Church Music基督教音乐史

General Information一般信息

Music that is used as a functional part of corporate Christian worship can properly be called church music.音乐是基督教崇拜作为企业的一个功能部分可以恰当地称为教堂音乐。It varies greatly among religious groups by reason of differences in tradition, dogma, taste, financial support, and degrees of musical skill.它大大不同的传统宗教之间的差异原因群体的,教条,口味,金融支持和技能程度的音乐剧。

By far the largest amount and the highest artistic level of church music may be found for the choir, that is, in Choral Music. The traditional choral forms of the church--Masses, Motets, Anthems, and Cantatas--were developed to fill needs of the liturgies from which they sprang. 迄今为止数额最大和最高艺术水平的教堂音乐,可找到的合唱团,也就是在合唱音乐。教堂的传统合唱形式-大众,经文歌,国歌和康塔塔-开发了填补需要的礼仪,他们从兴起。 Nonliturgical faiths have not contributed significant musical forms but have provided additional dimensions to those named here.Nonliturgical信仰并没有显着贡献的音乐形式,但提供了更多的尺寸这里的名字命名的。

The music of the early church was intended for unison chorus (Plainsong), but the general acceptance of Polyphony in the Middle Ages moved the performance of part-music into the choir, which further benefited by the addition of instruments to the performing combination. In later years, such widely different sects as the Russian Orthodox and the Disciples of Christ have stressed choral music but have forbidden the use of instruments in their worship. Christian Science traditionally employs only a solo singer. Most denominations have depended on choirs, paid or volunteer, to supply the bulk of their vocal music, generally with Organ accompaniment. 这座教堂音乐早期的目的是为齐声合唱(Plainsong),但中世纪普遍接受的复调合唱部分的移动音乐到的性能,进一步结合得益于除了文书的表演。 在随后几年中,这种广泛的不同基督宗派的俄罗斯东正教和弟子都强调合唱音乐,但禁止使用的科学仪器在他们的崇拜。基督教传统上只使用一个独唱歌手。多数教派都依赖于合唱团,有偿或志愿,提供大部分的音乐唱腔上,一般与器官伴奏。 The organ has been an important feature of church music because it satisfies the need for variety in supporting choral music without imposing the burden and expense of an instrumental ensemble; it is also a satisfactory instrument for leading congregational singing.该机构一直是教堂音乐的重要特征,因为它满足各种需要的乐团在乐器支持合唱音乐而不强加的负担和费用,也是一堂歌唱理想工具领导。

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There has been a centuries-long debate on the propriety of the popular idiom in church. Borrowing from secular sources in order to "intoxicate the ear" was deplored in the 14th century by Pope John XXII, and the matter has never since been settled satisfactorily. The Cantus Firmi of the Renaissance were often taken from Chansons.有一种流行的成语在教会几个世纪的长期争论礼上的。 来源借鉴世俗,以“醉人的耳朵”的遗憾在约翰二十二14世纪由教皇,事情从来没有被圆满解决。琅菲尔米的文艺复兴的,往往采取从歌谣。 Luther adapted secular tunes to the needs of his Chorales, and, since the middle of the 20th century, folk and popular idioms have again been incorporated into the music of the church.路德适应世俗的曲调,他Chorales的需要,而且, 由于成语在20世纪中叶,民间和大众再次被纳入教会的音乐。

Elwyn A. Wienandt埃尔温答Wienandt

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Davidson, AT, Church Music (1952); Douglas, W., Church Music in History and Practice, rev.戴维森)在,教会音乐(1952年,道格拉斯之际,,教会牧师音乐历史与实践。by L. Ellinwood (1962); Ellinwood, L., The History of American Church Music (1953); Fellerer, KG, The History of Catholic Church Music (1961); Routley, Erik, Twentieth Century Church Music (1964); Stevens, Denis, Tudor Church Music (1955); Wienandt, Elwyn A., Choral Music of the Church (1965; repr. 1979) and Opinions on Church Music (1974).由L.埃林伍德(1962年);埃林伍德湖的)历史的美国教会音乐(1953年费勒雷尔,公斤,)历史的天主教教会音乐(1961年劳特利,埃里克,20世纪的教堂音乐(1964年);史蒂文斯丹尼斯,都铎圣乐(1955年); Wienandt,埃尔温甲,1965年合唱音乐教会(;再版。1979年)和)的意见对教会音乐(1974。


Plainsong Plainsong

or

Christian Music基督教音乐

General Information一般信息

Plainsong is the name given to the monodic (single melodic line) vocal liturgical music of the Christian Catholic churches. It is unaccompanied and is usually in rhythm that is free, not divided into a regular measure. Plainsong是天主教教会的名称给予单音(单旋律线的基督教)声乐礼仪音乐。它是孤身和节奏,通常是在这是免费的,无法衡量分为定期。 As commonly used, the terms plainsong or plainchant and Gregorian chant are synonymous, although study readily shows the subject to be more complex.由于常用的条款plainsong或plainchant和阳历圣歌是同义词,但研究表明,容易受更为复杂。

History历史

After attending synagogue services on the sabbath, the early Christians repaired to the house of one of their members for agape, or love feast, a reenactment of the Last Supper and of the sacrificial death and resurrection of Christ.在出席安息日犹太教堂服务,早期的基督徒维修,以基督复活的房子和他们的一个成员爱德,或死亡的爱情盛宴,一个重演的最后的晚餐和牺牲的。 Synagogue cantors attended the agape, and they brought a sophisticated music to a fledgling faith.犹太教堂坎特尔斯出席了爱德,他们带来了先进的音乐,一个初出茅庐的信心。From cantorial song and from the melodic evolution of simple declamation, a profusion of liturgical chants developed by the 4th and 5th centuries. As the church spread, different traditions of chant arose, the most important being Byzantine, Old Roman, Gallican, and Mozarabic. The chant of Rome had developed by the time of Pope Gregory I (The Great; 590 - 604), after whom the whole body of Roman chant is named.从合唱指挥家的歌曲,旋律从5世纪的演变简单的朗读,第四届由丰富的礼仪圣歌发展。由于教会的传播,产生了不同的传统圣歌,最重要的是拜占庭,老罗马,高卢和莫扎拉布素歌。罗马圣歌的发展了由罗马教皇格雷戈里时间我(大; 590 - 604)后,其中的罗马咏全身被命名为。

Under the reign of a Byzantine pope, Vitalian (657 - 672), the liturgy and chant of Rome underwent a thorough reformation, the fruits of which were designed for the exclusive use of the papal court.在教皇统治的拜占庭,维拉利安(657 - 672),礼仪和圣歌的罗马经历了一个彻底的改革,其中水果法院分别设计了教皇的独占使用。It was this chant that Charlemagne, some 150 years later, spread throughout the Frankish Empire as a part of his attempts at political unification. Vitalian (or Carolingian) chant, although highly ornamented, was characterized by great clarity of melodic line.这是此行行吟查理曼,大约150年后的装饰,虽然高度分散在整个他的法兰克帝国的一部分,作为一个企图在政治上的统一。 维拉利安(或加洛林)圣歌,旋律是清晰的特点是巨大的。As befitted the accentual patterns of the free prose texts, the chant melodies were written in a free rhythm using notes of long and short duration in proportion of two to one.散文文本躲开自由的重音模式的,写的圣歌旋律在一个自由的节奏用1注意到长,短两个时间的比例。

Largely because of the rise of Polyphony, by the 11th century the subtleties of Vitalian chant were quite lost.主要是因为复调上升,由11世纪维拉利安咏相当微妙的损失。 All notes were given the same basic duration, and thus rhythm was no longer proportional but equalist (hence the term cantus planus or plainsong), and ornamentation gradually disappeared. 所有票据给予相同的基本期限,因此节奏不再成正比,但equalist(因此,长期旋律苔癣或plainsong), 装饰逐渐消失。

Beginning in the 12th century the melodic notes themselves were tampered with, and by the early 16th century the melodies had been ruthlessly truncated.开始于12世纪的旋律票据本身篡改,以及16世纪初的旋律已经无情地截断。

Notation符号

No liturgical manuscripts exist that contain musical notation by which the old Roman chant as it was heard during Gregory's reign might be read or reconstructed. There is every reason to believe, however, that the tradition of 7th century Vitalian chant is faithfully preserved in 9th and 10th century manuscripts, the earliest actual sources of chant. 没有礼仪手稿存在包含乐谱,其中旧罗马圣歌,因为它是重建期间听到格雷戈里的统治可能会被理解或。我们完全有理由相信,然而,有唱传统的7世纪维拉利安忠实第九保存和10世纪的手稿,最早的来源咏实际。 The musical signs therein are not written notes, but rather depictions of the melodic shapes to be traced in air by the hand of the conductor, whose direction reminded the singers (schola cantorum) of the correct notes and indicated both rhythm and ornamentation.其中音乐的标志是不写笔记,但旋律优美的形状,而描绘的是空气中的装饰追踪手的导体,其方向提醒歌手(schola正确cantorum)的笔记,并表示双方节奏。 The notational shapes were called neumes, and there were several neumatic systems; the most important and complete manuscripts containing them now bear the call numbers St. Gall 339 and 359 and Einsiedeln 121 (in St. Gall notation) and Laon 239 (in Metz notation).在记谱的形状被称为诺伊梅斯,并有几个纽姆记谱系统,最重要的和完整的手稿含有这些现在圣加仑339和359和艾因西德伦121(在圣加仑符号承担呼叫号码)和(239符号在梅斯拉昂)。

Various attempts were made in the 11th and 12th centuries to discover methods of notating melodies exactly: in some manuscripts alphabetical letters indicating precise pitches were written above the text's syllables; more often, in so - called diastematic notation, simplified neumes were written on from one to four pitch lines.各种尝试是在11世纪和12世纪发现准确方法标注信息的旋律:在一些手稿英文字母表示的音节准确的文字球场被写入以上;更多时候,所以-所谓diastematic符号,简化诺伊梅斯写一对来自四个足球场线。

During the last hundred years, monks of the French Abbey of Solesmes have compared the melodic configurations in 9th and 10th century neumatic manuscripts with the same melodies in lettered and diastematic notation.在过去的百年,索雷姆僧侣的修道院的法国人相比,配置在第9和第10世纪的旋律纽姆记谱符号diastematic在字母和手稿具有相同的旋律。 They restored and corrected the notes of the melodies; however, they retained the equalist rhythm of the 11th and succeeding centuries, the neumatic rhythmic indications merely as nuances.他们恢复和更正的说明的旋律,但他们保留了继承百年equalist第11次和节奏,为的只是细微差别纽姆记谱节奏的迹象。 Such students of chant as Peter Wagner have lamented the loss of a proportional rhythm, pointing out the consistent unsuitability of melodies to texts when the melodies are understood in equalist terms.这些学生高唱彼得瓦格纳都在抱怨节奏的损失比例,指出一贯的旋律不适应,条件文本时的旋律equalist被理解研究。 The Dutch musicologist Jan Vollaerts (1901 - 56), relying heavily on MS Laon 239, developed a system for the proportional interpretation of neumes, thus clearing the way for a complete reconstruction of Vitalian chant; although further clarification and correction are needed, his theories, more than those of any other, point in the correct direction.荷兰音乐学家扬Vollaerts(1901至56年),239个严重依赖于MS拉昂,开发了一个系统诺伊梅斯比例解释的,从而清除维拉利安唱的方式重建为一个完整的,虽然还需要澄清和纠正,他的理论,超过任何其他点的,在正确的方向。

Forms and Liturgical Use形式和礼仪使用

Chant plays an integral role in the mass and divine office.咏扮演一个在大众和神圣的办公不可或缺的作用。Certain parts in simple, set formulas are assigned to the ministers; ordinary parts are sung by the congregation in simple melodies; complex chants proper to the feasts of the liturgical calendar are sung by the schola of trained singers.在简单的某些部分,设定的公式分配给部长;普通部分唱的旋律聚集于简单,复杂的圣歌恰当的礼仪日历节日歌手唱的是由受过训练在schola的。 It was the propers of mass and office that were notated in the neumatic manuscripts.这是纽姆记谱手稿propers大规模和办公室就处理notated研究。Two basic forms exist: Antiphon and responsory. Both have an ABA structure, with texts normally taken from the psalms.两种基本形式存在: 安蒂丰和唱和。两者都取自诗篇一通常ABA的文本结构,。In the antiphon, A is musically rather direct; B is a solo verse set to a simple formula. The A section in the responsory is relatively complex, with B an ornate vehicle for the cantor's musicianship.在安提,一个是音乐,而直接,B是独奏诗句设置为一个简单的公式。唱和的一节中的相对复杂乙,与一的音乐才能华丽车辆的领唱。

The proper parts of the mass sung by the schola include: (1) the introit antiphon, or processional entrance song, which announces the feast being celebrated that day; (2) the gradual, a response to the Old Testament prophetical reading; (3) the alleluia, a response to the New Testament lesson and introduction to the reading of the Gospel; (4) the offertory, a processional piece in modified responsory form having from two to four highly ornate solo verses; and (5) the Communion antiphon. schola包括:在适当的部分群众唱(1)introit安提,或列队进入歌曲,其中宣布,当天正在庆祝节日(2)循序渐进,一读回应旧约预言;(3 )的哈里路亚,一个福音应对新约的教训,并介绍了阅读的;(4)奉献,一个华丽的独奏列队一块高4修订唱和的形式有二至诗句;及(5)共融安提。 During the time commemorating Christ's resurrection, the gradual is replaced by an alleluia; in times of penance or mourning, the alleluia is replaced by a tract (verses of a psalm); on certain feasts a Sequence is sung.在纪念基督的复活时间的,逐步取代由哈里路亚,在悼念倍忏悔,或诗篇的哈里路亚是所取代道一(诗的);对某些节日一个序列是做不到的。 The ordinary parts of the mass sung by the congregation include the petition Kyrie eleison, the Credo or statement of beliefs, the Sanctus, the Pater noster (The Lord's Prayer), the petition Agnus Dei, and the hymn of praise Gloria in excelsis.众所唱的普通群众,包括部分请愿凯里eleison的信条或信仰的声明中,众神的父亲noster(主祷文),羔羊颂的请愿书,并称赞赞美诗星际凯莱的研究。

The office, or "canonical hours," is a set of 8 prayer hours that are spread throughout the day from before sunrise to nightfall. It consists of the singing of psalms, each preceded and followed by an antiphon proper to the feast or day, with hymns and orations. The 2 main hours are lauds (6 AM) and vespers (6 PM); the nocturnal hour of matins includes sung prophecies and lessons, with proper responsories.该办事处,或“典型小时,”是一个集8至傍晚祷告时间是散布在整个每天从日出前。这天由该唱诗歌,每之前或之后,一安提和恰当的盛宴,与赞美诗和演说。 主要为2小时,是赞扬(6分)和晚祷(6分);夜间小时的晨祷包括宋,适当responsories预言和教训。

R John Blackleyṛ约翰布莱克利

Bibliography 书目
W Apel, Gregorian Chant (1958); D Conomos, Byzantine Hymnology and Byzantine Chant (1984); DG Murray, Gregorian Chant According to the Manuscripts (1963); R / BC Pugsley, The Sound Eternal (1987); J Rayburn, Gregorian Chant (1964); Solesmes, ed., Paleographie musicale (1889), MS Einsiedeln 121 (1894), and vol. 10, MS Laon 239 (1909); SJP van Dijk, "The Old - Roman Rite," Studia patristica 80 (1962), "Papal Schola versus Charlemagne," in Organicae Voces (1963), and "The Urban and Papal Rites in Seventh and Eighth Century Rome," Sacris erudiri 12 (1961); JWA Vollaerts, Rhythmic Proportions in Early Medieval Ecclesiastical Chant (1960); P Wagner, Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies: A Handbook of Plainsong (1910); E Werner, The Sacred Bridge (1959).W阿佩尔,阳历咏(1958); Ð Conomos,拜占庭和拜占庭赞美诗学咏(1984);危险品美利,阳历咏根据手稿(1963)与r /公元前帕格斯利,永恒的声音(1987年); J雷伯恩,阳历咏(1964年);索雷姆,教育署。,Paléographie音乐节(1889年),硕士艾因西德伦121(1894),和第二卷。10个,硕士拉昂239(1909); SJP凡迪克说:“老-罗马礼”Studia patristica 80 (1962年),“教皇Schola与查理曼,”在Organicae Voces(1963年)和“市和罗马教皇仪式在第七和第八世纪,”Sacris erudiri 12(1961年); JWA基因Vollaerts,在中世纪早期的艺术比例教会圣歌(1960年); P瓦格纳介绍阳历旋律:阿Plainsong手册(1910),电子商务维尔纳,神圣的桥(1959年)。


Choral Music合唱音乐

General Information一般信息

The words chorus and choir--both derived from the ancient Greek choros, meaning a band of dancers and singers--are commonly understood to mean a large group of singers who combine their voices (with or without instrumental accompaniment) in several "parts," or independent melodic lines.合唱团及合唱团的话-无论乔罗斯源于古希腊,意思是歌手和乐队的舞者-通常理解为一个声音(一大批歌手谁或不结合自己的器乐伴奏)在几个“部分, “或独立的旋律线。This definition, however, is very elastic. The most common type of choral ensemble today performs music in 4 parts, each assigned to a different voice range: soprano (high female), alto (low female), tenor (high male), and bass (low male).这个定义,但是,是非常有弹性。 合唱合奏的今天最常见的一种表现 )的音乐声中4个部分,每个分配到一个不同的范围:女高音(女高,中音(低女),男高音(高男),和低音(低男)。The abbreviation "SATB" refers to this type of "mixed" chorus, and to the music composed for it. There are many other common types: women's chorus (two soprano parts and two alto, of SSAA), men's chorus (TTBB), and double chorus (two distinct SATB groups), to name a few.缩写“SATB”是指本该类型的“混合”合唱团,并组成的音乐走向。还有许多其他常见的类型:妇女合唱团(2女高音部分和两个中音SSAA,对),男子的合唱团(TTBB)双合唱团(两个不同的SATB群体),仅举几例。 Many choral works are in more or less than 4 parts, from as few as one ("monophonic," all singers singing the same melody) to as many as several dozen (as in the 40-part motet Spen in alium, by Thomas Tallis, or certain 20th-century works).许多合唱作品更是在不到4或部件少,从高达1(“单声道”,所有歌手演唱同一旋律)多达几十个alium(如在40部分经文歌斯彭,由托马斯塔利斯,或者是一些20世纪的作品)。 Furthermore, there is no agreement as to the minimum number of singers in a "chorus."此外,没有任何协议,以合唱的最低数目歌手在一个“。”It has been suggested, for example, that certain choral works by composers such as Heinrich Schutz and JS Bach were originally performed with just one singer to a part.有人建议例如,对于中,某些合唱作曲家的作品,如巴赫海因里希舒茨和原来的一部分执行只有一个歌手到。The more usual term for such a small group, however, would be not "chorus" but "vocal ensemble."在一小群更常见的任期等,但是,这是不是“合唱”,而是“声乐合奏。”

The distinction (unique to English) between choir and chorus is fairly clear: a choir generally sings sacred or art music of earlier centuries (as in "madrigal choir"), while a chorus is associated with concert works, opera, musical theater, and popular entertainment. 英语)之间的合唱团和合唱团的区别(独特的,是相当明确的:一般合唱团唱的神圣或艺术世纪早期音乐(合唱团在“牧歌”),而合唱音乐会,是和相关作品,歌剧,音乐剧,大众娱乐。 Among other names for vocal groups, glee club usually refers to a school chorus; a chorale of singers is a concert chorus; and the meaning of consort, properly an instrumental group that plays 17th- or 18th-century music, is sometimes extended to include singers.在声乐组的其他名字,欢乐俱乐部通常是指一所学校合唱团,一个歌手合唱团的合唱音乐会,是一个,以及配偶意义,正确的工具组第17次或18世纪的音乐,有时是扩大到包括歌手。

Early Choral Music早期合唱音乐

Many cultures have traditions of group singing, but the two that laid the foundations of Western choral music were the Greek and Jewish cultures of the pre-Christian era.许多文化都唱传统的组,但两个合唱音乐奠定了基础西方是前基督教时代的希腊和犹太文化的影响。The chorus in Greek drama grew out of groups that sang and danced at religious festivals.合唱团在希腊的戏剧起源于群体在唱歌跳舞的宗教节日。(The sense of "dance" survives in such terms as choreography and chorus line.) The Old Testament contains many references to choral singing on important occasions in Jewish life; the large and skillful choir at the Temple of Jerusalem (supplied by a famous choir school attached to the Temple) was the model for smaller synagogue choirs throughout ancient Israel. Both Greek and Jewish choral music of this period was monophonic and antiphonal--that is, performed responsively between soloists and choirs, or between two choruses. (“感觉”舞蹈生存在合唱队和舞蹈等方面的。)旧约包含犹太人生活在许多场合提到对重要的合唱,由著名的合唱团的大型合唱团和熟练的供应寺耶路撒冷(学校隶属寺)是古代以色列模型合唱团在整个小型会堂。希腊和犹太这一时期合唱音乐是单声道和对歌-也就是说,合唱团演出独唱和合唱团之间作出反应,或两个。

As an underground sect of Judaism, the early Christian church inherited the anitphonal style but not the splendor of Jewish public worship. Soon after the Roman emperor Constantine the Great officially sanctioned Christianity in 313, the first schola cantorum (literally "choir school," as well as the performing group from such a school) was founded in Rome by Pope Sylvester I. Schools of this type joined with monasteries (notably those of the order founded by Saint Benedict in the early 6th century) to develop the art of choral singing. 作为一个基督教教堂的地下教派犹太教,早期的风格,但继承了anitphonal不是崇拜辉煌的犹太公共不久后,罗马皇帝君士坦丁正式批准313基督教,第一schola cantorum(字面“学校合唱团,”作为以及表演团体从这样的学校)创办于罗马教皇西尔维斯特在一所学校加入了此类型的寺院(尤其是那些早期的6世纪建立的秩序由圣本笃的)发展歌唱艺术的合唱。 (Secular vocal music of this time was usually performed by solo singers, not choruses.) (世俗声乐的这个时候通常是合唱团演出的独唱歌手,不是。)

In early medieval choirs, a small number of men, or men and boys, sang Plainsong, a metrically free, monophonic setting of liturgical text. Until the 8th century, when reliable musical notation was invented, plainsong melodies were passed down orally from generation to generation. Gregorian Chant, an outgrowth of the liturgical reforms of Pope Gregory I (reigned 590-604), became the dominant form of plainsong by the 10th century, and has remained in use ever since. 早在中世纪的合唱团,一个男孩和少数人,或男性,唱起歌来。直到8世纪,可靠的音乐符号是当发明Plainsong,一度量自由,单声道设置礼仪文本 ,plainsong旋律被一代口头流传下来从到一代。 阳历咏,1(教皇格里高利一世生长的礼仪改革的590-604年在位),成为10世纪主导的形式plainsong的,并从此一直在使用过。

Part-Singing and the Renaissance部分歌唱和文艺复兴时期

The practice of singing in unison began to give way in the 8th century to Organum, which began simply as a second voice part that moved in parallel with a chant melody, above or below it. By the 11th century, organum had flowered into a truly polyphonic style, in which one or more independent parts departed from and decorated the melody (Polyphony). 和谐实践的开始唱的方式让世纪的第8至奥尔加农,开始它只是作为第二个声部的感动与圣歌旋律平行,上面或下面。到了11世纪,奥尔加农已开花,成为真正的复调式,其中一个或多个独立的部分背离和装饰的旋律(复调)。 At first the province only of skilled soloists playing or singing together, polyphony reached the choir early in the 15th century.起初一起唱歌全省只有熟练的独奏家玩,或复调合唱团达到15世纪初在。

By this time, the term Motet had come to mean a polyphonic vocal setting of any sacred Latin text except sections of the Mass. Between about 1450 and 1600, the motet and Mass developed into elaborate compositions with three to six melodic lines, as in the works of John Dunstable, Josquin Des Prez, and Palestrena. 到这个时候,经文歌一词已经到来意味着一个和弦马萨诸塞州声乐设置的任何神圣的拉丁文字部分除对1450年和1600年的经文和群众精心创作与发展成为三至六个月的旋律线,如工程约翰邓斯特布尔,若斯坎德佩雷斯和Palestrena。 Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli added to the splendor of Venice with works in eight parts or even more, performed by multiple choirs. In the Church of England, which separated from the Roman Catholic church in 1534, a motet on an English text became known as an anthem (which is still the English and American term for a choral piece sung during worship) .Andrea和乔万尼加布里埃利添加到威尼斯的辉煌与合唱作品八个部分,甚至多个由多,演出。 在文本英格兰教会,这脱离罗马天主教会在1534年1英文,经文歌就成为了被称为国歌(这仍然是在一块唱崇拜英国的合唱长远和美国)。

As compositions in many parts appeared, choirs began to take their modern form: ensembles of singers divided into groups according to the range of their voices. The exclusion of women from liturgical roles extended to the choir as well; high voice parts were sung by boys, falsetto singers, or (in Roman Catholic countries after about 1570) Castrato. In England particularly, the training of boy singers for cathedral choirs became a well-established tradition that continues today.正如在许多零件组成出现,合唱团开始采取其现代形式:歌手演奏团体分为按他们的声音范围。 排斥的妇女合唱团以及从礼仪的作用扩大到;高的声部都是男孩唱,假声歌手,或国家(在罗马天主教在大约1570年)阉伶。特别是在英国,教堂的合唱团训练的男孩歌手成了一个历史悠久的传统,一直持续到今天。 As the Middle Ages came to a close, the average size of a choir began to increase gradually; the Sistine Choir in Rome, for example, grew from 18 singers in 1450 to 32 in 1625.由于中世纪结束的时候,一个合唱团的平均规模开始逐步增加;合唱团在罗马的西斯廷教堂,例如,从18名团员,在1625年至1450年32。

The Baroque Era巴洛克时代

Virtually no secular choral music existed before 1600; the Renaissance Madrigal, a polyphonic song, was only rarely performed with more than one singer to a part.几乎没有世俗合唱音乐的存在1600年之前,文艺复兴时期的牧歌,一个和弦歌曲,只是很少的一部分执行一个以上的歌手到。 The first Italian operas, of which Claudio Monteverdi's Orfeo is the leading example, represent an attempt to revive classical Greek drama, and so featured the chorus prominently.第一次意大利歌剧,其中克劳迪奥蒙特威尔第的奥菲欧是领先的例子,代表了企图复活古典希腊戏剧,合唱团等特色突出。 But because the audience's attention focused on solo virtuosity and spectacle, the chorus lost some of its importance in baroque opera. It thrived, however, in Oratorio, a form of concert opera that dramatized a story (usually biblical) without the use of costumes or scenery. George Frideric Handel's oratorios sometimes put the chorus ahead of the soloists in importance; composing for an egalitarian English audience, he cast "the people" as protagonist in such works as Israel in Egypt (1738).但由于观众的注意力奇观重点独奏演奏技巧,合唱团失去了歌剧的一些巴洛克风格的重要性资讯科技蓬勃发展,然而,或在神剧,服装一形式的音乐会,歌剧,戏剧化的故事(通常圣经)无使用风景。亨德尔亨德尔的神剧,有时提前把合唱演出的重要性;观众组成的一个平等的英语,他投下“人民”的)主角在这些作品作为以色列在埃及(1738。

For centuries, instrumentalists had had the option of playing along on one or the other of the choir parts, but now composers such as Monteverdi and Alessandro Scarlatti were giving them their own "obbligato" (that is, not to be omitted) parts.数百年来,器乐曾有的亚历山德罗斯卡拉蒂选择沿上玩之一或其他合唱部分,但现在作曲家蒙特威尔第等人给他们自己的“obbligato”(即不被省略)部分。

Whether composed for a prince's birthday or a Sunday on the liturgical calendar, the Cantata included such operatic elements as arias, recitatives (a kind of sung-spoken narration), and often choruses, but with a text more likely to be meditative or celebratory than dramatic.无论日历组成的一个王子的生日的礼仪或星期日起,大合唱包括元素,咏叹调等歌剧,宣叙调(旁白种松发言),并经常合唱团,但文字更可能是冥想或庆祝比戏剧性。

The Reformation, with its doctrine of "the priesthood of all believers," brought new ideas about church music. Calvinist congregations made their own music by singing psalms in unison, shunning anything that smacked of performance, even accompaniment on the organ. Martin Luther favored congregational singing too, but he kept choirs for their inspirational value. 所有信徒的改革,其学说与神职人员的“,”教会音乐带来新的思路。加尔文教会了他们自己的诗篇,齐声歌唱音乐的,回避任何表现让人联想到了,甚至器官伴唱。马丁路德青睐公理唱歌太,但他一直价值合唱团为他们鼓舞人心。 The cantatas of composers such as JS Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann incorporate the old German Chorales (hymn tunes) that Luther had collected.乔治菲利普和泰勒曼的清唱剧的作曲家,如巴赫纳入旧收集了德国Chorales(赞美诗曲调),路德。

Choral Music in the Age of Democracy合唱音乐的民主时代

The political and industrial revolutions of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were made to order for choral music.18世纪和19世纪初的政治和工业革命的后期进行了订购的合唱音乐。A large and prosperous middle class emerged, eager for cultural accomplishments.阿大和繁荣的中产阶级的出现,渴望成就的文化。 They founded such choruses as the Berlin Singakademie--a choir comprising both men and women from its inception in 1791.他们创办柏林Singakademie等合唱的-一个合唱团成立于1791年由两个男人和妇女。Many a factory owner encouraged loyalty among his workers by sponsoring a choral group in which they could sing.很多工厂的老板在他的鼓励工人忠诚赞助的合唱团在他们会唱。The mania for Handel, continuing for decades after the composer's death, led to ever-larger performances of Messiah (a London concert in 1791 used over 1,000 performers) and to the formation of choral clubs such as the Sons of Handel (Dublin 1810) and the Handel and Haydn Society (Boston 1815). Following Handel's lead, romantic composers glorified the mass of humanity, whether in this life (Beethoven's "Choral" Symphony) of the next (Mahler's "Resurrection" Symphony, in works for large chorus and orchestra. The chorus returned to the opera stage in force after dwindling during the Classical period. Improved methods of music publication and distribution put affordable scores of new opera favorites and old masters in the hands of choral societies in every town and hamlet. Music written for church was performed in theaters, and sometimes new church music (such as Giuseppe Verdi's Requiem, sounded theatrical.在韩德尔狂热的,几十年来持续以后的作曲家的死亡,导致越来越大的表演弥赛亚(在1791年伦敦演唱会表演者使用的1000多),以及俱乐部的形成合唱,如父子的亨德尔(都柏林1810)在韩德尔和海顿协会(波士顿1815年)。 以下韩德尔的铅,浪漫主义作曲家美化人类大规模,无论是在此生活(贝多芬的“合唱交响曲”)的下一个(马勒的“复活”交响曲,在工程大型合唱团和管弦乐团。合唱回到歌剧舞台生效后,在古典时期减少。改进分配方式,把音乐出版和哈姆雷特手中的合唱社团在每一个城市负担得起的歌剧最爱分数新老主人。音乐教会书面是在剧院演出,有时新的教堂音乐安魂曲(如朱塞佩威尔第的,听起来戏剧。

Choral music is also the ideal medium for nationalistic sentiments; in times of war the tide of patriotic choruses reaches flood stage.合唱音乐的民族主义情绪也是理想的培养基,在战争时代潮流的合唱团的爱国达到洪水的阶段。On the other hand, 20th-century works such as Arnold Schoenberg's Gurrelieder and Benjamin Britten's War Requiem match the power of choral utterance with a text of protest and social idealism.另一方面,布里顿的战争安魂曲20世纪的作品,如阿诺德勋伯格的Gurrelieder和本杰明匹配的理想主义权力话语的合唱与社会的抗议和文本。

The strong choral traditions of the United States arrived with European immigrants, spread through music programs in the public schools, and were transformed by Afro-American church music, which contributed rhythmic complexity and a call-and- response style of composition.在美国强大的合唱传统的欧洲移民来到,学校通过公众传播音乐节目,并组成由转化美国黑人教堂音乐,这有助于节奏的复杂性和和反应式的通话。 Professional choruses explore not only older classical repertory but new works that contain every innovation found in new instrumental music: the tone clusters and vocal slides of Krzysztof Penderecki, the aleatory (chance) techniques of John Cage and Lukas Foss, and the minimalist pattern-music of Philip Glass.探索专业合唱团的经典剧目,不仅老年人,但每一个创新的新作品,包括发现新的乐器:集群的语调和声音的幻灯片的偶然性克日什托夫潘德列斯基,(机会)福斯技术约翰凯奇和卢卡斯,而简约模式音乐菲利普玻璃。

David Wright大卫莱特

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Heffernan, CW, Choral Music: Technique and Artistry (1982); Kjelson, L., and McCray, J., The Singer's Manual of Choral Music Literature (1973); Robinson, R., Choral Music (1978); Wienandt, E., Choral Music of the Church (1965; repr. 1980); Young, PM, The Choral Tradition, rev.赫弗南,连续音乐,合唱:技术与艺术(1982年); Kjelson,L.和麦克雷,j的,歌手的)手册合唱音乐文学(1973年;罗宾逊河,合唱音乐(1978年); Wienandt,电子。,合唱音乐的教会(1965年,再版。1980年);杨,下午,该合唱传统,转速。ed.教育署。(1981).(1981年)。


Plain Chant平原咏

Catholic Information天主教信息

By plain chant we understand the church music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of polyphony.由平原咏我们了解中世纪教堂音乐的早期,在复调音乐的到来。Having grown up gradually in the service of Christian worship, it remained the exclusive music of the Church till the ninth century, when polyphony made its first modest appearance.慢慢长大了基督教崇拜的服务,它仍然是温和的外表独家音乐的教会,直到第九世纪,当第一次作出了复调音乐。 For centuries again it held a place of honour, being, on the one hand, cultivated side by side with the new music, and serving, on the other hand, as the foundation on which its rival was built.几个世纪以来再次举行了荣誉地点,一方面是,在,耕地并肩与新的音乐,服务,另一方面,由于建立的基础上的对手了。By the time vocal polyphony reached its culminating point, in the sixteenth century, plain chant had lost greatly in the estimation of men, and it was more and more neglected during the following centuries.声乐复调音乐的时候达到了16世纪的高潮,大大失去了平原咏在男子估计,这是越来越多世纪以来在以下忽视。But all along the Church officially looked upon it as her own music, and as particularly suited for her services, and at last, in our own days, a revival has come which seems destined to restore plain chant to its ancient position of glory.但一直以来,教会正式它看成自己的音乐,特别是服务和适合她,最后,在我们自己的日子,复苏已经到来,似乎注定要恢复平原咏其古老的光荣的地位。 The name, cantus planus, was first used by theorists of the twelfth or thirteenth century to distinguish the old music from the musica mensurata or mensurabilis, music using notes of different time value in strict mathematical proportion, which began to be developed about that time.这个名字,旋律苔癣,最早是由世纪理论家第十二届或第十三区分mensurabilis,音乐的老乐从Musica的mensurata或使用的比例开始注意到,其中不同的时间价值在严格的数学需要大量的时间,约了。 The earliest name we meet is cantilena romana (the Roman chant), probably used to designate one form of the chant having its origin in Rome from others, such as the Ambrosian chant (see GREGORIAN CHANT).最早的名字,我们所遇到的坎蒂莱纳协会(罗马咏),可能用于指定一咏形式的安布罗的罗马等其他国家,有其原产地在唱(见列高利圣咏)。 It is also commonly called Gregorian chant, being attributed in some way to St. Gregory I.这也是俗称阳历咏,被一格雷戈里某种程度上归因于圣

HISTORY历史

Although there is not much known about the church music of the first three centuries, and although it is clear that the time of the persecutions was not favourable to a development of solemn Liturgy, there are plenty of allusions in the writings of contemporary authors to show that the early Christians used to sing both in private and when assembled for public worship.虽然没有多少世纪所知前三教会音乐的,虽然很明显的迫害时间是不利于发展的一个庄严的礼仪,有很多当代作家的著作中表现出的典故早期的基督徒用来唱无论在私人和公众聚集时崇拜。 We also know that they not only took their texts from the psalms and canticles of the Bible, but also composed new things.我们也知道,他们不仅把圣经的文本从诗篇和canticle的,而且还组成新的东西。The latter were generally called hymns, whether they were in imitation of the Hebrew or of the classical Greek poetic forms.后者一般称为赞美诗,他们是否有诗意的形式在模仿希伯来文或希腊古典。There seem to have been from the beginning, or at least very early, two forms of singing, the responsorial and the antiphonal.人们似乎已经从一开始唱歌,或至少非常早,两种形式,对唱和对歌。The responsorial was solo singing in which the congregation joined with a kind of refrain.该responsorial是唱独唱,其中众不要加入了一类。The antiphonal consisted in the alternation of two choirs.对歌组成的合唱团在交替两个。It is probable that even in this early period the two methods caused that differentiation in the style of musical composition which we observe throughout the later history of plain chant, the choral compositions being of a simple kind, the solo compositions more elaborate, using a more extended compass of melodies and longer groups of notes on single syllables.这是可能的,即使在这个早期阶段,两种方法所引起的分化在咏风格的纯音乐作品,我们观察整个历史后,合唱音乐创作,是一个简单的,更详细的个人组成,使用更延长罗盘的旋律和再不是单一的音节组笔记。 One thing stands out very clearly in this period, namely, the exclusion of musical instruments from Christian worship.有一点是最清楚在此期间,即从排斥基督教崇拜的乐器。The main reason for this exclusion was perhaps the associations of musical instruments arising from their pagan use.排除了这个主要的原因也许是异教徒从他们所使用的乐器协会。A similar reason may have militated in the West, at least, against metrical hymns, for we learn that St. Ambrose was the first to introduce these into public worship in Western churches.一个类似的原因可能有militated在西方,至少对韵律赞美诗,因为我们知道,圣刘汉铨是第一个引进这些西方教会崇拜成public。 In Rome they do not seem to have been admitted before the twelfth century.在罗马,他们似乎并不承认已世纪前12世纪。(See, however, an article by Max Springer in "Gregorianische Rundschau", Graz, 1910, nos. 5 and 6.) (见,然而,一个评论报文章由最高斯普林格在“Gregorianische”,格拉茨,1910年,双数。5和6)。

In the fourth century church music developed considerably, particularly in the monasteries of Syria and Egypt.在第四世纪的教堂音乐很大的发展,特别是在埃及和叙利亚的寺院。Here there seems to have been introduced about this time what is now generally called antiphon, ie, a short melodic composition sung in connexion with the antiphonal rendering of a psalm.这里似乎已经诗篇这个时候推出什么是现在一般称为安提,即在很短的旋律组成同一个联接唱的对歌渲染。This antiphon, it seems, was repeated after every verse of the psalm, the two choir sides uniting in it.这安提,似乎是重复诗篇的诗句后,每次,两个合唱团在这方面的团结。In the Western Church where formerly the responsorial method seems to have been used alone, the antiphonal method was introduced by St.在西方教会在原唱和方法似乎已单独使用时,对歌方法介绍了圣Ambrose.刘汉铨。He first used it in Milan in 386, and it was adopted soon afterwards in nearly all the Western churches.他首先用它在米兰的386,它是通过在事后不久教堂几乎所有的西方。Another importation from the Eastern to the Western Church in this century was the Alleluia chant.从东欧进口的另一个教会在本世纪的西方是高唱哈利路亚。This was a peculiar kind of responsorial singing in which an Alleluia formed the responsorium or refrain.这是一个奇特的或不种的对歌,其中一哈里路亚形成responsorium。This Alleluia, which from the beginning appears to have been a long, melismatic composition, was heard by St. Jerome in Bethlehem, and at his instance was adopted in Rome by Pope Damasus (368-84).这哈里路亚,这从一开始似乎已经很长,melismatic组成,听取了圣杰罗姆在伯利恒,并在他的实例是罗马教皇达玛斯通过的(368-84)。 At first its use there appears to have been confined to Easter Sunday, but soon it was extended to the whole of Paschal time, and eventually, by St. Gregory, to all the year excepting the period of Septuagesima.起初它的使用似乎已经局限于复活节周日,但很快被推广到整个复活节的时间,并最终由圣格雷戈里,今年所有的Septuagesima期间除外。

In the fifth century antiphony was adopted for the Mass, some psalms being sung antiphonally at the beginning of the Mass, during the oblations, and during the distribution of Holy Communion.在第五世纪唱和是通过了质量,一些诗篇被唱antiphonally开始在地下的,在敬奉,并在共融分布圣灵。 Thus all the types of the choral chants had been established and from that time forward there was a continuous development, which reached something like finality in the time of St. Gregory the Great.因此,所有类型的圣歌的合唱团已经成立,由当时有一个不断向前发展,达到大事情像终局格雷戈里圣的时间。During this period of development some important changes took place.在这一发展时期的一些重要的变化发生了。One of these was the shortening of the Gradual.这是一个渐进缩短了。This was originally a psalm sung responsorially. It had a place in the Mass from the very beginning.这本来是唱responsorially赞美诗。它从一开始大规模的地方在。The alternation of readings from scripture with responsorial singing is one of the fundamental features of the Liturgy.歌唱交替对唱,从经文的阅读与礼仪是一个特点相适应的基本。As we have the responses after the lessons of Matins, so we find the Gradual responses after the lessons of Mass, during the singing of which all sat down and listened.正如我们的晨祷的教训后作出的反应,所以我们逐步找到了反应过程中的群众,歌唱的教训后,所有坐下来,听着。They were thus distinguished from those Mass chants that merely accompanied other functions.因此,他们从这些杰出的质量职能圣歌,仅仅伴随着其他。As the refrain was originally sung by the people, it must have been of a simple kind.由于不再是原来的人唱的,它必须是一个简单的一种。But it appears that in the second half of the fifth century, or, at latest, in the first half of the sixth century, the refrain was taken over by the schola, the body of trained singers. Hand in hand with this went a greater elaboration of the melody, both of the psalm verses and of the refrain itself, probably in imitation of the Alleluia. This elaboration then brought about a shortening of the text, until, by the middle of the sixth century, we have only one verse left.但看来,在本世纪后半期的第五或最迟在六世纪上半叶,在不被schola以上的,歌唱的身体训练。手拉手在这种情况持续了一个更大的拟订的旋律,这两个诗句的诗篇和避免本身,哈里路亚可能是模仿的。这一阐述,然后带来了一个文本缩短了,直到世纪,六中的,我们只有一个留下诗句。 There remained, however, the repetition of the response proper after the verse.目前依然存在,但是,正确的重复的反应后,诗句。 This repetition gradually ceased only from the twelfth century forward, until its omission was sanctioned generally for the Roman usage by the Missal of the Council of Trent. The repetition of the refrain is maintained in the Alleluia chant, except when a second Alleluia chant follows, from the Saturday after Easter to the end of Paschal time.这只是重复逐渐停止从12世纪前进,直到它被批准的遄达遗漏一般会在罗马的使用由米索尔。避免重复的唱的是保持在哈里路亚,哈里路亚,除非第二咏如下,从复活节后的星期六的时间结束逾越节。 The Tract, which takes the place of the Alleluia chant during the period of Septuagesima, has presented some difficulty to liturgists.成片,便以唱Septuagesima期间哈里路亚的地方的,提出了一些困难liturgists。 Prof. Wagner (Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies, i, 78, 86) holds that the name is a translation of the Greek term eìrmós, which means a melodic type to be applied to several texts, and he thinks that the Tracts are really Graduals of the older form, before the melody was made more elaborate and the text shortened.瓦格纳教授(介绍阳历旋律,我,78,86)认为,名字是一个文本翻译的希腊词eìrmós,这意味着一个旋律类型被应用到一些,他认为大港真的Graduals老形式的旋律,在写了更详细的文字缩短。 The Tracts, then, would represent the form in which the Gradual verses were sung in the fourth and fifth centuries.在大港,然后,将代表世纪形式,渐进的诗句第五传唱在第四和。Of the antiphonal Mass chants the Introit and Communion retained their form till the eighth century, when the psalm began to be shortened.对歌群众的圣歌和共融的Introit保留他们开始形成,直到公元8世纪,当诗篇缩短。Nowadays the Introit has only one verse, usually the first of the psalm, and the Doxology, after which the Antiphon is repeated.如今,Introit只有一节,通常是诗篇第一次,而三一颂,随后安蒂丰重复。The Communion has lost psalm and repetition completely, only the requiem Mass preserving a trace of the original custom.在圣餐已经完全失去了诗篇和重复,只有维护一个跟踪追思弥撒的原始习俗。But the Offertory underwent a considerable change before St. Gregory; the psalm verses, instead of being sung antiphonally by the choir, were given over to the soloist and accordingly received rich melodic treatment like the Gradual verses.但是,奉献经历了一个相当大的变化之前,圣格雷戈里;诗篇经文,而不是被唱合唱团antiphonally的,被交给了独奏及相应得到丰富的渐进旋律治疗像诗句。 The antiphon itself also participated to some extent in this melodic enrichment.在安提丰本身也参与了这个旋律在一定程度上丰富。 The Offertory verses were united in the late Middle Ages, and now only the Offertory of the requiem Mass shows one verse with a partial repetition of the antiphon. After the time of St. Gregory musical composition suddenly began to flag.诗句的奉献团结在中世纪末期,而现在只有群众奉献的安魂曲显示安提丰一诗重复同一个部分。时间后组成的圣格雷戈里音乐突然开始标志。 For the new feasts that were introduced, either existing chants were adopted or new texts were fitted with existing melodies.对于引入新的节日,不管是通过现有的或新的圣歌的旋律配有文字说明现有的。Only about twenty-four new melodies appear to have been composed in the seventh century; at least we cannot prove that they existed before the year 600.只有约04年的新旋律似乎是在第七世纪的组成,至少我们无法证明自己存在的600年之前。After the seventh century, composition of the class of chants we have discussed ceased completely, with the exception of some Alleluias which did not gain general acceptance till the fifteenth century, when a new Alleluia was composed for the Visitation and some new chants for the Mass of the Holy Name (see "The Sarum Gradual and the Gregorian Antiphonale Missarum" by WH Frere, London, 1895, pp. 20, 30).在第七世纪,组成了一流的圣歌,我们已经讨论完全停止,异常与地下部分Alleluias其中并没有得到普遍接受的,直到15世纪,当咏新哈里路亚组成和一些新的探视权圣名(见“塞勒姆渐进和阳历Antiphonale Missarum”由WH弗里尔,伦敦,1895年,页。20,30)。It was different, however, with another class of Mass chants comprised under the name of "Ordinarium Missæ".这是不同的,可是,与另一名由下阶层群众的呼喊“Ordinarium弥撒程序”。Of these the Kyrie, Gloria, and Sanctus were in the Gregorian Liturgy, and are of very ancient origin.其中在凯里,凯莱和桑克蒂斯礼仪在阳历,并且是非常古老的起源。The Agnus Dei appears to have been instituted by Sergius I (687-701) and the Credo appears in the Roman Liturgy about the year 800, but only to diappear again, until it was finally adopted for special occasions by Benedict VIII (1012-24).在羔羊颂信条似乎已建立由谢尔盖我(687-701)和出现在罗马礼仪约800年,但只限于diappear再次,直到最后一零一二年至1024年通过了八(特殊的场合,本笃)。 All these chants, however, were originally assigned, not to the schola, but to the clergy and people.所有这些圣歌,不过,原来分配,而不是在schola,但对神职人员和人民。Accordingly their melodies were very simple, as those of the Credo are still.因此他们的旋律非常简单的信条,为那些仍在。 Later on they were assigned to the choir, and then the singers began to compose more elaborate melodies.后来他们被分配到合唱团,然后开始撰写的歌手更详细的旋律。The chants now found in our books assigned to Feria may be taken as the older forms.现在发现的圣歌到我们的图书展销会分配可采取的形式为老。

Two new forms of Mass music were added in the ninth century, the Sequences and the Tropes or Proses.两种大众音乐新形式的世纪将是在第九,序列和比喻或散文。Both had their origin in St. Gall.他们都是在圣加仑的起源。Notker gave rise to the Sequences, which were originally meant to supply words for the longissimæ melodiæ sung on the final syllable of the Alleluia. Notker引起的序列,这些原本供应哈里路亚音节词的最后的关于longissimæ melodiæ传唱。These "very long melodies" do not seem to have been the melismata which we find in the Gregorian Chant, and which in St. Gall were not longer than elsewhere, but special melodies probably imported about that time from Greece (Wagner, op. cit., I, 222).这些“很长的旋律”似乎并不一直是melismata咏找到我们的阳历,并在圣加仑不长于其他地方,但特殊的旋律可能同进口有关,当时从希腊(瓦格纳。同上。,我,222)。 Later on new melodies were invented for the Sequences.后来发明了新的旋律的序列。What Notker did for the Alleluia, his contemporary Tuotilo did for other chants fo the Mass, especially the Kyrie, which by this time had got some elaborate melodies.没有什么Notker哈里路亚的,他没有为当代Tuotilo其他圣歌为群众,特别是凯里,而这个时候已经获得了一些详细的旋律。 The Kyrie melodies were, in the subsequent centuries, generally known by the initial words of the Tropes composed for them, and this practice has been adopted in the new Vatican edition of the "Kyriale".在凯里旋律,在随后的几个世纪,他们一般称为转义组成的由最初的文字,这做法已在新通过的梵蒂冈版的“Kyriale”。 Sequences and Tropes became soon the favourite forms of expression of medieval piety, and innumerable compositions of ther kind are to be met with in the medieval service books, until the Missal of the Council of Trent reduced the Sequences to four (a fifth, the Stabat Mater, being added in 1727) and abolished the Tropes altogether.序列和比喻很快成为中世纪虔诚的表达喜爱的形式,和有无数的音乐创作,要满足在中世纪的服务书籍,直到特伦特米索尔了安理会减少了序列4(一第五,家分店母校,被添加于1727年)废除了比喻完全。 As regards the Office, Gevaert (La Mélopée Antique) holds that one whole class of antiphons, namely those taken from the "Gesta Martyrum", belong to the seventh century.至于办公室,吉华(香格里拉Mélopée古董)认为,一整类antiphons,即“Martyrum所采取的”赫斯塔,属于7世纪。 But he points out also that no new melodic type is found amongst them.但他也指出,没有新的旋律类型是他们发现之一。So here again we find the ceasing of melodic invention after St. Gregory.所以在这里我们再次找到旋律格雷戈里圣的发明后停止的。 The responses of the Office received many changes and additions after St. Gregory, especially in Gaul about the ninth century, when the old Roman method of repeating the whole response proper after the verses was replaced by a repetition of merely the second half of the response.该厅的答复后,收到的补充圣格雷戈里第九世纪,许多变化,尤其是在高卢何时古老的罗马方法重复整个反应是适当的反应后,诗句所取代一个重复的一半只是第二。 This Gallican method eventually found its way into the Roman use and is the common one now.这种方法终于找到罗马高卢利用其方式进入,是常见的一种了。But as the changes affected only the verses, which have fixed formulæ easily applied to different texts, the musical question was not much touched.但是,随着变化的影响只是诗句,它有固定的公式很容易适用于不同的文本,音乐是没有多大问题感动。

St. Gregory compiled the Liturgy and the music for the local Roman use.圣格雷戈里编制的礼仪和为当地罗马使用的音乐。He had no idea of extending it to the other Churches, but the authority of his name and of the Roman See, as well as the intrinsic value of the work itself, caused his Liturgy and chant to be adopted gradually by practically the whole Western Church.他不知道教会扩大到其他,但他的名字的权威和罗马教廷,以及工作本身的内在价值,造成了他的礼仪和圣歌教会将通过逐步,几乎整个西方。 During his own lifetime they were introduced into England and from there, by the early missionaries, into Germany (Wagner, "Einführung", II, p. 88).在自己的有生之年,他们被介绍到英国,并从那里,由早期的传教士德,入(瓦格纳,“Einführung”,第二章,第88页)。 They conquered Gaul mainly through the efforts of Pepin and Charlemagne, and about the same time they began to make their way into Northern Italy, where the Milanese, or Ambrosian, Liturgy had a firm hold, and into Spain, although it took centuries before they became universal in these regions.他们征服了高卢查理曼主要丕平,并通过努力,和大约在同一时间,他们开始的方式,使他们成为西班牙意大利北部,那里的米兰,或安布罗,礼仪有一个坚定的持有,进入,尽管他们花了几个世纪前在这些地区成为普遍。 While the schola founded by St. Gregory kept the tradition pure in Rome, they also sent out singers to foreign parts from time to time to check the tradition there, and copies of the authentic choir books kept in Rome helped to secure uniformity of the melodies.虽然圣格雷戈里成立由在schola保留了传统的单纯在罗马,他们也派出歌手不时外国部分时间核对传统那里,罗马的副本保存在合唱团的正宗书籍有助于确保统一的旋律。 Thus it came about that the manuscript in neumatic notation (see NEUM) from the ninth century forward, and those in staff notation from the eleventh to the fourteenth century, present a wonderful uniformity.因此,它的出现,该手稿在纽姆记谱符号(见内乌姆)从第九世纪前进,这些符号在工作人员从11到14世纪,现在一个美妙的一致性。 Only a few slight changes seem to have been introduced.只有少数轻微变化似乎已实施。The most important of these was the change of the reciting note of the 3rd and 8th modes from b to c, which seems to have taken place in the ninth century.其中最重要的是这些变化的B模式从第3和第8至C朗诵注意到,这似乎已世纪发生在第九。A few other slight changes are due to the notions of theorists during the ninth and following centuries.其他一些轻微的变化是由于理论的概念,在第九届和下面的几个世纪。

These notions included two things: (1) the tone system, which comprised a double octave of natural tones, from A to a' with G added below, and allowing only one chromatic note, namely b flat instead of the second b; and (2) eight modes theory.这些概念包括两件事情:(1)音系统,该系统包括一个双八度的自然色调甲,从到一个G'与补充以下,只允许一个色说明,即降B而不是第二次B;及( 2)8模式理论。As some of the Gregorian melodies did not well fit in with this theoretic system, exhibiting, if ranged according to the mode theory, other chromatic notes, such as e flat, f sharp, and a lower B flat, some theorists declared them to be wrong, and advocated their emendation.随着旋律一些阳历没有很好适应这一理论体系,展示,如果不等根据模式理论,其他色笔记,如e持平,升F,和较低的B大调,一些理论家宣称他们是错了,并主张其校正。 Fortunately the singers, and the scribes who noted the traditional melodies in staff notation, did not all share this view.幸运的是,歌手,和文士谁注意到工作人员的符号的传统旋律,也并非全都同意这个看法。But the difficulties of expressing the melodies in the accepted tone system, with b flat as the only chromatic note, sometimes forced them to adopt curious expedients and slight changes.但该系统的困难接受语气表达在B的旋律,平作为唯一的色注意到,有时迫使他们采取的权宜之计和好奇的轻微改变。But as the scribes did not all resort to the same method, their differences enable us, as a rule, to restore the original version.但正如所有的文士没有诉诸同样的方法,使我们的分歧,作为一项规则,以恢复原来的版本。Another slgiht change regards some melodic ornaments entailing tone steps smaller than a semi-tone.另一个slgiht改变在某些音旋律装饰音的步骤将会导致小于1半。The older chant contained a good number of these, especially in the more elaborate melodies.老咏载有更详细的相当数量的旋律,其中,特别是在。In the staff notation, which was based essentially on a diatonic system, these ornamental notes could not be expressed, and, for the small step, either a semitone or a repetition of the same note had to be substituted.在工作人员的符号,这是基础的系统主要以自然音阶,这些装饰笔记无法表达,而且,对于小的一步,无论是半音或说明重复相同不得不被替换。 Simultaneously these non-diatonic intervals must have disappeared from the practical rendering, but the transition was so gradual that nobody seems to have been conscious of a change, for no writer alludes to it.同时,这些非全音阶间隔必须有消失的实际渲染,而是逐步过渡是如此,没有人似乎已经意识到了变化,暗示它没有作家。Wagner (op. cit., II, passim), who holds that these ornaments are of Oriental origin though they formed a genuine part of the sixth-century melodies, sees in their disappearance the complete latinization of the plain chant.瓦格纳(同前。,二,各处),谁认为,这些饰品的起源是东方虽然他们组成了一个世纪的旋律,真正的一部分,六,高唱看到了他们失踪的平原完整的拉丁化的。

A rather serious, though fortunately a singular interference of theory with tradition is found in the form of the chant the Cistercians arranged for themselves in the twelfth century (Wagner, op. cit., II, p. 286).一个相当严重,幸好与传统奇异干扰理论被发现在该运算构成咏熙安排为自己在12世纪(瓦格纳。前。,二,第286页)。 St. Bernard, who had been deputed to secure uniform books for the order, took as his adviser one Guido, Abbot of Cherlieu, a man of very strong theoretical views.圣伯纳德,谁写给了统一的命令,以确保图书,以此作为他的顾问之一圭多,观点住持Cherlieu,理论一男子很强劲。 One of the things to which he held firmly was the rule that the compass of a melody should not exceed the octave laid down for each mode by more than one note above and below.事情之一,以他坚定地规则,即是一个旋律指南针应不超过八度模式奠定了每一个音符超过上面和下面。This rule is broken by many Gregorian melodies.这一规则被打破,许多阳历旋律。But Guido had no scruple in applying the pruning knife, and sixty-three Graduals and a few other melodies had to undergo considerable alteration.但圭多没有刀不惜在应用修剪和63 Graduals和其他几个旋律不得不进行相当大的改变。Another systematic change affected the Alleluia verse.另一种系统的变化影响了哈里路亚诗句。The long melisma regularly found on the final syllable of this verse was considered extravagant, and was shortened considerably.长melisma经常发现在这首诗的最后音节被认为奢侈,并大大缩短。Similarly a few repetitions of melodic phrases in a melismatic group were cut out, and finally the idea that the fundamental note of the mode should begin and end every piece caused a few changes in some intonations and in the endings of the Introit psalmody.同样的旋律重复的短语数在melismatic组切断了,最后的观念,方式的根本性注意的开始和结束每一件引起一些语调一些变化和Introit psalmody的结局了。Less violent changes are found in the chant of the Dominicans, fixed in the thirteenth century (Wagner, op. cit., p. 305).那么暴力,变化出现在多米尼加唱的,同固定在13世纪(瓦格纳。前。,第305页)。The main variations from the general tradition are the shortening of the melisma on the final syllable of the Alleluia verse and the omission of the repetition of some melodic phrases.一般传统的主要变化是从短语缩短了melisma的旋律在最后音节哈里路亚诗和遗漏部分的重复。

From the fourteenth century forward the tradition begins to go down.从14世纪开始的传统向前走下来。The growing interest taken in polyphony caused the plain chant to be neglected.日益增长的兴趣采取复调音乐造成的平原咏被忽视。 The books were written carelessly; the forms of the neums, so important for the rhythm, began to be disregarded, and shortenings of melismata became more general.随便写的书,在neums的形式,所以重要的节奏,开始被忽视,酥油和melismata的更加普遍。No radical changes, however, are found until we come to the end of the sixteenth century.没有彻底的改革,但是,直到我们找到前来世纪末16。The reform of Missal and Breviary, intiated by the Council of Trent, gave rise to renewed attention to the liturgical chant.遄达改革米索尔及本局的breviary,由该intiated,再度引起注意的礼仪诵经。But as the understanding of its peculiar language had disappeared, the results were disastrous.但由于其独特的语言理解已经消失,其结果是灾难性的。

Palestrina was one of the men who tried their hands, but he did not carry his work through (see PR Molitor, "Die Nach-Tridentinische Choral Reform", 2 vols., Leipzig, 1901-2).帕莱斯特里纳是一只手的男人谁试图自己,但他没有履行他的工作,通过(见公关莫利托,“模具型乙酰胆碱,Tridentinische合唱改革”,2卷。,莱比锡,1901-2)。 Early in the seventeenth century, however, Raimondi, the head of the Medicean printing establishment, took up again the idea of publishing a new Gradual.早在17世纪,然而,莱蒙迪,建立团长的Medicean印刷,再次拿起渐进出版一个新的想法。He commissioned two musicians of name, Felice Anerio and Francesco Suriano, to revise the melodies.他委托2名音乐家,费利切阿内里奥和弗朗切斯科苏里亚诺,修正的旋律。This they did in an incredibly short time, less than a year, and with a similarly incredible recklessness, and in 1614 and 1615 the Medicean Gradual appeared.他们这样做,在极短的时间,一年不到,和一个同样令人难以置信的鲁莽,并在1614年和1615年的Medicean逐步出现。 This book has considerable importance, because in the second half of the nineteenth century, the Congregation of Rites, believing it to contain the true chant of St. Gregory, had it republished as the official chant book of the Church, which position it held from 1870 to 1904.这本书具有相当的重要性,19世纪,一半是因为在第二,礼会众的,相信它包含的格雷戈里圣咏真实的,它再版了它作为官方咏书举行的教会,这立场1970至04年。 During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries various other attempts were made to reform the Gregorian chant.在17和18世纪圣歌尝试了其他各种改革公历。They were well intentioned, no doubt, but only emphasized the downward course things were taking.他们是抱着良好的愿望,没有怀疑,但下降的过程中只强调采取事情。The practice of singing became worse and worse, and what had been the glory of centuries fell into general contempt (see PR Molitor, "Reform-Choral", Freiburg, 1901).唱歌的实践成为差,和曾经是百年荣耀蔑视落入一般(见公关莫利托,“改革,合唱”,弗赖堡,1901年)。

From the beginning of the nineteenth century dates a revival of the interest taken in plain chant.从本世纪初19日期一咏复兴平原采取的利益。Men began to study the question seriously, and while some saw salvation in further "reforms", others insisted on a return to the past.人们开始认真研究这个问题,虽然一些改革“,进一步看到了拯救”,有的过去坚持的一回。 It took a whole century to bring about a complete restoration.花了一整个世纪,以实现全面恢复。France has the honour of having done the principal work in this great undertaking (see PR Molitor, "Restauration des Gregorianischen Chorales im 19. Jahrhundert" in "Historisch- politische Blätter", CXXXV, nos. 9-11).法国的荣誉做了这一伟大事业的主要工作(见公关莫利托,“恢复德Gregorianischen Chorales免疫19。Jahrhundert”在“历史,政治的布拉特”,CXXXV,双数。9-11)。One of the bet attempts was a Gradual edited about 1851 by a commission for the Diocese of Reims and Cambrai, and published by Lecoffre.尝试之一的赌注是一个渐进的编辑约由1851年康布雷委员会和教区兰斯和勒科弗尔出版。 Being founded on limited critical material, it was not perfect; but the worst feature was that the editors had not the courage to go the whole way.作为建立在有限的关键物质,它并非十全十美,但最糟糕的特点是,编辑没有的勇气去整个方式。The final solution of the difficult question was to come from the Benedictine monastery of Solesmes.困难的问题最终解决的是来自本笃会修道院的索雷姆。Guéranger, the restorer of the Liturgy, also conceived the idea of restoring the liturgical chant.盖朗热的礼仪恢复了,也构思咏思想恢复礼仪。About 1860 he ordered two of his monks, Dom Jausions and Dom Pothier, to make a thorough examination of the codices and to compile a Gradual for the monastery.关于1860年他下令波蒂埃他的两个和尚,若雄和Dom大教堂,在古抄本作彻底检查和编译一个渐进的寺院。After twelve years of close work, the Gradual was in the main completed, but another eleven years elapsed before Dom Pothier, who on the death of Dom Jausions had become sole editor, published his "Liber Gradualis".经过12年的工作结束时,逐步在主要完成,但11年又过去了发表波蒂埃大教堂前,谁DOM的死亡若雄已成为唯一的编辑他的“书Gradualis”。 It was the first attempt to return absolutely to the version of the manuscripts, and though capable of improvements in details solved the question substantially.这是第一次试图返回绝对的手稿版本,虽然在细节能够解决的问题大大改善。This return to the version of the manuscripts was illustrated happily by the adoption of the note forms of the thirteenth century, which show clearly the groupings of the neums so important for the rhythm.这手稿返回的版本是由节奏愉快地说明了通过13世纪的说明形式,显示了明显的集团重要的neums如此。 Since that date the work of investigating the manuscripts was continued by the Solesmes monks, who formed a regular school of critical research under Dom Mocquereau, Dom Pothier's successor.自该日起的手稿是调查工作继续由索雷姆僧侣,谁形成莫克罗的继任者,大教堂波蒂埃正规学校的重要研究下大教堂。 A most valuable outcome of their studies is the "Paléographie Musicale", which has appeared, since 1889, in quarterly volumes, giving photographic reproductions of the principal manuscripts of plain chant, together with scientific dissertations on the subject.对它们的研究,最有价值的成果是“Paléographie音乐节”,这已经出现,1889年以来,各季度销量,使平原咏摄影主要手稿的复制品,以及对主题的科学论文。 In 1903 they published the "Liber Usualis", an extract from the Gradual and antiphonary, in which they embodied some melodic improvements and valuable rhythmical directions.他们在1903年出版的“书Usualis”,摘录的渐进和应答轮唱歌,它们体现在一些有价值的节奏和旋律的改善方向。

A new epoch in the history of plain chant was inaugurated by Pius X. By his Motu Proprio on church music (22 Nov., 1903) he ordered the return to the traditional chant of the Church and accordingly the Congregation of Rites, by a decree of 8 Jan., 1904, withdrawing the former decrees in favour of the Ratisbon (Medicean) edition, commanded that the traditional form of plain chant be introduced into all churches as soon as possible.一个新时代的平原咏在历史上台碧岳十,通过他的手谕对教会音乐(一九零三年十一月二十二日),他下令归还给教会的传统歌谣和相应的礼仪毕业典礼的法令,由一对1904年1月8日,撤销),指挥的Medicean前法令赞成的拉蒂斯邦(版本平原咏传统形式被引入所有教堂尽快。 In order to facilitate this introduction, Pius X, by a Motu Proprio of 25 April, 1904, established a commission to prepare an edition of plain chant which was to be brought out by the Vatican printing press and which all publishers should get permission to reprint.为了促进这一介绍,允许转载皮乌斯X应该得到,由出版商手谕4月25日,1904年,各设立了一个委员会,以准备一版的平原咏是被带到了由梵蒂冈印刷机,哪些。 Unfortunately differences of opinion arose between the majority of the members of the commission, including the Solesmes Benedictines, and its president, Dom Joseph Pothier, with the result that the pope gave the whole control of the work to Dom Pothier.不幸的分歧意见之间发生笃大部分的委员会的成员,包括索雷姆,其总裁约瑟夫大教堂波蒂埃的结果,以致给教宗的整个工作控制到DOM波蒂埃。 The consequence was that magnificent manuscript material which the Solesmes monks, expelled from France, had accumulated in their new home on the Isle of Wight, first at Appuldurcombe afterwards at Quarr Abbey, remained unused.其后果是,宏伟的手稿材料的索雷姆僧侣,法国驱逐出境,积累了在新家园的怀特岛,Appuldurcombe首先在事后在夸尔修道院,仍然闲置。 The Vatican edition, however, though it is not all that modern scholarship could have made it, is a great improvement on Dom Pothier's earlier editions and represents fairly well the reading of the best manuscripts梵蒂冈版,不过,虽然它是不是所有的,现代的奖学金可以做到了,是一个很大的进步,早期版本的大教堂波蒂埃的,代表相当好读的最好的手稿

TONE SYSTEM AND MODES声调系统和模

The theory of the plain chant tone system and modes is as yet somewhat obscure. We have already remarked that the current medieval theory laid down for the tone system a heptatonic diatonic scale of about two octaves with the addition of b flat in the higher octave.该系统理论的平原咏语气和方式,尚未有些模糊。我们已经说过,目前的中世纪的理论奠定了基调的倍频下一个更高的系统张红梅音阶在约两个八度的单位,除b的。 In this system four notes, d, e, f, and g, were taken as fundamental notes (tonics) of modes.在这种补品系统4注意到,D和E,F和G,(被视为根本注意到模式)的。Each of these modes was subdivided according to the compass, one class, called authentic, having the normal compass, from the fundamental note to the octave, the other, called plagal, from a fourth below the fundamental note to a fifth above.这些模式是每个细分根据指南针,一个class,所谓真实,具有正常的指南针注意到,从基本到八度,是other,称为plagal,高于第四below从根本注意到第五个。 Thus there result eight modes.因此,有八次模式。These, of course, are to be understood as differing not in absolute pitch, as their theoretical demonstration and also the notation might suggest, but in their internal construction.这些,当然是可以理解为不同的音高没有绝对的,因为他们的理论论证和符号也可能暗示,但其内部结构。The notation, therefore, refers merely to relative pitch, as does, eg, the tonic sol-fa notation.该符号,因此,仅指相对音高,一样,例如,补药唱名法符号。Not being hampered by instrumental accompaniment, singers and scribes did not bother about a system of transposition, which in ancient Greek music, for instance, was felt necessary at an early period.不阻碍器乐伴奏,歌手和文士并没有理会一期制度的换位,在古希腊音乐,比如,很早就认为必须在1。

The theoretical distinction between authentic and plagal modes is not borne out by an analysis of the existing melodies and thier traditional classification (see Fr. Krasuski, "Ueber den Ambitus der gregorianischen Messgesänge", Freiburg, 1903).该plagal模式理论和真实之间的区别是不是证明了一个旋律,分析现有的和传统的分类(见神父。克拉苏斯基“Ueber巢穴Ambitus明镜gregorianischen Messgesänge”,弗赖堡,1903年)。Melodies of the fourth mode having a constant b flat fall in badly with the theoretic conception of a fourth mode having b natural as its normal note, and some antiphon melodies of that mode, although they use no b flat but have a as their highest note, eg, the Easter Sunday Introit, are out of joint with the psalmody of that mode.有旋律的第四模式有降B模式不断下降,严重四分之一与理论的概念b自然作为其正常的说明,以及该模式的一些安提旋律,虽然他们没有使用降B大调,但有一个是它们的最高注,例如,复活节星期日Introit,超出关节的模式psalmody那种。 It would, therefore, seem certain that the eight mode theory was, as a ready made system, imposed on the existing stock of plain chant melodies.它将因此,似乎可以肯定的是8模式理论,作为一个现成的制度,强加给平原咏旋律在现有的。 Historically the first mention of the theory occurs in the writings of Alcuin (d. 804), but the "Paléographie Musicale" (IV, p. 204) points out that the existence of cadences in the Introit psalmody based on the literary cursus planus tends to show that an eight mode theory was current already in St. Gregory's time.历史上,第一次提到的理论出现在D 804的著作阿尔昆(),但“Paléographie音乐节”(四,第204页)指出,苔癣存在节奏文学cursus关于在Introit psalmody基础趋于显示8模式理论是时代潮流已经在圣格雷戈里的。From the tenth century forward the four modes are also known by the Greek terms, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian, the plagals being indicated by the prefix Hypo.从10世纪提出了四种模式也被称为希腊多利安人来说,弗里吉亚,吕底亚和米索利地安调,在海波plagals前缀被表明的。 But in the ancient Greek theory these names were applied to the scales ee, dd, cc, bb respectively.但在古希腊理论这些名字被应用到秤电子工程,日,消委会,司仪分别。The transformation of the theory seems to have come to pass, by a complicated and somewhat obscure process, in Byzantine music (see Riemann, "Handbuch der Musikgeschichte", I, §31).该理论转型的似乎已经通过,由一个复杂的过程,有点模糊的音乐,在拜占庭(见黎曼,“Handbuch明镜Musikgeschichte”,我,§ 31)。The growth of the melodies themselves may have taken place partly on the basis of Hebrew (Syrian) elements, partly under the influence of the varying Greek or Byzantine theories.增长的旋律本身可能已经发生部分原因是希伯来文的基础上(叙利亚)元素,部分理论的影响下,希腊或拜占庭式的不同。

RHYTHM节奏

Practically, the most important question of plain chant theory is that of the rhythm.实际上,平原咏理论的最重要的问题就是节奏。Here again opinions are divided.在这里再次的意见分歧。The so-called equalists or oratorists hold that the rhythm of plain chant is the rhythm of ordinary prose Latin; that the time value of all the notes is the same except in as far as their connexion with the different syllables makes slight differences.所谓equalists或oratorists认为咏节奏的拉丁节奏平原是普通散文;该票据的所有时间价值是远远相同,只是在他们的联接,使具有不同音节的细微差别。 They hold, however, the prolongation of final notes, mora ultimæ vocis, not only at the end of sentences and phrases but also at the minor divisions of neum groups on one syllable.他们认为,不过,最终的说明延长,莫拉ultimæ vocis音节,不仅在和最终判决的短语,而且在一个群体在内乌姆未成年人的分歧。In the Vatican edition the latter are indicated by vacant spaces after the notes. The measuralists, on the other hand, with Dechevrens as their principal representative, hold that the notes of plain chant are subject to strict measurement.在梵蒂冈版后者以表示空置的泊车位后的音符。的measuralists,另一方面,与作为其主要代表Dechevrens,认为平原咏注意到受到严格的测量。 They distinguish three values corresponding to the modern quavers, crotchets, and minims.他们区分三个值对应于现代quavers,crotchets和minims。They have in their favour numerous expressions of medieval theorists and the manifold rhythmical indications in the manuscripts, especially those of the St. Gall School (see NEUM).他们对他们有利的高尔学校众多节律性表达的迹象表明,在中世纪的理论家和多方面的手稿街,尤其是那些对(见内乌姆)。 But their rhythmical translations of the manuscript readings do not give a satisfactory result, which they admit themselves by modifying them for practical purposes.但他们有节奏的翻译手稿的读数不给一个满意的结果,他们承认自己的目的,他们通过实际的修改。Moreover, their interpretation of the manuscript indications does not seem correct, as has been shown by Baralli in the "Rassegna Gregoriana", 1905-8.此外,他们解释手稿迹象似乎并不准确,因为已经Baralli表明了在“评论报Gregoriana”,1905-8。 We may mention here also the theory of Riemann (Handbuch der Musikgeschichte, I, viii), who holds that plain chant has a regular rhythm based on the accents of the texts and forming two-bar phrases of four accents.我们也可以在这里提到的黎曼理论(Handbuch明镜Musikgeschichte,我,八),谁认为平原咏有一个定期的节奏就案文为基础的口音和腔调形成短语四两杆。 He transcribes the antiphon "Apud Dominum" in this way:他转录的唱和“这样Apud Dominum”:

This looks quite plausible.这看起来很有道理的。But he has to admit that this antiphon suits his purposes particularly, and when he comes to more complicated pieces the result is altogether impossible, and for the long final neumata of Graduals he has even to suppose that they were sung on an added Alleluia, a supposition which has no historical foundation.但他承认,这安提适合其用途,特别是,当他来到更加复杂件的结果是完全不可能的,而且从长远的Graduals最后neumata他甚至怀疑它们是,唱上一补充哈里路亚1假设它没有历史基础。 Possibly the melodies of Office antiphons, as they came from Syria, had originally some such rhythm, as Riemann states.也许办公室antiphons的旋律,因为它们来自叙利亚,原来一些这样的节奏,因为黎曼状态。But in the process of adaptation to various Latin texts and under the influence of psalmodic singing they must have lost it at an early period.但在适应过程中的各种拉丁文本和影响下的歌唱psalmodic他们必须已失去它在早期阶段。A kind of intermediate position, between the oratorists and the mensuralists is taken up by the school of Dom Mocquereau.甲种中间mensuralists立场之间的oratorists和采取行动的莫克罗学校的大教堂。With the mensuralists they state various time values ranging from the normal duration of the short note, which is that of a syllable in ordinary recitation, to the doubling of that duration.随着国家各项mensuralists他们从时间值的时间这是正常的短信,这对一个普通背诵音节,以持续时间增加一倍那种。 Their system is based on the agreement of the rhythmical indications in the manuscripts of St.他们的系统是基于圣协议的手稿在有节奏的迹象Gall and Metz, and recently Dom Beyssac has pointed out a third class of rhythmical notation, which he calls that of Chartres ("Revue Grégorienne", 1911, no. 1).高尔和梅斯,最近大教堂Beyssac指出了他所谓的第三类有节奏的符号,这是沙特尔(“歌剧Grégorienne”,1911年,没有。1)。 Moreover, they find their theories supported by certain proceedings in a large number of other manuscripts, as has been shown in the case of the "Quilisma" by Dom Mocquereau in the "Rassegna Gregoriana", 1906, nos.此外,他们发现他们的理论支持某些程序在其他大量的手稿,如已被证明的情况下,有关“Quilisma”的大教堂莫克罗在“评论报Gregoriana”,1906年,双数。 6-7.6-7。Their general theory of rhythm, according to which it consists in the succession of arsis and thesis, ie, one part leading forward and a second part marking a point of arrival and of provisional or final rest, is substantially the same as Riemann's (see his "System der musikalischen Rhythmik und Metrik", Leipzig, 1903), and is becoming more and more accepted.他们的一般理论的节奏,根据它即在于,继承了ARSIS组织和论文,其中的一部分带动和第二部分标记休息点到达和临时或最终的,实质上相同黎曼的(见他“系统明镜musikalischen Rhythmik北达科Metrik”,莱比锡,1903年),并正在成为越来越多的接受。But their special feature, which consists in placing the word accent by preference on the arsis, has not found much favour with musicians generally.但是他们的特殊功能,它ARSIS组织组成的优先配售的话的口音,并没有发现与音乐家普遍青睐。

FORMS表格

Plain chant has a large variety of forms produced by the different purposes of the pieces and by the varying conditions of rendering.平原咏有一个大的碎片多种用途的不同形式的生产条件和呈现的不同。A main distinction is that between responsorial and antiphonal chants.一个主要的区别是,对歌之间的唱和和圣歌。The responsorial are primarily solo chants and hence elaborate and difficult; the antiphonal are choral or congregational chants and hence simple and easy.主要的唱和独唱圣歌,因此拟订和困难;的对歌是合唱或公理圣歌,因而简单易用。Responsorial are the Graduals, Alleluia verses, and Tracts of the Mass, and the rsponses of the Office antiphons and their psalmody.唱和是Graduals,哈里路亚诗句,与群众的大港,其psalmody的rsponses该办公室antiphons和。 The Mass antiphons, especially the Introit and Communion, are a kind of idealized antiphon type, preserving the general simplicity of antiphons, but being slightly more elaborated in accordance with their being assigned from the beginning to a trained body of singers.地下antiphons,特别是Introit和共融,是一种理想的类型安提,维护antiphons一般简单,但稍更详细的规定与他们从一开始就被分配到身体训练的歌手。 The Offertories approach more closely to the responsorial style, which is accounted for by the fact that their verses were at an early period assigned to soloists, as explained above.该Offertories方式更密切合作,对唱和风格,这是由占上述事实,他们的诗被分配到期间在早期独唱,如上。Another distinction is that between psalmodic and what we may call hymnodic melodies.另一个区别是什么和我们之间psalmodic可致电hymnodic旋律。The psalmody is founded on the nature of the Hebrew poetry, the psalm form, and is characterized by recitation on a unison with the addition of melodic formulæ at the beginning and at the end of each member of a psalm verse.该psalmody是建立在希伯来诗歌的性质,形式的诗篇,并朗诵诗歌特点上保持高度一致的加法与诗篇的旋律的公式在开始和一个结束时的每个成员。 This type is most clearly recognized in the Office psalm tones, where only the melodic formula at the beginning of the second part of the verse is wanting.这种类型是最清楚地认识到想要在Office诗篇铃声,其中只有一部分的旋律在第二个公式开始的韵文。A slightly more ornamental form is found in the Introit psalmody, and a yet richer form in the verses of the Office responses.阿略多装饰形式被发现在该Introit psalmody,以及该厅的答复还诗句更丰富的形式。But the form can also still be recognized in the responsorial forms of the Mass and the body of the Office responses (see Pal. Mus., III).但是,表格也仍然被认可的对唱形式和群众的反应机构的办公室(见帕尔。亩。,三)。Of a psalmodic nature are various older chants, such as the tones for the prayers, the Preface, some of the earlier compositions of the Ordinary of the Mass, etc. The hymnodic chants, on the other hand, show a free development of melody; though there may be occasionally a little recitation on a monotone, it is not employed methodically. They are more like hymn tunes or folk songs.一个psalmodic性质不同的年龄较大的圣歌,如hymnodic咏色调的祈祷,前言,普通的一些较早的作品的质量,等手,另一方面,呈现出旋律的自由发展;尽管有可能会偶尔一有点单调朗诵时,它是没有工作有条不紊。更像是他们的歌曲赞美诗曲调或民间。 This style is used for the antiphons, both of the Office and of the Mass. Some of these show pretty regular melodic phrases, often four in number, corresponding like the lines of a hymn stanza, as, eg the "Apud Dominum" quoted above.这种风格用于antiphons,同时显示了这些办事处和马萨诸塞州的一些漂亮的定期旋律词组,往往四个号码,相应的一节赞美诗像行,因为,例如“Apud Dominum”上面引用。But oftentimes the correspondence of the melodic phrases, which is always of great importance, is of a freer kind.但通常情况下的重要性对应的旋律词组,这始终是伟大的,是一个更自由的形式。

A marked feature in plain chant is the use of the same melody for various texts. This is quite typical for the ordinary psalmody in which the same formula, the "psalm tone", is used for all the verses of a psalm, just as in a hymn or a folk song the same melody is used for the various stanzas.一个显着特点在平原咏是为各文本使用相同的旋律。这是很典型的普通psalmody,即同一公式,“诗篇音”,一个是用于所有的诗句诗篇就像在赞美诗或相同的民歌旋律是用于各种叙述。 But it is also used for the more complicated psalmodic forms.但它也可用于更复杂的psalmodic形式。Graduals, Tracts, etc., though oftentimes with considerable liberty.Graduals,大港等,虽然有的时候相当自由。 Again we find it in the case of the Office antiphons. In all these cases great art is shown in adapting the melodic type to the rhythmical structure of the new texts, and oftentimes it can be observed that care is taken to bring out the sentiments of the words.我们再次发现antiphons它在Office的案件的。在所有这些案件的案文是伟大的艺术表现在适应新的旋律类型结构的节奏,并因此常常可以看到,护理是采取带出感情的话。 On the other hand it seems that for the Mass antiphons each text had originally its own melody.另一方面,似乎为大众antiphons每个文本原先自己的旋律。The present Gradual, indeed, shows some instances where a melody of one Mass antiphon has been adapted to another of the same kind, but they are all of comparatively late date (seventh century and after).目前的渐进式,确实,表明某种情况下的一地下1旋律唱和已调整到另一个相同的,但他们毕竟起步较晚(七世纪)。Among the earliest examples are the Offertory, "Posuisti" (Common of a Martyr Non-Pontiff), taken from the Offertory of Easter Monday, "Angelus Domini", and the Introit, "Salve sancta Parens", modelled on "Ecce advenit" of the Epiphany.其中最早的例子是奉献,“Posuisti”(教宗的公共烈士非),采取从星期一复活节的奉献,“多米尼三钟经”,以及Introit,“药膏sancta小括号”,仿照“瞧advenit”主显节。 The adaptation of a melodic type to different texts seems to have been a characteristic feature of antique composition, which looked primarily for beauty of form and paid less attention to the distinctive representation of sentiment.该类型的旋律,以适应不同的文本,似乎一直是情绪的特征组成的古董,这主要是为看美的形式和独特的代表性不大注意的。 In the Mass antiphons, therefore, we may, in a sense, see the birth of modern music, which aims at individual expression.在大众antiphons,因此,我们可以在一定意义上说,看到出生的现代音乐表达,其目的是在个人。

AESTHETIC VALUE AND LITURGICAL FITNESS审美价值和礼仪健身

There is little need to insist on the æsthetic beauty of plain chant.有没有必要坚持了平原咏美感。Melodies, that have outlived a thousand years and are at the present day attracting the attention of so many artists and scholars, need no apology.旋律,这已经失去了一千多年,学者在今天的艺术家和吸引这么多的注意,不需要道歉。 It must be kept in mind, of course, that since the language of plain chant is somewhat remote from the musical language of to-day, some little familiarity with its idiom is required to appreciate its beauty.必须牢记,当然,由于语言的圣歌平原有点远离音乐语言,以天,一些熟悉的成语小的,是需要欣赏它的美丽。Its tonality, its rhythm, as it is generally understood, the artistic reserve of its utterance, all cause some difficulty and demand a willing ear.它的音调,它的节奏,因为它是一般的理解,其话语的艺术储备,都带来一些困难和需求的一个愿意听。Again it must be insisted that an adequate performance is necessary to reveal the beauty of plain chant.再次,必须坚持一要充分表现揭示咏美的平原。Here, however, a great difference of standard is required for the various classes of melodies.在这里,然而,一个很大的差别标准是需要的各种类别的旋律。While the simplest forms are quite fit for congregational use, and forms like the Introits and Communions are within the range of average choirs, the most elaborate forms, like the Graduals, require for their adequate performance highly trained choirs, and soloists that are artists.而最简单的形式是相当适合使用公理,和合唱团的形式,如Introits和圣餐就像在范围内平均合唱团的,最复杂的形式Graduals足够,需要为他们的表现训练有素,这是艺术家和独唱。 As to the liturgical fitness of plain chant it may be said without hesitation that no other kind of music can rival it.至于礼仪健身平原咏它可以毫不犹豫地说,没有其他类型的音乐可媲美的。Having grown up with the Liturgy itself and having influenced its development to a large extent, it is most suitable for its requirements.在长大成人后,与礼仪本身既影响其发展,在很大程度上,这是最适合其要求。The general expression of the Gregorian melodies is in an eminent degree that of liturgical prayer.一般在阳历的旋律表达的是一位杰出的程度,礼仪祈祷。Its very remoteness from modern musical language is perhaps an additional element to make the chant suitable for the purpose of religious music, which above all things should be separated from all mundane associations.它的音乐语言非常远离现代也许是一个额外的元素,使咏协会适合世俗目的的宗教音乐,其中最重要的事情都应该分开。 Then the various forms of plain chant are all particularly appropriate to their several objects.接着,平原咏各种形式都特别适合他们的几个对象。For the singing of the psalms in the Office, for instance, no other art form yet invented can be compared with the Gregorian tones.该办公室在唱的诗篇,例如,没有其他艺术形式尚未发明可与阳历铃声。The Falsi Bordoni of the sixteenth century are doubtless very fine, but their continuous use would soon become tedious, while the Anglican chants are but a poor substitute for the everlasting vigour of the plain chant formulæ.16世纪Falsi Bordoni的是无疑是好的,但他们的连续使用会很快成为乏味,而圣公会唱圣歌,不过是穷人的公式代替平原的永恒活力。No attempt even has been made to supply a substitute for the antiphons that accompany this singing of the psalms. At the Mass, the Ordinary, even in the most elaborate forms of the later Middle Ages, reflects the character of congregational singing.没有尝试,甚至已提供一个替代的antiphons伴随这一诗篇歌唱的群众。在,普通,甚至在中世纪晚期最详细的形式,反映了歌唱性质公理。 The Introit, Offertory, and Communion are each wonderfully adapted to the particular ceremonies they accompany, and the Graduals display the splendour of their elaborate art at the time when all are expected to listen, and no ceremony interferes with the full effect of the music.该Introit,奉献,并交流是伴随每一个奇妙适应他们的特殊仪式,并听取了Graduals时显示所有的辉煌,预计时间在他们的精心艺术,也没有仪式音乐干扰了完整的效果。

The revival of religious life about the middle of the nineteenth century gave the impetus for a renewed cultivation of plain chant.在19世纪复兴的宗教生活中给了约咏动力为平原重新种植。 The extended use and perfected rendering of plain chant, so ardently desired by Pope Pius X, will in its turn not only raise the level of religious music, and enhance the dignity of Divine worship, but also intensify the spiritual life of the Christian community.扩展的使用和完善咏呈现平原,如此强烈X期望的庇护,将反过来不仅提高宗教音乐水平,增强崇拜的神圣尊严,而且还加剧了基督教社会精神生活的。

Publication information Written by H. Bewerunge.出版信息贝韦龙格写由H.。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录由WGKofron。With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.随着第十二感谢圣母教堂,俄亥俄州阿克伦的天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

WAGNER, Einführung in die gregorianischen Melodien (Leipzig, 1911), first vol. also in English: Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies (London); GASTOUÉ, Les origines du chant romain (Paris, 1907);RIEMANN, Handbguch der Musikgeschichte, I (Leipzig, 1905); WEINMANN, History of Church Music (Ratisbon, 1910); MÖHLER AND GATES, Compendium der katholischen Kirchenmusik (Ravensburg, 1909); JACOBSTHAL, Die chromatische Alteration in liturgischen Gesang der abendländischen Kirche (Berlin, 1897); NIKEL, Geschichte der katholischen Kirchenmusik, I (Breslau, 1908); LEITNER, Der gottesdienstliche Volksgesang im jüdischen u.瓦格纳)Einführung在模具gregorianischen Melodien(莱比锡,1911年,第一个卷。也有英文:介绍阳历旋律(伦敦); GASTOUÉ,莱斯origines杜咏罗曼(巴黎,1907年);黎曼,Handbguch明镜Musikgeschichte,我(莱比锡,1905年);)韦因曼1910年,历史教会音乐(拉蒂斯邦;莫赫勒与门,汇编明镜katholischen Kirchenmusik(拉文斯堡,1909年); JACOBSTHAL,模具liturgischen chromatische改造格桑明镜abendländischen Kirche(柏林,1897年);尼克尔,历史馆德katholischen Kirchenmusik,我(布雷斯劳,1908年);莱特纳,德gottesdienstliche Volksgesang美国的IM jüdischenchristlichen Altertum (Freiburg, 1906); BEWERUNGE, The Vatican Edition of Plain Chant in Irish Ecclesiastical Record (Jan., May, and Nov., 1907); MOCQUEROU, Le nombre musical grégorien, I (Tournai, 1908); DECHEVRENS, Etudes de science musicale 93 vols., 1898); BENEDICTINES OF STANBROOK, A Grammar of Plainsong (Worcester, 1905); POTHIER, Les mélodies grégoriennes (Tournai, 1880); JOHNER, Neue Schule des gregorianischen Choralgesanges (Ratisbon, 1911); KIENLE, Choralschule (Freiburg, 1890); WAGNER, Elemente des gregorianischen Gesanges (Ratisbon, 1909); ABERT, Die Musikanschauung des Mittelalters (Halle, 1905). christlichen Altertum(弗赖堡,1906年);)贝韦龙格,1907年版和11月梵蒂冈平原咏在爱尔兰教会记录(1月,5月; MOCQUEROU,乐农布雷音乐grégorien,我(图尔奈,1908年); DECHEVRENS,练习曲科学世界音乐93代和第二卷。,1898);笃作者斯坦布鲁克,一个语法Plainsong(伍斯特市,1905年);波蒂埃,莱斯旋律grégoriennes(图尔奈,1880年);采用Johner,Neue舒勒德gregorianischen Choralgesanges(拉蒂斯邦,1911);基勒, Choralschule(弗赖堡,1890年);瓦格纳,Elemente德gregorianischen Gesanges(拉蒂斯邦,1909年);亚伯特,模具Musikanschauung德Mittelalters(哈雷,1905年)。


Gregorian Chant格里高利圣歌

Catholic Information天主教信息

The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of the early Middle Ages, but also later compositions (elaborate melodies for the Ordinary of the Mass, sequences, etc.) written in a similar style down to the sixteenth century and even in modern times.这个名字常常被作为同义词平原咏,不仅包括中世纪早期的教会音乐,但后来也组成(等详细旋律序列的普通的群众)的风格写在一个类似下到16世纪,甚至在现代倍。 In a stricter sense Gregorian chant means that Roman form of early plain chant as distinguished from the Ambrosian, Galliean, and Mozarabic chants, which were akin to it, but were gradually supplanted by it from the eighth to the eleventh century.在严格意义上阳历咏意味着早在罗马成为杰出的平原咏从安布罗,Galliean,莫扎拉布素歌和圣歌,其中类似,但也逐渐取代了它从第八至十一世纪。 Of the Gallican and Mozarabic chants only a few remains are extant, but they were probably closely related to the Ambrosian chant.在高卢和莫扎拉布素歌高唱只有少数仍然是现存的,但他们可能密切相关的安布罗诵经。Of the latter, which has maintained itself in Milan up to the present day, there are two complete manuscripts belonging to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries respectively, and a considerable number belonging to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.后者,保持了自己在米兰到今天,有两个完整的手稿属于第十三和第十四世纪分别,相当多的属于15世纪和16世纪。 An incomplete manuscript belongs to the twelfth century.一个不完整的手稿属于12世纪。It is at present in the British Museum and has been published in the fifth volume of the "Paléographie musicale".这是博物馆目前在英国,并已“出版Paléographie音乐节的第5卷的”。All these manuscripts contain the chants both for the Office and for the Mass. The Office chants are antiphons and responses, as in the Roman books. The Mass chants are Ingressa (corresponding to the Introit, but without psalm), Psalmellus (Gradual), Cantus (Tract), Offertory, Transitorium (Communion), and, in addition, two antiphons having no counterpart in the Gregorian Mass, one post Evangelium, the other the Confractorium.所有这些手稿包含的圣歌都没有诗篇的办公室和马萨诸塞州的办公室圣歌是antiphons和答复,如在罗马的书籍。圣歌的弥撒是Ingressa(相当于Introit,但),Psalmellus(渐进式),琅(道),奉献,Transitorium(圣餐),并在另外两个antiphons具有Confractorium没有对应的阳历地下,1个福音,其他。 There are, further, a few Alleluia verses and antiphons ante Evangelium.目前,进一步的,有几个哈里路亚诗句和antiphons事前福音。Musically it can easily be observed that the syllabic pieces are often simpler, the ornate pieces more extended in their melismata than in the Gregorian chant.音乐是很容易被观察到,往往是件简单的音节,华丽的作品更延长其咏melismata比公历。The Gregorian melodies, however, have more individuality and characteristic expression.阳历的旋律,然而,有更多的个性和特色的表达。Though it is very doubtful whether these Ambrosian melodies date back to the time of St. Ambrose, it is not improbable that they represent fairly the character of the chant sung in Italy and Gaul at the time when the cantilena romana superseded the earlier forms.虽然这是非常令人怀疑是否安布罗旋律追溯到圣刘汉铨时间,这不是不可能的,它们代表公平的形式字符的前面唱圣歌在意大利和高卢的时候坎蒂莱纳协会取代。 The frequent occurrence of cadences founded on the cursus at all events points to a time before the latter went out of use in literary composition, that is before the middle of the seventh century.时间在一至cursus频繁发生的节奏建立在所有活动点前,后者出去用文学的组成,即第七个世纪之前的中间。(See Gatard in "Dict. d'arch. chrét.", sv "Ambrosien (chant)" and Mocquereau, "Notes sur l'Influence de l'Accent et du Cursus toniques Latins dans le Chant Ambrosien" in "Ambrosiana", Milan, 1897.) The name Gregorian chant points to Gregory the Great (590-604), to whom a pretty constant tradition ascribes a certain final arrangement of the Roman chant. (见Gatard在“快译通。德拱。chrét。”希沃特“Ambrosien(唱)”和莫克罗,“注释大事纪影响德l'口音等杜Cursus toniques拉丁丹斯乐咏Ambrosien”中的“安布罗西亚”米兰,1897年。)的名称阳历咏点,格里高利大(590-604),以一个漂亮的人不断赋予传统的罗马咏某一个最后的安排。 It is first met in the writings of William of Hirschau, though Leo IV (847-855) already speaks of the cantus St. Gregorii.这是第一次见面的Hirschau威廉的著作,虽然利奥四(847-855)已Gregorii谈到了旋律圣。 The tradition mentioned was questioned first by Pierre Gussanville, in 1675, and again, in 1729, by George, Baron d'Eckhart, neither of whom attracted much attention.传统提到有人质疑首先由皮埃尔Gussanville,在1675年,又在1729年,乔治,男爵德艾克哈特,没有一个人备受关注。 In modern times Gevaert, president of the Brussels music school, has tried to show, with a great amount of learning, that the compilation of the Mass music belongs to the end of the seventh or the beginning of the eighth century.在近代吉华,校长在布鲁塞尔音乐,曾试图表明,有大量的学习,即编制的群众音乐属于本世纪末第七或第八开始的。His arguments led to a close investigation of the question, and at present practically all authorities, including, besides the Benedictines, such men as Wagner, Gastoué, and Frere, hold that the large majority of plain- chant melodies were composed before the year 600.他的论点导致的问题密切调查,目前几乎所有机构,包括,除本笃,Gastoué这样的人作为瓦格纳和弗里尔,认为咏旋律大部分平原,是600年之前组成。

The principal proofs for a Gregorian tradition may be summarized thus:为公历传统的主要证据可以归纳为:

The testimony of John the Deacon, Gregory's biographer (c. 872), is quite trustworthy.约翰证词执事,格雷戈里的传记作者(角872),是很值得信赖。Amongst other considerations the very modest claim he makes for the saint, "antiphonarium centonem. . . compilavit" (he compiled a patchwork antiphonary), shows that he was not carried away by a desire to eulogize his hero.其中温和索赔的其他考虑,很让他为圣人,“antiphonarium centonem。。。compilavit”(他做了一份东拼西凑应答轮唱歌),表明他并没有进行英雄走歌颂他的愿望。There are several other testimonies in the ninth century.有几个在第九世纪的其他证词。In the eighth century we have Egbert and Bede (see Gastoué, "Les Origines", etc., 87 sqq.). The latter, in particular, speaks of one Putta, who died as bishop in 688, "maxime modulandi in ecclesia more Romanorum peritus, quem a discipulis beati papae Gregorii didicerat".在第八世纪,我们有埃格伯特和比德(见Gastoué,“莱斯Origines”等,87时12 sqq。)。后者,特别是谈到一Putta 688,在主教死于谁,“马克西姆modulandi在埃克尔西亚更多Romanorum peritus,终止日期一discipulis贝亚蒂帕帕耶Gregorii didicerat“。In the seventh century we have the epitaph of Honorius, who died in 638 (Gastoué, op. cit., 93):在第七世纪,我们拥有同墓志铭的何诺,谁死在638(Gastoué。前。,93):

. ...divino in carmine pollens迪维努在花粉胭脂红

Ad vitam pastor ducere novit ovis广告vitam牧师ducere novit绵羊

. ................

Namque Gregorii tanti vestigia iustiNamque Gregorii坦蒂vestigia尤斯蒂

Dum sequeris culpiens meritumque geris达姆sequeris culpiens meritumque盖里什

-- that is: "Gifted with divine harmony the shepherd leads his sheep to life .- 这就是:“与神和谐资优羊的牧羊人带领他的生命。

. .for while following the footsteps of holy Gregory you have won your reward." According to this it was thought in Rome, less than forty years after the death of St. Gregory, that the greatest praise for a music-loving pope was to compare him to his predecessor Gregory.以下为神圣而奖励的脚步的格雷戈里你便得了你。“根据这一点,有人认为在罗马,不到40年后,格雷戈里死亡圣,最大的爱好教皇赞扬一个音乐是比较他他的前任格雷戈里。

The feasts known to have been introduced after St. Gregory use in the main melodies borrowed from older feasts.已知的节日引入了格雷戈里圣宴后使用借用老曲子为主。See the detailed proof for this in Frere's "Introduction".见“导言”的详细证明了这弗里尔的。

The texts of the chants are taken from the "Itala" version, while as early as the first half of the seventh century St. Jerome's correction had been generally adopted.在圣歌的案文取自“伊泰莱”版本,而早在十七世纪上半叶的圣杰罗姆的修正已被普遍采用。

The frequent occurrence in the plain-chant melodies of cadences moulded on the literary cursus shows that they were composed before the middle of the seventh century, when the cursus went out of use.频繁的文学cursus节奏塑造的发生在平原咏旋律,表明他们使用前,组成7世纪中叶,当cursus出去。

Publication information Written by H. Bewerung.出版信息Bewerung书面由H.。Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.转录由托马斯M巴雷特。Dedicated to Mother Angelica The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.献给母亲当归的天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1909.1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M.+约翰米Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教纽约

Bibliography书目

GEVAERT, Les Origines du Chant Liturgigue de l'Eglise Latins (Ghent, 1890); IDEM, La Melopee Antique dans le Chant de l'eglise Latine (Ghent, 1895); MORIN, Les Veritables Origines du Chant Gregorien (Maredsous, 1890); CAGIN, Un Mot sur l'Antiphonale Missarum (Solesmes, 1890); BRAMBACH, Gregorianisch (Leipzig, 1895, 2nd ed., 1901); FRERE, Introduction to the Graduale Sarisburiense (London, 1894); Paleographie musicale, IV; WAGNER, Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies, Pt.吉华集团,莱斯Origines杜咏Liturgigue德l'埃格斯拉丁人(根特,1890年);同上,喇Melopee仿古丹斯乐咏德l'利斯拉丁联盟(根特,1895年);桑色素,莱斯Veritables Origines杜咏Gregorien(Maredsous,1890年) ;恰恩,元越南贸易部大事纪Antiphonale Missarum(索雷姆,1890年);布拉姆巴奇,Gregorianisch(莱比锡,1895年,第二版。,1901年);弗里尔,介绍Graduale Sarisburiense(伦敦,1894年); Paléographie音乐节,第四;瓦格纳,介绍阳历旋律,铂。I (1901, English ed. by the Plainsong and Medieval Music Society, London, chapter xi); GASTOUE, Les origines du Chant Romain (Pris, 1907), pt.我(1901年,英语版。由Plainsong和中世纪音乐协会,伦敦,第十一章); GASTOUE,莱斯origines杜咏罗曼(国际刑法改革协会,1907年),角。II, i; WYATT, St. Gregory and the Gregorian Music (London, 1904).第二,我;悦,圣格雷戈里和阳历音乐(伦敦,1904年)。


Religious Song宗教歌曲

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Sacred Song)(圣宋)

Religious song is the general designation given to the numerous poetical and musical creations which have come into existence in the course of time and are used in connection with public Divine worship, but which are not included in the official liturgy on account of their more free and subjective character.宗教歌曲,是一般指定给众多的诗意和音乐创作崇拜已生效的过程中存在时间和神圣的市民所使用的连接的,但其中不包括在官方礼仪并考虑他们更多的自由主观性质。 It has its origin in the desire on the part of the faithful, a desire even encouraged but always guided and controlled by the Church, to participate actively in the public religious ceremonies of the Church.它有它起源于一个愿望的愿望,在部分信徒甚至鼓励,但总是引导和控制的教会,教会积极参加仪式的公众宗教。While the psalms were sung in traditional fashion during the early Eucharistic celebrations at the public meetings, and the love-feasts, or agapae, or the early Christians, there soon sprang up the custom of improvising songs, participated in by the whole assembly, which, though religious in burden, by their spontaneity and freedom stood in contrast to the psalms and other lyric parts of the Holy Scripture in use at the Eucharistic celebration.尽管诗篇传唱的传统方式的公开会议期间,早在庆祝圣体,和爱情的节日,或agapae,或早期的基督徒,但很快兴起,即兴的歌曲习俗,参加由全集会虽然宗教信仰自由的负担,站在他们的自发性和其他抒情部分庆祝圣体圣圣经在使用中的诗篇和对比。 These creations in course of time lost their spiritual character, dignity, and fervour as the institution which gave them birth and of which they formed an important part degenerated in character, departed from its original purpose, and became an occasion for pleasure and dissipation.时间在这过程中失去了他们的创造精神品格,尊严和热情消散的机构,给孩子和他们的一个重要组成部分退化字考,背离了其目的,并成为一个场合的乐趣。 The songs thus originated continued in use long after the institution had lost official sanction, and have become known in history by the name of the institution which gave rise to them.这样的歌曲源于长期使用后,继续在该机构已经失去了官方的认可,并已成为他们上升到了历史上著名的由该机构的名称。

As Christianity spread, there was an ever greater increase of spontaneous creations of this kind originating in the desire on the part of their authors to get nearer to the people and to convey to them by this means instruction as well as edification.随着基督教的传播,以及有一个不断熏陶增加意味着更多的指示,这自发的创作在这种原产于愿望的一部分,其作者以获得更接近人民,向他们转达了。 As early as the fourth century there had come into use so many chants, hymns, and songs, in various parts of the Christian world, and abuses and aberrations had become so general, that the Council of Laodicea (360-381) forbade the singing of any text not taken from Holy Scripture.早在4世纪出现了这么多的投入使用圣歌,赞美诗和歌曲,在基督教世界各地的,以及滥用和畸变已经变得如此普遍,即老底嘉理事会(360-381)不准唱歌从圣经不采取任何文字。 The hymns by St. Hilary and St. Ambrose of Milan (especially the latter) - which now form a part of the liturgy - had for their original purpose the instruction of the people by having them sing in striking metrical form and to vigorous melodies the fundamental truths of religion.礼仪-圣希拉里的赞美诗和圣刘汉铨米兰(尤其是后者) -现在的形式,一部分已经为他们的初衷人民指令通过让他们唱惊人的格律形式,并配上了有力宗教的基本道理。The sequences and tropes which came into existence with such exuberance in the early Middle Ages, while popular in form, sprang directly from the liturgy and always partook of its character.序列和比喻的时代来到中间的早期存在这种繁荣的,而流行的形式,直接从礼仪兴起,始终性格友人的。In those regions where the liturgical language remained at the same time the tongue of the people, at least in a modified form, participation in the official chant of the Church on the part of all was general for many centuries, and in consequence the influence of the spirit of the liturgy and its music prevented the early development of a more subjective religious poetry and music than was to be the case in later times in other regions.在这些地区,人们的礼仪语言仍然在同一时间,舌头的,至少在修改的形式,参与教会的官方咏上百年的一部分的所有许多与会者普遍,影响和后果的礼仪的精神和它的音乐和音乐阻止了早期发展的一个较主观的宗教诗歌是比在其他地区的情况在以后的时间。 This is probably the reason why in Italy, Spain, and the other Latin countries the religious song in the vernacular has never taken root.这可能是原因的根源在意大利,西班牙和拉美地区其他国家的宗教歌曲在白话从来没有采取。

While this was also true of France, for a considerable time, we find there an early and rapid growth of songs of every kind, bearing a strong national character.虽然这也是法国的实际时间,在相当长,我们发现有一首歌曲的各种早期快速增长,轴承一个强大的国家性质。Every important event in the domestic and religious life of the people soon found expression in song.每个人的宗教生活的一件大事,在国内很快发现歌曲中的表达。The festivals of the Church inspired them and became by these means in turn impressed upon the popular imagination.教会的节庆和手段启发他们又成了这些想象留下深刻印象后的流行。One of these characteristically French songs is the noël, or Christmas song, which had great vogue in the eleventh century, a vogue which reached its height in the seventeenth century and has survived in a certain form, ever to our day.这些各具特色的歌曲之一,法国是诺埃尔,或圣诞歌曲,其中有11世纪伟大的时尚,一时尚达其在17世纪的高度,并已形成了一定的存活,以往我们的一天。 The noël, the words of which were often paraphrases of liturgical texts, set to melodies naive and pastoral in character, was popular in every section of the kingdom and sung in every dialect in use.诺埃尔的话,其中往往性格释义,牧区的礼仪文本,设置天真的旋律,是流行在每一个王国条的规定,并使用在每一个方言演唱。 Processions, pilgrimages, and especially the mystery and miracle plays gave rise to many forms of songs.游行,朝圣,尤其是神秘和奇迹播放的歌曲引起了许多形式。The troubadours in the south and trouveres in the north exerted great influence on the development and propagation not only of secular but of religious songs as well.宗教歌曲的troubadours在南亚和trouveres在世俗的,但北方施加重大影响的发展和传播,不仅为好。Among the many forms in use was the complaint, a song in narrative form of which the "Story of the Resurrection" (O filii et filiae) is a prominent type. The pastorale was another form which flourished from the twelfth to the sixteenth century, sometimes having religious texts and then again voicing secular sentiments.在表格中使用的许多被投诉,一首歌曲的形式叙述其中的复活“的故事”(海外filii等filiae)是一个突出的类型。世纪的田园是另一个形式的蓬勃发展而从第12至16,有时有宗教经文,然后再次表达世俗情感。 With the sixteenth century began the custom of substituting secular airs in use at the time for the melodies to which the sacred texts of the noëls, complaints, etc., had thus far been sung; they were not only modelled on the Gregorian chant but had a distinctively niave simple character.随着16世纪开始的旋律自定义为取代世俗摆架子时间使用到的投诉等,经文的诺尔斯,迄今已唱,他们不仅是仿照阳历咏但一个鲜明niave简单的字符。 This substitution sometimes involved even the partial taking over of the profane text as well.这替代了部分有时甚至涉及到文本以上的亵渎,以及。This was the beginning of the decadence which finally, in some places, reached the point where chansons de galanterie, or love songs, were completely transformed into cantiques, or religious songs, by merely substituting the name of the Blessed Virgin or that of Jesus Christ, for the name of the beloved one mentioned in the original.这是歌曲开始的衰落,最终,在一些地方,达到宗教的或点香颂德galanterie,爱情的歌曲,或者是完全转化为cantiques,只是取代了圣母的名字的祝福或基督耶稣,原来的名称为中提到的一个心爱的。 The modern French cantique, which has taken the place of the traditional religious songs, is sentimental, quasi-military, and savours of the world, plainly showing the influence of the favourite French musical form, the opera.现代法国cantique,这首歌曲的地方已采取了传统的宗教,是感性的,半军事,世界品味的,赤裸裸地显示形式的影响最喜欢的法国音乐剧,歌剧。

On account of their total unfamiliarity with the Latin language, the Germanic races were prevented from participating in the liturgical chant introduced with Christianity itself by their first missionaries.至于语文占了他们总不熟悉拉丁,日耳曼族被阻止参与由传教士在他们的第一个咏介绍礼仪与基督教本身。At most they joined in singing the Kyrie Eleison, and that in the form of a refrain.充其量他们一起唱凯里Eleison,而在避免形成一个。This primitive practice became so general that it survived long after songs in the vernacular had come into universal use.这种原始的做法变得如此普遍,它存活很久以后在歌曲的白话文已经开始普遍使用。The latter would frequently end with the above invocation, which was gradually abbreviated into "Kyrieleis".后者将经常与上述调用结束,这是逐步简称为“Kyrieleis”。The songs or hymns in the vernacular were themselves called later on "Kyrieleis" and "Leisen".白话的歌曲或赞美诗的人本身在所谓的“后来”Kyrieleis“和Leisen”。The word "lay", which designates a vast song literature of a whole subsequent period, is derived from "Leisen".这个词的“外行”,而指定一个整体后期间大量宋代文学的,是来自“Leisen”。To wean their neophytes from pagan beliefs and practices, the early missionaries were wont to make use of melodies familiar to the people, apply Christian texts to them, and turn them into effective means of instruction.要戒掉和做法的新手从异教信仰,早期的传教士惯于利用熟悉的旋律作,对人民,对他们申请的基督教文本,并打开指令进入有效的手段。 This practice soon led the naturally emotional and subjective race to give vent to their growing religious feelings in words and melodies of their own invention, so that as early as the latter part of the ninth century words in the vernacular were mixed with those of liturgical chants, the former forming a sort of glossary to the latter.这一做法很快导致的自然情感和主观的比赛来宣泄他们的宗教感情日益自己的发明在自己的文字和旋律的,因此早在世纪后期的白话字第九届混合与圣歌的礼仪,前形成一个词汇表样的后者。 From this time on there is a constant growth in songs of all kinds in honour of Jesus Christ, the Blessed Virgin, the saints, inspired by the great feasts; songs called forth by national events, the Crusades, and, as elsewhere, processions and pilgrimages, many of them created and all of them fostered by the minnesingers and poets of the day.从这个时间上有一个伟大的节日,是不断增长的鼓舞,歌曲在各种荣誉,耶稣基督,圣母圣人;歌曲叫,提出的全国性活动,十字军东征,和其他地方一样,游行,朝圣,其中许多人的创造和培育他们都是每天由minnesingers的和诗人的影响。 The texts in the vernacular and the melodies originated from the earliest days of Christianity up to the Reformation in Germanic countries; they were usually sung by the whole congregation, and belong to what is most sturdy and profound in sentiment and expression in this field.国家法规在白话和日耳曼天的旋律从最早起源于基督教在对改革;他们通常由整个演唱会众,属于什么是最坚固,在这个领域,表达深刻的感情。 The fact that some 1500 melodies, antedating the Reformation, have come down to us gives us some idea of the hold the religious song had upon the people.事实上,一些美国1500旋律,将日期提前的改革,都可以归结为给我们一些人思想的宗教歌曲举行了呼吁。The Reformers, like the Arians of the fourth century, availed themselves of the love for song on the part of the people, and converted it into an insidious and powerful means for the dissemination of their erroneous doctrines.第四世纪的改革者,像白羊座的,利用了歌曲本身的热爱,对市民的一部分,它和转换理论的传播他们的错误成为一个阴险和强有力的手段。 The impetus thus given to singing exclusively in the vernacular by the leaders of Protestantism was so widespread and powerful that it soon reacted upon those who remained loyal to the faith of their fathers.这样的动力完全交给唱新教领导人由白话是如此广泛和强大,它的反应很快父亲在那些谁仍忠于自己的信仰。 It resulted not only in the creation of a large number of new hymn books but also in the custom, which has not yet been rooted up in all places, of singing in German during liturgical services.其结果不仅在创造新的赞美诗书籍大量的,而且在自定义,它尚未扎根在各个地方的服务,在德国期间的歌唱礼仪。

A number of influences have contributed to the degeneration of the hymn in the vernacular which reached its limit in the eighteenth century.甲数的影响作出了贡献,在变性赞歌的白话达18世纪的限制。The most potent factors in its decay were the growth of Rationalism affecting even those within the fold and the ever-increasing ascendancy of secular music, resulting in the seventeenth century in the abandonment of the Gregorian modes, upon which practically all hymn melodies had been modelled, and the substitution of the modern keys.其衰减的因素是最有力的理性增长影响的世俗音乐,甚至那些在倍增长优势和不断,已造成模仿17世纪的放弃阳历模式,在其中几乎所有的圣歌旋律和钥匙替代现代。 With the revival of the Catholic spirit at the beginning of the nineteenth century came a return to early ideals.随着世纪复兴天主教的精神开始在19来一个理想的早日恢复。Poets and musicians of the right stamp, both clerical and lay, inspired by the spirit of the Church and later fostered by the power agency of the Saint Cecilia Society, have restored to the Catholic people of German-speaking countries a song literature in the vernacular tongue, which is as rich in variety as it is sturdy in its expression of faith.诗人和音乐家邮票的权利,无论文书奠定,教会的精神鼓舞下,后来的社会培育的圣锡西利亚权力机构的,必须恢复到葡语国家的天主教德国人一首歌曲在白话文学舌头,这是品种丰富,因为它是在其坚固的信仰表达。 In France a vigorous effort is being made, as part of the Gregorian restoration, to reconstruct a sound and wholesome taste among the people by the republication and propagation of proses, rhythmes, sequences, and other chants in honour of Jesus Christ, the Blessed Virgin, the saints, or the church festivals, written in one or other of the Gregorian modes, and in vogue during the ages of simple and lively faith.在法国一个正在作出积极努力,为恢复部分阳历,重建一个和繁殖的散文声音的再版和有益健康的味道经由人民,rhythmes,序列和其他圣母的圣歌为了纪念耶稣基督, ,圣人,或教堂的节日,在一个书面或其他方式的阳历,并以简单生动的信仰和年龄的时尚中。Competent church musicians and Gregorianists are successfully creating similar new melodies to standard texts.主管教堂音乐家和Gregorianists成功地创造新的旋律类似的标准文本。

Their use is becoming widespread.它们的使用越来越普遍。

There is very little trace of the existence in early times in most English-speaking countries of religious songs in the vernacular.很少有微量的存在于早期白话在大多数国家英语为母语的宗教歌曲。The missionaries sent from Rome in the sixth century introduced the liturgical chant into the British Isles and seem to have made but little effort to utilize any characteristically national melodies already existing.传教士从罗马发出了,但在进入本世纪第六届咏介绍了礼仪英伦三岛,似乎没有什么任何努力,利用现有的国家特有的旋律。 Unlike their colleagues in regions across the Channel, the gleemen, harpers, and bards of old continued to cultivate chiefly the secular field, and their productions and activity had not much influence on the creation and development of a national religious song literature, nor does Celtic musical and poetical culture seem to have been directed into that channel.不像哈佩斯他们gleemen同事在地区横渡英吉利海峡时,和游吟诗人老将说道培养主要是世俗的领域,其产品和活动并没有多大影响宋代文学的创作和发展宗教的国家,也没有凯尔特音乐与诗的文化似乎已进入该通道指示。 While polyphonic music had attained a highly flourishing state before the sixteenth century, it was only at the time of the Reformation that singing in the vernacular assumed greater importance in England.虽然和弦音乐达到了16世纪前的一个高度繁荣的国家,它只是在英国时间的改革是在唱白话承担更大的重要性。As in the other Protestant countries the song in the vernacular became a great factor in British national worship.正如其他新教国家的白话歌曲在成为一个伟大的国家崇拜的因素在英国。On account of most unpropitious conditions during several hundred years English-speaking Catholics had created but very little of any permanent value until, about the middle of the last century, a new era was inaugurated by religious poets like Faber and Newman. Unfortunately their lyrics have as yet seldom found adequate musical interpretation.论条件,不利于中占大多数在几百年里讲英语的天主教徒创造了价值,但非常小的任何永久,直到约时代中的最后一个世纪,一个新成立法贝尔是纽曼和宗教诗人一样。可惜他们的歌词有尚很少找到适当的音乐诠释。 What is true of transatlantic English-speaking Catholics holds good in a greater degree in the United States of America.什么是真正的跨大西洋英语为母语的天主教徒拥有良好的美中更大程度的美国。Partly on account of the scarcity of suitable and worthy hymns in the English vernacular and partly on account of incompetency on the part of those who undertake to supply the deficiency, the taste of the people has been formed by trivial and superficial tunes, generally echoes of the opera, the shallow popular air, and even the drinking song set to sentimental and often trivial texts.部分有价值的赞美诗帐户合适的稀缺和在英文白话,一部分不称职的帐户上的不足部分谁承担的供应,人们的口味已经形成了琐碎和肤浅的曲调,一般的回声戏里,肤浅的流行空气,饮水,甚至伤感歌曲设置为文本,而且往往微不足道。 Of late years, however, several collections of hymns in the vernacular, indicating a return to what is best in religious poetry and in popular sacred song, have come into existence and are gradually making their way into general use.近来年,然而,一些收藏的赞美诗在白话,显示返回什么是最好的宗教诗歌和流行神圣的歌曲,已经进入存在,并逐步使他们普遍使用的方式进入。

Publication information Written by Joseph Otten.出版信息奥滕撰稿约瑟夫。Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.转录由托马斯M巴雷特。Dedicated to Christian musicians and composers The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.致力于基督教音乐家和作曲家的天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

WEINMANN, History of Church Music (New York, 1910); BAUMKER, Das deutsche Kirchenlied in seinen Singweisen (Freiburg, 1901); WAGNER, Einfuhrung in die gregorianischen Melodien (Fribourg, 1901); TIERSOT, Melodies populaires des provinces de France, noëls francais, etc. (Paris, 1894); DUCHESNE, Christian Worship (London, 1903).韦因曼)历史圣乐(纽约,1910;)鲍姆克,达斯在德国Kirchenlied seinen Singweisen(弗赖堡,1901年,瓦格纳)Einfuhrung在模具gregorianischen Melodien(弗里堡,1901年; TIERSOT,旋律Populaires的德诺尔斯省份法国,法兰西等(巴黎,1894年);杜欣,基督教崇拜(伦敦,1903年)。


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