Priscillian, Priscillianism普里西利安

General Information一般信息

Priscillian, dc 385, was a Spanish ascetic who founded the movement called Priscillianism, which was condemned as heretical by the church.普里西利安,直流385,这是一个西班牙语称为Priscillianism禁欲谁创立的运动,这是谴责为异端邪说所教堂。 Despite his unorthodox views, which were apparently influenced by gnosticism and Manichaean dualism, he became bishop of Avila in 380.尽管他非正统的意见,这显然影响诺斯替主义二元论和摩尼教,他成为主教阿维拉在380。 He was later judged guilty of sorcery, however, and executed.他后来被判定犯有巫术,然而,并执行。Priscillianism persisted in Spain until the 6th century.Priscillianism坚持在西班牙,直到6世纪。

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Priscillianism Priscillianism

Advanced Information先进的信息

The movement is named after its originator, Priscillian of Avila, although he probably did not share the views of his successors on the nature of the Trinity.这个运动是发端命名后,普里西利安的阿维拉,虽然他可能不同意三位一体的性质的观点对他的继任者。Priscillian himself was a talented layman who began to organize independent Bible study groups in which self - denial and a deeper spiritual life were emphasized along with the need to know the power of the living Word.普里西利安自己是一位天才的门外汉谁开始组织独立的圣经研究组词中的自我-否定和更深的精神生活,健康,强调随着需要知情的力量。 Women were encouraged to participate in these meetings and to exercise their gifts in ministry.鼓励妇女参加这些会议,并在部行使他们的礼物。Many attached themselves to this movement.许多重视自己这一运动。Even bishops and other clergy gave their support.即使是主教和其他神职人员给予他们的支持。Priscillian's emphasis on celibacy, however, ran afoul of the church, which confused his teaching with Manichaeism and condemned his doctrines at the Council of Sargossa in 380.普里西利安的独身重视,但是,跑380触犯了教会,这混淆了他的教学和Sargossa摩尼教在安理会谴责他的学说的。He was nevertheless ordained as bishop of Avila amid growing controversy.不过,他祝圣主教的阿维拉中争议日益增多。Ultimately, after unsuccessful appeals to Pope Damascus and Ambrose of Milan, Priscillian laid his case before the Emperor Maximus and was beheaded, along with six of his followers, at Triers in 385.最终,上诉失败后,米兰,教皇大马士革和刘汉铨,普里西利安奠定皇帝马克西姆斯他的案件,被斩首前,连同他的追随者6 Triers,在385。This appears to have been the first Christian execution for heresy and caused him to be venerated as a martyr, especially in Galicia.这似乎是第一个基督教异端执行和使他被尊崇为烈士加利西亚,尤其是研究。

It is not always easy to separate the beliefs of Priscillian from those of his later followers.这不是一件容易分开后,他的追随者的信念普里西利安从。Priscillian himself wrote a series of canons which appear in many texts of the Vulgate Bible.普里西利安自己写一本圣经系列大炮武加大哪些出现在许多文本。He divided the Pauline epistles (in which he included the Epistle to the Hebrews) into a series of texts on the theological points and wrote an introduction to each.他划分宝莲书信(他在其中包括书信向希伯来)到1分系列案文的神学,写出了每个介绍。These canons survived in a form edited by Peregrinus, who considered them an indispensable aid in the study of Scripture.这些大炮存活的形式游隼编辑的,谁认为他们的研究圣经的一个不可缺少的援助。They contain a strong call to a life of personal piety and asceticism, including vegetarianism, teetotalism, and celibacy. Slavery and sexual differences are abolished in Jesus Christ, and the charismatic gifts of all believers affirmed.他们强烈要求包含一个teetotalism生活个人的虔诚和禁欲主义,包括素食,独身和。奴役和性的差异是基督耶稣废除,和所有信徒的魅力礼物肯定。 The elect were called to combat the devil and his evil powers, and to enter into a knowledge of the deep mysteries of God.该选举被称为打击魔鬼和他的邪恶势力,并进入一个深刻认识神的奥秘。

Priscillian and his followers placed considerable emphasis upon apocryphal works, which they did not regard as canonical but rather as helpful to the spiritually minded who could discern truth from error.普里西利安和他的追随者都认为相当重视工程后猜测,他们并没有规范,而是乐于助人的精神头脑谁可以看出从错误的真理。 Thus apocryphal writings are quoted significantly in Priscillianist writings.因此,未经著作均以显着Priscillianist著作。Generally ascribed to the Priscillianist school are the prologues to the four Gospels as they are found in many Old Latin texts.一般归因于Priscillianist学校是文本前言中的4个福音,因为他们发现在许多拉丁美洲旧。These are strongly monarchian in theology and do not allow for a clear distinction between the persons of the Godhead.这些都是强烈神学上帝一体的,不容许一人的神性明确的区分的。In 1889 G Schepss published a series of eleven treatises which he had discovered at Wurzburg.在1889年Ğ Schepss发表了一系列维尔茨堡发现的论文已在11他。Although the text named Priscillian as the author, it seems more probable that these treatises were written by one of his supporters.虽然文字命名为笔者普里西利安,似乎更可能是这些论文是写他的支持者之一。They too contain a strong emphasis on Bible study, an allegorical interpretation of Scripture, asceticism, and the unity of God rather than the Trinity.他们也包含一个三位一体的强烈重视,而不是圣经的研究,一个寓言解释圣经,和禁欲主义,团结的上帝。Christ is frequently referred to as "ChristGod" and is called "unbegettable."基督是常常被称为“ChristGod”,被称为“unbegettable。”

Closely related to the Wurzburg treatises in both content and thought is a ninth century manuscript of an anonymous treatise, On the Trinity.密切相关的内容和思想的论文在维尔茨堡两个是一个匿名的论文第九世纪的手稿,在三位一体。Father and Son are declared to be names for the same person, with Father representing mind and Son word.父亲和儿子被宣布为同一人的名字,与父亲和儿子代表心字。There is also a fragment of a letter by Priscillian which is quoted by Orosius, a decidedly hostile witness.还有一个片段的敌对证人的信是由普里西利安坚决引述Orosius,1。

The critics of Priscillianism accused the movement of astrology, sorcery, dualism, Manichaeism, Sabellianism, modalism, and outright lying.批评者指责的Priscillianism的二元论运动的占星术,巫术,摩尼教,形态论,模态说,和赤裸裸的谎言。The strong following of women led to charges of sexual orgies.妇女的坚强领导下,以狂欢性收费。Priscillianists were also said to teach that preexistent human souls were attached as a punishment to the body, which was the creation of the devil. Priscillianists还表示,教导先在人的灵魂被魔鬼附作为一种惩罚的身体,这是创造的。Thus the bodily humanity of Christ was denied, and fasting instituted on Christmas Day and Sundays. Priscillianism continued at least until 563, when it was officially condemned by the Council of Braga.因此,基督的身体人性被剥夺,空腹提起在圣诞节和周日。Priscillianism布拉加至少持续到563,当它是正式谴责安理会提出的。

RC Kroeger and CC Kroeger钢筋混凝土克罗杰和CC克罗杰

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
H Chadwick, Priscillian of Avila; J Chapman, Notes on the Early History of the Vulgate Gospels.Ĥ查德威克,普里西利安的阿维拉; J查普曼,债券在拉丁文圣经福音的早期历史。


Priscillianism Priscillianism

Catholic Information天主教信息

This heresy originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic-Manichaean doctrines taught by Marcus, an Egyptian from Memphis. His first adherents were a lady named Agape and a rhetorician named Helpidius, through whose influence Priscillian "a man of noble birth, of great riches, bold, restless, eloquent, learned through much reading, very ready at debate and discussion (Sulpicius Severus, "His. Sac.", II, 46) was also enrolled. His high position and great gifts made him the leader of the party and he became an ardent apostle of the new doctrines. Through his oratorical gifts and reputation for extreme asceticism he attracted a large following. Among those drawn to him were two bishops, Instantius and Salvianus. The adherents of the new sect organized themselves into an oath-bound society the rapid spread of which attracted the attention of the Catholic Bishop of Cordova, Hyginus, who made known his fears to Idacius, Bishop of Emeritu, and, at the instance of the latter and of Ithacius of Ossanova, a synod was held at Saragossa in 380. Bishops were present at this synod not only from Spain but from Aquitaine. Though summoned, the Priscillianists refused to appear, and the synod pronounced sentence of excommunication against the four leaders, Instantius, Salvianus, Helpidius, and Priscillian.本世纪起源于西班牙的异端,并在第四孟菲斯来自诺斯底,摩尼教的教义教从埃及由马库斯。他的第一个信徒被命名为Helpidius一位女士命名的修辞学家爱和普里西利安,通过他们的影响力“一个高尚的人出生,巨大的财富,大胆,躁动不安,雄辩的,通过阅读学到很多,非常愿意在辩论和讨论(sulpicius塞维鲁,“他的。小路。”第一,二,46岁)也参加。他的崇高地位和伟大的礼物,使他党的领导人,他成为一个新的理论殷切使徒的。通过他的演说礼物和禁欲主义的极端,他的声誉吸引了大批追随者。提请在他的两个主教,Instantius和Salvianus。新教派的信徒的自己成为一个有组织的社会宣誓方向迅速蔓延,其中吸引了Idacius注意恐惧的天主教主教科尔多瓦,团所属,谁知道他提出,主教Emeritu,并在Ossanova实例后者及Ithacius ,一个主教举行了萨拉戈萨在380。主教们主教出席这次不仅来自西班牙,而是来自阿基坦召唤。虽然,Priscillianists拒绝出庭,和主教的绝罚宣判对四位领导人,Instantius,Salvianus,Helpidius和普里西利安。

The enforcement of the synod's decrees was committed to Ithacius, an impulsive and violent man.该法令执行主教会议的承诺Ithacius,一冲动和暴力的人。He failed to bring the heretics to terms, and, in defiance, Priscillian was ordained to the priesthood and appointed Bishop of Avila. Idacius and Ithacius appealed to the imperial authorities.他没有把异端之条款,并蔑视,中,普里西利安被祝圣为司铎和主教任命阿维拉。Idacius和Ithacius呼吁帝国当局。 The Emperor Gratian issued a decree which not only deprived the Priscillianists of the churches into which they had intruded themselves but sentenced Priscillian and his followers to exile.皇帝格拉发出流亡法令,不仅剥夺了他的追随者Priscillianists的教会,而他们已经闯入自己,但被判刑普里西利安和。 Instantius, Salvianus, and Priscillian proceeded to Rome to gain the aid of Pope Damasus in having this sentence revoked.Instantius,Salvianus,并普里西利安前往罗马,在撤销后获得这句话的援助教皇达玛斯。Denied an audience, they went to Milan to make a similar request of St. Ambrose, but with the same result.被拒绝的观众,他们前往米兰圣刘汉铨作出类似要求,但具有相同的结果。They then resorted to intrigue and bribery at the Court with such success that they were not only freed from the sentence of exile, but permitted to regain possession of their churches in Spain, where, under the patronage of the imperial officials, they enjoyed such power as to compel Ithacius to withdraw from the country.然后,他们诉诸阴谋和贿赂在流亡法院这样的成功,他们不只是释放被判处死刑的,但允许恢复,藏在他们的教堂在西班牙,根据乘客的帝国官员,他们享有这种权力以迫使Ithacius撤出该国。 He, in turn, appealed to Gratian, but before anything had been accomplished the emperor was murdered in Paris, and the usurper Maximus had taken his place.他反过来,呼吁gratian的,但在此之前一切都还没有完成的皇帝在巴黎杀害,而逆贼鲆采取了他的位置。

Maximus, wishing to curry favour with the orthodox party and to replenish his treasury through confiscations, gave orders for a synod, which was held in Bordeaux in 384.大菱鲆,想讨好党赞成与正统,并没收其通过国库充实,给了384订单一个主教,这在波尔多举行了研究。Instantius was first tried and condemned to deposition. Thereupon Priscillian appealed to the emperor at Trier.Instantius是首次尝试,并谴责以沉积。于是普里西利安呼吁在特里尔皇帝。Ithacius acted as his accuser and was so vehement in his denunciations that St. Martin of Tours, who was then in Trier, intervened, and, after expressing his disapproval of bringing an ecclesiastical case before a civil tribunal, obtained from the emperor a promise not to carry his condemnation to the extent of shedding blood. Ithacius担任他的原告,并因此在他的强烈谴责圣马丁的旅行团,谁是特里尔然后在干预,以及仲裁庭,民事后表示,他不赞成的情况下为使一个教会,而不是获得了从皇帝的承诺他进行谴责的流血程度。 After St. Martin had left the city, the emperor appointed the Prefect Evodius as judge.圣马丁后离开城市,皇帝任命Evodius作为法官的省长。He found Priscillian and some others guilty of the crime of magic.他发现普里西利安和其他一些神奇犯的罪。This decision was reported to the emperor who put Priscillian and several of his followers to the sword; the property of others was confiscated and they were banished. The conduct of Ithacius immediately met with the severest reprobation.据报道,这一决定皇帝谁把普里西利安和他的几个追随者向剑,其余的财产被没收,他们被放逐。进行的Ithacius立即会见了最严厉的非难。 St. Martin, hearing what had taken place, returned to Trier and compelled the emperor to rescind an order to the military tribunes, already on their way to Spain to extirpate the heresy.圣马丁,听觉发生了什么事,回到特里尔,迫使皇帝命令,撤销军事讲坛上邪教,已在上学途中到西班牙,消灭的。There is no ground in the condemnation and death of Priscillian for the charge made against the Church of having invoked the civil authority to punish heretics.有没有理由在教会的谴责和反对死刑的指控作出的普里西利安有援引民事权力惩罚异端。The pope censured not only the actions of Ithacius but also that of the emperor.教宗谴责不仅Ithacius的行动,而且是皇帝的。 St. Ambrose was equally stern in his denunciation of the case and some of the Gallican bishops, who were in Trier under the leadership of Theognistus, broke off communion with Ithacius, who was subsequently deposed from his see by a synod of Spanish bishops, and his friend and abettor Idatius, was compelled to resign.圣刘汉铨同样Theognistus严厉谴责在他的领导和一些案件的高卢谁主教,在特里尔下,断绝了与共融与Ithacius,谁是后来被废黜他看到了一个主教西班牙主教他的朋友及教唆非法入境者Idatius,被迫辞职。

The death of Priscillian and his followers had an unlooked for sequel.死亡的普里西利安和他的追随者已经为续集unlooked。The numbers and zeal of the heretics increased; those who were executed were venerated as saints and martyrs.异教徒的数量和热情的增加;那些被处决的人谁是圣人和烈士崇敬。The progress and spread of the heresy called for fresh measures of repression.蔓延的进展和镇压措施,新鲜的呼吁异端。In 400 a synod was held in Toledo at which many among them two bishops, Symphonius and Dictinnius were reconciled to the Church.在400名主教托莱多举行了他们在这两个之间的许多主教,Symphonius和Dictinnius是不甘心的教会。 Dictinnius was the author of a book "Libra" (Scales), a moral treatise from the Priscillianist viewpoint. Dictinnius是这本书的作者是“天秤座”(秤),1 Priscillianist论文从道德的观点。The upheaval in the Spanish peninsula consequent on the invasion of the Vandals and the Suevi aided the spread of Priscillianism.汪达尔动荡在西班牙半岛因而对入侵和Suevi资助的Priscillianism传播。So menacing was this revival that Orosius, a Spanish priest, wrote to St. Augustine (415) to enlist his aid in combating the heresy.所以这个威胁是复兴的Orosius,一名西班牙神父,写信给圣奥古斯丁(415),以争取他的援助,以打击异端。 Pope Leo at a later date took active steps for its repression and at his urgent insistence councils were held in 446 and 447 at Astorga, Toledo, and Galicia.教皇利奥在稍后的日期了其镇压积极步骤,并在他的紧急坚持政局举行了446和447加利西亚在阿斯托加,托莱多和。 In spite of these efforts the sect continued to spread during the fifth century.在第一节尽管这些努力的继续蔓延,在第五世纪。In the following century it commenced to decline, and after the Synod of Braga, held in 563, had legislated concerning it, it soon died out.在下面的世纪,它开始下跌,及之后的布拉加主教,563举行,有立法关于它,它很快就消失了。

In regard to the doctrines and teaching of Priscillian and his sect, it is not necessary to go into the merits of the discussion as to whether Priscillian was guilty of the errors traditionally ascribed to him, whether he was really a heretic, or whether he was unjustly condemned -- the object of misunderstanding and reprobation even in his lifetime and afterwards made to bear the burden of heretical opinions subsequently developed and associated with his name.关于教派的教义和教学普里西利安和他的,没有必要去为他的优点归因于讨论,以传统的错误普里西利安是否有罪的,他是否真的是一个异教徒,还是他不公正地谴责-该名称的对象误解和非难,甚至在他有生之年,随后将要承担的负担邪教后来发展了他的意见和相关。 The weight of evidence and the entire course of events in his lifetime make the supposition of his innocence extremely improbable.证据权重和在整个过程中他的一生作出了无罪的事件,他极不可能的假设。The discovery by Schepss of eleven treatises from his pen in a fifth or sixth-century manuscript, in the library of the University of Würzburg, has not put an end to a controversy still involved in considerable difficulty.第五或手稿六世纪发现的一Schepss的11论文从他的笔在维尔茨堡,在大学图书馆的,并没有结束,在相当大的困难仍然涉及争议。 Kunstle (Antipriscilliana), who has examined all the testimony, has decided in favour of the traditional view, which alone seems capable of offering any adequate solution of the fact that the Church in Spain and Aquitaine was aroused to activity by the separatist tendency in the Priscillianist movement. Kunstle(Antipriscilliana),谁审查了所有的证词,已决定在赞成的传统观点,这本身似乎就能够提供足够的分离主义倾向的任何解决方案,事实教会在西班牙和阿基坦大区的活动,以引起Priscillianist运动。

The foundation of the doctrines of the Priscillianists was Gnostic-Manichaean Dualism, a belief in the existence of two kingdoms, one of Light and one of Darkness.该Priscillianists基础的理论是诺斯底,摩尼教的二元论,一个黑暗的信念在存在两个王国,一个一个光。 Angels and the souls of men were said to be severed from the substance of the Deity.天使和人的灵魂被说成是神脱离了实质内容。 Human souls were intended to conquer the Kingdom of Darkness, but fell and were imprisoned in material bodies.人类灵魂的目的是要征服黑暗的王国,但下跌并囚禁在组织材料。Thus both kingdoms were represented in man, and hence a conflict symbolized on the side of Light by the Twelve Patriarchs, heavenly spirits, who corresponded to certain of man's powers, and, on the side of Darkness, by the Signs of the Zodiac, the symbols of matter and the lower kingdom.因此,这两个王国的代表出席了在人,因此12始祖方冲突的象征就光了,天上的神,谁相当于行使某些权力的人的,并在黑暗的一面,由十二生肖,种种迹象显示的是此事符号和较低的王国。 The salvation of man consists in liberation from the domination of matter.该名男子得救的组成物质中解放统治的。The twelve heavenly spirits having failed to accomplish their release, the Saviour came in a heavenly body which appeared to be like that of other men, and through His doctrine and His apparent death released the souls of the men from the influence of the material.在12天的精神有没有完成他们的释放,救主来到天堂机构,似乎是其他男人一样,通过他的学说和他的去世发表的物质明显影响了灵魂的男人。

These doctrines could be harmonized with the teaching of Scripture only by a strange system of exegesis, in which the liberal sense was entirely rejected, and an equally strange theory of personal inspiration.这些理论可以统一与圣经教学注释只有一个奇怪的制度,这是自由的感觉是完全拒绝,和对个人的灵感同样奇怪的理论。 The Old Testament was received, but the narrative of creation was rejected.旧约已收到,但创作叙事被驳回。Several of the apocryphal Scriptures were acknowledged to be genuine and inspired.圣经的几名猜测被公认是真正的和启发。 The ethical side of the Dualism of Priscillian with its low concept of nature gave rise to an indecent system of asceticism as well as to some peculiar liturgical observances, such as fasting on Sundays and on Christmas Day.自然的伦理方面的二元论普里西利安低的概念及其产生了一个不雅的禁欲主义制度以及一些特殊的纪念活动,如禁食礼仪星期日和圣诞节。 Because their doctrines were esoteric and exoteric, and because it was believed that men in general could not understand the higher paths, the Priscillianists, or at least those of them who were enlightened, were permitted to tell lies for the sake of a holy end.因为他们的教义是深奥和通俗的,因为它是一般人认为,在无法理解的更高的途径,Priscillianists,或者至少那些他们谁是开明的,被允许说谎,最后为了一个神圣的。 It was because this doctrine was likely to be a scandal even to the faithful that Augustine wrote his famous work, "De mendacio".这是因为这种学说很可能是一个忠实的丑闻甚至把他的著名作品奥古斯丁说,“德mendacio”。

Publication information Written by PJ Healy.出版信息希利写度Pj。Transcribed by Matt Dean. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.转录由马特院长。天主教百科全书,卷十二。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

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