a two-stage development.不管其起源,自以为是的运动似乎已经经历了两个阶段的发展。During the reign of Salome Alexandra the Pharisees as a group were heavily involved in politics and national policy making.在亚历山大统治莎乐美的制作法利作为一个群体积极参与政治和国家政策。Sometime after this, possibly when Herod the Great rose to power (37 BC), the Pharisees withdrew from politics.有时在此之后,可能当希律王大上升到权力(37年),法利退出政治。Individual Pharisees remained politically involved, but there was no longer any official Pharisaic political agenda.个人参与政治法利赛依然,但已不再有任何官方自以为是的政治议程。This seems to have been the situation during the time of Christ.这似乎已被基督的情况,在时间。

The Pharisees were divided over the issue of Roman rule.法利赛人分歧的罗马统治的问题。Josephus tells us that a Pharisee named Zaddok was instrumental in forming a "fourth philosophy" which was violently opposed to Roman rule. Elsewhere, however, Josephus records that at a later time certain well-placed Pharisees sought to forestall the Jews' rush toward revolt against the empire.约瑟夫告诉我们,法利赛人,Zaddok是规则有助于形成一个“第四哲学”,这是强烈反对罗马。其他地方,但是,约瑟夫的记录,在以后的一段时间处于有利地位起义法利设法阻止犹太人对'赶对帝国。 It is impossible to tell which tendency reflected the conviction of the majority of the Pharisees.这是不可能告诉这趋势反映了法利赛人定罪的大多数的。

After the Jewish revolt of AD 70 many scholars with Pharisaic leanings gathered at the city of Jamnia to form a school for the preservation and redefinition of Judaism.公元后,犹太人起义70自以为是的倾向与许多学者聚集在雅麦尼亚城市,形成一个犹太教学校的保存和重新定义。There is evidence that the Jamnia school was not exclusively Pharisaic.有证据表明,雅麦尼亚学校并不完全自以为是。Nevertheless, it can be safely said that the Pharisees were the single most powerful sectarian element at Jamnia.不过,可以肯定地说,法利赛人的最有力的雅麦尼亚宗派的因素。Thus they played an important role at the beginning of the century-long process which transformed second temple Judaism into rabbinic Judaism.因此,他们将发挥重要的犹太教拉比犹太教的作用,在本世纪初,转化漫长的过程,第二圣殿。


The Pharisees were strongly committed to the daily application and observance of the law.法利赛人坚定地致力于日常应用和遵守法律的。This means they accepted the traditional elaborations of the law which made daily application possible.这意味着他们接受了传统的日常应用中可能阐述的法律,作出。They believed, moreover, in the existence of spirits and angels, the resurrection, and the coming of a Messiah.他们认为,此外,在复活存在的精神和天使,以及未来的弥赛亚。They also maintained that the human will enjoyed a limited freedom within the sovereign plan of God.他们还认为,人的意志所享有的计划是上帝的有限的主权范围内的自由。

Yet there is little evidence to suggest that these were distinctively Pharisaic beliefs.然而,很少有证据表明,这些人独特自以为是的信念。To the best of our knowledge these beliefs were the common heritage of most Jews.对于我们这些知识最好的信念是最犹太人共同遗产。To some scholars this fact is proof that the Pharisees were the dominant religious force in Judaism; to others it is only another indication that the Pharisees' distinguishing mark was nothing but the scrupulous observance of purity and tithing laws.一些学者为了证明这一事实是法利赛人在犹太教宗教的主导力量,对他人,只有另一迹象表明,法利'商标没有什么区别,但纯度严格遵守法律和什一奉献。

The Pharisees and Jesus法利和耶稣

The NT does not present a simple picture of the relationship between the Pharisees and Jesus.新台币并没有一个简单的图片和耶稣的法利赛人之间的关系。Pharisees warn Jesus of a plot against his life (Luke 13:31); in spite of their dietary scruples they invite him for meals (Luke 7:36-50; 14:1); some of them even believe in Jesus (John 3:1; 7:45-53; 9:13-38); later, Pharisees are instrumental in ensuring the survival of Jesus' followers (Acts 5:34; 23:6-9).法利警告)耶稣对他的阴谋13:31生命(路加福音,尽管他们的饮食顾忌,他们邀请他吃饭的(路加福音7:36-50; 14:1),他们中有些人甚至相信耶稣(约翰3 :1; 7:45-53,9:13-38),后来,法利是,有助于确保生存5:34耶稣的信徒(徒23:6-9)。

Nevertheless, Pharisaic opposition to Jesus is a persistent theme in all four Gospels.不过,自以为是的反对四福音耶稣是一个持续的主题所有。This opposition has been explained differently by those who hold differing views on the nature and influence of the Pharisees.这解释了不同的反对那些法利赛谁持有不同意见的性质和影响。Those who see the Pharisees as a class of political leaders posit that Jesus came to be understood as a political liability or threat.这些领导人断定谁看到法利政治作为一类一,耶稣后来被理解为一种政治威胁的责任或。Those who understand the Pharisees as a society of legal and religious experts suggest that Jesus became viewed as a dangerous rival, a false teacher with antinomian tendencies.谁知道那些法利赛人的宗教专家,作为一个社会的法律建议,耶稣成为趋势看作是一个危险的对手,与唯信仰论虚假老师。 To the extent that there were Pharisaic leaders and scribes, both these factors probably played a part.在一定程度上有自以为是的领导人和文士,这些因素都可能发挥了作用。Yet other scholars point out that according to the Gospels the disputes between Jesus and the Pharisees centered primarily on the validity and application of purity, tithing, and sabbath laws (eg, Matt. 12:2, 12-14; 15:1-12; Mark 2:16; Luke 11:39-42).然而,其他学者指出,根据福音法利和耶稣之间的纠纷主要集中什一奉献的有效性和应用,纯度和,马特安息日法律(如。12:2,12-14; 15:1-12 ;马克2:16,路加福音11:39-42)。In the light of this evidence it would seem that at least part of the Pharisaic opposition to Jesus was occasioned by the obvious disparity between Jesus' claims about himself and his disregard for observances regarded by the Pharisees as necessary marks of piety.在这方面的证据虔诚光它似乎在向最不pharisaic的一部分,反对耶稣是必要的标志引起了明显的差距耶稣的法利赛人声称自己是关于由他的纪念活动视为无视。 In the end, the Pharisees could not reconcile Jesus, his actions and his claims, with their own understanding of piety and godliness.最后,法利无法调和的耶稣,他的行动和他的说法,他们自己的理解和信仰的虔诚。

S Taylor S泰勒
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
J. Bowker, Jesus and the Pharisees; E. Rivkin, "Defining the Pharisees; The Tannaitic Sources," HUCA 40-41:205-49, and A Hidden Revolution; L. Finkelstein, The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith, 2 vols.; RT Herford, The Pharisees; E. Schurer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ; HD Mantel, "The Sadducees and the Pharisees," in The World History of the Jewish People, VIII; M. Avi-Yonah and Z. Baras, eds., Society and Religion in the Second Temple Period; J. Neusner, From Politics to Piety: The Emergence of Pharisaic Judaism.j的鲍克,耶稣和法利赛人;大肠杆菌里夫金先生,“定义法利;的tannaitic来源,”HUCA 40-41:205-49,和一个隐藏的革命;属芬克尔斯坦,在法利赛人:他们的信仰的社会学背景2卷。;逆转录尔福德,法利赛人;耶稣基督大肠杆菌斯许雷尔的,在这个时代的历史,人们对犹太人;高清曼特尔说:“撒都该和法利赛人,”在,第八世界历史的犹太人民;米阿维- Yonah和z的巴拉斯,合编。,社会和时期宗教在第二圣殿的J.柳斯尼,从政治到孝:犹太教产生的自以为是。


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The Pharisees were separatists (Heb. persahin, from parash, "to separate").法利赛人的分离主义分子(希伯来persahin parash,从“分离”)。They were probably the successors of the Assideans (ie, the "pious"), a party that originated in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes in revolt against his heathenizing policy.他们大概也就是接班人的Assideans(以下简称“虔诚”)的党,在叛乱起源时间安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯对他heathenizing政策。 The first mention of them is in a description by Josephus of the three sects or schools into which the Jews were divided (BC 145).他们中第一次提到在一个)描述145约瑟夫三个公元前教派或学校到其中的犹太人分为(。The other two sects were the Essenes and the Sadducees.其他两个教派是爱色尼和撒都该人。In the time of our Lord they were the popular party (John 7:48).在上帝的时间,他们是我们的人民党(约翰7:48)。They were extremely accurate and minute in all matters appertaining to the law of Moses (Matt. 9:14; 23:15; Luke 11:39; 18:12).他们都非常准确,9:14分在附属于所有事项的法律摩西(马太福,23:15,11:39,路加福音18:12)。 Paul, when brought before the council of Jerusalem, professed himself a Pharisee (Acts 23:6-8; 26:4, 5).保罗,当耶路撒冷提交立法会,宣称自己是法利赛人(使徒23:6-8; 26:4,5)。

There was much that was sound in their creed, yet their system of religion was a form and nothing more.这是有很多声音在他们的信条,但他们的宗教系统的是一个形式而已。Theirs was a very lax morality (Matt. 5:20; 15:4, 8; 23:3, 14, 23, 25; John 8:7).他们是一个非常宽松的道德(太5:20,15:4,8; 23时03分,14,23,25;约翰8:7)。On the first notice of them in the New Testament (Matt. 3:7), they are ranked by our Lord with the Sadducees as a "generation of vipers."在3:7)第一次通知他们在新约圣经(玛特泰,他们的排名的毒蛇。一个“撒都该人作为我们的主的一代”They were noted for their self-righteousness and their pride (Matt. 9:11; Luke 7: 39; 18: 11, 12).他们指出,他们的自以为是和他们的骄傲(玛特泰9时11分,卢克7:39; 18:11,12)。They were frequently rebuked by our Lord (Matt. 12:39; 16:1-4). From the very beginning of his ministry the Pharisees showed themselves bitter and persistent enemies of our Lord.他们经常指责我们的主(太12:39; 16:1-4)。从一开始他的部的法利表明自己的痛苦和我们的主持久的敌人。They could not bear his doctrines, and they sought by every means to destroy his influence among the people.他们无法忍受他的学说,他们要求人们通过各种手段来摧毁他的影响力之间。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)

Also, see:此外,见:
(Advanced) Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes(高级)法利赛,撒,和essenes

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