Philosophy of Religion宗教哲学

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The philosophical investigation of the nature and grounds of religious beliefs is one of the oldest and most persistent areas of philosophical endeavor.信仰的宗教哲学研究的性质和理由,是最持久的努力之一,该地区最古老的哲学。Religious belief and practice give rise to a variety of philosophical issues, posing epistemological questions about the justification of religious belief, metaphysical questions about the nature of God and the soul, and ethical questions about the relation of God to moral values.宗教信仰和实践会引起各种问题的哲学,认识论的问题构成了灵魂的有关神和信仰宗教的理由,对形而上学问题的性质,价值观念和道德伦理问题的关系对上帝。 So many are the intersecting major philosophical concerns in the religious arena, and so immediate is the interest, that philosophy of religion is one of the most significant fields of philosophical endeavor to both Christian philosophers and those of other persuasions.因此,许多是交叉的重大哲学问题在宗教领域,因此直接的是兴趣,宗教哲学是奋斗的哲学一个重要领域的大部分都信仰基督教的哲学家和其他。 The classic problems in the philosophy of religion center on the grounds for belief in God, the immortality of the soul, the nature of miracles, and the problem of evil.对经典的哲学信仰宗教问题的理由集中于上帝,灵魂不朽的,性质的奇迹,和邪恶的问题。

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Grounds for Belief in God在上帝的信仰的理由

Religious believers have generally found themselves obliged to defend their belief in such a supersensible reality as God by an appeal to philosophical argument.宗教信徒一般都发现自己不得不捍卫自己的信仰在现实的超感觉这样的上帝的一个参数呼吁哲学。The classical arguments for God's existence are the five ways of Thomas Aquinas and the ontological argument of Anselm of Canterbury.经典的争论上帝的存在是安瑟伦的五个方面的托马斯阿奎那本体论的争论和。

Aquinas's arguments are variations of two major forms, the cosmological and teleological arguments.阿奎那的论点论据两种主要形式的变化,宇宙和目的。The cosmological argument is based upon the contention that the existence and activity of the universe demand an explanation in an entity beyond itself.宇宙的论点是根据的论点本身的存在和活动的需求超出了解释宇宙中的一个实体。On one version propounded by Aquinas and by contemporary philosophers such as Richard Taylor and Frederic Copleston, the universe is seen as a merely contingent or possible being.论阿奎那propounded一个版本,由宇宙当代哲学家如理查德泰勒和弗雷德里克科普尔斯顿,被看作是一个单纯的队伍或可能的福利。 As a contingent being its existence requires explanation in some being outside itself, a being that is capable of sustaining the universe in existence. According to this argument the universe owes its existence to a being who is "necessary," that is, incapable of nonexistence, which provides an explanation for its own existence.作为一支正在其存在的一些需要解释自己正在外面,被认为是一个能够维持生存的宇宙。根据这一论点的宇宙欠其存在一个正谁是“必要的”,也就是说,不存在性无能的,它提供了一个解释,为自己的存在。 Thus, from the contingent, merely possible existence of the world, it is argued that God can be shown to exist.因此,从队伍,仅仅是可能存在的世界,有人认为可以证明上帝存在。

The teleological or "design" argument advanced by Aquinas and William Paley, among others, urges us to infer from the well - orderedness of nature the existence of a supreme designer.目的论或“设计”的论调别人先进的阿奎那和威廉佩利,其中,要求我们推断从井里-自然orderedness的设计师存在一个至高无上的。 Paley compares our experience of the intricate order and adaptation of parts to the whole in nature to finding a watch; surely the watch, by virtue of its complexity and apparent purposiveness of design, requires a watchmaker to explain it.佩利的性质比较复杂秩序的经验和适应部分在整个寻找一块手表;一定的手表,设计凭借其目的性和复杂性明显,需要一个钟表匠来解释它。 No less than does the vastly more remarkable universe require a worldmaker.不少于请问大大更为显着宇宙需要一个worldmaker。In Aquinas's more sophisticated version the constant, dynamic adaptation of various aspects of nonintelligent nature to the realization of a stable order in the world demands a granted orchestrator to account for this action.在阿奎那的更先进的版本不断,克服非智力方面的动态性质不同,以适应世界实现在一个稳定的秩序需要一个交代授予Orchestrator的这一行动。

Cosmological and teleological arguments have come under sustained criticism, notably by Scottish philosopher David Hume, noted empiricist and skeptic.宇宙目的论的论点,并受到持续的批评,特别是由苏格兰哲学家大卫休谟指出经验主义和怀疑者。Hume mounted a multipronged attack on the arguments, suggesting among other things that the phenomena in question are capable of alternative explanations, and that the arguments in general prove no single, all - powerful being, but at best a being of limited power or a group of entities far from infinitely wise or powerful, capable merely of bringing about the results in question.休谟多管齐下展开攻击的论点,说明中建议的替代现象,其他事情都能干的问题,而一般的论点证明在任何单一的,所有-强大的存在,但充其量只是被有限的权力或一组从无限远的实体聪明或强大,能够带来的结果只是问题的关注。 Since Hume's day debate has been pursued in philosophical circles with great ingenuity and care, with neither side being able to claim lasting victory.自休谟的为期一天的辩论一直追求的哲学界以极大的智慧和关怀,既没有胜利的一方可以要求被持久。Nonetheless, such arguments on behalf of God continue to exercise a considerable appeal on the popular as well as the academic levels.然而,这种观点代表上帝继续行使学术水平相当吸引力的流行以及。

Anselm's ontological argument is the only theistic proof to proceed a priori, that is, by reflection on the concept of God alone, with no reference to such external evidence as the existence or nature of the world.安瑟伦的本体论的争论是唯一的有神论的证据进行先验的,反射,这仅仅概念上的上帝,没有世界参考的外部证据等性质的存在或。 Anselm observed that if God is defined as "the Being greater than whom nothing can be conceived," then to deny the existence of such a being lands one in a contradiction.安瑟伦认为,如果上帝是矛盾定义为是“作为大于其中没有任何东西可以设想,”然后以一个这样的土地之一,被否认的存在。 One is thus implying that "something greater than God" can be conceived, that is, an existing God.因此,一个暗示“的东西大于神”可以设想,即现有的神。This conceivable being would have, in addition to God's properties, a quality lacked by God, ie, existence, and so would be greater than the being greater than whom nothing could be conceived.可以想象,这将是具有属性,除了上帝的,上帝的质量缺乏,即存在,因此将被设想大于目前大于人没有办法。In his own day Anselm was criticized by the monk Gaunilo, who reasoned that along similar lines we would be bound to accept the existence of such fantastic entities as a "most perfect island," and later by Immanuel Kant.在他自己的天安瑟伦被批评的和尚Gaunilo,谁的理由是沿着康德类似的路线,我们肯定会接受最美妙的实体存在这样一个“完美的岛屿”,后又通过。 Briefly, Kant argued that to lack existence is not to be deficient in a property.简单地说,康德认为,缺乏存在是不可缺乏的一财产。Thus, the concept of an existing God is not "greater" than a nonexisting God, since the existing God has no properties not shared by a nonexisting God.因此,上帝的概念是不存在的一个“大”比现有的上帝上帝没有位置,因为已经没有物业共用一个没有位置不是上帝。

In addition to the use of arguments for God's existence, philosophers of religion traditionally have been interested in another avenue of possible knowledge about God, religious experience.除了使用的论据为上帝的存在,宗教哲学家的传统一直感兴趣的另一个可能的途径了解关于上帝,宗教经验。Does a mystical experience or other putative encounter with the Divine provide good rational grounds for belief, as believers of all religious traditions have sometimes maintained? As would be expected, skeptics tend to dismiss such experiences as evidence of oversuggestibility in the experiencer, as evidenced by Bertrand Russell's pithy comment that "we can make no distinction between the man who eats little and sees heaven and the man who drinks much and sees snakes."是否有一个神秘的经验或其他公认的神圣遇到提供良好合理的理由相信,作为传统宗教信徒的所有有时维持?由于可以预期,怀疑论者倾向于解雇经历者的经验证据作为oversuggestibility中,就证明了伯特兰罗素的精辟评论,“我们可以不作任何区别的人吃一点,谁看到天堂和饮料的人多,谁看见蛇。”

Status of the Soul现况的灵魂

Another classic problem is the status of the soul and its fate after death.另一个典型的问题是灵魂的现状与死后的命运。Plato's Socrates and others have held that the soul is related to the stable realm of eternal truth and thus is itself eternal, unlike the body, which belongs to the material world of impermanence and decay.柏拉图的苏格拉底等人认为,灵魂是永恒的真理与稳定的境界,因此本身就是永恒的素材,不同的是身体,这是属于世界的无常和腐烂。 Further, since soul is immaterial and has no parts, it, unlike body, is incapable of disintegration.此外,由于灵魂是无关紧要的,也没有地方,它的身体,不像是无法解体的。Later philosophers less ambitiously have generally contented themselves with attempting to demonstrate that the soul logically is capable of being conceived as distinct from the mortal human body.后来的哲学家较少,一般满足自己的野心与企图证明灵魂逻辑上是能够被人的身体作为独特的构思来自凡人。Much recent philosophical discussion has been concerned with whether it is intelligible to assert that one could "witness one's own funeral," that is, survive bodily death.许多最近的哲学讨论一直关注是否可理解断言,人们可以“看到自己的葬礼”,即生存身体死亡。

The Miraculous神奇的

Much philosophical effort has been expended in subjecting basic theistic, supernaturalistic doctrines to critique or in providing refinements and defense of theism.许多哲学的努力已经花费了基本服从有神论,supernaturalistic理论来批判或提供改进和有神论辩护。 The concept of miracle has received significant attention in philosophy. Christianity asserts the reality of the miraculous and stresses the importance of biblical miracles to Christian faith and doctrine, especially the conception of Jesus Christ in a virgin's womb and the resurrection of Christ from the dead.这个奇迹的概念已收到哲学极大关注。基督教声称的神奇现实的,并强调了奇迹的重要性圣经的基督教信仰和教义,耶稣基督在处女特别的概念复活的基督里死了的子宫和。 In addition, Christ's miraculous deeds are intended to be taken as a sign of his divinity.此外,基督的奇迹般的事迹,旨在将神当作他的一个标志。Hume's monumental work on the miraculous in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, sect.休谟的巨著的神奇关于人类理解的一篇文章,节。X, depicted miracles as contradictions of our "firm and unalterable" experience in the regularity of natural laws, rendering them improbable in the extreme.十,描绘不可改变的奇迹和矛盾,我们的“坚定”的法律经验,自然的规律,使他们在极端不可能的。

It is much more probable that the miracle account is false.这是更可能是虚假的奇迹帐户。Hume's critique of the miraculous has had widespread acceptance in an age dominated by naturalism.休谟的批判神奇的自然主义已被广泛接受的一个年龄主导研究。Even many Christians have been disinclined to place much importance on miracles, some even explaining them away or preferring to see them as symbolic.即使许多基督徒已不愿对奇迹的地方十分重视,有的甚至离开或解释他们更愿意把他们当作一个象征性的。Still, many Christian thinkers join CS Lewis, who in Miracles: A Preliminary Study has argued that an open mind must accept the possibility of divine "interferences" in the ordinary course of nature.尽管如此,许多基督教思想家加入CS刘易斯,谁的奇迹:一个初步的研究认为,一个开放的心态必须接受“在普通课程性质的可能性”神圣的干扰。

The Problem of Evil邪恶的问题

The most potent criticism of theism, both philosophically and personally, arises from the so - called problem of evil.这些批评的最有力的有神论,既哲理和个人,来自所谓-所谓的邪恶的问题。A significant intellectual problem is posed for theism by virtue of the fact that it asserts the existence of a God with unlimited power, wisdom, and goodness in the face of the existence of a world acknowledged to be rife with both moral evil and suffering.知识产权问题是一个重要的构成为世界有神论凭借的事实,它声称,上帝的存在与无限的权力智慧,善良和对存在面对公认为是充满苦难与邪恶和道义。 In a weak version the problem of evil raises a persistent problem in reconciling the traditional concept of God to the existence of such evils.在一个弱的邪恶版本问题引起了这些罪恶的一个持续存在的问题在协调的传统观念的存在上帝的。In a stronger version, such as propounded by JL Mackie, it is seen as a positive disproof of God's existence, amounting to what Alvin Plantinga has called "natural atheology."在一个更强大的版本,如麦凯,会否JL,它被看作是存在积极的反证上帝,什么普兰丁格达所说的“自然atheology。” Briefly, the core of the problem of evil is as follows: God is held to be unlimited in power, goodness, and knowledge.简单地说,邪恶的核心问题是:上帝是认为是无限的权力,善良,和知识。

However, evil exists, in the form of undeserved suffering, perpetrated by man and nature, unchallenged victimization of weak by strong, pestilence, war, famine, and other horrors.但是,存在着邪恶,在苦难的形式冤枉啊,弱犯下的人与自然受害,没有人质疑强,瘟疫,战争,饥荒和其他恐怖。In the face of this, either God is limited in power, goodness, or knowledge, or he does not exist at all; that is, either he is incapable or unwilling to remove evil, or he is unaware of its existence or of solutions to it.在这张脸的,或者上帝是有限的权力,善良,或知识,或他不存在的,也就是说,无论他是没有能力或不愿意消除邪恶,或者他就是不知道它的存在或解决方案它。 The problem of evil presupposes that God would have no reason for permitting evil that is adequate ultimately to outweigh in significance the negative effects of evil.邪恶的先决条件问题,上帝就没有足够的理由允许邪恶,在最终的意义大于负面影响的邪恶。Traditional theistic responses, or theodicies, have focused on this assumption. Augustine's "free will defense" argues that God needed to allow the possibility of evil if he was to create free beings, and a world with free beings is superior to a world of automata.传统的有神论的答复,或theodicies,都集中在这一假设。奥古斯丁的“自由意志防务”认为,上帝必须让罪恶的可能性,如果他是创造自由人,和一个人的世界与自由是优于一个自动机的世界。

Recently John Hick, taking a cue from Irenaeus, has suggested that God has placed us in a difficult environment that would be suitable for developing moral and spiritual maturity in his creatures rather than creating a maximally comfortable world.最近约翰希克,采取了从爱任纽线索,建议,上帝已经把世界我们在困难的环境,舒适适合比创造一个最大限度的道德和精神发展成熟,而在他的生物。 While Gottfried Leibniz attempted to argue that every evil is thus world is necessary, more modest modern theodicies such as Hick's restrict themselves merely to removing the ground for alleged contradiction, showing that one can consistently affirm both God's existence and the reality of evil.虽然莱布尼兹试图争辩说,因此每一个邪恶的世界是必要的,更温和的现代theodicies如希克斯限制自己只是为了消除所谓的矛盾的理由,这表明人们可以肯定始终都神的存在和邪恶的现实。

Contemporary Emphases当代重点

Much contemporary philosophy of religion focuses on questions surrounding the use of language in referring to God.许多当代宗教哲学的重点问题,围绕上帝语言的使用中提及。Following Hume, contemporary philosophers such as AJ Ayer and AGN Flew have raised critical questions about religious language.经过休谟,活动星系核飞越当代哲学家如艾耶尔,并提出有关宗教语言的关键问题。In particular, they have argued that talk about God is as cognitively meaningless as mere gibberish, since it is incapable of empirical verifiability or falsifiability.特别是,他们认为,谈论上帝是毫无意义的认知废话仅仅作为,因为它是无法证伪的经验可证实或。Also of interest on the contemporary front is the logical coherence of the doctrine of God as he is traditionally understood in Judeo - Christian thought.前面还有当代的利息是上帝的逻辑连贯性学说,因为他是传统犹太理解-基督教思想。

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Bibliography 书目
Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Pt.多瑪斯,神学大全,铂。1, Q. 2; A Flew and A MacIntyre, eds., New Essays in Philosophical Theology; J Hick, ed., Classical and Contemporary Readings in the Philosophy of Religion; W James, Varieties of Religious Experience; JL Mackie, "Evil and Omnipotence," Mind (Apr 1955); B Mitchell, The Justification of Religious Belief; A Plantinga, God, Freedom, and Evil; R Swinburne, The Coherence of Theism; TW Tilley, Taking of God.一,问:2;一个飞越和A麦金太尔合编。,新散文的哲学神学; J希克,编辑。,古典和宗教哲学的当代读; W詹姆斯,品种的宗教经验; JL马茨凯,“恶和万能,“心(1955年4月);乙米切尔,信仰宗教的理由,一个普兰丁格,上帝,自由,善恶与r史文朋,在有神论的一致性;荃湾蒂利,以上帝的。


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