Presbyterianism, Presbyterian长老会

General Information一般信息

Presbyterianism is the form of church government in which elders, both lay people and ministers, govern. The name derives from the Greek word presbuteros, or "elder." 长老会是,形式的教会,政府在其中的长者,都躺在人民和部长管辖。长辈的名字源于希腊字presbuteros,或“。”Approximately 50 million Protestants around the world practice Presbyterian church government.大约有5000万世界各地的实践新教徒长老教会的政府。Substantial numbers of Presbyterians are found in Scotland, Northern Ireland, England and its former colonies, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Hungary, France, South Africa, Indonesia, and Korea.长老会大量的数字被发现在苏格兰,北爱尔兰,英国及其前殖民地,荷兰,瑞士,匈牙利,法国,南非,印度尼西亚和韩国。 The largest Presbyterian body in the United States is the 3 million - member Presbyterian Church, formed in 1983 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church and the (Southern) Presbyterian Church in the United States.最大的美国长老会在身体的是300万-长老教会的成员,成立于1983年由美国和工会的长老教会(南区)长老教会在美国的国家。 A number of other Presbyterian and Reformed denominations in America trace their origins to Europe or to secessions from the larger American bodies. (The older name Reformed Churches remains prevalent among groups of continental European origin; "Presbyterian" is generally used by churches of British origin.)一个美国一些其他教派的长老和改革追踪它们的起源到欧洲或美国secessions从较大的机构。(老名归正起源仍然盛行欧洲大陆之间的群体,“长老”是普遍使用的原产地英国的教会。)

Presbyterianism emerged in the 16th century Reformation as an effort by Protestant reformers to recapture the form as well as the message of the New Testament church. Lutherans were content to adapt the Roman Catholic episcopacy and medieval connections between church and state to their Protestant needs. 长老会出现在16世纪的新约教会的努力改革作为新教改革者,夺回形式作为以及留言的。路德会满足于适应罗马天主教主教和新教需要中世纪教会与国家之间的联系他们。 Other reformers in Switzerland, the Netherlands and south Germany were more radical.其他改革者在瑞士,荷兰和德国南部更为激进。They noted that in the New Testament "elders" had been appointed to rule the early churches (Acts 14:23) and that the term elder had been used interchangeably with the word bishop, Greek episcopos (Acts 20:17, 28; Titus 1:5 - 7).他们指出,在新约“长老”已委任统治,28月初教会(徒14:23),而长期的长老已20:17被互换使用的(使徒行字主教,希腊episcopos;蒂图斯1 :5 - 7)。These reformers argued that although a hierarchy among elders could be observed in New Testament times (1 Tim. 5:17), it was not the sharp division between bishop and priest (a contraction of presbyter) that characterized the Roman Catholic church.这些改革者认为,虽然一长老等级之间可以观察到在新约时代(1添。5:17),这不是和牧师尖锐分工主教(一长老收缩)的特点的罗马天主教教堂。

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From his study of the Bible, John Calvin, the Reformed leader in Geneva, concluded that Jesus Christ himself is the sole ruler of the church and that he exercises that rule through four kinds of officers: preachers (to exhort, admonish, and encourage), doctors or teachers (to instruct), deacons (to aid the poor), and lay elders (to guide and discipline the church). Calvin felt that church and state were parallel authorities, sovereign in their own spheres, which should aid each other.从他,学习圣经,约翰卡尔文,领导人在日内瓦缔结的改革耶稣基督自己是教会唯一的统治者,他练习传教士(该规则通过四种人员:勉励,告诫和鼓励) ,医生或教师(指导),执事(扶贫),奠定长老(以指导和纪律的教会)。卡尔文认为,教会和国家是平行机构,其他主权在自己的领域,它应该帮助每个。 Today the Church of Scotland is the only Presbyterian body that retains even the vestige of a governmental connection.今天,苏格兰教会的长老会是唯一的机构,甚至连接痕迹保留的政府。

When Calvin's Genevan church order was carried to Scotland by John Knox, it evolved into the Presbyterianism that, in essentials, is still practiced today. Individual local congregations elect their own elders, including the minister, who together govern the church as a session (or consistory in certain Reformed churches). 当加尔文的日内瓦人教会秩序进行约翰诺克斯到苏格兰,它演变成的长老,在必需品,一直沿用至今。个别地方教会选出自己的长辈,包括部长,谁共同治理(或教会作为一个会话在某些归正教会康西斯托)。 The minister (or teaching elder), who is called by the local church and who usually serves as moderator of the session, is, however, ordained and disciplined by the next level of church organization, the presbytery (or classis), which administers groups of churches in one area.这位部长(或教学长老),谁是所谓的由当地教会和谁通常作为会议主持人的,但是,受戒和团体纪律,其中管理下一级的教会组织,长老会(或底盘),教会在一个地区。

Presbyteries select delegates to regional synods, which in turn select representatives to the General Assembly (or General Synod), a national body, the final judiciary of the church.Presbyteries选择地区主教会议的代表,从而选择代表大会(或总议会)是一个国家机构,教会最终的司法机构。 Traditionally, presbyteries, synods, and general assemblies have consisted of equal numbers of ordained ministers and lay elders.传统上,presbyteries,主教会议,和一般集会有包括受戒部长人数相等的和非法律专业的长者。From the precedent set by the Scottish Barrier Act of 1697, Presbyterians have made major changes only after approving them in two different general assemblies and in a majority of individual presbyteries.从1697年法的先例,由苏格兰障碍,长老会作出个别presbyteries重大变化后,才批准他们在不同的两个一般集会,在多数。

The Westminster Assembly, held in London at the behest of the English Parliament (1643 - 49), produced doctrinal and ecclesiastical standards that have been foundational for Presbyterians.威斯敏斯特大会在伦敦举行)的遗志英国议会(1643至1649年,生产的教义和教会长老标准,曾一度是基础。 The Westminster Confession, along with the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, made Calvinism teachable to the English.威斯敏斯特供述,随着大短要理问答,使加尔文受教于英国。Even recent Presbyterians who have modified the theology of Westminster in many particulars continue to honor its doctrinal pronouncements.即使最近谁修改了威斯敏斯特长老会在许多细节的神学教义继续履行其声明。Westminster's Form of Church Government and Directory for Public Worship set standards for ecclesiastical practice.威斯敏斯特的目录中的政府和公共教会崇拜执业标准设置为教会。Although the Westminster documents were never adopted in England itself, they became official standards in Scotland and have shaped Presbyterianism in America and other English - speaking areas of the world.虽然从未威斯敏斯特文件本身通过在英格兰,苏格兰,他们成为正式标准,并已形成和长老会在美国其他英文-世界上地区。

Presbyterian worship is simple and orderly.长老崇拜是简单而有序。It revolves around preaching from the Scriptures. Presbyterian hymnody is indebted to the Calvinistic tradition of singing paraphrased Psalms. Two sacraments are recognized: the Lord's Supper, which is usually celebrated monthly or quarterly; and baptism, which is administered to the infant children of church members as a sign of God's covenant of mercy. The discipline of the local church is not as rigorous as in Calvin's Geneva.它围绕圣经鼓吹的。长老会歌唱赞美诗是感激转述诗篇加尔文传统的唱歌。 两个圣礼,是公认的:主的晚餐,通常是庆祝每月或每季度和洗礼,这是管理的儿童教会的婴儿怜悯的成员,作为一个标志公约神的。教会纪律的地方,是不是严格,在卡尔文的日内瓦。 It is, nonetheless, still the responsibility of the session, whose decisions, as also those of presbyteries, can be appealed to synods and the General Assembly.这是,尽管如此,仍然是本届会议的决定的责任,他们,这也是presbyteries那些,可以上诉到主教会议和大会。

Mark A Noll标志着诺尔

Bibliography 书目
JHS Burleigh, The Church History of Scotland (1961); JH Leith, An Introduction to the Reformed Tradition (1977).金华盛伯利,苏格兰教会历史(1961年);家雷斯,安)介绍改革传统(1977年。LA Loetscher, The Broadening Church (1954) and A Brief History of the Presbyterians (1984); JT McNeill, The History and Character of Calvinism (1967); J Melton, Presbyterian Worship in America (1967); JH Smylie, American Presbyterians (1985); ET Thompson, Presbyterians in the South (1963 - 73); LJ Trinterud, The Forming of an American Tradition: A Reexamination of Colonial Presbyterianism (1949); BB Warfield, Assembly at Westminster (1931)洛杉矶洛茨彻,教会的扩大(1954年)和A,1984)的长老会简史(;托德麦克尼尔,加尔文主义的历史和特征(1967年); J梅尔顿,在美国长老会崇拜(1967年); JH史密利,美国长老会( 1985年);东部汤普森,Trinterud长老会在南(1963 - 73);洛伊,在美国形成一个传统:一)重新审视殖民长老会(1949年,BB心跳沃菲尔德,西敏寺大会(1931年)


Catholic Information天主教信息

Presbyterianism in a wide sense is the system of church government by representative assemblies called presbyteries, in opposition to government by bishops (episcopal system, prelacy), or by congregations (congregationalism, independency), in its strict sense, Presbyterianism is the name given to one of the groups of ecclesiastical bodies that represent the features of Protestantism emphasized by Calvin.长老会在广泛意义上是prelacy系统的教会,政府由议会presbyteries呼吁,在政府的反对主教(主教系统),或由教会(公理,独立性)的意识,严格,长老会的名称是给定一个由加尔文的新教团体代表强调教会机构的功能。 Of the various churches modelled on the Swiss Reformation, the Swiss, Dutch, and some German are known as the Reformed; the French as Huguenots; those in Bohemia and Hungary by their national names; the Scotch, English, and derived churches as Presbyterian.瑞士宗教改革的教会的各种模型,瑞士,荷兰和德国的一些改革被称为;法国作为胡格诺派,匈牙利和波西米亚人在他们的国家名称;苏格兰,英国,和长老教会所得。 There is a strong family resemblance between all these churches, and many of them have given their adherence to an "Alliance of the Reformed Churches throughout the World holding the Presbyterian System", formed in 1876 with the special view of securing interdenominational cooperation in general church work.所有这些有一个很强的家庭教会之间的相似性,并给予他们很多的“联盟世界的归正throughout恪守举行长老会制度”,1876年形成与一般教会的独特视角中的安全教派间的合作工作。


The most important standards of orthodox Presbyterianism are the "Westminster Confession of Faith" and "Catechisms" of 1647 (see FAITH, PROTESTANT CONFESSIONS OF).标准的正统长老会最重要的是“西敏寺招供的信仰”和“要理问答1647年的”(见信,新教自白)。Their contents, however, have been more or less modified by the various churches, and many of the formulas of subscription prescribed for church officials do not in practice require more than a qualified acceptance of the standards.其内容,但已或多或少修改各教会,许多公式和订阅的官员规定的做法并不为教会在需要超过一个标准的合格验收。 The chief distinctive features set forth in the Westminster declarations of belief are Presbyterian church government, Calvinistic theology, and absence of prescribed forms of worship.首席鲜明的特点提出的声明是对信仰的威斯敏斯特长老教会,政府,加尔文神学,崇拜没有形式的规定。

A. Polity答:政体

Between the episcopal and congregational systems of church government, Presbyterianism holds a middle position, which it claims to be the method of church organization indicated in the New Testament.公理系统之间教会的主教和政府,长老会拥有一个中间位置,它声称是该组织的方法教会在新约表示。On the one hand, it declares against hierarchical government, holding that all clergymen are peers one of another and that church authority is vested not in individuals but in representative bodies composed of lay (ruling) elders and duly ordained (ruling and teaching elders).一方面,它宣称反对层次的政府,认为所有的神职人员都是对等的另一种和教会权力属于个人,但不是在(执政奠定代表机构组成的)长老和正式受戒(执政党和教学长者)。 On the other hand, Presbyterianism is opposed to Congregational independency and asserts the lawful authority of the larger church.另一方面,长老会反对公理的独立性,并声称大教会的合法权力。The constitutions of most of the churches provide for four grades of administrative courts: the Session, which governs the congregation; the Presbytery, which governs a number of congregations within a limited territory; the Synod, which governs the congregations within a larger territory; and the General Assembly, which is the highest court.教会的宪法大部分为四个级别的行政法庭:本会期内,该管的聚集;的长老,管辖境内有限的数字会众,在世界主教会议,其中较大的领土管辖内的教会;及大会,这是最高法庭。 Generally the church officers include, besides the pastor, ruling elders and deacons.一般来说,教会人员包括,除了牧师,长老和执事的裁决。These officers are elected by the congregation, but the election of the pastor is subject to the approval of the presbytery.这些人员是民选的,教会,但牧师当选是受长老会批准的。The elders with the pastor as presiding officer form the session which supervises the spiritual affairs of the congregation.众长老与牧师作为主持人的形式会议的精神事务负责监督。The deacons have charge of certain temporalities, and are responsible to the session.执事有一定的时间性负责,并负责会议。

B. Theology二神学

The Westminster Confession gives great prominence to the question of predestination, and favours the infralapsarian view of reprobation.西敏寺供认提供极大的宿命突出的问题,并赞成的非难infralapsarian看法。It teaches the total depravity of fallen man and the exclusion of the non-elect from the benefits of Christ's atonement.它告诉我们的赎罪的总堕落堕落的人的排斥基督和福利的非当选的。But within the last thirty years there has been a tendency to mitigate the harsher features of Calvinistic theology, and nearly all the important Presbyterian churches have officially disavowed the doctrines of total depravity and limited redemption.但是,在过去的30年里一直倾向于减轻加尔文神学更严厉的功能,几乎所有重要的长老教会已经正式否认限制赎回的学说和整体堕落。 Some have even gone so far as to state a belief that all who die in infancy are saved.有些人甚至不惜以国家保存的信念,所有婴儿都死在谁。Such passages of the standards as proclaim the necessity of a union between Church and State and the duty of the civil magistrate to suppress heresy have also to a great extent been eliminated or modified.这些通道的标准作为裁判官宣布了工会的必要性民间教会与国家之间的职责和镇压异端也很大程度上被消除或修改。 In its doctrine on the Sacraments the Presbyterian Church is thoroughly Calvinistic.在其圣礼学说对长老教会是彻底加尔文。 It holds that baptism is necessary to salvation not as a means (necessitate medii), but only as something that has been commanded (necessitate prœcepti).它认为,洗礼是必要的(必要medii得救不是作为一种手段),但只作为东西已经命令(必要prœcepti)。 It teaches that Christ is present in the Lord's Supper not merely symbollically, as Zwingli held, nor, on the other hand, substantially, but dynamically or effectively and for believers only.它教导我们,基督是目前在主的晚餐的不仅仅是symbollically,为茨温利举行,也没有,另一方面,很多,但是,动态或有效和对信徒只。

C. Worship三崇拜

No invariable forms are recognized in the conduct of public services. Directories of worship have been adopted as aids to the ordering of the various offices but their use is optional.没有不变的形式确认了公共服务行为。崇拜的目录下,已是艾滋病通过可选的订购各办事处,但它们的使用。The services are generally characterized by extreme simplicity and consist of hymns, prayers, and readings from the Scriptures.这些服务一般特点是简单和极端,包括圣歌祷告,读,从经文。In some of the churches instrumental music is not allowed nor the use of any other songs than those contained in the Book of Psalms.在音乐的一些教会的工具,也不是不允许使用的诗篇中书所载的任何其他人的歌曲。The communion rite is administered at stated intervals or on days appointed by the church officers.共融仪式在规定的时间间隔是管理人员或任命的教堂天。Generally the sermon is the principal part of the services.一般来说,布道,是服务的主体。In Europe and in some American churches the minister wears a black gown while in the pulpit.在欧洲和美国一些教会牧师穿着黑色礼服,而在讲台上。Of recent years certain Presbyterian missionary societies in the United States and Canada have used a form of Mass and other services according to the Greek liturgy in their missions for Ruthenian immigrants近年来的一些长老会差会在美国和加拿大使用了服务质量和其他形式的根据希腊代表团的鲁塞尼亚移民在他们的礼仪


The Presbyterian, like the Reformed churches, trace their origin to Calvin.像长老教会的改革,跟踪其原产地为卡尔文。The claims to historical continuity from the Apostles through the Waldenses and the Scotch Culdees have been refuted by Presbyterian scholars.从历史延续的使徒声称通过瓦勒度派和苏格兰卡尔迪斯学者驳斥了长老会。It was in the ecclesiastical republics of Switzerland that the churches holding the Presbyterian polity were first established.正是在共和国瑞士的教会,教会的长老会举行首次成立政体。John Knox, who had lived with Calvin at Geneva, impressed upon the Scottish Reformation the ideas of his master, and may be regarded as the father of Presbyterianism as distinct from the Reformed churches.约翰诺克斯,谁曾住在一起加尔文在日内瓦,苏格兰大师留下深刻印象后,他的改革思想,并可能被视为长老会教堂的父亲截然不同的改革。 In 1560 a Confession of Faith which he drew up was sanctioned by the Scotch Parliament, which also ratified the jurisdiction exercised by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church.在1560年1信仰的自白,他制定了在教会的苏格兰议会批准,这也是长老大会的批准行使管辖权的。This was the beginning of the Kirk or the Scotch Establishment.这是建国初期的柯克或苏格兰。There have been many divisions among the Presbyterians of Scotland, but today nearly all the elements of Presbyterianism in that country have been collected into two great churches: the Established Church and the United Free Church (see SCOTLAND, ESTABLISHED CHURCH OF).有许多的苏格兰长老会之间的分歧,但今天几乎所有国家的内容中,长老会已经(收集到两个伟大的教堂:建立教会和美国看到苏格兰自由教会,建立教会作者)。 After Scotland the important centres of Presbyterianism are England, Ireland, Wales, the British colonies, and the United States.苏格兰长老会后的重要中心是英国,爱尔兰,威尔士,英国殖民地和美国。

A. England答:英国

There was a strong Presbyterian tendency among certain English Reformers of the sixteenth century.有一个强大的16世纪长老会倾向一定的英语改革者的。For a time men like Cranmer, Latimer, and Hooper would have reconstructed the church after the manner of Geneva and Zurich but during the reign of Elizabeth the "prelatical" system triumphed and was firmly maintained by the sovereign.对于克兰默,拉蒂默一时间男人都喜欢,和奥佩尔将重建日内瓦和苏黎世的教堂后的方式,但在伊丽莎白统治的“prelatical”制度取得了胜利,坚定地维护了主权。 This policy was opposed by the Puritans who included both Presbyterians and Congregationalists.这项政策是由清教徒反对谁既包括长老会和公理。Towards the close of Elizabeth's reign, the Presbyterians secretly formed an organization out of which grew in 1572 the first English presbytery.对伊丽莎白统治结束的,在长老会秘密成立了一个组织中有长老增长在1572年的第一个英文。During the reigns of James I and Charles I the struggle between the Established Church and Presbyterianism continued.该长老会继续统治的詹姆斯一世和查理一世和教会之间的斗争过程中成立。In 1647 the Long Parliament abolished the prelacy and Presbyterianism was established as the national religion.在1647年长期议会取消了prelacy和长老会被确立为国家宗教。In the same year the Westminster Assembly of divines presented to Parliament its Confession of Faith.在同一年,迪维尼斯威斯敏斯特议会提交给议会的信仰的自白。With the restoration of the monarchy (1660), the State Church became once more episcopal.随着君主制复辟了(1660),国家会再次成为主教。English Presbyterianism now began to decline.英国长老会现在开始下降。Its principle of government was quite generally abandoned for independent administration and during the eighteenth century most of its churches succumbed to rationalism.它的原则是相当普遍的理性放弃了独立的管理和其在18世纪的大部分死于教堂。But during the latter part of the nineteenth century there was a revival of Presbyterianism in England.但在19世纪后半叶的复兴有一个英国的长老会研究。Those who belonged to the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland coalesced in 1876 with the English Presbyterian Synod (an independent organization since the Scotch disruption of 1843), forming the Presbyterian Church of England, which is a very active body.这些谁属于美国长老教会联合起来在1876年苏格兰与英国长老会主教会议(1843年独立的苏格兰损害,因为该组织),形成了英格兰长老教会,这是一个非常活跃的机构。

B. Wales二威尔士

The "Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church" had its origin prior to, and independent of, English Methodism.在“威尔士加尔文循道教会”有其原产地之前,和独立的,英国循道。Its first organization was effected in 1736, and it shared the enthusiasm of the Methodists of England under the Wesleys, but differed from them in doctrine and polity, the English being Arminian and episcopal, the Welsh, Calvinistic and presbyterian.它的第一个组织是在1736年生效,并同意韦斯利斯卫下的英格兰的热情,但他们在不同的政体学说和,其中英文的arminian和主教,威尔士,加尔文和长老会。 A Confession of Faith adopted in 1823 follows the Westminster Confession, but is silent as to election and the asperities of the Calvinistic doctrine of reprobation.一种信仰的自白1823年通过了如下的西敏寺认罪,但沉默以选举和非难的波峰加尔文教义的。In 1864 a General Assembly was organized.在1864年举办了一个大会。The Welsh Presbyterians give great attention to home and foreign missions.威尔士长老会给予高度重视家庭和外国使团。

C. Ireland三爱尔兰

The history of Presbyterianism in Ireland dates from the Ulster plantation during the reign of James I. The greater part of Ulster had been confiscated to the crown, and thither emigrated a large number of Scotch Presbyterians.在阿尔斯特种植历史可追溯到爱尔兰长老会在北爱尔兰统治的詹姆斯一部份已被没收的更大的王冠,到那里移居苏格兰长老会大量。 At first they received special consideration from the Government, but this policy was reversed whilst William Laud was Archbishop of Canterbury.起初,他们收到了来自政府的特殊考虑,但这项政策得到扭转,而坎特伯雷大主教威廉劳德是的。The independent life of Presbyterianism in Ireland began with the formation of the Presbytery of Ulster in 1642, but its growth was checked for a time after the Stuart restoration in 1660.在爱尔兰独立生活的长老会始于1642年形成的长老在阿尔斯特,但它的增长是1660年在检查后的恢复时间斯图尔特。During the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth century there was a general departure from the old standards and Unitarian tendencies caused various dissensions among the Ulster Presbyterians.在18世纪初的一部分,有一个19岁的标准,一般离开的倾向和寻道阿尔斯特长老会引起各种纠纷中。There are still two Presbyterian bodies in Ireland that are Unitarian.还有两个机构在爱尔兰长老会是寻道。The disruption in the Scottish churches and other causes produced further divisions, and today there are, exclusive of the two mentioned above, five Presbyterian bodies in Ireland, the most important of which is the Presbyterian Church of Ireland.教会在苏格兰中断和其他原因造成的进一步分裂,而今天有,上面提到的两个专用,5爱尔兰长老机构在爱尔兰,其中最重要的是长老教会。

D. Colonial and Missionary Churches四殖民和传教教会

Presbyterianism in Canada dates its origin from 1765, when a military chaplain began regular ministrations in Quebec.加拿大长老会在其原产地在魁北克的日期从1765年,当军方开始定期ministrations牧师。There was very little growth, however, until the early part of the nineteenth century, when British immigration set in. Before 1835 there were six independent organizations.有很少的增长,但是,直至19世纪初的英国移民成立时,只有在1835年有6个独立的组织。The disruption of 1843 in Scotland had its echo in Canada, and secessionist bodies were formed, but during the sixties four organic unions prepared the way for the consolidation in 1875 of all the important bodies into one denomination, the Presbyterian Church in Canada.苏格兰在1843年中断了它的回声在加拿大,分裂组织形成,但在60年代加拿大教会在四个有机工会编写的方式为所有在1875年合并成一个重要机构的长老会教派。 There remain only two small organizations not affiliated with this main body.只剩下两个小本组织的主体不属于。 The Canadian Church maintains many educational institutions and carries on extensive mission work.加拿大教会保持许多教育机构和工作进行广泛的使命。Its doctrinal standards are latitudinarian.它的理论水平不拘泥于教义。Canada has the largest of the colonial churches, but there are important Presbyterian organizations in the other British possessions.加拿大教会最大的殖民地,但也有其他英国属地重要的长老会组织的。In Australia Presbyterianism may be dated from the formation of the Presbytery of New South Wales in 1826.在澳大利亚长老会的日期从1826年成立的南部长老会新威尔士研究。There have been several divisions since then, but at present all the churches of the six provinces are federated in one General Assembly.从那时以来,有一些分歧,但目前所有的省份有6个教会的联合在一个大会。In New Zealand the church of North Island, an offshoot of the Scottish Kirk, organized 1856, and the church of South Island (founded by Scottish Free Churchmen, 1854) have consolidated in one General Assembly. 1856年在新西兰北岛的教堂,苏格兰所举办的一个分支柯克,以及)教堂南岛(创建于1854年由苏格兰免费牧师已合并为一个大会。There is a considerable number of Scotch and English Presbyterians in S. Africa.有相当数量的南非洲和英国的苏格兰长老会研究。In 1909 they proposed a basis of union to the Wesleyan Methodists, Congregationalists, and Baptists, but thus far without result.1909年,他们提出了工会的基础上向卫斯理卫理,公理和浸礼会,但迄今没有结果。In Southern India a basis of union was agreed on by the Congregationalists, Methodists, and Presbyterians in July, 1908.在印度南部的一个联盟的基础上一致同意由公理,卫,和长老会在7月,1908年。There are Presbyterian churches organized by British and American missionaries in various parts of Asia, Africa, Mexico, S. America, and the West Indies.西印度群岛的有美国南长老会和教堂墨西哥,英国和美国举办的传教士在各地的亚洲,非洲。

E. United States大肠杆菌美国

In tracing the history of Presbyterianism in the United States the churches may be divided into three groups:在跟踪美国历史长老教会在美国可分为三组:

(1) the American churches, which largely discarded foreign influences; (1)美国的教堂,这在很大程度上放弃外国势力;

(2) the Scottish churches directly descended from Presbyterian bodies in Scotland; (2)苏格兰教堂直接后裔在苏格兰长老会的机构;

(3) the Welsh church, a descendant of the Calvinistic Methodist church of Wales. (3)威尔士教堂,威尔士后裔的加尔文卫理教堂。

(1) The American Churches(1)美国教会

The earliest American Presbyterian churches were established in Virginia, New England, Maryland, and Delaware during the seventeenth century and were chiefly of English origin.最早的美国长老教会成立于弗吉尼亚州,新英格兰,马里兰州和特拉华州在17世纪,主要是英语的起源。 The man who brought the scattered churches into organic unity, and who is considered as the apostle of American Presbyterianism, was Rev.该名男子谁带进教会分散的有机统一,谁是长老会被视为对美国的使徒,是牧师Francis Makennie from the Presbytery of Laggan, Ireland.弗朗西斯Makennie从拉干,爱尔兰长老会。With six other ministers he organized in 1706 the Presbytery of Philadelphia, which ten years later was constituted a synod.6年后与其他组织部长,他在1706年10费城长老会,这是构成一个主教。Between 1741 and 1758 the synod was divided into two bodies, the "Old Side" and the "New Side", because of disagreements as to the requirements for the ministry and the interpretation of the standards. During this period of separation the College of New Jersey, later Princeton University, was established by the "New Side", with Rev. John Witherspoon, afterwards a signer of the Declaration of Independence, as first president. 1741年和1758年之间的主教会议分为两个机构,“老边”和“新边”的标准。由于解释的分歧,以要求和部在此期间,新分离学院新泽西州,普林斯顿大学后,成立了“新面貌”,与牧师约翰威瑟斯庞,后来一个独立的宣言签字人,作为第一任总统。 In 1788 the synod adopted a constitution, and a general assembly was established. The dissolution of the Cumberland Presbytery by the Synod of Kentucky led to the formation in 1810 of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.在1788年的世界主教会议通过了宪法,A大会成立。长老会的主教由肯塔基州的坎伯兰解散了导致长老教会成立于1810年的个人档案。 From controversies regarding missionary work and doctrinal matters two independent branches resulted (1837), the "Old School" and the "New School".从争论的传教工作和理论方面的问题导致两个独立的分支机构(1837年),“旧学校”和“新学校”。Both lost most of their southern presbyteries when anti-slavery resolutions were passed.大部分都失去了他们的南部presbyteries当反奴隶制的决议获得通过。The seceders united to form a southern church known since 1865 as the Presbyterian Church in the United States.该seceders统一成为南部教会自1865年著名的美国长老教会的。Fraternal relations exist between the northern and the southern churches, who are kept apart especially by their different policies as to the races.之间存在着兄弟般的关系北部和南部的教堂,谁是保持比赛外,特别是作为对他们的不同的政策。In the Cumberland church the coloured members were organized into a separate denomination in 1869.在教堂的彩色坎伯兰成员在1869年组织成一个单独的面额。That same year the "Old School" and the "New School" reunited forming the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, the largest and most influential of the Presbyterian bodies in America. Since then its harmony has been seriously threatened only by the controversy as to the sources of authority in religion, and the authority and credibility of the Scriptures (1891-4).同一年,“老派”和“新学校”形成了统一的争论美国,美国最大和最有影响力的由于在美国。长老机构那么它的和谐受到严重威胁只能由长老教会以宗教的权力来源,并有权和)信誉圣经(1891-4。 This difficulty terminated with the trials of Prof. Charles A. Briggs and Prof. HP Smith, in which the court declared its loyalty to the views of the historic standards.历史标准的意见,这与审判难度终止教授查尔斯A布里格斯和惠普史密斯教授,其中向法院申报其忠诚度。In 1903 the church revived the Confession of Faith, mitigating "the knotty points of Calvinism". 1903年恢复了教会的信仰告白,缓解“加尔文主义的疑难点”。Its position became thereby essentially the same as that of the Cumberland church (white), and three years later (1906) the two bodies entered into an organic union.它的位置,从而成为基本相同),该教堂坎伯兰(白色,3年后(1906年)这两个机构签订了一个有机的结合。A part of the Cumberland church, however, repudiated the action of its general assembly and still undertakes to perpetuate itself as a separate denomination.教会的一部分,坎伯兰,但是,批判大会采取行动的承诺一般,仍延续面额本身作为一个单独的。

(2) The Scottish Churches(2)苏格兰教堂

(a) Seceders(一)Seceders

The second secessionist body from the established church of Scotland, the Associated Synod (Seceders), organized through its missionaries in 1753 the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania.第二,苏格兰教会分裂从机构设立,联系主教(Seceders),组织通过其传教士在1753年宾夕法尼亚州副长老会。 Not long after another separatist body of Scotland, the Old Covenanter Church (Cameronians), founded a daughter church in America known as the Reformed Presbytery (1774).不久后,身体的另一个苏格兰分裂,老科维纳特教会(Cameronians),在美国教会创办的女儿)被称为改革长老会(1774。 In 1782 these new seceder and covenanter bodies united under the name of Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church.1782年这些新塞塞德和长老教会团体的协会联合归正盟约者的名称下。Some members of the former body refused to enter this union and continued the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania.前体的一些成员拒绝进入这个联盟,并继续在宾夕法尼亚州副长老会。There were secessions from the united organization in 1801, and 1820.有1801 secessions从组织的团结,1820年。In 1858 nearly all these various elements were brought together in the United Presbyterian Church of North America.在1858年几乎所有这些不同的要素聚集在美国长老教会北美。Two bodies that remain outside this union are the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, which since 1821 has maintained an independent existence, and the Associate Synod of North America, a lineal descendant of the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania, founded in 1858 by those who preferred to continue their own organization rather than enter into the union effected that year.两具尸体外,是工会仍然是副归正长老教会,1821年以来一直保持一个独立的存在,以及继续在北美副主教谁喜欢,一个人的直系后裔协理长老宾夕法尼亚州,成立于1858年由他们自己的组织,而不是进入实施该年度的联盟。

(b) Cameronians or Covenanters.(二)Cameronians或盟约。

The Reformed Presbytery, which merged with the Associate Presbytery in 1782, was renewed in an independent existence in 1798 by the isolated covenanters who had taken no part in the union of 1782.长老会的改革,其中1782年合并长老会在该联营公司,是新的联盟在1782年独立生活的一部分,在1798年由没有孤立盟约采取谁了。 This renewed presbytery expanded into a synod in 1809.这又让长老会扩大到1809年的主教研究。In 1833 there was a division into two branches, the "Old Lights" (synod) and the "New Lights" (general synod), caused by disagreements as to the attitude the church should take towards the Constitution of the United States. In 1840 two ministers, dissatisfied with what they considered laxity among the "Old Lights", withdrew from the synod, and formed the "Covenanted Reformed Church" which has been several times disorganized and counts only a handful of members.在1833年有一个灯划分为两个分支,“老灯”(主教)和“新”(总议会),以引起分歧的态度,教会应采取的国家宪法的美国。1840年两国外长,不满意,他们认为“松弛之间的旧灯”,退出了世界主教会议,并形成了“立约归正”先后几次混乱,仅有极少数的成员。 In 1883 dissatisfaction with a disciplinary decision of the general synod (New Lights) caused the secession of a small number of its members, who have formed at Allegheny, Pa., the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada. 1883年美国和加拿大的不满与纪律的决定总议会(新幻美)造成了分裂国家的少数教会的成员,形成了谁在阿勒格尼,宾夕法尼亚州的改革长老会。Negotiations for a union of the general synod and the synod were made in 1890, but were unsuccessful.主教谈判一般工会的主教和提出了在1890年,但都没有成功。

(3) The Welsh Church(3)威尔士教会

The first organization of a Welsh Calvinistic Methodist church in the United States was at Remsen, NY, in 1824.美国首次举办一个威尔士的加尔文循道卫理教会是在雷姆森,纽约州,在1824年。Four years later a presbytery was established, and the growth of the denomination has kept pace with the increase in the Welsh population.4年后,一个长老会的建立,面额增长,人口不断增加的速度与威尔士在。The English language is fast gaining control in the church services.英语是快速增长,服务控制在教堂。


The Presbyterian denomination throughout the world, exclusive of the Reformed churches, numbers over 5,000,000 communicants.在世界各地长老会教派,教会专属的改革,圣餐人数超过500万元。Of these the United States has 1,897,534 (12 bodies); Scotland, 1,233,226 (6 bodies); Canada, 289,556 (3 bodies); Wales, 195,000; Ireland, 112,481 (4 bodies); England, 90,808 (2 bodies); Australia, 50,000; New Zealand, 28,000; Jamaica, 12,017; S. Africa, 11,323.其中美国有1897534(12具尸体),苏格兰,1233226(6机构),加拿大,289556(3机构),威尔士,195,000,爱尔兰,112481(4机构);英国,90808(2机构),澳大利亚, 50000,新西兰,28000,牙买加,12017;南非,11323。

Publication information Written by JA McHugh.出版信息写由司法机构政务长麦克休。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.奉献给耶稣圣心天主教百科全书,卷十二。 Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新


BENSON, Non-Catholic Denominations (New York, 1910).本逊,非天主教教派(纽约,1910年)。 91-117; LYON, A Study of the Sects (Boston, 1891), 99-109; New Schaff-Herzog Encyc. 91-117;里昂,阿Encyc研究的教派(波士顿,1891年),99-109;新沙夫,赫尔佐格。of Religious Knowledge, IX (New York, 1911), sv宗教知识,九(纽约,1911年),希沃特

IA - HODGE, Discussions in Church Polity (New York, 1878); IDEM, What is Presbyterian Law as Defined by the Church Courts?保险业监督-霍奇,讨论1878年在教会政体(纽约);同上,什么是长老法作为法院界定的教会?(Philadelphia, 1882); THOMPSON, The Historic Episcopate (Philadelphia, 1910). B. (费城,1882年);汤普森,历史主教(费城,1910年)。乙- SCHAFF, The Creeds of Christendom (New York, 1905), I, 669-817; III, 600-76; HODGE, Systematic Theology (3 vols., New York, 1885); SMITH, The Creed of the Presbyterians (New York, 1901); Encyc. -沙夫,教义的基督教(纽约,1905年),我,669-817;三,600-76;霍奇,系统神学(3卷。,纽约,1885年);史密斯,新信仰的长老会(纽约,1901年); Encyc。of Religion and Ethics, III (New York, 1911), see Confessions. C.宗教与伦理,三(纽约,1911年),见自白。三- BAIRD, Eutaxia.- 贝尔德,Eutaxia。or the Presbyterian Liturgies (New York, 1855); SHIELDS, Liturgia Expurgata (New York, 1844); The Book of Common Worship (Philadelphia, 1906).或长老会礼仪(纽约,1855年);盾牌,Liturgia Expurgata(纽约,1844年);普通图书的崇拜(费城,1906年)。

II.二。- KERR, The People's History of Presbyterianism (Richmond, 1888); BROADLEY, The Rise and Progress of Presbyterianism; DRYSDALE, History of Presbyterianism in England (London, 1889); REID, A History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland (3 vols., Belfast, 1867); PATTON, Popular History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States (New York. 1900); THOMPSON, A History of the Presbyterian Churches in the United States (New York, 1895) in Am. -科尔,是人民的长老会的历史(里士满,1888年);布罗德利,兴起与长老会的进展;德赖斯代尔,长老会的历史在英国(伦敦,1889年);里德爱尔兰历史上的长老教会(3卷。贝尔法斯特,1867年);顿,纽约流行史国(长老教会在美国。1900年); Thompson,是1895年的历史,纽约的长老会教会在美国(上午)研究。Church Hist.教会历史。Ser., VI, bibliog., xi-xxxi; Amer.丝氨酸。,六,bibliog。,西三十一;阿米尔。Church Hist.教会历史。Ser., XI, 145-479.丝氨酸。席,145-479。

III.三。- STEPHENS, The Presbyterian Churches (Philadelphia, 1910); ROBERTS, The Presbyterian Handbook (Philadelphia, 1911).-斯蒂芬斯基督长老教会(费城,1910);罗伯茨,长老手册(费城,1911年)。

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