Pietism虔敬

General Information一般信息

Originally a German Lutheran religious movement of the 17th and 18th centuries, pietism emphasized heartfelt religious devotion, ethical purity, charitable activity, and pastoral theology rather than sacramental or dogmatic precision.原本是18世纪德国路德宗教运动第17次,并衷心的宗教虔诚主义强调奉献,道德纯洁,慈善活动,和牧灵神学教条式的精度,而不是圣或。 The term now refers to all religious expressions that emphasize inward devotion and moral purity.现在这个词是指所有外来的宗教表现形式,强调献身精神和道德上的纯洁性。With roots in Dutch precisionism and mysticism, pietism emerged in reaction to the formality of Lutheran orthodoxy.与神秘主义的根在荷兰precisionism,并虔诚主义出现的反应,流于形式的正统路德。

In his Pia Desideria (1675), Philipp Jakob Spener proposed a "heart religion" to replace the dominant "head religion."在他的皮娅德赛德里亚(1675),菲利普雅各施佩纳提出了“心教”,以取代占主导地位的“头的宗教。”Beginning with religious meetings in Spener's home, the movement grew rapidly, especially after August Hermann Francke (1663 - 1727) made the new University of Halle a Pietist center.首先是家中施佩纳宗教集会,运动迅速发展),特别是在8月赫尔曼弗朗克(1663年至1727年作出了新的哈雷大学的虔信派教徒中心。 Nikolaus Ludwig, Graf von Zinzendorf, a student of Francke's and godson of Spener, helped spread the movement.尼古拉路德维希,格拉夫冯辛生铎夫,一施佩纳学生的弗朗克的和教子,帮助传播运动。His Moravian Church promoted evangelical awakenings throughout Europe and in North America in the 18th and 19th centuries.他摩拉维亚教会福音觉醒促进了整个欧洲和北美在18世纪和19世纪。John Wesley and Methodism were profoundly influenced by pietism.约翰卫斯理和循道虔诚主义的深刻影响。

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Bibliography 书目
FE Stoffler, The Rise of Evangelical Pietism (1971).有限元Stoffler,虔诚主义的福音(1971年)的兴起。


Pietism虔诚主义

Advanced Information先进的信息

A recurring tendency within Christian history to emphasize more the practicalities of Christian life and less the formal structures of theology or church order.基督徒在历史上经常性的倾向,强调更多的教堂秩序的实际生活和基督教神学或更少的正式结构的影响。Its historians discern four general traits in this tendency: (1) Its experiential character, pietists are people of the heart for whom Christian living is the fundamental concern; (2) its biblical focus, pietists are, to paraphrase John Wesley, "people of one book" who take standards and goals from the pages of Scripture; (3) its perfectionistic bent, pietists are serious about holy living and expend every effort to follow God's law, spread the gospel, and provide aid for the needy; (4) its reforming interest, pietists usually oppose what they regard as coldness and sterility in established church forms and practices.历史学家辨别其在这一趋势的四个一般特征:(1)它的经验性质,虔诚主义是关注人的心对他们来说是基督教的基本生活;(2)圣经的重点,虔诚主义的,套用约翰卫斯理,“人一本书“谁采取的网页圣经标准的和目标;(三)它的完美主义倾向,虔诚的生活认真的神圣和付出一切努力,按照上帝的法律,传播福音,并提供有需要援助的;(4)其改革的兴趣,虔诚主义者通常反对他们的做法视为冷漠和不育的建立和教堂的形式。

Spener and Francke施佩纳和弗朗克

The German Lutheran Church at the end of the seventeenth century labored under manifold difficulties.德国路德教会的困难,最终在多方面的辛劳下的17世纪。Its work was tightly confined by the princes of Germany's many sovereign states.它的工作紧紧局限于由主权国家的王子德国的很多。 Many of its ministers seemed as interested in philosophical wrangling and rhetorical ostentation as in the encouragement of their congregations.许多部长似乎作为炫耀其感兴趣的哲学争论和修辞如众鼓励他们。 And the devastating Thirty Years War (1618 - 48), fought ostensibly over religion, had created widespread wariness about church life in general.和30年的毁灭性战争(1618至1648年),表面上对宗教的斗争,创造了一般普遍的戒心有关教会生活。To be sure, the picture was not entirely bleak.可以肯定的是,该图片并非完全暗淡。From Holland and Puritan England came stimulation for reform.从荷兰和英国清教徒来到刺激改革。And in German - speaking lands signs of Christian vitality remained, like the writings of Johann Arndt, whose True Christianity (1610) was a strong influence on later leaders of pietism.和德国-讲土地的迹象仍然基督教生命力),(1610像约翰阿恩特的著作,其真正的基督教是一个虔诚主义的强烈影响以后的领导人。

But in many places these signs of life were obscured by the formalism and the insincerity of church leaders.但许多生命迹象的地方这些领导人掩盖了形式主义和教会的诚意的。This situation was altered by the unstinting work of Philipp Jakob Spener, known often as the father of pietism, who was called in 1666 to be the senior minister in Frankfurt am Main.这种情况改变了我的工作主要不懈法兰克福菲利普雅各在施佩纳,作为已知的常是父亲是谁虔诚主义,被称为是1666年在高级部长。 There he appealed for moral reform in the city.他呼吁有道德改革的城市。He initiated a far - flung correspondence which eventually won him the title "spiritual counselor of all Germany." Most importantly, he also promoted a major reform in the practical life of the churches.他发起了一个远-偏远函授,最终赢得了他的标题是“所有德国精神辅导员的。”最重要的是,他还推动了教会的一个重大现实生活中的改革。 A sermon in 1669 mentioned the possibility of laymen meeting together, setting aside "glasses, cards, or dice," and encouraging each other in the Christian faith.阿1669年的布道中提到的可能性外行人会议一起,撇开“眼镜,卡片,或骰子”,并鼓励彼此信仰基督教的。The next year Spener himself instituted such a Collegia pietatis ("pious assembly") to meet on Wednesdays and Sundays to pray, to discuss the previous week's sermon, and to apply passages from Scripture and devotional writings to individual lives.明年Spener本人提起这样一个collegia虔团契(“虔诚大会”),以满足在周三和周日祈祷,讨论前一周的布道,并运用生命通道,从经文到个人和虔诚的著作。

Spener took a major step toward reviving the church in 1675 when he was asked to prepare a new preface for sermons by Johann Arndt. The result was the famous Pia Desideria (Pious Wishes).施佩纳采取了重大步骤约翰阿恩特走向振兴的教堂在1675年当他被要求通过说教准备新的序言。结果是著名的皮娅德赛德里亚(虔诚的愿望)。 In simple terms this brief work examined the sources of spiritual decline in Protestant Germany and offered proposals for reform.简单来说,这简短的审查工作改革的精神衰落的根源在新教德国建言。The tract was an immediate sensation.成片,立即产生轰动。In it Spener criticized nobles and princes for exercising unauthorized control of the church, ministers for substituting cold doctrine for warm faith, and lay people for disregarding proper Christian behavior.在它施佩纳批评教会的贵族王子和擅自行使控制,信仰代部长温冷为原则,奠定正确的行为无视人民对基督教。He called positively for a revival of the concerns of Luther and the early Reformation, even as he altered Reformation teaching slightly. For example, Spener regarded salvation more as regeneration (the new birth) than as justification (being put right with God), even though the Reformers had laid greater stress upon the latter.他呼吁积极为改革复兴的关切和早期路德,即使他稍有改变教学改革。例如,施佩纳视为拯救更多的再生(新出生)比为理由(即纠正与上帝),甚至虽然改革者在后者奠定了更大的压力。

Spener offered six proposals for reform in Pia Desideria which became a short summary of pietism:施佩纳提供6德赛德里亚在皮娅建议的改革,成为一个虔诚主义的简短摘要:

Although these proposals constituted an agenda for reform and renewal, they also posed two difficulties which have ever been troublesome for pietism.虽然这些建议构成了重建议程的改革,他们还提出了两个困难,虔诚主义曾经一度麻烦。First, many clergymen and professional theologians opposed them, some out of a concern to preserve their traditional status, but others out of a genuine fear that they would lead to rampant subjectivity and antiintellectualism.首先,许多神职人员和神学家反对他们的专业,一些关注从一个以维护他们的传统地位,但antiintellectualism出一个真正的人担心他们会导致猖獗的主观性和。 Second, some lay people took Spener's proposals as authorization for departing from the established churches altogether, even though Spener himself rejected the separatistic conclusions drawn from his ideas.第二,有些人奠定了建立教堂完全由施佩纳为的建议,授权出发,即使Spener本人拒绝了他的观点得出的结论分裂。

Spener left Frankfurt for Dresden in 1686, and from there he was called to Berlin in 1691.施佩纳离开法兰克福德累斯顿在1686年,并从那里,他被称为柏林在1691年。His time in Dresden was marked by controversy, but it was not a loss, for in Dresden he met his successor, August Hermann Francke.他在德累斯顿的特点是时间的争论,但它不是一个损失,因为他在德累斯顿会见了他的继任者,8月赫尔曼弗朗克。In Berlin, Spener helped to found the University of Halle, to which Francke was called in 1692. Under Francke's guidance the University of Halle showed what pietism could mean when put into practice.在柏林,施佩纳有助于发现称为是1692年。根据弗朗克的指导大学的哈勒大学的哈雷,弗朗克到这表明可能意味着什么虔诚主义付诸实践的时候。 In rapid succession Francke opened his own home as a school for poor children, he founded a world - famous orphanage, he established an institute for the training of teachers, and later he helped found a publishing house, a medical clinic, and other institutions.在继承弗朗克迅速打开了自己的贫困儿童作为一放学回家,他创立了世界-著名的孤儿院,他成立了一个为教师培训学院,后来他帮助找到一家出版社,一个医疗诊所,和其他机构。

Francke had experienced a dramatic conversion in 1687, the source of his lifelong concern for evangelism and missions.弗兰克在1687年经历了一个戏剧性的转换,其来源和使命终身关心福音。 Under his leadership Halle became the center of Protestantism's most ambitious missionary endeavors to that time.在他领导下的努力的中心哈勒成为新教最雄心勃勃的传教士到那个时候。The university established a center for Oriental languages and also encouraged efforts at translating the Bible into new languages.该大学语言中心设立了一个东方语言的努力,并鼓励在进入新的翻译圣经。Francke's missionary influence was felt directly through missionaries who went from Halle to foreign fields and indirectly through groups like the Moravians and an active Danish mission which drew inspiration from the leaders of pietism.弗朗克的传教士的影响是通过直接感受到传教士谁从哈雷前往外国领域和虔诚主义间接地通过团体如摩拉维亚和积极的丹麦领导人的使命从提请灵感。

The Spread of Pietism虔诚主义的传播

Spener and Francke inspired other varieties of German pietism.施佩纳德国虔诚主义和弗朗克的启发其他品种。Count Nikolas von Zinzendorf, head of the renewed Moravian Church, was Spener's godson and Francke's pupil.伯爵尼古拉冯亲岑多夫,教会负责人再次摩拉维亚的,是施佩纳的干儿子和弗朗克的学生。Zinzendorf organized refugees from Moravia into a kind of collegia pietatis within German Lutheranism, and later shepherded this group in reviving the Bohemian Unity of the Brethren.亲岑多夫有组织的难民从摩拉维亚成一种路德教内collegia虔团契德国,后来指导的弟兄们在这个小组的统一振兴波希米亚。 These Moravians, as they came to be known, carried the pietistic concern for personal spirituality almost literally around the world.这些摩拉维亚,因为他们后来被称为,进行个人灵性的字面周围几乎是世界上虔诚的关注。This was of momentous significance for the history of English - speaking Christianity when John Wesley was thrown into a company of Moravians during his voyage to Georgia in 1735.这是重大历史意义的英语-讲基督教当约翰卫斯理被扔进摩拉维亚公司的航程在1735年期间,向格鲁吉亚。What he saw of their behavior then and what he heard of their faith after returning to England led to his own evangelical awakening.他看到了什么,然后他们的行为和他的信仰听到他们回国后,英国使自己的福音觉醒。

Another group under the general influence of Spener and Francke developed pietistic concern for the Bible within German Lutheranism at Wurttemberg.另一组施佩纳影响下发展的一般和弗朗克在符腾堡圣经虔诚关注德国路德教内。Its leading figure, Johann Albrecht Bengel (1687 - 1752), represented a unique combination of scholarly expertise and devotional commitment to Scripture.其领军人物,约翰阿尔布雷特本格尔(1687年至1752年),代表了独特的组合,以圣经的学术专长和虔诚的承诺。 Bengel did pioneering study in the text of the NT, exegeted Scripture carefully and piously, and wrote several books on the millennium.本热尔做了开创性的研究报告在新台币文本,exegeted圣经和虔诚认真,并编写了几千年的书籍。

Influences radiating from Halle, Wurttemberg, and the Moravians moved rapidly into Scandinavia.从哈雷辐射影响摩拉维亚,符腾堡州,和移动的迅速向斯堪的纳维亚。When soldiers from Sweden and Finland were captured in battle with Russia (1709), pietist commitments migrated to Siberia.当士兵从瑞典和芬兰分别与俄罗斯在战场上被俘(1709),虔信承诺迁移到西伯利亚。Pietism exerted its influence through Wesley in England.虔诚主义在英国施加其影响力通过韦斯利。The father of American Lutheranism, Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, was sent across the Atlantic by Francke's son in response to requests for spiritual leadership from German immigrants.这,父亲美国路德教,亨利梅尔基奥尔米伦贝格发自德国移民横跨大西洋的弗朗克的儿子领导的精神响应请求。In addition, pietism also influenced the Mennonites, Moravians, Brethren, and Dutch Reformed in early America.此外,还虔诚主义的影响摩拉维亚,弟兄们,和荷兰改革在早期美国的门诺派。The continuing influence of Spener, Francke, and their circle went on into the nineteenth century.在他们的圈子继续影响施佩纳,弗朗克,并继续到19世纪。A renewal of interest in Luther and his theology, the active evangelism of the Basel Mission and the Inner Mission Society of Denmark, the revivalistic activity of Norwegian Hans Nielsen Hauge (1771 - 1824), and the establishment of the Swedish Mission Covenant Church (1878) could all trace roots back to the pietism of an earlier day.阿丹麦重建中的利益路德和他的神学团会,积极传福音的巴塞尔团和内蒙古,在(1878 revivalistic活动挪威汉斯尼尔森豪格(1771年至1824年),建立教会和瑞典基督教圣约)可以跟踪所有的历史可以追溯到较早天虔诚主义。

Pietistic Influences虔诚的影响

Historians have long studied the relationship between pietism and the Enlightenment, that rationalistic and humanistic movement which flourished during the eighteenth century and which contributed to the eventual secularization of Europe. They have noted that pietism and the Enlightenment both attacked Protestant orthodoxy, that both asserted the rights of individuals, and that both were concerned about practice more than theory.历史学家们长期研究的启示和虔诚主义之间的关系,即理性主义和人文运动的蓬勃发展在18世纪,这有助于欧洲最终世俗化。他们指出,虔诚主义和启蒙运动这两个新教正统袭击,这两个断言个人的权利,因为,无论是理论比实践更关心。 The crucial historical question is whether pietistic antitraditionalism, individualism, and practicality paved the way for a non - Christian expression of these same traits in the Enlightenment.关键的历史问题是,是否虔诚反传统,个人主义和现实启示铺平了道路的特点,这些相同的非-基督教的表达。 The fact that pietism remained faithful to Scripture and that its subjectivity was controlled by Christian beliefs suggests that, whatever its relationship to the Enlightenment, it was not the primary source of the latter's skepticism or rationalism.事实上,虔诚主义仍然忠实于圣经,其主体是由基督教信仰的控制显示,不论其关系的启示,它是不是还是理性主义的主要来源,后者的怀疑。

A further historical uncertainty surrounds the tie between pietism and the intellectual movements arising in reaction to the Enlightenment.另一种历史的不确定性围绕着领带的启示和虔诚主义之间的反应所产生的智力运动的研究。Striking indeed is the fact that three great postenlightenment thinkers, the idealist philosopher Immanuel Kant, the literary genius Johann Wolfgang Goethe, and the romantic theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, had been exposed to pietism as youths.打确实是事实,青少年三大启蒙的思想家,哲学家康德的唯心主义,文学天才约翰沃尔夫冈歌德和弗里德里希施莱尔马赫浪漫神学家,曾接触,以虔诚主义。 It is probably best to regard pietism as a movement that paralleled the Enlightenment and later European developments in its quest for personal meaning and its disdain for exhausted traditions.这可能是最好的把传统的虔诚主义作为一个运动,平行发展的启示,后来在欧洲追求个人意义和耗尽了它的蔑视。 Yet insofar as the heart of pietism was captive to the gospel, it remained a source of distinctly Christian renewal.然而,只要是心的虔诚主义圈养的福音,它仍然是一个重建的来源明显的基督徒。

Religious movements resembling pietism were active beyond Germany in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.类似的宗教虔诚主义运动的积极超出了德国在17世纪和18世纪。In fact, German pietism was but one chord in a symphony of variations on a common theme, the need to move beyond sterile formulas about God to a more intimate experience with him.事实上,德国虔诚主义,但有一个共同的主题,和弦一个交响乐的变化上,必须超越无菌公式对上帝给他的经验更亲密。The English Puritans of the late 1500s and 1600s exhibited this.16世纪和17世纪的英国清教徒已故展示这一点。The New England Puritan Cotton Mather, who corresponded with Francke, strove to encourage pietistic vitality in the New World.新英格兰清教徒的棉花马瑟,谁与弗朗克对应,努力鼓励新世界虔诚的活力。Shortly after Mather's death the American Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s exhibited pietistic features.不久后,马瑟死亡的美国大觉醒的1740和1730年代展出虔诚的功能。In England, William Law's Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life (1728) advocated a kind of pietistic morality.在英国,威廉法的严重调用一个虔诚和神圣人寿(1728)主张道德种虔诚。And Wesley's Methodism, with its emphasis on Scripture, its commitment to evangelism and edification, its practical social benevolence, and its evangelical ecumenicity, was pietistic to the core.而韦斯利的循道,其重点放在圣经,它致力于传道和熏陶,但其实际的社会善,其福音ecumenicity,是虔诚的核心。

Even beyond Protestantism, pietistic elements can be seen in contemporary Roman Catholicism and Judaism.甚至超越基督教,虔诚的元素中可以看出当代罗马天主教和犹太教。The Jansenist movement in seventeenth century France stressed the concern for heart religion that Spener also championed.本世纪的法国简森派运动在第十七强调,宗教关心的心情施佩纳也拥护。The work of Baal Shem Tov (1700 - 1760) in founding the Hasidic movement in Judaism also sought to move beyond orthodox ritual to a sense of communion with God.在犹太教工作巴尔闪Tov(1700 - 1760)创立运动的哈西德派还试图超越正统的仪式,以一个与上帝的共融意识。

An overall evaluation of pietism must take into consideration the circumstances of its origin in seventeenth century Europe.虔诚主义的一个整体的评价必须考虑到17世纪欧洲的情况下,它的起源研究。Whether in its narrow German usage or its more generic sense, pietism represented a complex phenomenon.感觉无论是在德国使用的狭窄或更一般的,虔诚主义代表一种复杂的现象。It partook of the mysticism of the late Middle Ages.它partook的神秘主义的时代中后期。It shared the commitment to Scripture and the emphasis on lay Christianity of the early Reformation.它同意圣经的承诺和对改革的重点在于基督教早期。It opposed the formalism and cold orthodoxy of the theological establishment.它反对形式主义,建立冷正统神学的。And it was a child of its own times with its concern for authentic personal experience.它是一个真实的个人经验为孩子的关注与自己的时代。It was, in one sense, the Christian answer to what has been called "the discovery of the individual" by providing a Christian form to the individualism and practical - mindedness of a Europe in transition to modern times.这是意义上说,在一,基督教回答了什么是所谓的“和实际发现的个人”通过提供一个基督教的形式向个人主义- times过渡到现代意识的一个欧洲英寸

In more specifically Christian terms pietism represents a significant effort to reform the Protestant heritage.在基督教的虔诚主义更具体而言是一个重要的努力,改革的新教传统。Some of the fears of its earliest opponents have been partially justified.其最早的一些对手的恐惧的理由已部分。At its worst the pietistic tendency can lead to inordinate subjectivism and emotionalism; it can discourage careful scholarship; it can fragment the church through enthusiastic separatism; it can establish new codes of almost legalistic morality; and it can underrate the value of Christian traditions. On the other hand, pietism was, and continues to be, a source of powerful renewal in the church.在其最坏的pietistic趋势可能会导致过度的主观主义和情绪化的,它可以阻止小心奖学金,它可以教会片段通过热情的分裂主义,它可以建立新的法理道德守则近,而且可以低估的传统价值的基督徒。论另一方面,是虔诚主义,并继续成为一个强大的重建教堂源在。 At its best it points to the indispensability of Scripture for the Christian life; it encourages lay people in the work of Christian ministry; it stimulates concern for missions; it advances religious freedom and cooperation among believers; and it urges individuals not to rest until finding intimate fellowship with God himself.在最好的点,它是不可或缺的圣经为基督徒的生活,它鼓励人们在基督教奠定部的工作,它刺激特派团关注,它推动宗教自由和信仰之间的合作,并敦促休息,直到找到个人不自己与神亲密相交。

Mark A Noll标志着诺尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
A Ritschl, Geschichte des Pietismus; FE Stoeffler, The Rise of Evangelical Pietism, German Pietism During the Eighteenth Century, and (ed.) Continental Pietism and Early American Christianity; DW Brown, Understanding Pietism; R Lovelace, The Dynamics of Spiritual Life.阿后里奇尔,历史馆万Pietismus;有限Stoeffler,基督教的虔诚主义的兴起18世纪,在德国虔诚主义,以及(编)大陆虔诚主义和美国早期基督教;德国之声布朗,虔诚主义的认识与r洛夫莱斯,精神生活动态。


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