Pilgrims朝圣者

General Information一般信息

The Pilgrims were English Separatists who founded (1620) Plymouth Colony in New England.新英格兰的清教徒是英国分离主义谁创立(1620)普利茅斯殖民地。In the first years of the 17th century, small numbers of English Puritans broke away from the Church of England because they felt that it had not completed the work of the Reformation.在17世纪头几年,英国清教徒小数目打破了英格兰远离教会,因为他们认为,改革尚未完成的工作的。They committed themselves to a life based on the Bible.他们承诺在一个圣经故事为蓝本。Most of these Separatists were farmers, poorly educated and without social or political standing.这些分离主义者大部分是农民,文化素质较低和没有社会或政治地位。One of the Separatist congregations was led by William Brewster and the Rev. Richard Clifton in the village of Scrooby in Nottinghamshire.众一分裂率领由威廉理查德布鲁斯特和牧师在诺丁汉郡克利夫顿村斯克鲁比研究。The Scrooby group emigrated to Amsterdam in 1608 to escape harassment and religious persecution.该集团斯克鲁比1608年移居到阿姆斯特丹逃避骚扰和宗教迫害。The next year they moved to Leiden, where, enjoying full religious freedom, they remained for almost 12 years.明年,他们转移到莱顿,在那里,享受着充分的宗教信仰自由,他们仍然是近12年。

In 1617, discouraged by economic difficulties, the pervasive Dutch influence on their children, and their inability to secure civil autonomy, the congregation voted to emigrate to America. Through the Brewster family's friendship with Sir Edwin Sandys, treasurer of the London Company, the congregation secured two patents authorizing them to settle in the northern part of the company's jurisdiction.在1617年,自主沮丧的经济困难,对他们的普遍荷兰影响的儿童,他们不能保证公民,会众投票决定移民到美国。通过布鲁斯特家族聚集友谊爵士埃德温桑迪斯的,掌柜的伦敦公司,获得两项专利授权他们定居的管辖权北部的公司。 Unable to finance the costs of the emigration with their own meager resources, they negotiated a financial agreement with Thomas Weston, a prominent London iron merchant.无法资助自己的微薄资源的成本与他们的移民,他们达成了一项铁的财务协议商人托马斯韦斯顿,一个突出的伦敦。Fewer than half of the group's members elected to leave Leiden.不到莱顿的成员中选出一半离开该集团。A small ship, the Speedwell, carried them to Southampton, England, where they were to join another group of Separatists and pick up a second ship.一只小船,在斯皮德韦尔,进行他们南安普敦,英格兰,他们在那里参加另一分离主义团体和拿起第二艘。After some delays and disputes, the voyagers regrouped at Plymouth aboard the 180 - ton Mayflower.经过一些拖延和争端,180集结在普利茅斯船上的航海-吨五月花。It began its historic voyage on Sept. 16, 1620, with about 102 passengers - fewer than half of them from Leiden.它始于16日,1620年9月的历史性航程中,约有102名乘客-比他们少一半来自莱顿。

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After a 65 - day journey, the Pilgrims sighted Cape Cod on November 19.经过65 -一天的旅程,有远见的朝圣者11月19日在科德角。 Unable to reach the land they had contracted for, they anchored (November 21) at the site of Provincetown.普洛无法达到他们的土地承包,他们在现场锚()11月21日。Because they had no legal right to settle in the region, they drew up the Mayflower Compact, creating their own government.因为他们没有合法的权利来解决该地区,他们制定了五月花契约,创造他们自己的政府。The settlers soon discovered Plymouth Harbor, on the western side of Cape Cod Bay and made their historic landing on December 21; the main body of settlers followed on December 26.定居者很快发现普利茅斯港,在科德角湾西侧12月21日,并就其历史性降落;主体的定居者在12月26日之后。

The term Pilgrim was first used by William Bradford to describe the Leiden Separatists who were leaving Holland.朝圣者一词最早是由布雷德福来形容莱顿分离主义谁离开荷兰。The Mayflower's passengers were first described as the Pilgrim Fathers in 1799.五月花的乘客首次描述为父亲在1799年的朝圣者。

Oscar Zeichner奥斯卡Zeichner

Bibliography 书目
W Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620 - 1647 (1952); F Dillon, The Pilgrims (1975); C Gill, Mayflower Remembered: A History of the Plymouth Pilgrims (1970); J Harris, Saga of the Pilgrims (1990); AW / RC Notson, eds., Stepping Stones: The Pilgrim's Own Story (1987); D Plooij, Pilgrim Fathers from a Dutch Point of View (1932); B Smith, Bradford of Plymouth (1951); RG Usher, Pilgrims and Their History (1918); GF Willison, The Pilgrim Reader (1953) and Saints and Strangers: Pilgrim Fathers (1965).W布拉德福德狄龙,在普利茅斯种植园,1620年至1647年(1952年),女,朝圣者(1975年); C吉尔,五月花记住:一)历史上的普利茅斯朝圣者(1970年; J哈里斯)佐贺的朝圣者(1990年;胡/钢筋混凝土Notson,合编。,步进石:朝圣者自己的故事(1987年); Ð Plooij,1932年)朝圣父亲达奇波恩特从查看(; B史密斯,普利茅斯布拉德福德的(1951年);的RG亚瑟,朝圣者和他们的历史(1918年);绿威利森,读者的朝圣者(1953年)和圣徒和陌生人:1965)朝圣者们(。


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