Protestantism新教

xīnjiąo

General Information一般信息

Protestantism is a movement in Western Christianity whose adherents reject the notion that divine authority is channeled through one particular human institution or person such as the Roman Catholic pope. Protestants look elsewhere for the authority of their faith. Most of them stress the Bible - the Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament - as the source and the norm of their teaching. Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians also stress the authority of the Bible, but they also look to tradition, and, in the case of Catholics, to the pope as a source of authority.新教是教宗运动在西方基督教的信徒拒绝或概念,即神圣的权力是通过一个特定的人组成的机构的人,如罗马天主教。新教徒其他地方寻找自己的信仰的权威。 大部分压力的圣经-希伯来文新约圣经和基督教-东正教的源头和规范自己的教学。罗马天主教和东方还强调圣经的权威,但他们也期待着传统,并在天主教徒案件,将教宗视为一来源的权威性。

The Reformation宗教改革

Although reform movements have been a feature of the Christian church throughout its history and were particularly evident in the 14th and 15th centuries, most Protestants date the beginning of their movement to 1517, when the German monk Martin Luther posted for debate a series of theses that challenged Roman Catholic teaching.虽然改革运动一直是其整个历史上的基督教教堂的一个特点,被15世纪的第14届特别明显,最新教徒运动开始之日至1517年的,当德国僧侣马丁路德张贴论文的系列辩论挑战罗马天主教教学。 Protestantism took its name from the "Protestatio" issued by reformers at the Diet of Speyer in 1529.新教是在1529年它的名字从“Protestatio国会”发出的改革者的斯派尔。

Within two decades the Reformation had spread through most of northwest Europe.在不到两年的欧洲西北部有20年的改革,通过传播最。In England, King Henry VIII repudiated papal authority over the church, and the Church of England was set on a course of reform that made it essentially a Protestant body (although Anglicans, also called Episcopalians, are often classified separately). In Switzerland, France, parts of Germany, Scotland, and the Netherlands, a second style of non - Lutheran reform, influenced chiefly by the French - turned - Genevan John Calvin and the Swiss leader Ulrich Zwingli, began to take shape.在英格兰, 亨利八世国王推翻了教皇的权威在教会和英国圣公会教堂被称为一门课程设置的改革,使得它基本上是一个基督教机构(虽然英国圣公会教徒,也往往归入另发)。在瑞士,法国苏格兰部分德国,和荷兰的非第二个样式-路德改革的影响主要由法国-转身-日内瓦人约翰加尔文与瑞士领导人乌尔里希茨温利,开始形成。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
At the same time a more radical style of Protestantism appeared on the left wing of the movement. Anabaptists, Mennonites, and others rebaptized Christians and initiated them into a movement that drastically rejected Catholic practices even where Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism did not.同时样式更为激进的新教出现在左翼运动的。Anabaptists的,门诺派教徒,基督教徒和其他rebaptized并开始实践他们成为一个运动,反对天主教,即使大幅路德教,加尔文教和英国国教没有。

The Reformation spread from these bases into Scandinavia and central Europe, but it rarely penetrated Russian and southeastern Europe, where the Orthodox church prevailed, or southern Europe, which remained staunchly Roman Catholic.中欧改革从斯堪的纳维亚和传播这些基地进入,但很少侵入俄罗斯和欧洲东南部,那里的东正教教堂占了上风,或南部欧洲,仍然坚定地信奉罗马天主教。 After a series of religious wars from the mid 16th to the mid 17th century, most Protestants (except the radicals) and Catholics settled for the principle that the rulers of a region should determine the religion of that province or state.经过一系列的宗教战争16日从中期到17世纪中期,大多数新教徒(除自由基)和天主教徒解决的原则,即一个地区的统治者的国家应确定该省或宗教的。 Separation of church and state, a principle that other Protestants came to hold late in the 18th century, began to break the purely Protestant hold on northwest Europe.世纪教会与国家分离,一个原则,即其他新教徒来到18月底举行的,开始打破举行西北欧纯新教。In the latter part of the 18th century and throughout the 19th century into the present, Protestant missionaries spread the movement into most of the world.在18世纪后半叶和本该最,新教传教士传播到世界各地的运动到19世纪。

Protestant beachheads were established on many Asian and African shores but not until recently in Catholic Latin America.新教的滩头阵地,建立在许多亚洲和非洲海岸,但直到最近,美国在天主教国家。From 1607, when Anglicans arrived in Virginia, until late in the 19th century, after large - scale immigration from southern Europe and Ireland, all of North America except Quebec was thought of as a largely Protestant domain.从1607年,当英国圣公会抵达弗吉尼亚,直到19世纪中后期,经过大-除了魁北克大规模移民来自欧洲和美国南部的爱尔兰,都被认为北作为一个主要的新教域。

The Authority of the Bible该管理局的圣经

Protestants have always made much of the Bible, but acceptance of its authority has not led to unanimity among them.新教徒一直取得很大的圣经, 但接受其权威并没有导致它们之间的一致性。Differing interpretations of the same Bible have produced the most divided movement of any in the great world religions, as hundreds of sects in at least a dozen great Protestant families of churches (Anglicanism, Congregationalism, Methodism, Presbyterianism, Lutheranism, the Baptist churches, and the like) compete in free societies. 不同的圣经诠释同一产生伟大的世界宗教中最分裂的任何行动,因为数百教派在至少12个伟大的新教家庭教会(圣公会,公理会,循道,长老会,路德教,浸礼会教堂,等)在自由竞争的社会。 Attitudes toward the Bible in contemporary Protestantism range from belief in its literal truth on the fundamentalist end of the spectrum (Fundamentalism) to extremely free interpretations among liberal Protestants.对圣经的态度在当代新教原教旨主义的信念,范围从谱(其字面真理的原教旨主义月底),以自由派新教徒之间非常自由的解释。

Justification by Faith因信称义

Second only to belief in the Bible as a mark of Protestantism is the conviction that humans are not saved by their merits or good works, as the 16th century reformers heard Catholics claiming, but only "by grace, through faith." According to Protestants, God took the initiative in saving the world from sin through his activity in Jesus Christ, and even the faith that led people to believe in this activity was a gift, not an achievement. Nonetheless, however consistent Protestant teaching on this subject may be, Protestant cultures have often produced earnest strivers after God - sober and hard - working people who try to prove that they are God's elect (Predestination) and preachers or other leaders who seem as legalistic in their approach to church life as the 16th century Catholics were. 仅次于圣经信仰基督教作为一个标志,是改革者的信念,人类的世纪不保存其优点或16日的优秀作品,如已审结的天主教徒声称,只有“通过宽限期,通过信仰。”据新教徒,上帝把耶稣基督的倡议活动,在拯救世界,他通过从罪恶,甚至信仰,导致人们相信这项活动是一个礼物,而不是一项成就。一致新教教学对这个问题尽管如此,但可能是, 新教文化往往产生后,认真奋斗者神-清醒和硬-天主教徒劳动人民谁试图证明他们是上帝的选举(宿命)和其他生命的传教士或领导人似乎谁墨守成规的做法,以教会为他们的16世纪。

Sacraments圣礼

Most Protestants share faith in the divine Trinity - God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; most of them keep alive the ancient creedal witness to the fact that Jesus Christ was and is both divine and human; most of them celebrate two Sacraments (sacred acts they believe were instituted by Christ): baptism and the Lords Supper.最神圣的三位一体分享信仰新教的-圣父,圣子和圣灵;他们最古老的教义永葆见证耶稣基督的事实, 过去和现在都神和人类,他们大多数都庆祝两个圣礼(神圣他们认为行为人提起的基督): 洗礼和上议院的晚餐。They are divided over whether to immerse the baptized in water or to apply water in other ways; over the age at which to baptize people, although most practice infant baptism; over whether baptism imparts grace or is a sign of response and obedience. 他们的分歧是否浸泡在水中受洗或申请其他方式水,超过了年龄,为施洗的人,虽然大多数的做法婴儿的洗礼, 在是否赋予洗礼的恩典,或者是签署的响应和服从。Some Protestants believe that Jesus is somehow really present in the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper (Eucharist), whereas others consider this sacrament an act of remembrance and obedience. In their worship Protestants more than most other Christians stress the preaching of the Word of God as an agent for building faith. 一些新教徒认为,耶稣是有点真的)目前在面包圣体和酒的主的晚餐(,而也有人认为这圣餐1服从行为的纪念和。在他们崇拜的新教徒更比其他大多数的基督徒强调说教的Word上帝的信仰作为代理建设。

Church Polity教会政体

Protestants allow for many styles of church government, from the episcopal, where bishops rule, to the congregational, which acknowledges no earthly authority beyond the local. Accenting "the priesthood of all believers," they have assigned an important role to the laity, although in practice many Protestant churches are quite clerical in outlook.新教徒政府允许多种风格的教堂,从主教,主教统治的地方,对公理,它承认没有俗世的权力以外的地方。 重音“神职人员的所有信徒,”他们指定了重要作用的俗人,虽然在实践中,许多新教教会的前景是相当文书研究。Increasingly during the past century and especially in recent decades, Protestant churches have ordained women to the ministry and have encouraged them to take lay leadership roles.在过去的一个世纪越来越多,特别是在最近数十年来,新教教会有祝圣妇女部,并鼓励他们采取奠定领导作用。

Protestantism, more than Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy, has faced two recurrent problems.新教,罗马天主教和超过东正教,经常面对两个问题。The first relates to the internal unity of the movement.第一个问题涉及到运动内部团结。From the Reformation until the present, Protestants have sought concord but more often than not have remained in dispute.从改革到现在,新教徒寻求和睦,但往往没有争议仍然英寸In the 20th century, however, the Ecumenical Movement has gathered strength.在20世纪,然而,基督教运动已聚集力量。 In addition to the organic mergers of separate bodies that have taken place, movements of federation, councils for cooperation, and coalitions for common tasks have been formed.除了已经发生的机构,有机兼并分开,联邦运动的,议会的合作,为共同的任务联盟已经形成。

The second problem involves civil authority.第二个问题涉及公民的权力。Orthodoxy and Catholicism found alliances with the throne congenial, but Protestants were restless about their early decisions to keep such alliances.东正教和天主教联盟找到合意的宝座,但新教徒联盟不安对它们的早期决定保留这些。Movements for religious toleration were most aggressive and successful in Protestant countries.宗教宽容的变动情况,最成功的国家的侵略和新教。The act of separating church and state (in most countries) has made it difficult for Protestants to produce coherent views of how Christians should live with both spiritual and civil responsibilities.国家法分离教会和国家(大多数),因此难以对基督教产生民事责任一致意见,基督徒应如何与精神和生活。 This problem was presented in its most acute form in the dilemma of the Confessing church in Nazi Germany这个问题,提出了在其最尖锐的形式在纳粹德国的困境教堂的忏悔

Cultural Impact文化的影响

The rejection of the Catholic tradition and in some instances a tendency toward iconoclasm militated against the development of a specifically Protestant style in the visual arts, although many great artists have been Protestants.拒绝这一传统的天主教,在某些情况下,一个视觉艺术的对反传统的倾向在发展,不利于这次新教的一个特别的风格,尽管许多伟大的艺术家都信奉基督教。 In general the Protestant contribution has been a simplicity, even austerity, of design and decoration.一般来说,新教的贡献是一个简单,甚至紧缩和装饰,设计。This is particularly true of the Calvinist tradition.这是真实的,特别是传统的加尔文主义。

In music and literature the Protestant contribution has been enormous.在音乐和文学新教的贡献是巨大的。The vernacular versions of the Bible, such as Luther's and the King James Version, played a formative role in the development of modern German and English literature. Emphasis on preaching and lack of strong centers of doctrinal authority contributed to a diversity of opinion and expression, as reflected, for example, in the work of John Milton.圣经版本的白话文版本,如路德和国王詹姆斯,发挥英语中心的文献。 强劲注重说教和缺乏理论权威一形成的作用,在现代德国的发展作出贡献的一个表现形式多样性的意见,并作为反映,例如,在约翰弥尔顿工作。 A strong musical tradition developed out of the encouragement of hymn singing and the use of the organ and other instruments, reaching its pinnacle in the work of Johann Sebastian Bach.一个强大的音乐传统发展出来的歌声赞美和鼓励,文书使用和其他器官,达到其顶峰约翰塞巴斯蒂安巴赫的工作。

The lack of central authority and thus the acceptability of divergent views has also borne fruit in a rich theological tradition, which embraces such figures as Karl Barth, Rudolf Bultmann, and Paul Tillich in the 20th century.缺乏中央的权威,从而对不同的意见,接受也承担世纪水果丰富的神学传统,其中20卡尔巴特,鲁道夫布特曼,保罗蒂利希在拥抱这些数字的。

Martin E Marty马丁é马蒂

Bibliography 书目
K Barth, Protestant Theology in the Nineteenth Century (1952) and Protestant Thought (1959); RM Brown, The Spirit of Protestantism (1961); BA Gerrish, The Old Protestantism and the New: Essayson the Reformation Heritage (1983); H Gollwitzer, An Introduction to Protestant Theology (1982); P Greven, The Protestant Temperament (1978); WE Hordern, A Layman's Guide to Protestant Theology (1968); E Leonard, A History of Protestantism (1968); ME Marty, Protestantism (1972) and Protestantism in the United States: Righteous Empire (1986); R Mehl, The Sociology of Protestantism (1970); WR Miller, Contemporary American Protestant Thought, 1900 - 1970 (1973); W Pauck, The Heritage of the Reformation (1968); L Spitz, The Protestant Reformation (1985); C Welch, Protestant Christianity Interpreted through Its Development (1954) and Protestant Thought in the 19th Century (1972 - 85); JS Whale, The Protestant Tradition (1955); JF White, Protestant Worship: Traditions in Transition (1989) K表巴特,1959年)新教神学在十九世纪(1952年)和基督教思想(;马币布朗,新教精神(1961年);广管局杰里什,老新教和新:Essayson的改革遗产(1983年); Ĥ戈尔维策,安)介绍新教神学(1982; P格雷文,新教气质(1978年),我们霍德恩,一个门外汉的指南新教神学(1968年),电子商务伦纳德,一个基督教的历史(1968年); ME的马蒂,基督教(1972年)和帝国基督教在美国:正义(1986)与r梅尔,在新教社会学(1970年);西铁的米勒,当代美国新教思想,1900 - 1970(1973); W Pauck,1968年的遗产改革( )的L施皮茨,新教改革(1985年); ç韦尔奇,基督教新教的解释,通过发展(1954年)和新教)在19世纪的思想(1972年至1985年; js鲸鱼,新教传统(1955年);樱白,新教崇拜:传统的过渡(1989)


Protestantism新教

Advanced Information先进的信息

In its broadest sense Protestantism denotes the whole movement within Christianity that originated in the sixteenth century Reformation and later focused in the main traditions of Reformed church life. Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist / Presbyterian), and Anglican - Episcopalian (although Anglicanism par excellence claims to be both Catholic and Protestant), Baptist, Methodist, Pentecostal, and many others, down to modern African Independent churches.在其最广泛的意义上是指新教基督教内整个运动起源于16世纪的宗教改革和以后的生活重点的改革教会的主要传统。 信义,改革(加尔文/长老会),圣公会-圣公会(英国国教虽然声称卓越是天主教和新教),浸信会,循道卫理,五旬节,和许多人一样,到现代非洲独立教会。

The term derives from the "protestation" submitted by a minority of Lutheran and Reformed authorities at the German Imperial Diet at Speyer in 1529 in dissenting from a clampdown on religious renewal.一词来源于“抗议重建”提交的改革少数的路德和当局在德国施派尔帝国于1529年在国会中反对宗教从一取缔。The "protestation" was at once objection, appeal, and affirmation.在“抗议”是一次反对,感染力和肯定。It asked urgently, "What is the true and holy Church?" and asserted: "There is no sure preaching or doctrine but that which abides by the Word of God. According to God's command no other doctrine should be preached. Each text of the holy and divine Scriptures should be elucidated and explained by other texts. This Holy Book is in all things necessary for the Christian; it shines clearly in its own light, and is found to enlighten the darkness. We are determined by God's grace and aid to abide by God's Word alone, the holy gospel contained in the biblical books of the Old and New Testaments. This Word alone should be preached, and nothing that is contrary to it. It is the only truth. It is the sure rule of all Christian doctrine and conduct. It can never fail or deceive us."它要求迫切,“什么是真正的和神圣的教会?”,并断言:“没有确定说教或学说,但它遵守上帝的话语。根据上帝的命令没有其他学说应该鼓吹。每次文本神圣和神圣的经文,应澄清和文字解释等。 这种圣书的事在所有基督教必要的,它闪耀clearly在自己的光,发现启发了黑暗。 我们决心通过上帝的恩典和援助遵守神的话单,神圣的福音所载的和新约圣经的书籍的旧。此Word单应该鼓吹,并没有什么违背它。 它是唯一的真理。这是所有基督徒相信条教义和行为。它不可能失败或欺骗我们。“

Lutherans and other advocates of reform thus became known as Protestants. lutherans和改革的其他倡导者,成为新教徒称为。The English word originally had the force of "resolute confession, solemn declaration," standing for gospel truth against Roman corruption.英语单词,原本声明生效的“坚决供认,庄严的,”腐败站了罗马对福音真理。"Essentially Protestantism is an appeal to God in Christ, to Holy Scripture and to the primitive Church, against all degeneration and apostasy."“基本上是一个基督教的上帝在基督呼吁,以圣经和原始教会变节,对所有变性。” The narrowing of "Protestant" to mean anti - or non - Roman has led some to prefer "Evangelical" (though in continental Europe this normally designates Lutherans) and "Reformed" (more commonly used of Calvinist Presbyterians).在缩小“新教”是指反-或非-罗马已导致有些人喜欢“福音”(虽然在欧洲大陆这通常指定路德会)和“改革”(更常见的长老会使用的加尔文主义)。

Fundamental Principles基本原则

The fundamental principles of sixteenth century Protestantism included the following:16世纪新教的基本原则包括以下内容:

Soli deo Gloria索利索拉布迪奥凯莱

the justification of God's wisdom and power against papal usurpation and manmade religion, honoring God's sovereign transcendence and providential predestination.理由的宿命上帝的智慧和力量对天赐教皇和人为侵占和宗教,尊重神的主权超越。

Sola Gratia索拉特惠

redemption as God's free gift accomplished by Christ's saving death and resurrection.赎回上帝的免费礼物完成的复活基督的死亡和节约。This was articulated chiefly in Pauline terms as justification by faith alone, as in the Augsburg Confession: "We cannot obtain forgiveness of sin and righteousness before God by our own merits, works or satisfactions, but receive forgiveness of sin and become righteous before God by grace, for Christ's sake, through faith, when we believe that Christ suffered for us and that for his sake our sin is forgiven and righteousness and eternal life are given to us." Assurance of salvation is therefore a mark of Protestant faith, grounded in the promise of the gospel and released from all pursuit of merit.这是阐明主要是在信仰单保利娜的条款为理由,作为在奥格斯堡自白:“我们不能得到满意的优点,工程或宽恕的罪恶和正义的上帝面前我们自己的,但收到的罪赦免了,并成为正义面前上帝恩典,为基督的缘故,信仰,当我们相信基督受苦和我们为他而我们的罪被原谅和正义,永恒的生命都交给我们。“保证是得救因此,信仰标记新教,立足于福音的承诺,并释放所有值得追求。

Sola Scriptura唯独圣经

the freedom of Scripture to rule as God's word in the church, disentangled from papal and ecclesiastical magisterium and tradition.自由的圣经,以规则为上帝的话语在教会里,从传统迎刃而解了教皇和教会训导和。Scripture is the sole source of Christian revelation.圣经是基督教的启示的唯一来源。Although tradition may aid its interpretation, its true (ie, spiritual) meaning is its natural (ie, literal) sense, not an allegorical one.虽然传统的解释可能的援助,其真正的(即精神)的含义是其自然的(即字面)的感觉,而不是寓言之一。

The Church as the Believing People of God作为神的人相信教会

constituted not by hierarchy, succession, or institution, but God's election and calling in Christ through the gospel.不构成层次,继承,或机构,但神的选举和通过调用福音在基督。In the words of the Augsburg Confession, it is "the assembly of all believers among whom the gospel is preached in its purity and the holy sacraments are administered according to the gospel."在奥格斯堡自白中的话说,是“所有的信徒大会,其中有福音传给他们在其纯洁性和神圣的圣礼,是根据管理的福音。” The sacraments appointed by Christ are two only, baptism and the Lord's Supper, and may be spoken of as "visible words," reflecting the primacy of preaching in Protestant conviction.由基督圣礼是委任的话2只,洗礼和圣餐,并可以看到被说成是“,”反映了信念的首要地位新教的传教研究。

The Priesthood of All Believers所有信徒神父

the privileged freedom of all the baptized to stand before God in Christ "without patented human intermediaries" and their calling to be bearers of judgment and grace as "little Christs" to their neighbors.特权自由调用所有的洗礼,以站在上帝面前,在基督“没有专利的人的中介机构”,其委员是恩典的判断,是“小基督”,以他们的邻居。 Pastor and preacher differ from other Christians by function and appointment, not spiritual status.牧师和传道不同于其他基督徒的精神状态按职能和任命,而不是。(Later Protestantism has forgotten this perhaps more than any other foundation principle.) (后来基督教已经忘记了这也许比任何其他的基础原则。)

The Sanctity of All Callings or Vocations在所有召唤或职业的圣洁

the rejection of medieval distinctions between secular and sacred or "religious" (ie, monastic) with the depreciation of the former, and the recognition of all ways of life as divine vocations.作为神圣的职业排斥中世纪神圣与世俗之间的区别或“宗教”(即寺院的折旧)与前生活,方式和所有的承认。"The works of monk and priest in God's sight are in no way whatever superior to a farmer laboring in the field, or a woman looking after her home" (Luther). “工程是在没有办法的僧侣和牧师看见上帝的任何优于一个农民家庭劳动在外地,或照顾她的女人”(路德)。None is intrinsically more Christian than any other, an insight obscured by phrases such as "the holy ministry."更没有在本质上是比任何其他基督教,洞察遮蔽部。通过短语,例如“圣地”

Protestant Developments新教的发展

Protestantism has developed a distinctive ethos in each of the several traditions derived from the Reformation and also within their historical, cultural, and geographical variations.新教的改革已经从派生的几个传统的独特精神气质,并在每一个在其历史,文化和地理的变化。On some issues, such as the manner (not the reality) of Christ's presence in the Supper, Protestants have disagreed from a very early stage, while agreeing in rejecting transubstantiation and the sacrifice of the Mass and insisting that living faith alone feeds upon Christ's flesh and blood.在一些问题,如的方式(而不是现实)基督的圣餐存在的,新教徒不同意从一个非常早期的阶段,而肉同意在拒绝质变和牺牲群众,坚持生活的信仰的单独饲料经基督和血液。 On others, such as church order, diversity of practice has not always involved disagreement in principle.在另一些问题,如教堂秩序,实践多样性并非总是涉及原则分歧研究。In this and other areas Protestantism's scriptural principle has itself been articulated in different ways, both to sanction the retention of traditions (eg, episcopacy) not repugnant to Scripture (a typically Lutheran and Anglican approach) and to debar from the church's life anything not explicitly warranted in Scripture (a tendency of Reformed Protestantism implemented most consistently by Puritanism and some derivative traditions).在这方面和圣经的原则,其他地区基督教的本身已经阐明以不同的方式,既要制裁的传统保留(例如,主教)不抵触圣经(一个典型的路德和英国圣公会的做法)和日后不再从教会的生活什么不明确需要在圣经(一新教改革实施衍生的倾向最一贯的清教传统和一些)。

Nothing has so much promoted the disunity of Protestantism as the inroads of post - Enlightenment rationalism and its offspring in theological liberalism and modernism, which have gravely eroded Protestantism's Reformation and biblical foundations.什么都没有这么多的推动改革的基础和圣经作为新教的不团结的侵蚀后-的启蒙理性及其后代在神学自由主义和现代主义,这已经严重侵蚀新教。

Another pattern of Reformation in the sixteenth century, generally called Anabaptist or Radical despite its diversity, sought to restore the precise shape of apostolic Christianity.另一位16世纪的改造模式,通常称为再洗礼派或激进的,尽管它的多样性,试图恢复使徒基督教精确形状。 Pentecostalism has a similar aim, along with other movements, including some Baptists and (Plymouth) Brethren.五旬节也有类似的目标,以及其他运动,包括一些浸信会和(普利茅斯)兄弟。Some African Independent churches have pursued a restorationist approach even to the OT.一些非洲独立教会都奉行一个城市旅游局复辟的做法甚至。Although Anabaptism gave birth to no major Protestant tradition (but note the Mennonites), its rejection of the Constantinian state - church and all its works (endorsed unreservedly by all three primary Protestant traditions) became in time the common property of most of Protestantism, especially outside Europe.虽然Anabaptism生下没有主要的新教传统(但要注意的门诺派),其状态排斥反应的君士坦丁-教会及所有工程(传统毫无保留地赞同所有三个主要新教)成为当时的新教,共同的财产,特别是最欧洲以外。 (E Troeltsch has stressed the revolutionary significance of later Protestantism's abandonment of its early ideal of all - embracing church - civilization, a reformed Christendom.) The Anabaptist "protestation," though persecuted by the authoritarian Protestants, Lutheran, Reformed, and Anglican, is increasingly regarded as a parallel pattern of pristine Protestantism, with perhaps more to contribute to its future than any other pattern. (五特勒尔奇强调了一切革命的意义后理想新教的早期遗弃-拥抱教会-文明,一个经过改革的基督教。)再洗礼派“抗议,”虽然,迫害的专制新教徒,信义,改革,圣公会是越来越被视为一个原始基督教平行模式更多,或许有助于其未来比任何其他模式。

Despite its divisions the community of Protestantism is still discernible in cross - denominational movements, eg, missionary expansion, Bible translation, biblical criticism and modern theological study, welfare and relief agencies, and the ecumenical movement itself.尽管部门的基督教社区仍然是明显的交叉-宗派运动,如传教士的扩大,翻译圣经,圣经批评与现代神学研究,福利和救济机构,以及基督教运动本身。 Protestants are also held together by common convictions, chief among them the acceptance of the Reformation as an indispensable part of their history.新教徒也一并举行了共同的信念中,主要的历史的接受他们的改革作为一项不可缺少的一部分。For no Protestants does this exclude a lineage going back tothe apostles, but continuity with patristic and medieval Christianity would be variously prized in different Protestant traditions.对于没有新教徒,这是否排除血统追溯到tothe使徒,但基督教的连续性和中世纪教父将在不同的新教不同程度珍视传统。

Protestantism's scriptural principle finds expression in the axiom Ecclesia reformata sed semper reformanda, "a church reformed but always open to further reformation."新教的圣经原则认定reformata表达的公理埃克尔西亚桑达森佩尔reformanda,“教会改革,但总是开放的进一步改革。” Subjection to the word of God means that no traditions or institutions, secular or religious, not even Reformation or Protestant ones, can be absolutized.服从上帝的话,意味着没有任何传统或机构,世俗或宗教,甚至不改革或基督教的,可以绝对化。Paul Tillich regarded "the Protestant principle" as "the prophetic judgment against religious pride, ecclesiastical arrogance and secular self - sufficiency and their destructive consequences."保罗蒂利希把“新教原则”为“世俗的自我预言判决对宗教的骄傲,傲慢和教会-自给自足,其破坏性的后果。” This was nobly exemplified in the Barmen Declaration of the Confessing Church in Nazi Germany ("Confessing" here being a good modern synonym of sixteenth century "Protestant"). Intellectually, "the co - operation of uninhibited inquiry and religious faith, of theology and science, is possible only on Protestant territory where all human traditions and institutions stand open both to man's scrutiny and to God's" (JH Nichols).这是高尚的体现在-行动的巴门共同宣言承认的教会在纳粹德国(“忏悔好”这里是16世纪的现代化的代名词“新教”)。理智,“豪放查询和神学和宗教的信仰,科学,是可能只在新教地区,所有人类的传统和开放这两个机构的立场,以人的审查和对上帝的“(JH尼科尔斯)。

Finally, Protestantism seeks to draw its life from the gospel of God's grace in Christ.最后,基督教在制订其生命的恩典在基督福音从的神。True to its heritage it can tolerate no do - it - yourself Christianity, no ground for human self - confidence before God's face.正由于它的文物可以容忍任何事-它-你自己基督教,人类自身没有理由-信心在神面前的脸。It will ultimately always value the Christ of faith more than the church of history.它最终将永远珍惜基督信仰历史以上的教堂。

DF Wright东风赖特

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
H Wace, Principles of the Reformation; EG Leonard, A History of Protestantism; W Pauck, The Heritage of the Reformation; J Dillenberger and C Welch, Protestant Christianity Interpreted through Its Development; P Schaff, A History of the Creeds of Christendom, I, III; RN Flew and RE Davies, eds., The Catholicity of Protestantism; JH Nichols, Primer for Protestants; W Niesel, Reformed Symbolics: A Comparison of Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism; L Bouyer, The Spirit and Forms of Protestantism; E Troeltsch, Protestantism and Progress; P Tillich, The Protestant Era; CS Carter and GEA Weeks, eds., The Protestant Dictionary; JS Whale, The Protestant Tradition.Ĥ Wace,改革原则的;新教乙二醇伦纳德的历史上,; W Pauck,改革传统的; J迪伦贝格尔和C韦尔奇,基督教新教的解释,通过它的发展; p沙夫,我一个基督教的历史,作者的信条,三;氡飞抵和RE戴维斯,合编。,天主教的新教的; JH尼科尔斯,新教徒引物; W尼泽尔,改革的Symbolics:一个比较天主教,东正教和新教的L博耶,精神和基督教形式,电子商务特勒尔奇,基督教和进展情况;新教时代p田立克,该;政务卡特和基伊埃周,合编。,新教字典; js鲸鱼,新教传统。


Protestantism新教

Catholic Information天主教信息

The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz.:这个主题将在以下元首的待遇,即。:

I. Origin of the Name.一,原产地的名称。

II.二。Characteristic Protestant Principles.特色新教原则。

III.三。Discussion of the Three Fundamental Principles of Protestantism:浅谈新教的三个基本原则:

A. The Supremacy of the Bible;答:圣经的霸权;

B. Justification by Faith Alone;乙理由信仰单;

C. The Universal Priesthood of Believers.C的通用神父的信徒。

IV.四。Private Judgment in Practice.私人判断的实践。

V. "Justification by Faith Alone" in Practice.五,“因信称义独自一人在实践”。

VI.六。Advent of a New Order: Cæsaropapism.降临的新秩序:Cæsaropapism。

VII.七。Rapidity of Protestant Progress Explained.新教进展快度解释。

VIII.八。Present-day Protestantism.当今基督教。

IX.九。Popular Protestantism.热门新教。

X. Protestantism and Progress:十,基督教和进展情况:

A. Prejudices;答:偏见;

B. Progress in Church and Churches;B.进展教会和教会;

C. Progress in Civil Society;三进展公民社会;

D. Progress in Religious Toleration;D.进度的宗教宽容;

E. The Test of Vitality.E.本试验的生命力。

XI.十一。Conclusion.结论。

I. ORIGIN OF THE NAME一,原产地之名

The Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, assembled at Speyer in April, 1529, resolved that, according to a decree promulgated at the Diet of Worms (1524), communities in which the new religion was so far established that it could not without great trouble be altered should be free to maintain it, but until the meeting of the council they should introduce no further innovations in religion, and should not forbid the Mass, or hinder Catholics from assisting thereat.帝国国会的神圣罗马,施佩耶尔组装在4月,1529年,决心按照既定颁布一项法令,在国会虫(1524),社区,新的宗教是如此之远,它不能没有很大的麻烦被改变应该是免费的,以维持它,但直到安理会会议上介绍了他们应该不会再创新的宗教,不应该禁止地下,或妨碍会场天主教徒从协助。

Against this decree, and especially against the last article, the adherents of the new Evangel - the Elector Frederick of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse, the Margrave Albert of Brandenburg, the Dukes of Lüneburg, the Prince of Anhalt, together with the deputies of fourteen of the free and imperial cities - entered a solemn protest as unjust and impious.反对这项法令,特别是对上一篇文章中,新的福音的信徒-的萨克森选弗雷德里克黑塞兰格雷夫的,阿尔贝的勃兰登堡侯爵,在吕内堡公爵,王子的安哈尔特,连同代表们的14个城市的自由和帝国-进入了一个庄严的不公正的抗议和不虔诚。 The meaning of the protest was that the dissentients did not intend to tolerate Catholicism within their borders.这次抗议的含义是,持不同意见者不打算在其容忍的边界天主教。On that account they were called Protestants.他们在这个被称为新教徒帐户。

In course of time the original connotation of "no toleration for Catholics" was lost sight of, and the term is now applied to, and accepted by, members of those Western Churches and sects which, in the sixteenth century, were set up by the Reformers in direct opposition to the Catholic Church.随着时间的推移过程中的原始内涵的容忍天主教徒“不”是忽视,而现在用于长期,并接受,其成员由那些西方教会和教派的,在16世纪,则分别设置改革者直接反对天主教教会。 The same man may call himself Protestant or Reformed: the term Protestant lays more stress on antagonism to Rome; the term Reformed emphasizes adherence to any of the Reformers.同一个人可以自称基督教或改革:新教一词更奠定了罗马的压力就对立;一词强调坚持改革改革者的任何。Where religious indifference is prevalent, many will say they are Protestants, merely to signify that they are not Catholics.那里的宗教冷漠是普遍,很多人都会说他们是新教徒,仅仅意味着它们不天主教徒。In some such vague, negative sense, the word stands in the new formula of the Declaration of Faith to be made by the King of England at his coronation; viz.: "I declare that I am a faithful Protestant".在一些这样的含糊不清,消极的意义上,这个词站在新的信仰宣言的公式是由英国的国王在他的加冕,即。:“我宣布我是一个忠实的新教徒”。 During the debates in Parliament it was observed that the proposed formula effectively debarred Catholics from the throne, whilst it committed the king to no particular creed, as no man knows what the creed of a faithful Protestant is or should be.在议会辩论过程中有人指出,拟议的方案,有关部门切实从宝座天主教徒,而它所犯的国王没有特别的信仰,因为没有人知道什么是新教信仰的忠实是或应该的。

II.二。CHARACTERISTIC PROTESTANT PRINCIPLES特征新教原则

However vague and indefinite the creed of individual Protestants may be, it always rests on a few standard rules, or principles, bearing on the Sources of faith, the means of justification, and the constitution of the Church.然而模糊和不确定的新教徒信仰的个人可能,它始终建立在几个标准规则,或原则,信仰上的轴承来源,手段的理由,和教会的宪法。 An acknowledged Protestant authority, Philip Schaff (in "The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge", sv Reformation), sums up the principles of Protestantism in the following words:公认的新教权威,菲利普沙夫(在“新沙夫-赫尔佐格百科全书宗教知识”,希沃特改革),总结了以下文字在新教的原则:

The Protestant goes directly to the Word of God for instruction, and to the throne of grace in his devotions; whilst the pious Roman Catholic consults the teaching of his church, and prefers to offer his prayers through the medium of the Virgin Mary and the saints.新教直接转到神的话语为教学,并能在他的恩典宝座奉献,而虔诚的罗马天主教教会的教学咨询他,喜欢和他提供的圣徒祈祷,并通过媒介的圣母。

From this general principle of Evangelical freedom, and direct individual relationship of the believer to Christ, proceed the three fundamental doctrines of Protestantism - the absolute supremacy of (1) the Word, and of (2) the grace of Christ, and (3) the general priesthood of believers.从这个福音自由的一般原则,指导信徒个人关系的基督,基督教进行的三个基本理论-绝对的优势:(1)这个词,和(2)基督的恩典,(3)一般神职人员的信徒。 ...

1. 1。Sola Scriptura ("Bible Alone")唯独圣经(“圣经孤独”)

The [first] objective [or formal] principle proclaims the canonical Scriptures, especially the New Testament, to be the only infallible source and rule of faith and practice, and asserts the right of private interpretation of the same, in distinction from the Roman Catholic view, which declares the Bible and tradition to be co-ordinate sources and rule of faith, and makes tradition, especially the decrees of popes and councils, the only legitimate and infallible interpreter of the Bible. [第一]目的[或正式的]原则宣告典型圣经,尤其是新约圣经,是唯一犯错的来源和法治的信仰和实践,并声称在解释从区别一样,罗马天主教的私人权利看来,这宣告了圣经和传统必须统筹来源和信仰统治,使传统,尤其是和议会的法令的教皇,犯错的解释圣经的唯一合法和。 In its extreme form Chillingworth expressed this principle of the Reformation in the well-known formula, "The Bible, the whole Bible, and nothing but the Bible, is the religion of Protestants."在其极端的形式表达了这一公式的原则奇林沃思已知的改革在良好的,“圣经,整个圣经,而且只有圣经,是新教徒宗教的。” Protestantism, however, by no means despises or rejects church authority as such, but only subordinates it to, and measures its value by, the Bible, and believes in a progressive interpretation of the Bible through the expanding and deepening consciousness of Christendom.基督教,但是,绝不轻视或拒绝教会的权威,而只是它的下属,and措施的价值,圣经和圣经认为在解释的一个进步,通过不断扩大和深化基督教意识。 Hence, besides having its own symbols or standards of public doctrine, it retained all the articles of the ancient creeds and a large amount of disciplinary and ritual tradition, and rejected only those doctrines and ceremonies for which no clear warrant was found in the Bible and which seemed to contradict its letter or spirit.因此,除了有其自己的符号或理论标准公开,它保留了古老的信条所有的文章和大量的传统仪式和纪律,并驳回只有那些教义和仪式,并为其中没有明确保证圣经中被发现这似乎违背其文字或精神。 The Calvinistic branches of Protestantism went farther in their antagonism to the received traditions than the Lutheran and the Anglican; but all united in rejecting the authority of the pope.和英国圣公会的加尔文的新教去更远的分支机构比路德的对立接收到的传统,但都拒绝了教皇在美国的权威。[Melanchthon for a while was willing to concede this, but only jure humano, or a limited disciplinary superintendency of the Church], the meritoriousness of good works, indulgences, the worship of the Virgin, saints, and relics, the sacraments (other than baptism and the Eucharist), the dogma of transubstantiation and the Sacrifice of the Mass, purgatory, and prayers for the dead, auricular confession, celibacy of the clergy, the monastic system, and the use of the Latin tongue in public worship, for which the vernacular languages were substituted. [同时梅兰希一个愿意承认这一点,但只有在法律上humano,或在有限的纪律监督管理以外的教会](中,体面的好作品,放纵,崇拜的圣母,圣人,和文物,圣礼洗礼和圣体)中,质变的炼狱教条和祭祀的群众,并为死者祈祷忏悔,耳,神职人员独身的,寺院制度和使用的崇拜,拉丁美洲在公众的舌头白话的语言所取代。

2. 2。Sola Fide ("Faith Alone")索拉善意(“信仰单”)

The subjective principle of the Reformation is justification by faith alone, or, rather, by free grace through faith operative in good works.在改革的原则是主观的,理由是由信仰,或者说,由恩典透过信仰自由的执行工作良好。It has reference to the personal appropriation of the Christian salvation, and aims to give all glory to Christ, by declaring that the sinner is justified before God (ie is acquitted of guilt, and declared righteous) solely on the ground of the all-sufficient merits of Christ as apprehended by a living faith, in opposition to the theory - then prevalent, and substantially sanctioned by the Council of Trent - which makes faith and good works co-ordinate sources of justification, laying the chief stress upon works.它参考了基督教救恩个人拨款的,目的是让所有的荣耀基督,宣称这是合理的罪人在神的面前(即是有罪无罪的,并宣布正义的)仅仅是为了在当地的所有自给自足值得基督为信仰而被捕的生活理论,在反对的-那么流行,大幅度制裁的安理会的遄达的-这使得信念和良好的工程统筹理由来源,铺设应力对工程的首席。 Protestantism does not depreciate good works; but it denies their value as sources or conditions of justification, and insists on them as the necessary fruits of faith, and evidence of justification.新教不贬值的优秀作品,但它否认他们的价值来源的理由或条件,以及他们坚持信仰的水果必要和理由的证据。

3. 3。Priesthood of All Believers神职人员的所有信徒

The universal priesthood of believers implies the right and duty of the Christian laity not only to read the Bible in the vernacular, but also to take part in the government and all the public affairs of the Church.普遍神职人员的信徒意味着权利和义务的基督教俗人不仅读白话圣经中,而且要在政府和所有公共事务的教会。It is opposed to the hierarchical system, which puts the essence and authority of the Church in an exclusive priesthood, and makes ordained priests the necessary mediators between God and the people". See also Schaff "The Principle of Protestantism, German and English" (1845).它是反对等级制度,这使教会神职人员在独家的本质和权威,使必要的祝圣司铎之间的调停人神和人民。“看英语也沙夫”和基督教的原则,德国的“( 1845年)。

III.三。DISCUSSION OF THE THREE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTESTANTISM探讨基督教的三个基本原则

A. Sola Scriptura ("Bible Alone")答:唯独圣经(“圣经孤独”)

The belief in the Bible as the sole source of faith is unhistorical, illogical, fatal to the virtue of faith, and destructive of unity.信仰信仰在圣经中作为唯一的来源就是非历史的,不合逻辑的,致命的信心凭借,团结破坏性。

It is unhistorical.这是文保。No one denies the fact that Christ and the Apostles founded the Church by preaching and exacting faith in their doctrines.没有人否认的事实,基督和使徒教会创立他们的学说中所宣扬的信仰和严格。No book told as yet of the Divinity of Christ, the redeeming value of His Passion, or of His coming to judge the world; these and all similar revelations had to be believed on the word of the Apostles, who were, as their powers showed, messengers from God.没有书告诉尚未对基督神性的,赎回价值的世界,他的激情,或他来判断,这些和所有类似的启示,相信都必须对谁的字的使徒,因为他们的权力表现,从上帝的使者。 And those who received their word did so solely on authority.而那些接受他们的话谁这样做完全的权威。As immediate, implicit submission of the mind was in the lifetime of the Apostles the only necessary token of faith, there was no room whatever for what is now called private judgment.作为直接的,含蓄的思想提交的信仰是在人的一生中使徒的唯一必要的道理,没有任何余地判断什么是现在所谓的私密性。 This is quite clear from the words of Scripture: "Therefore, we also give thanks to God without ceasing: because, that when you had received of us the word of the hearing of God, you received it not as the word of men, but (as it is indeed) the word of God" (1 Thessalonians 2:13).这是很清楚的圣经的话从:“因此,我们也没有停止给上帝感谢:因为,当你收到了上帝的话,我们听到的,你收到它不是作为人的道的,但(因为它确实是)上帝的话“(帖前2:13)。 The word of hearing is received through a human teacher and is believed on the authority of God, who is its first author (cf. Romans 10:17).听证会的字是一个人获得通过,是老师)在10:17相信上帝的权威,谁是它的第一作者(参见罗马书。 But, if in the time of the Apostles, faith consisted in submitting to authorized teaching, it does so now; for the essence of things never changes and the foundation of the Church and of our salvation is immovable.但是,如果在时间的使徒,信仰教学包括向政府提交的授权,它现在这样做,对事物的本质从未改变和教会的基础和我们的救恩是不动产。

Again, it is illogical to base faith upon the private interpretation of a book. For faith consists in submitting; private interpretation consists in judging.再次,这是不合逻辑的一本书基地信仰的解释后,私人。递交在于为信仰,私人的解释判断组成研究。In faith by hearing, the last word rests with the teacher; in private judgment it rests with the reader, who submits the dead text of Scripture to a kind of post-mortem examination and delivers a verdict without appeal: he believes in himself rather than in any higher authority.在信仰的听证会,最后一个字在于老师,在私人的判断,在于读者,谁提交的经文文本一死宰种后检查,并提供不得上诉作出判决:他相信自己的能力,而不是在在任何更高的权威。 But such trust in one's own light is not faith.但是,这种信任自己的光在人的不信任。Private judgment is fatal to the theological virtue of faith.私人的判断是致命的信仰神学的美德。John Henry Newman says "I think I may assume that this virtue, which was exercised by the first Christians, is not known at all amongst Protestants now; or at least if there are instances of it, it is exercised toward those, I mean their teachers and divines, who expressly disclaim that they are objects of it, and exhort their people to judge for themselves" ("Discourses to Mixed Congregations", Faith and Private Judgment).纽曼说:“我想我可能会认为这种美德,这是基督徒行使第一,不知道现在在新教徒之间的一切,或者至少,如果有它的实例,它是行使对这些,我的意思是他们的教师和神学家,谁明确声明,他们是它的对象,并告诫本国人民自己来判断“(”论述为混合毕业典礼“,信仰和私人)的判决。 And in proof he advances the instability of Protestant so-called faith: "They are as children tossed to and fro and carried along by every gale of doctrine. If they had faith they would not change. They look upon the simple faith of Catholics as if unworthy the dignity of human nature, as slavish and foolish".而在证明他进步的信仰新教的不稳定性,所谓:“他们是为孩子抛来来回回,进行理论沿着每个大风。如果他们有信心,他们将不会改变。眼光来看待他们的信仰天主教的简单如果不值得人类尊严的性质,因为奴性和愚蠢的“。 Yet upon that simple, unquestioning faith the Church was built up and is held together to this day. Where absolute reliance on God's word, proclaimed by his accredited ambassadors, is wanting, ie where there is not the virtue of faith, there can be no unity of Church.然而,在如此简单,无条件地信仰,教会就建立起来了,并举行了一起,这一天。凡绝对依赖上帝的话,大使宣称他的认可,是希望,即在没有信仰的凭借,就没有统一教会。 It stands to reason, and Protestant history confirms it.不言而喻,和基督教的历史证实了这一点。The "unhappy divisions", not only between sect and sect but within the same sect, have become a byword.在“不快乐分裂”节,不仅在第一节和第三节,但在相同的,已成为一个代名词。They are due to the pride of private intellect, and they can only be healed by humble submission to a Divine authority.他们是由于私人智力骄傲,他们只能通过提交愈合谦虚到一个神圣的权威。

B. Sola Fide (Justification by "Faith Alone")乙索拉善意(理由是“信仰单”)

See the separate article JUSTIFICATION.请参阅单独的文章的理由。

C. Priesthood of All Believers三神职人员的所有信徒

The "universal priesthood of believers" is a fond fancy which goes well with the other fundamental tenets of Protestantism.在“信徒普遍神职人员”是一个喜欢幻想的顺利与其他基本教义的新教。For, if every man is his own supreme teacher and is able to justify himself by an easy act of faith, there is no further need of ordained teachers and ministers of sacrifice and sacraments.因为,如果每个人是自己最高的老师,是能够证明自己的信念行事的一种简单,没有进一步的需要和圣礼受戒牺牲教师和部长。 The sacraments themselves, in fact, become superfluous.圣礼本身事实上,中,成为多余的。The abolition of priests, sacrifices, and sacraments is the logical consequence of false premises, ie the right of private judgment and justification by faith alone; it is, therefore, as illusory as these.取消神父的牺牲,和圣礼是错误的前提必然引起的后果,即私人独自判断和理由的信仰的权利,它是,因此,因为这些是虚幻的。 It is moreover contrary to Scripture, to tradition, to reason.此外,它也违背了圣经,传统,理智。The Protestant position is that the clergy had originally been representatives of the people, deriving all their power from them, and only doing, for the sake of order and convenience, what laymen might do also.新教神职人员的立场是,原本被人代表的,从他们所产生的一切权力,只有这样做方便,而对于和秩序,还可以做什么外行。But Scripture speaks of bishops, priests, deacons as invested with spiritual powers not possessed by the community at large, and transmitted by an external sign, the imposition of hands, thus creating a separate order, a hierarchy.但圣经讲一个等级的主教,司铎,执事,对社会投资不具有的精神力量在大,并转交由外部标志,以便施加手中,从而创造一个单独的。 Scripture shows the Church starting with an ordained priesthood as its central element. History likewise shows this priesthood living on in unbroken succession to the present day in East and West, even in Churches separated from Rome.圣经教会元素开始显示其作为中央1受戒神职人员。历史同样证明在连续不断本西方,甚至在一天,这个教会神职人员东亚和罗马脱离生活。 And reason requires such an institution; a society confessedly established to continue the saving work of Christ must possess and perpetuate His saving power; it must have a teaching and ministering order commissioned by Christ, as Christ was commissioned by God; "As the Father has sent me, I also send you" (John 20:21). Sects which are at best shadows of Churches wax and wane with the priestly powers they subconsciously or instinctively attribute to their pastors, elders, ministers, preachers, and other leaders.与理性需要这样一个机构,一个社会明白地继续建立基督的拯救工作,必须具备和延续基督救恩的力量,它必须有一个教学秩序和服事基督的委托,如同基督是上帝委托,“如父送我,我也送你“(约翰20:21)。教派是在教堂蜡最好的阴影和衰落的,传教士或牧师的权力,他们潜意识本能属性的牧师,长老,部长以及其他领导人。

IV.四。PRIVATE JUDGMENT IN PRACTICE私人判断的实践

At first sight it seems that private judgment as a rule of faith would at once dissolve all creeds and confessions into individual opinions, thus making impossible any church life based upon a common faith.乍一看,它似乎把个人意见私人的判断作为一项规则的信仰将立即解散所有信仰和忏悔,从而无法进行任何教会生活的信心基于一个共同的。 For quot capita tot sensus: no two men think exactly alike on any subject.对于quot人均托特sensus:没有任何两个人都认为正是对任何主题。Yet we are faced by the fact that Protestant churches have lived through several centuries and have moulded the character not only of individuals but of whole nations; that millions of souls have found and are finding in them the spiritual food which satisfies their spiritual cravings; that their missionary and charitable activity is covering wide fields at home and abroad.然而,我们所面临的国家这一事实基督教经历了几个世纪,并塑造整体的性质,不仅对个人而且对,这数百万的灵魂,是他们发现在寻找精神食粮,满足他们的精神渴望,这他们的传教和慈善活动,是国内外广泛的领域涵盖在家里。 The apparent incongruity does not exist in reality, for private judgment is never and nowhere allowed full play in the framing of religions.这些明显的不协调在现实中并不存在,私人的判断是不会,无处可充分发挥宗教在制定。The open Bible and the open mind on its interpretation are rather a lure to entice the masses, by flattering their pride and deceiving their ignorance, than a workable principle of faith.开放的圣经和开放的态度上的解释是相当大的诱惑来吸引群众,通过谄媚他们的骄傲和欺骗他们的无知,比信仰可行的原则。

The first limitation imposed on the application of private judgment is the incapacity of most men to judge for themselves on matters above their physical needs.第一个限制的判断强加给私人申请的是大多数人对自己丧失工作能力的判断就上述事项需要他们的身体。How many Christians are made by the tons of Testaments distributed by missionaries to the heathen?有多少是由基督徒的异教徒吨圣经的传教士分发到?What religion could even a well-schooled man extract from the Bible if he had nought but his brain and his book to guide him? The second limitation arises from environment and prejudices.什么宗教甚至一个良好的受过教育的人从圣经中提取,如果他一无所有,但他的大脑和他的书来指导他?第二个局限和偏见来自于环境。 The assumed right of private judgment is not exercised until the mind is already stocked with ideas and notions supplied by family and community, foremost among these being the current conceptions of religious dogmas and duties.私营判断假设不行使权利,直到心已是社会库存的想法和观念和家庭提供的,其中首要的职责和当前的观念宗教教条。People are said to be Catholics, Protestants, Mahommedans, Pagans "by birth", because the environment in which they are born invariably endows them with the local religion long before they are able to judge and choose for themselves.人们说是天主教徒,新教徒,稗斯林,异教徒“出生”,因为出生的环境,让他们自己都赋予他们与当地的宗教很久以前他们来判断和选择的能力。 And the firm hold which this initial training gets on the mind is well illustrated by the fewness of changes in later life.而该公司持有本心灵得到初步培训就很好地说明了生命fewness后来改。Conversions from one belief to another are of comparatively rare occurrence.信仰转换到另外的发生是比较罕见的。The number of converts in any denomination compared to the number of stauncher adherents is a negligible quantity.该教派信徒人数在任何教徒的人数相比,是微不足道的更可靠的数量。Even where private judgment has led to the conviction that some other form of religion is preferable to the one professed, conversion is not always achieved. The convert, beside and beyond his knowledge, must have sufficient strength of will to break with old associations, old friendships, old habits, and to face the uncertainties of life in new surroundings.即使在私人裁决导致的信念,有些是其他形式的宗教of最好到一个声称,转换不是总能实现。的转换,旁边和他的知识之外,must have,old sufficient strength对将要break with旧associations友谊,旧习惯,并且要面对新的生活环境中的不确定因素的影响。His sense of duty, in many eases, must be of heroical temper.他的责任意识,在许多例,必须是英雄的脾气。

A third limitation put on the exercise of private judgment is the authority of Church and State.第三个限制的裁决提出一个私人的,是行使国家权力的教会和。The Reformers took full advantage of their emancipation from papal authority, but they showed no inclination to allow their followers the same freedom.改革者充分利用了教会的权威从他们的解放,但他们表现出没有兴趣,让他们的追随者同样的自由。Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, and Knox were as intolerant of private judgment when it went against their own conceits as any pope in Rome was ever intolerant of heresy.路德,茨温利,卡尔文,作为判断和诺克斯不能容忍私人任何时候来到罗马教皇对他们作为自以为是以往任何时候都不能容忍的异端邪说。 Confessions of faith, symbols, and catechism were set up everywhere, and were invariably backed by the secular power.信仰的自白,符号和教义,设置了无处不在,无不由世俗权力的支持。In fact, the secular power in the several parts of Germany, England, Scotland, and elsewhere has had more to do with the moulding of religious denominations than private judgment and justification by faith alone.事实上,德国的一些地区的世俗权力,英格兰,苏格兰,和其他地方有更多的跟单成型判断和宗教派别比私人理由的信仰。Rulers were guided by political and material considerations in their adherence to particular forms of faith, and they usurped the right of imposing their own choice on their subjects, regardless of private opinions: cujus regio hujus religio.统治者是出于政治考虑,在他们的坚持和物质的特殊形式的信仰,他们被剥夺了权利主体对自己的选择强加自己,无论个人观点:cujus雷吉奥hujus宗教。

The above considerations show that the first Protestant principle, free judgment, never influenced the Protestant masses at large.上述因素表明,最早的新教原则,自由裁量权,没有影响广大人民群众的新教徒。Its influence is limited to a few leaders of the movement, to the men who by dint of strong character were capable of creating separate sects.它的影响力仅限于少数领导的运动,对男性的性格谁凭借强烈的教派能够创建单独的。 They indeed spurned the authority of the Old Church, but soon transferred it to their own persons and institutions, if not to secular princes.他们的确唾弃的教会权威旧,但它很快转移到自己的个人和机构,如果不是世俗的王子。 How mercilessly the new authority was exercised is matter of history.如何无情地被新的权力行使的是历史问题。Moreover, in the course of time, private judgment has ripened into unbridled freethought, Rationalism, Modernism, now rampant in most universities, cultured society, and the Press.此外,在时间过程中,已成熟到私人判断肆无忌惮的自由思想,理性主义,现代主义,现在社会上最猖獗的大学,培养的,和新闻。 Planted by Luther and other reformers the seed took no root, or soon withered, among the half-educated masses who still clung to authority or were coerced by the secular arm; but it flourished and produced its full fruit chiefly in the schools and among the ranks of society which draw their intellectual life from that source. The modern Press is at infinite pains to spread free judgment and its latest results to the reading public.种子种植路德和其他改革者的发生没有根,或世俗的手臂很快枯萎,在半教育群众,仍然一意孤行,谁的权力或者强迫,但它生产的全面繁荣和成果主要是在学校和各来源职级的社会生活从他们的智力吸引。近代报刊的阅读是市民呕心沥血传播自由裁量权及其最新成果。

It should be remarked that the first Protestants, without exception, pretended to be the true Church founded by Christ, and all retained the Apostles' Creed with the article "I believe in the Catholic Church".应该说,第一个新教徒,毫无例外,假装是真正的教会基督所创立,并保留所有天主教教会的使徒们的信条与相信的文章“我”。 The fact of their Catholic origin and surroundings accounts both for their good intention and for the confessions of faith to which they bound themselves.事实上,他们的周围天主教的起源和账户都对他们的良好愿望和约束自己的供词,他们的信仰。Yet such confessions, if there be any truth in the assertion that private judgment and the open Bible are the only sources of Protestant faith, are directly antagonistic to the Protestant spirit.然而,这种供述,如果有任何圣经真理的说法,即私人的判断和开放是基督教信仰的唯一来源,是直接对立的新教精神。This is recognized, among others, by JH Blunt, who writes: "The mere existence of such confessions of faith as binding on all or any of the members of the Christian community is inconsistent with the great principles on which the Protestant bodies justified their separation from the Church, the right of private judgment.这是公认的人,其中,具有约束力的信念,其全部或任何分离的基督教社区成员是不符合正当的新教团体的伟大原则上由这些口供JH钝,谁写道:“仅仅存在由教会,私人权利的判决。

Has not any member as just a right to criticise and to reject them as his forefathers had a right to reject the Catholic creeds or the canons of general councils?没有任何批评成员,是一项权利,并拒绝他们为他的祖先有权利拒绝了天主教会的信仰或一般大炮呢?They appear to violate another prominent doctrine of the Reformers, the sufficiency of Holy Scripture to salvation.他们似乎违反了另一项突出的学说的改革者,神圣的经文充足得救。If the Bible alone is enough, what need is there for adding articles?如果仅仅是足够的圣经,有什么需要添加的文章?If it is rejoined that they are not additions to, but merely explanations of, the Word of God, the further question arises, amid the many explanations, more or less at variance with each other given by the different sects of Protestantism, who is to decide which is the true one?如果是反驳说,他们不增加,而只是解释的,上帝的话语中,进一步的问题是,在许多explanations与中,或多或少地要who方差是每个新教,其他赋予的不同教派决定哪些是真实的? Their professed object being to secure uniformity, the experience of three hundred years has proved to us what may not have been foreseen by their originators, that they have had a diametrically opposite result, and have been productive not of union but of variance" (Dict. of Sects, Heresies, etc.", London, 1886, sv Protestant Confessions of Faith). By pinning private judgment to the Bible the Reformers started a book religion, ie a religion of which, theoretically, law of faith and conduct is contained in a written document without method, without authority, without an authorized interpreter.他们宣称的目的是要确保统一性,对300年的经验已经向我们证明什么可能没有预见到他们的创始人,他们有一个截然相反的结果,并已生产方差不是工会,而是“(快译通。教派,异端,等等“,伦敦,1886年,希沃特新教信仰的自白)。通过固定的私人判断圣经的改革者开始一书的宗教,即理论上的宗教,其中,法律信仰和行为载在没有办法的书面文件,未经授权,没有授权的翻译。

The collection of books called "the Bible" is not a methodical code of faith and morals; if it be separated from the stream of tradition which asserts its Divine inspiration, it has no special authority, and, in the hands of private interpreters, its meaning is easily twisted to suit every private mind.这些书收集所谓的“圣经”是不是和道德信仰有条不紊代码,如果它要振奋精神分离流的传统,它声称它的神圣,它并没有特殊的权力,并在翻译,私人手中意思是很容易扭曲,以适应每一个私人的想法。 Our modern laws, elaborated by modern minds for modern requirements, are daily obscured and diverted from their object by interested pleaders: judges are an absolute necessity for their right interpretation and application, and unless we say that religion is but a personal concern, that coherent religious bodies or churches are superfluous, we must admit that judges of faith and morals are as necessary to them as judges of civil law are to States.我们的现代法律,阐述了现代思想的现代要求,每天都模糊辩护员挪用和意向对象:法官和应用是绝对必要的解释他们的权利,除非我们说,宗教只是个人的关注,一气呵成宗教团体或教会都是多余的,我们必须承认,道德是法官的信仰和必要的民事法律作为法官,他们是国家。 And that is another reason why private judgment, though upheld in theory, has not been carried out in practice.这是另一种理论私人原因的判断,但维持原判,并没有进行练习了研究。As a matter of fact, all Protestant denominations are under constituted authorities, be they called priest or presbyters, elders or ministers, pastors or presidents.作为一个事实上的,所有新教教派正在组成的当局,无论是所谓的牧师或长老,长老或部长,牧师或总统。Notwithstanding the contradiction between the freedom they proclaim and the obedience they exact, their rule has often been tyrannical to a degree, especially in Calvinistic communities.尽管确切的自由,他们之间的矛盾和服从他们宣布,他们往往被专制统治在一定程度上,特别是在加尔文社区。 Thus in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there was no more priest-ridden country in the world than Presbyterian Scotland.因此,在17世纪和18世纪世界上没有比苏格兰长老会牧师在更加深重的国家。A book-religion has, moreover, another drawback.一本好书,宗教,此外,还有缺点。

Its devotees can draw devotion from it only as fetish worshippers draw it from their idol, viz.它可以利用其信徒虔诚信徒从迷信只画即是从他们的偶像。by firmly believing in its hidden spirit.坚定地相信在其隐藏的精神。Remove belief in Divine inspiration from the sacred books, and what remains may be regarded as simply a human document of religious illusion or even of fraud.删除从信仰神的启示神圣的书籍,以及仍然可能被视为欺诈行为,甚至只是一个人的文件或宗教幻想。Now, in the course of centuries, private judgment has partly succeeded in taking the spirit out of the Bible, leaving little else than the letter, for critics, high and low, to discuss without any spiritual advantage.如今,在世纪过程中,私人判决部分成功地采取了对圣经的精神,使别的很少信,批评家,高与低,没有任何讨论的精神优势。

V. "JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH ALONE" IN PRACTICE五,“因信称义独自在实践”

This principle bears upon conduct, unlike free judgment, which bears on faith. It is not subject to the same limitations, for its practical application requires less mental capacity; its working cannot be tested by anyone; it is strictly personal and internal, thus escaping such violent conflicts with community or state as would lead to repression.这一原则事关行为,不像自由判断,信仰,关系。它是不是受到相同的限制税率,其实际需要较少的心智能力,其工作不能被任何人进行测试,它是严格的个人和内部,从而逃脱社区或国家作为暴力冲突等,会导致镇压。 On the other hand, as it evades coercion, lends itself to practical application at every step in man's life, and favours man's inclination to evil by rendering a so-called "conversion" ludicrously easy, its baneful influence on morals is manifest.另一方面,因为它回避胁迫,出借自己的实际应用在生活的每一个步骤在人的,与所谓的“转换”荒谬容易倾向于人的邪恶倾向呈现一个所谓的,其对道德有害的影响是显而易见的。 Add to justification by faith alone the doctrines of predestination to heaven or hell regardless of man's actions, and the slavery of the human will, and it seems inconceivable that any good action at all could result from such beliefs.添加到理由,由单独的宿命信仰的教义天堂或地狱,无论人的行动和意志,奴役人类,这似乎不可思议,任何良好的行动都可能导致这种信念。 As a matter of history, public morality did at once deteriorate to an appalling degree wherever Protestantism was introduced.作为一个历史的问题,公共道德并立即恶化到令人震惊的程度无论新教介绍。Not to mention the robberies of Church goods, brutal treatment meted out to the clergy, secular and regular, who remained faithful, and the horrors of so many wars of religion, we have Luther's own testimony as to the evil results of his teaching (see Janssen, "History of the German People", Eng. tr., vol. V, London and St. Louis, 1908, 27-83, where each quotation is documented by a reference to Luther's works as published by de Wette).更遑论宗教抢劫教会的商品,粗暴对待打击,神职人员,世俗和定期,谁仍然忠实许多战争,恐怖如此的,我们有路德是他教自己的证词邪恶的结果,作为对(见扬森“,”历史的德国人民,英。文。,第一卷。五,伦敦和圣路易斯,1908年,27-83,每个报价的记载了路德的作品作为一个参考戴维特发表的)。

VI.六。ADVENT OF A NEW ORDER: CÆSAROPAPISM到来的新秩序:CÆSAROPAPISM

A similar picture of religious and moral degradation may easily be drawn from contemporary Protestant writers for all countries after the first introduction of Protestantism.一个道德堕落的宗教和类似的图片可以很容易将来自所有国家的当代基督教新教作家后,第一次引入。It could not be otherwise.它可能是这样。The immense fermentation caused by the introduction of subversive principles into the life of a people naturally brings to the surface and shows in its utmost ugliness all that is brutal in human nature.人民造成的巨大发酵由引进颠覆原则纳入生活带来的自然与自然的表面显示了它的最丑陋的人是残酷的所有研究。But only for a time.但是,只有一个时间。The ferment exhausts itself, the fermentation subsides, and order reappears, possibly under new forms.发酵废气的形式本身,发酵消失了,为了再次出现,可能在新的。The new form of social and religious order, which is the residue of the great Protestant upheaval in Europe, is territorial or State Religion - an order based on the religious supremacy of the temporal ruler, in contradistinction to the old order in which the temporal ruler took an oath of obedience to the Church.新形式的宗教秩序和社会,这是欧洲残留的动荡很新教,是领土或国家宗教-时空统治者的命令至高无上的宗教对比的基础上,在旧秩序中的时间标尺走上了一条宣誓服从教会。 For the right understanding of Protestantism it is necessary to describe the genesis of this far-reaching change.为了正确理解基督教,有必要来描述这种变化的发生深远。

Luther's first reformatory attempts were radically democratic.路德的改革尝试进行第一次彻底的民主。 He sought to benefit the people at large by curtailing the powers of both Church and State. The German princes, to him, were "usually the biggest fools or the worst scoundrels on earth".他寻求国家利益和广大人民群众都通过限制教会的权力。德国王子,他说,是“通常是最大的傻瓜或地球上最坏的坏蛋”。 In 1523 he wrote: "The people will not, cannot, shall not endure your tyranny and oppression any longer. The world is not now what it was formerly, when you could chase and drive the people like game".在1523年,他说:“人民不会,不能忍受的,不得再暴政和压迫。世界是不是现在这是什么以前,当你可以追逐游戏和驱动器一样的人”。 This manifesto, addressed to the poorer masses, was taken up by Franz von Sickingen, a Knight of the Empire, who entered the field in execution of its threats.这份宣言,给贫困群众,采取了由弗朗茨冯济金根,一个威胁骑士帝国,谁执行其进入该领域研究。His object was two-fold: to strengthen the political power of the knights - the inferior nobility - against the princes, and to open the road to the new Gospel by overthrowing the bishops.他的目的是双重的:加强对政治权力的骑士-劣贵族王子-对,并开辟新的福音推翻了主教的道路。His enterprise had, however, the opposite result.他的企业有,但是,相反的结果。The knights were beaten; they lost what influence they had possessed, and the princes were proportionately strengthened.骑士遭到殴打,他们失去了他们拥有什么样的影响,以及首领比例加强。The rising of the peasants likewise turned to the advantage of the princes: the fearful slaughter of Frankenhausen (1525) left the princes without an enemy and the new Gospel without its natural defenders.农民增加了同样转向王子利用了:可怕的弗兰肯豪森屠宰(1525年)留下了敌人的首领,自然没有新的福音没有它的维护者。 The victorious princes used their augmented power entirely for their own advantage in opposition to the authority of the emperor and the freedom of the nation; the new Gospel was also to be made subservient to this end, and this by the help of Luther himself.获胜的王子用他们自己的优势,增强他们的权力完全在反对皇帝的权威和民族的自由,而新的福音,也将屈从于这个目的,并亲自为这所帮助路德。

After the failure of the revolution, Luther and Melanchthon began to proclaim the doctrine of the rulers' unlimited power over their subjects.革命失败后的,路德和梅兰希开始宣讲对象统治者的权力无限,对他们的学说。Their dissolving principles had, within less than ten years, destroyed the existing order, but were unable to knit together its debris into a new system.他们的原则已经解散,在不到十年,破坏了现有的秩序,但无法编织结合的新体系中的碎片到。So the secular powers were called on for help; the Church was placed at the service of the State, its authority, its wealth, its institutions all passed into the hands of kings, princes, and town magistrates.因此,被称为世俗的权力就帮助,教会是财富放置在服务国家,它的权威,它的,其机构全部通过进入,王子手中的国王,镇法官。 The one discarded Pope of Rome was replaced by scores of popes at home.罗马教皇一废弃改为教皇分数在家里。These, "to strengthen themselves by alliances for the promulgation of the Gospel", banded together within the limits of the German Empire and made common cause against the emperor.其中,“加强”自己为福音的联盟颁布的,联合起来的限度内德意志帝国的皇帝和共同的事业作出了反对。From this time forward the progress of Protestantism is on political rather than on religious lines; the people are not clamouring for innovations, but the rulers find their advantage in being supreme bishops, and by force, or cunning, or both impose the yoke of the new Gospel on their subjects.从这个时候提出的新教进展是政治而不是宗教界线,人民是不是叫嚷着要创新,但最高统治者发现自己的优势,被主教,并以武力,或狡诈,或两者强加的枷锁在他们的新福音科目。 Denmark, Sweden, Norway, England, and all the small principalities and imperial towns in Germany are examples in point.丹麦,瑞典,挪威,英格兰,和所有的小公国,在德国帝国城镇便是很好的例子研究。The supreme heads and governors were well aware that the principles which had brought down the authority of Rome would equally bring down their own; hence the penal laws everywhere enacted against dissenters from the state religion decreed by the temporal ruler.最高元首和省长都清楚地知道,自己的原则,带来了罗马的权威将同样带来了他们,因此在时间标尺到处对刑法制定的法律颁布的宗教持不同意见的国家。 England under Henry VIII, Elizabeth, and the Puritans elaborated the most ferocious of all penal codes against Catholics and others unwilling to conform to the established religion.清教徒在英格兰亨利八世,伊丽莎白和阐述了建立宗教最符合凶猛的所有刑法对天主教徒和其他人不愿。

To sum up: the much-vaunted Protestant principles only wrought disaster and confusion where they were allowed free play; order was only restored by reverting to something like the old system: symbols of faith imposed by an outside authority and enforced by the secular arm.总结:在备受赞誉的新教原则造成的灾难和混乱,只有在那里,他们可以自由发挥;秩序恢复了系统唯一的恢复旧的东西,如:实行信仰的符号由一个外部的权力和执行由世俗的手臂。 No bond of union exists between the many national Churches, except their common hatred for "Rome", which is the birthmark of all, and the trade-mark of many, even unto our day.没有工会债券之间存在着许多国家的教会,但他们共同的仇恨“罗马”,这是所有胎记的,而贸易的许多标记,甚至直到我们的一天。

VII.七。RAPIDITY OF PROTESTANT PROGRESS EXPLAINED新教进展快度解释

Before we pass on to the study of contemporary Protestantism, we will answer a question and solve a difficulty.在我们新教传递到当代的研究,我们将回答一个问题,解决困难。How is the rapid spread of Protestantism accounted for?新教是如何迅速蔓延解释呢?Is it not a proof that God was on the side of the Reformers, inspiring, fostering, and crowning their endeavours?这难道不是一个证明,上帝是在培养,侧面的改革者启发,他们的努力和加冕?Surely, as we consider the growth of early Christianity and its rapid conquest of the Roman Empire, as proofs of its Divine origin, so we should draw the same conclusion in favour of Protestantism from its rapid spread in Germany and the northern parts of Europe. In fact the Reformation spread much faster than the Apostolic Church.当然,因为我们认为增长的帝国早期基督教与罗马迅速征服,作为原产地证明了它的神圣,因此我们应借鉴德国和欧洲部分的北部了同样的结论赞成基督教的迅速传播,从它的。事实上,改革的传播速度远远超过了使徒的教会。 When the last of the Apostles died, no kingdoms, no vast tracts of lands, were entirely Christian; Christianity was still hiding in the catacombs and in out-of-the-way suburbs of heathen towns.当使徒最后的死亡,没有王国,没有大片的土地辽阔,完全是基督教,基督教仍藏匿在墓穴中,而这些城镇郊区的异教徒出位。 Whereas, in a period of similar duration, say seventy years, Protestantism had taken hold of the better part of Germany, Scandinavia, Switzerland, England, and Scotland.而在一时间内类似的,说70年来,德国新教已持有部分的更好,斯堪的纳维亚,瑞士,英国和苏格兰。A moment's consideration supplies the solution of this difficulty.片刻的考虑用品的困难解决这一点。Success is not invariably due to intrinsic goodness, nor is failure a certain proof of intrinsic badness.成功并不总是因为内在的善良,也不是失败的一个内在的某些不良的证明。Both largely depend on circumstances: on the means employed, the obstacles in the way, the receptivity of the public.这两种情况在很大程度上取决于:在手段,方式的障碍,公众的接受的。The success of Protestantism, therefore, must itself be tested before it can be used as a test of intrinsic goodness.在新教的成功,因此,本身必须进行测试,然后才能用善良的内在测试。

The reformatory movement of the sixteenth century found the ground well prepared for its reception.16世纪的改革运动的发现地和接待的准备。The cry for a thorough reformation of the Church in head and members had been ringing through Europe for a full century; it was justified by the worldly lives of many of the clergy, high and low, by abuses in church administration, by money extortions, by the neglect of religious duties reaching far and wide through the body of the faithful.成员哭头和彻底的改革教会在欧洲已经敲响,通过对一个完整的世纪,它是,通过合理的神职人员许多世俗生活的高与低,在教会的管理弊端,勒索金钱,通过广泛忽视的深远宗教职责距离远,穿透身体的信徒。 Had Protestantism offered a reform in the sense of amendment, probably all the corrupt elements in the Church would have turned against it, as Jews and pagans turned against Christ and the Apostles.如果新教提出的修正案,改革意识的,大概所有的教会的腐败分子,它会转而反对,因为犹太人和使徒的异教徒对基督和转向。 But what the Reformers aimed at was, at least in the first instance, the radical overthrow of the existing Church, and this overthrow was effected by pandering to all the worst instincts of man.但改革者旨在为实例,至少在第一,现有的教会彻底推翻,这是人为影响推翻通过煽动所有本能最差。A bait was tendered to the seven-headed concupiscence which dwells in every human heart; pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, sloth, and all their offspring were covered and healed by easy trust in God.诱饵是在向七头concupiscence其中住在每个人的心,骄傲,贪婪,欲望,愤怒,暴食,嫉妒,懒惰,和他们所有的后代都淹没和信任容易愈合的神。 No good works were required: the immense fortune of the Church was the prize of apostasy: political and religous independence allured the kings and princes: the abolition of tithes, confession, fasting, and other irksome obligations attracted the masses.没有好作品要求:在教会的巨大财富,是叛教奖:政治和宗教独立的国王和王子赞叹不已:废除了什一税,忏悔,斋戒,以及其他令人侧目的义务吸引群众。 Many persons were deceived into the new religion by outward appearances of Catholicism which the innovators carefully maintained, eg in England and the Scandinavian kingdoms. Evidently we need not look for Divine intervention to account for the rapid spread of Protestantism.许多人被骗到新的创新者精心维护宗教的外表天主教的,如在英国和斯堪的纳维亚王国。显然,我们需要的不是干预寻找神,以帐户为新教迅速蔓延。 It would be more plausible to see the finger of God in the stopping of its progress.这将是更为合理地看到停步的手指神的研究。

VIII.八。PRESENT-DAY PROTESTANTISM现在的天新教

Theology神学

After nearly four centuries of existence, Protestantism in Europe is still the religion of millions, but it is no more the original Protestantism.经过近4个世纪的存在,基督教在欧洲仍然是千百万宗教的,但它已不再是原来的基督教。It has been, and is, in a perpetual flux: the principle of untrammelled free judgment, or, as it is now called, Subjectivism, has been swaying its adherents to and fro from orthodoxy to Pietism, from Rationalism to Indifferentism.它一直是,而且在一个永久的流量:是,不受约束的自由裁量原则,或因为它是现在,主观主义,其信徒一直摇摆来来回回从正统至虔诚主义理性主义,从到Indifferentism。 The movement has been most pronounced in intellectual centres, in universities and among theologians generally, yet it has spread down to the lowest classes.这一运动得到了最突出的知识中心,大学和类之间的神学家一般,但它已蔓延到最低。The modern Ritschl-Harnack school, also called Modernism, has disciples everywhere and not only among Protestants.现代后里奇尔-哈纳克学校,也被称为现代主义,有弟子无处不在,不仅在新教徒。For an accurate and exhaustive survey of its main lines of thought we refer the reader to the Encyclical "Pascendi Dominici Gregis" (8 Sept., 1907), the professed aim of which is to defend the Catholic Church against Protestant infiltrations.对于其主要线路准确详尽的调查和思考,我们是指读者的通谕“Pascendi多米尼奇Gregis”(1907年9月8日)中,宣称目的是抵御渗透新教天主教教会。 In one point, indeed, the Modernist condemned by Pius X differs from his intellectual brothers: he remains, and wishes to remain, inside the Catholic Church, in order to leaven it with his ideas; the other stands frankly outside, an enemy or a supercilious student of religious evolution.在一个点,事实上,现代的X皮乌斯谴责不同于他的智力兄弟:他依然存在,并希望留堂,天主教内,以酵它与他的想法,而其他代表坦率地说外面的敌人或目空一切的学生对宗教的演变。 It should also be noted that not every item of the Modernist programme need be traced to the Protestant Reformation; for the modern spirit is the distilled residue of many philosophies and many religions: the point is that Protestantism proclaims itself its standard-bearer, and claims credit for its achievements.还应指出的是,现代程序不每一个项目的需要追溯到新教改革,为现代的精神是许多宗教的蒸馏残渣和许多哲学:问题是,新教自诩其标准的旗手,并声称信贷所取得的成就。

Moreover, Modernistic views in philosophy, theology, history, criticism, apologetics, church reform etc., are advocated in nine-tenths of the Protestant theological literature in Germany, France, and America, England only slightly lagging behind.此外,在现代哲学的看法,神学,历史,批评,辩护,教会改革等,都主张在九十分之英国的新教神学文学在德国,法国,美国,只稍微落后。 Now, Modernism is at the antipodes of sixteenth-century Protestantism.现在,现代主义是在世纪新教拓地的16 -。To use Ritschl's terminology, it gives new "values" to the old beliefs.若要使用后里奇尔的术语,它提供了新的“价值观”的旧观念。Scripture is still spoken of as inspired, but its inspiration is only the impassioned expression of human religious experiences; Christ is the Son of God, but His Son-ship is like that of any other good man; the very ideas of God, religion, Church, sacraments, have lost their old values: they stand for nothing real outside the subject in whose religious life they form a kind of fool's paradise.圣经仍然是口语的,因为灵感,但它的灵感是唯一的宗教经验,慷慨激昂的表达人类,基督是上帝的儿子,但他的儿子船人好喜欢,任何其他,上帝,宗教,思想非常的,教会圣礼,已经失去了原有的价值观念:他们的问题上没有什么真正的宗教生活外,他们在其形成一个天堂种愚弄的。 The fundamental fact of Christ's Resurrection is an historical fact no longer; it is but another freak of the believing mind.在复活基督的基本事实是一个历史事实不再,它只不过是另一种反常的信心。Harnack puts the essence of Christianity, that is the whole teaching of Christ, into the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of man: Christ Himself is no part of the Gospel!哈纳克把基督教的本质,这是基督的整个教学父,进入上帝和兄弟的人:自己是基督福音的一部分,没有!Such was not the teaching of the Reformers.这种教学不是改革者的。Present-day Protestantism, therefore, may be compared with Gnosticism, Manichæism, the Renaissance, eighteenth-century Philosophism, in so far as these were virulent attacks on Christianity, aiming at nothing less than its destruction.当今基督教,因此,可能会比诺斯替主义,摩尼教,文艺复兴,18世纪Philosophism,只要在这些人对基督教恶毒攻击,破坏其目的无非。 It has achieved important victories in a kind of civil war between orthodoxy and unbelief within the Protestant pale; it is no mean enemy at the gate of the Catholic Church.它取得了重大胜利正统和不信之间的战争中一种民间内新教苍白,它的意思是没有敌人的天主教教会在大门口的。

IX.九。POPULAR PROTESTANTISM最受欢迎新教

In Germany, especially in the greater towns, Protestantism, as a positive guide in faith and morals, is rapidly dying out.在德国,特别是在大城镇,新教的道德,信仰和作为一个积极的引导,正在迅速消亡。It has lost all hold of the working classes.它已经失去了所有的类进行了工作。Its ministers, when not themselves infidels, fold their hands in helpless despair.其部长,本身不是异教徒时,绝望无助的双手折叠研究。The old faith is but little preached and with little profit. The ministerial energies are turned towards works of charity, foreign missions, polemics against Catholics.旧的信仰,只是很少很少宣扬和利润。部长级能源是慈善转身走向工程,外国使团,反对天主教的论战。Among the English-speaking nations things seem just a little better.在讲英语的国家的事情似乎只是一个好一点。Here the grip of Protestantism on the masses was much tighter than in Germany, the Wesleyan revival and the High Church party among Anglicans did much to keep some faith alive, and the deleterious teaching of English Deists and Rationalists did not penetrate into the heart of the people.在这里,群众对抓地力的德国新教明显比严格的卫斯理复兴和党的高教会圣公会之间做了很多保留一些信仰活着,理性的和有害的教学英语Deists没有渗透到心脏的人。

Presbyterianism in Scotland and elsewhere has also shown more vitality than less well-organized sects.长老会在苏格兰和其他地方也出现更多的教派活力比少好组织。"England", says JR Green, "became the people of a book", and that book was the Bible. “英格兰”,说小绿“成为书”人民的,这本书是圣经。It was as yet the one English book which was familiar to every Englishman; it was read in the churches and read at home, and everywhere its words, as they fell on ears which custom had not deadened, kindled a startling enthusiasm.这是迄今在一个熟悉的英语书是每一个英国人,它是在读的教堂和阅读在家里,到处其言,因为他们的热情落在耳朵的习惯并没有惊人的麻木,点燃一。 ...So far as the nation at large was concerned, no history, no romance, hardly any poetry, save the little-known verse of Chaucer, existed in the English tongue when the Bible was ordered to be set up in churches.到目前为止,在大是国家存在的问题,没有历史,没有浪漫,几乎没有任何诗歌,保存已知的诗句乔叟鲜为人知,如英国的舌头时,圣经是教会的规定,受命了研究。 ...The power of the book over the mass of Englishmen showed itself in a thousand superficial ways, and in none more conspicuously than in the influence exerted on ordinary speech.在英国人的书功率质量比显示的方法本身在1000肤浅,在没有更明显高于普通讲话施加的影响。...But far greater than its effect on literature or social phrase was the effect of the Bible on the character of the people at large .但远远大于短语社会对文学的影响或影响了人民的圣经上的特征在逃。..(Hist. of the English People, chap. viii, 1).(Hist.英语的人,第一章。八,1)。

X. PROTESTANTISM AND PROGRESS十,基督教和进展

A. Prejudices答:偏见

The human mind is so constituted that it colours with its own previous conceptions any new notion that presents itself for acceptance.人类的心灵是如此的颜色构成,它接受其本身对自己以前的观念提出任何新的概念,即。Though truth be objective and of its nature one and unchangeable, personal conditions are largely relative, dependent on preconceptions, and changeable.虽然事实是客观的,其性质之一,不可改变的,个人条件,大致是相对的,先入为主的依赖,和多变。The arguments, for example, which three hundred years ago convinced our fathers of the existence of witches and sent millions of them to the torture and the stake, make no impression on our more enlightened minds.更开明的头脑的论点,例如,它300年以前的父亲相信我们的生存和发送的女巫百万他们的酷刑和对我们的股份,不作任何印象。 The same may be said of the whole theological controversy of the sixteenth century.同样可以说,整个16世纪的神学争论。To the modern man it is a dark body, of whose existence he is aware, but whose contact he avoids.对于现代人它是一个黑暗的身体知道,他的存在,但其避免接触他。With the controversies have gone the coarse, unscrupulous methods of attack.随着争论已经消失了粗,肆无忌惮的攻击方法。The adversaries are now facing each other like parliamentarians of opposite parties, with a common desire of polite fairness, no longer like armed troopers only intent on killing, by fair means or foul.现在面对的对手每一个其他类似的反对党议员,以礼貌公平的共同心愿,不再想杀死武装战队只有在犯规的意图,通过公平手段或。 Exceptions there are still, but only at low depths in the literary strata.还有例外,但只是在文学地层深处的低。Whence this change of behaviour, notwithstanding the identity of positions?此行为改变从何而来,尽管身份的立场?Because we are more reasonable, more civilized; because we have evolved from medieval darkness to modern comparative light.因为我们更合理,更文明,因为我们已经从中世纪的黑暗进化到现代的比较轻。And whence this progress?这一进展以及在何时?Here Protestantism puts in its claim, that, by freeing the mind from Roman thraldom, it opened the way for religious and political liberty; for untrammelled evolution on the basis of self-reliance; for a higher standard of morality; for the advancement of science - in short for everygood thing that has come into the world since the Reformation.新教在这里提出索赔,即,通过释放罗马thraldom的心中,它打开政治自由和宗教的方式,为奔放的依赖演化上的基础上自我,为一个更高的道德标准,为科学的进步-在改革中短期的everygood件事是已进入世界自。 With the majority of non-Catholics, this notion has hardened into a prejudice which no reasoning can break up: the following discussion, therefore, shall not be a battle royal for final victory, but rather a peaceful review of facts and principles.大多数的天主教徒与非,这个概念已硬化成一个没有偏见的推理可以打破时间:在下面的讨论,因此,不应一战的最后胜利王室的问题,而是一个和原则peaceful审查的事实。

B. Progress in Church and ChurchesB.进展教会和教会

The Catholic Church of the twentieth century is vastly in advance of that of the sixteenth.在二十世纪的天主教教堂是在16大大推进这一研究。She has made up her loss in political power and worldly wealth by increased spiritual influences and efficiency; her adherents are more widespread, more numerous, more fervent than at any time in her history, and they are bound to the central Government at Rome by a more filial affection and a clearer sense of duty.她已作出了世俗的效率提高的精神财富,她的影响和损失的政治权力和,她的追随者更广泛,更大量,更热情比以往任何历史时期的她,就必然由中央政府在罗马的更多的孝道和义务明确的感知。 Religious education is abundantly provided for clergy and laity; religious practice, morality, and works of charity are flourishing; the Catholic mission-field is world-wide and rich in harvest.宗教教育是十分为神职人员及平信徒,宗教实践,道德和慈善事业蓬勃发展;天主教任务领域是全球性和收获丰富的研究。 The hierarchy was never so united, never so devoted to the pope.在层次结构从来没有这么团结,从来没有如此热衷于教宗。The Roman unity is successfully resisting the inroads of sects, of philosophies, of politics.罗马的团结,是成功抵御邪教的侵蚀政治哲学,研究。Can our separated brethren tell a similar tale of their many Churches, even in lands where they are ruled and backed by the secular power?可以告诉我们许多失散的兄弟教会类似的故事,甚至在土地的权力,他们是统治的世俗和支持?We do not rejoice at their disintegration, at their falling into religious indifference, or returning into political parties.我们不要因他们的解体,在他们的政党落入宗教冷漠,政治或返回到。No, for any shred of Christianity is better than blank worldliness.不,是更好地为基督教世俗较空白任何丝毫的影响。But we do draw this conclusion: that after four centuries the Catholic principle of authority is still working out the salvation of the Church, whereas among Protestants the principle of Subjectivism is destroying what remains of their former faith and driving multitudes into religious indifference and estrangement from the supernatural.但是,我们得出这样的结论:四个世纪后的权力仍然是天主教的原则制定的新教徒之间的主观主义的原则而得救的教会,是什么摧毁了他们以前的隔阂依然冷漠和信仰,并把宗教从众多驾驶超自然的。

C. Progress in Civil Society公民社会正进展

The political and social organization of Europe has undergone greater changes than the Churches.欧洲的社会组织的政治和教会发生了较大变化比。Royal prerogatives, like that exercised, for instance, by the Tudor dynasty in England, are gone for ever.皇家特权,像行使,例如,由英国都铎王朝,是一去不复返了。"The prerogative was absolute, both in theory and in practice. Government was identified with the will of the sovereign, his word was law for the conscience as well as the conduct of his subjects" (Brewer, "Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic etc.", II, pt. I, 1, p. ccxxiv). “政府的特权是绝对的,无论在理论上和实践中。被确定与主权的意志,他的话就是法律的良心,以及为研究对象,进行他的”(布鲁尔,“信件和文件,外国和国内等等“,二角。我,1,第ccxxiv)。 Nowhere now is persecution for conscience' sake inscribed on the national statute-books, or left to the caprice of the rulers.现在是行不通的良心迫害的缘故刻在国家法律图书,或向左统治者任性的。Where still carried on it is the work of anti-religious passion temporarily in power, rather than the expression of the national will; at any rate it has lost much of its former barbarity.它仍然在那里进行的,是宗教工作的热情暂时掌权的反,而不是表达意愿的国家,在任何野蛮率已经失去了它的不少前。 Education is placed within reach of the poorest and lowest. The punishment of crime is no longer an occasion for the spectacular display of human cruelty to human beings.教育是放置在最贫穷,达到最低水平。惩罚犯罪不再是一个人际为壮观的展示人类对人类的残酷。Poverty is largely prevented and largely relieved.贫困主要是防止和大大减轻。Wars diminish in number and are waged with humanity; atrocities like those of the Thirty Years War in Germany, the Huguenot wars in France, the Spanish wars in the Netherlands, and Cromwell's invasion of Ireland are gone beyond the possibility of return.在数量和减少战争是人类发动的,德国的暴行喜欢那些在30年的战争,在法国胡格诺战争,在荷兰,西班牙战争,克伦威尔入侵爱尔兰的回报超越的可能性。 The witch-finder, the witchburner, the inquisitor, the disbanded mercenary soldier have ceased to plague the people. Science has been able to check the outbursts of pestilence, cholera, smallpox, and other epidemics; human life has been lengthened and its amenities increased a hundredfold.巫婆- Finder,也witchburner,审讯者,已解散的雇佣军士兵已不再困扰着人们。科学已经能够检查,天花的爆发瘟疫,霍乱和其他传染病,人的生命已经延长,增加其设施一百倍。 Steam and electricity in the service of industry, trade, and international communication, are even now drawing humanity together into one vast family, with many common interests and a tendency to uniform civilization. From the sixteenth to the twentieth century there has indeed been progress.蒸汽和电力工业的贸易服务,国际交流,即使是现在即将vast family人类together into,有许多共同利益和文明的趋势,以统一的。从16世纪到20方面的工作确实取得了进展。Who have been its chief promoters?究竟是谁是它的主要推动者?Catholics, or Protestants, or neither?天主教徒,或基督教徒,或者没有?

The civil wars and revolutions of the seventeenth century which put an end to the royal prerogatives in England, and set up a real government of the people by the people, were religious throughout and Protestant to the core.英格兰的内战和革命在17世纪的结束在王室的特权,建立一个人民真正的人民的政府,是整个宗教和基督教的核心。"Liberty of conscience" was the cry of the Puritans, which, however, meant liberty for themselves against established Episcopacy.“良心的自由”是主教哭的清教徒,其中,然而,建立自己的意思自由反对。Tyrannical abuse of their victory in oppressing the Episcopalians brought about their downfall, and they in turn were the victims of intolerance.残暴虐待的圣公会在压迫他们的胜利带来的垮台,他们又是不容忍的受害者。 James II, himself a Catholic, was the first to strive by all the means at his command, to secure for his subjects of all the denominations "liberty of conscience for all future time" (Declaration of Indulgence, 1688).詹姆斯二世,自己是天主教徒,是第一个命令力争在他所有的手段,以确保所有面额为他的臣民的“良心自由的未来所有的时间”(1688年宣言的放纵)。 His premature Liberalism was acquiesced in by many of the clergy and laity of the Established Church, which alone had nothing to gain by it, but excited the most violent opposition among the Protestant Nonconformists who, with the exception of the Quakers, preferred a continuance of bondage to emancipation if shared with the hated and dreaded "Papists".他过早的自由主义是默许了它的许多神职人员和俗人的成立教会,因为只有获得了什么,但兴奋的新教新教徒之间谁最激烈的反对,与贵格会例外的,首选的延续如果要解放束缚“共同的憎恨和畏惧”Papists。 So strong was this feeling that it overcame all those principles of patriotism and respect for law of which the English people are wont to boast, leading them to welcome a foreign usurper and foreign troops for no other reason than to obtain their assistance against their Catholic fellow-subjects, in part to do precisely what the latter were falsely accused of doing in the time of Elizabeth.这种感觉是如此强烈,它克服了所有这些夸耀原则爱国主义和对法律的尊重,其中英语的人习惯,领导他们,欢迎他们协助下,对付他们的天主教同胞外国篡权和外国军队为取得比任何其他原因-科目的一部分,这样做正是后者虚假伊丽莎白指责做时间的。

The Stuart dynasty lost the throne, and their successors were reduced to mere figure-heads.斯图亚特王朝的失去了王位,他们的继任者沦为一种数字目。Political freedom had been achieved, but the times were not yet ripe for the wider freedom of conscience.政治自由已经实现,但时间尚未成熟的良心的自由,更广泛。The penal laws against Catholics and Dissenters were aggravated instead of abolished.天主教徒和反对者的刑法对加剧,而不是取消。That the French Revolution of 1789 was largely influenced by the English events of the preceding century is beyond doubt; it is, however, equally certain that its moving spirit was not English Puritanism, for the men who set up a declaration of the Rights of Man against the Rights of God, and who Paris, drew their ideals from Pagan Rome rather than from Protestant England.这是法国1789年革命在很大程度上影响了上世纪由英国的事件毫无疑问,它是,但是,同样可以肯定,其运动的精神是不是英语清教男子,男子谁设立的权利宣言对上帝的权利,谁巴黎,罗马提请异教徒从他们的理想,而不是从英格兰新教。

D. Progress in Religious TolerationD.进度的宗教宽容

As regards Protestant influence on the general progress of civilization since the origin of Protestantism we must mark off at least two periods: the first from the beginning in 1517 to the end of the Thirty Years War (1648), the second from 1648 to the present day; the period of youthful expansion, and the period of maturity and decay.至于进展的30年年底的新教的影响,因为一般的文明的起源,我们必须纪念的新教关闭至少:首先从两个时期开始,到1517年战争(1648年)中,1648秒从本一天,年轻的扩张期,衰退期的成熟和。 But before apportioning its influence on civilization the previous questions should be examined: in how far does Christianity contribute to the amelioration of man - intellectual, moral, material - in this world: for its salutary effects on man's soul after death cannot be tested, and consequently cannot be used as arguments in a purely scientific disquisition. There were highly-civilized nations in antiquity, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, Rome: and there are now China and Japan, whose culture owes nothing to Christianity. When Christ came to enlighten the world, the light of Roman and Greek culture was shining its brightest, and for at least three centuries longer the new religion added nothing to its lustre.但在追究其文明的影响对以前的问题应当审查:在多大程度上确实基督教有助于该男子改良的-知识,道德,物质世界-在这里:它有益soul影响人的死后不能测试,因此不能被用来作为专题论文的论点,一个纯粹的科学性。有文明的国家在古代高度,亚述,埃及,希腊,罗马:和现在有中国和日本,它的文化无债信基督教。当基督来启发世界上,罗马和希腊文化的光明媚的聪明,和至少三个世纪不再增加新的宗教无关,它的光泽。 The spirit of Christian charity, however, gradually leavened the heathen mass, softening the hearts of rulers and improving the condition of the ruled, especially of the poor, the slave, the prisoner.基督教的慈善精神,但是,慢慢酵的异教徒质量,软化统治者的心和改善囚犯的状况,以及被统治,特别是穷人,奴隶,。 The close union of Church and State, begun with Constantine and continued under his successors, the Roman emperors of East and West, led to much good, but probably to more evil.与工会密切君士坦丁教会开始,国家继续在他和接班人,西,东罗马帝王导致了许多很好,但可能更多的邪恶。The lay episcopacy which the princes assumed well-nigh reduced the medieval Church to a state of abject vassalage, the secular clergy to ignorance and worldliness, the peasant to bondage and often to misery.该主教奠定良好的王子假设几乎是减少了中世纪教会一个附庸赤贫状态,无知和世俗世俗的神职人员,农民经常到奴役和苦难。

Had it not been for the monasteries the Church of the Middle Ages would not have saved, as it did, the remnant of Roman and Greek culture which so powerfully helped to civilize Western Europe after the barbarian invasions.如果不是几百年历史的寺庙,教会中的会不会有救,因为它所做的那样,入侵残余的罗马和希腊的文化,以便有力地帮助开化的野蛮人西欧之后。 Dotted all over the West, the monks formed model societies, well-organized, justly ruled, and prospering by the work of their hands, true ideals of a superior civilization. It was still the ancient Roman civilization, permeated with Christianity, but shackled by the jarring interests of Church and State.西点分各地,僧侣们组成的社会模式,精心组织,公正裁决,由上级和文明繁荣的工作他们的一双手,真实的理想。它仍然是古老的罗马文明,基督教洋溢着,但受束缚教会与国家利益的不和谐。 Was Christian Europe, from a worldly point of view, better off at the beginning of the fifteenth century than pagan Europe at the beginning of the fourth?是基督教欧洲,从世俗的角度来看,富裕的第四次年初比15世纪在欧洲异教的开始?For the beginning of our distinctly modern progress we must go back to the Renaissance, the Humanistic or classical, ie pagan revival, following upon the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks (1453); upon the discovery of the new Indian trade route round the Cape of Good Hope by the Portuguese; upon the discovery of America by the Spaniards, and upon the development of all European interests, fostered or initiated at the end of the fifteenth century, just before the birth of Protestantism.对于我们的明显进步的起点,我们必须走现代异教复苏后,在征服君士坦丁堡的土耳其人(1453)回即文艺复兴,人文或古典;轮后发现印度新的贸易通道的歌好望角的葡萄牙,西班牙人发现后,由美国,并呼吁所有欧洲利益的发展,促进或启动在15世纪末,就在新教诞生。 The opening of the New World was for Europe a new creation. Minds expanded with the vast spaces submitted to them for investigation; the study of astronomy, at first in the service of navigation, soon reaped its own reward by discoveries in its proper domain, the starry heavens; descriptive geography, botany, anthropology, and kindred sciences demanded study of those who would reap a share in the great harvest East and West.世界是开放的新欧洲一个新的创造。心灵的调查扩大到他们提交的与空间广阔;的天文学研究,在航行中的第一个服务,很快就赚了适当的奖励自己的域名被发现的,天上的繁星;描述地理学,植物学,人类学,科学和亲属要求那些谁收获研究会获得一个伟大的份额在东,西。 The new impulse and new direction given to commerce changed the political aspect of old Europe.新的动力和新的方向给予商业改变了旧欧洲的政治方面的影响。Men and nations were brought into that close contact of common interests, which is the root of all civilization; wealth and the printing-press supplied the means for satisfying the awakened craving for art, science, literature, and more refined living.男子和国家被带入所有文明的共同利益紧密联系,是哪根;财富和印刷,报刊提供的艺术手段,满足渴求的觉醒,科学,文学和更精致的生活。 Amid this outburst of new life Protestantism appears on the scene, itself a child of the times.面对这一新教爆发新生活场景出现在,这本身就是一个时代的孩子。Did it help or hinder the forward movement? The youth of Protestantism was, naturally enough, a period of turmoil, of disturbing confusion in all the spheres of life.它是否帮助或阻碍向前运动呢?基督教青年的是,很自然,一个动荡时期,令人不安的生活的所有领域的混乱。No one nowadays can read without a sense of shame and sadness the history of those years of religious and political strife; of religion everywhere made the handmaid of politics; of wanton destruction of churches and shrines and treasures of sacred art; of wars between citizens of the same land conducted with incredible ferocity; of territories laid waste, towns pillaged and levelled to the ground, poor people sent adrift to die of starvation in their barren fields; of commercial prosperity cut down at a stroke; of seats of learning reduced to ranting and loose living; of charity banished from social intercourse to give place to slander and abuse, of coarseness in speech and manners, of barbarous cruelty on the part of princes, nobles, and judges in their dealings with the "subject" and the prisoner, in short of the almost sudden drop of whole countries into worse than primitive savagery.没有人现在可以阅读没有争斗和悲伤的耻辱感的政治,宗教和历史这些年,世界各地的宗教政治侍女的,艺术的肆意破坏,教堂和圣地的神圣和珍惜的,公民之间的战争同样的土地进行了令人难以置信的凶猛;领土荒芜,城镇掠夺和夷为平地,穷人送往漂流到饿死在他们贫瘠的土壤中,商业繁荣,减少中风了一个;学习的议席减少到咆哮松散的生活,从社会的慈善放逐性交让位给诽谤和虐待,残酷和野蛮粗俗言语举止,对王公贵族的一部分,并在法官和犯人打交道的“主体”,在短短的野蛮原始的下降几乎突然整个国家陷入不如。 "Greed, robbery, oppression, rebellion, repression, wars, devastation, degradation" would be a fitting inscription on the tombstone of early Protestantism. “贪婪,抢劫,压迫,反抗,镇压,战争,破坏,退化”将是一个早期基督教装修墓碑上的碑文。

But violenta non durant.但violenta非杜兰特。Protestantism has now grown into a sedate something, difficult to define.新教现已发展成为一个安静的东西,很难界定。In some form or other it is the official religion in many lands of Teutonic race, it also counts among its adherents an enormous number of independent religious bodies.在某种形式或其他它是日尔曼种族官方的土地在许多宗教,信徒数亦在其数目庞大的宗教团体独立。These Protestant Teutons and semi-Teutons claim to be leaders in modern civilization: to possess the greatest wealth, the best education, the purest morals; in every respect they feel themselves superior to the Latin races who still profess the Catholic religion, and they ascribe their superiority to their Protestantism.这些新教日尔曼和半日尔曼人声称自己是现代文明的领导人:拥有最大的财富,最好的教育,道德纯洁,在每一个方面,他们觉得自己优于天主教拉丁比赛仍然信奉谁的,他们归咎于他们的优势,他们的基督教。

Man knows himself but imperfectly: the exact state of his health, the truth of his knowledge, the real motives of his actions, are all veiled in semi-obscurity; of his neighbour he knows even less than of himself, and his generalizations of national character, typified by nicknames, are worthless caricatures.人知道自己,但不完全:他的健康的确切状态,他的认识的真理性,行动,真正的动机,他都是默默无闻含蓄半,他知道他的邻居,甚至比自己少,他的国家推广性格,典型的绰号,是毫无价值的漫画。 Antipathies rooted in ancient quarrels - political or religious - enter largely into the judgments on nations and Churches.反感植根于古老的争吵-政治或宗教-主要分为输入和教会的判断上的国家。Opprobrious, and so far as sense goes obsolete epithets applied in the heat and passion of battle still cling to the ancient foe and create prejudice against him.可耻,到目前为止,作为意识去战斗的激情和过时的称呼应用于热仍然停留在以古老的敌人,创造他的偏见。Conceptions formed three hundred years ago amid a state of things which has long ceased to be, still survive and distort our judgments.观念形成了三百年前在一片属于国家的事情,早已停止,仍然生存和歪曲我们的判断。How slowly the terms Protestant, Papist, Romanist, Nonconformist, and others are losing their old unsavoury connotation.如何慢慢的条款新教,Papist,浪漫主义,不墨守成规,和其他正在失去他们的旧令人讨厌的内涵。Again: Is there any of the greater nations that is purely Protestant?再次:是否有任何大的新教国家,这是纯属?The richest provinces of the German Empire are Catholic, and contain fully one-third of its entire population.德意志帝国最富有的省份是天主教徒,并包含充分之一人口的三分之一的整个。In the United States of America, according to the latest census, Catholics form the majority of the church-going population in many of the largest cities: San Francisco (81.1 per cent); New Orleans (79.7 per cent); New York (76.9 per cent); St. Louis (69 per cent); Boston (68.7 per cent); Chicago (68.2 per cent); Philadelphia (51.8 per cent). Great Britain and its colonies have a Catholic population of over twelve millions.在美国,根据最新的人口普查,天主教徒大部分城市形成了许多最大的教堂里正在进行的人口:旧金山(占百分之81.1),新奥尔良(占百分之79.7),纽约(76.9百分之),圣路易斯(占百分之69),波士顿(占百分之68.7),芝加哥(占百分之68.2),费城(占百分之51.8)。英国及其殖民地有12个百万以上人口是天主教徒。 Holland and Switzerland have powerful Catholic provinces and cantons; only the small Scandinavian kingdoms have succeeded in keeping down the old religion.荷兰和瑞士拥有强大的天主教省和各县,只有小型的斯堪的纳维亚王国有宗教成功地压低旧的。A further question suggests itself: granting that some states are more prosperous than others, is their greater prosperity due to the particular form of Christianity they profess?另一个问题表明自己:有些国家给予更比别人富裕,是他们更大的繁荣,因他们信奉基督教的特殊形式?The idea is absurd.这个想法是荒谬的。For all Christian denominations have the same moral code - the Decalogue - and believe in the same rewards for the good and punishments for the wicked.对于所有的基督教教派具有相同的道德准则-十诫-相信惩罚和邪恶的为好,在相同的回报。We hear it asserted that Protestantism produces self-reliance, whereas Catholicism extinguishes it. Against this may be set the statement that Catholicism produces disciplined order - an equally good commercial asset.我们听到它说,基督教产生自力更生,而天主教消灭它。在此可以设置的声明,天主教产生纪律秩序-一个同样良好的商业资产。 The truth of the matter is that self-reliance is best fostered by free political institutions and a decentralized government.事情的真相的是,自力更生是最好的政府培育的自由的政治体制和权力下放。These existed in England before the Reformation and have survived it; they likewise existed in Germany, but were crushed out by Protestant Cæsaropapism, never to revive with their primitive vigour.这些存在于英格兰前改造,并幸存下来,他们也同样存在于德国,但被压碎Cæsaropapism由新教,永不恢复其原始的活力。 Medieval Italy, the Italy of the Renaissance, enjoyed free municipal government in its many towns and principalities: though the country was Catholic, it brought forth a crop of undisciplined self-reliant men, great in many walks of life, good and evil.中世纪的意大利,文艺复兴时期意大利的,享有自由市城镇和公国政府在其很多:虽然是天主教国家,它提出了一个许多作物的散漫自力更生男性,156大的生活,善恶。 And looking at history, we see Catholic France and Spain attaining the zenith of their national grandeur, whilst Germany was undermining and disintegrating that Holy Roman Empire vested in the German nation - an empire which was its glory, its strength, the source and mainstay of its culture and prosperity.和历史看,我们看到法国和西班牙天主教达到顶峰的伟大国家,而德国是破坏和瓦解的神圣罗马帝国的德意志民族归属-它是一个帝国的荣耀,它的力量来源和支柱,它的文化和繁荣。

England's grandeur during the same epoch is due to the same cause as that of Spain: the impulse given to all national forces by the discovery of the New World.英格兰在同一时代的伟大,是因为西班牙的相同,导致为:给定的冲动,新发现的世界所有国家的力量。Both Spain and England began by securing religious unity.西班牙和英国开始通过确保宗教团结。In Spain the Inquisition at a small cost of human life preserved the old faith; in England the infinitely more cruel penal laws stamped out all opposition to the innovations imported from Germany.在西班牙宗教裁判所人类生活在一个小的成本保留了旧的信仰,在英格兰的无限更残酷刑法杜绝所有反对德国进口的创新。 Germany itself did not recover the prominent position it held in Europe under the Emperor Charles V until the constitution of the new empire during the Franco-German War (1871) Since then its advance in every direction, except that of religion, has been such as seriously to threaten the commercial and maritime supremacy of England.德国本身没有恢复它的突出位置在欧洲举行查理五世皇帝下的方向,直到新帝国宪法在法德战争(1871年)此后每隔其前进,除了宗教的,经过如严重威胁英国的海上霸权和商业。 The truth of the whole matter is this: religious toleration has been placed on the statute books of modern nations; the civil power has severed itself from the ecclesiastical; the governing classes have grown alarmingly indifferent to things spiritual; the educated classes are largely Rationalistic; the working classes are widely infected with anti-religious socialism; a prolific press daily and periodically preaches the gospel of Naturalism overtly or covertly to countless eager readers; in many lands Christian teaching is banished from the public schools; and revealed religion is fast losing that power of fashioning politics, culture, home life, and personal character which it used to exercise for the benefit of Christian states.事情的真相全是这样的:宗教宽容已被国家列入现代书籍的章程;公务员的权力已断绝从教会本身,在统治阶级成长惊人的事情漠不关心的精神,在很大程度上是受过教育的阶级理性;工人阶级是感染了广泛的反宗教的社会主义,一个多产每日新闻,并定期宣扬福音的自然主义的或明或暗给无数热心的读者,在许多土地基督教教学是学校放逐,从公众的意见;并透露正在迅速失去的宗教权力塑造政治,文化,家庭生活和个人品格,它用来为国家的利益行使的基督徒。 Amid this almost general flight from God to the creature, Catholicism alone makes a stand: its teaching is intact, its discipline stronger than ever, its confidence in final victory is unshaken.这几乎是全面的飞行中从上帝的造物,天主教,就可以使一个立场:它的教学是完整的,它的纪律比以往任何时候都强,其在最后胜利的信心是坚定不移的。

E. The Test of VitalityE.本试验的生命力

A better standard for comparison than the glamour of worldly progress, at best an accidental result of a religious system, is the power of self-preservation and propagation, ie vital energy.一个世俗的进展更好的比较标准的魅力比,充其量只能是一个宗教体系的一个意外的结果,是能源大国的自我保护和繁殖,即是至关重要的。 What are the facts?什么是事实? "The anti-Protestant movement in the Roman Church" says a Protestant writer, "which is generally called the Counter-Reformation, is really at least as remarkable as the Reformation itself. Probably it would be no exaggeration to call it the most remarkable single episode that has ever occurred in the history of the Christian Church. Its immediate success was greater than that of the Protestant movement, and its permanent results are fully as large at the present day. It called forth a burst of missionary enthusiasm such as has not been seen since the first day of Pentecost. So far as organization is concerned, there can be no question that the mantle of the men who made the Roman Empire has fallen upon the Roman Church; and it has never given more striking proof of its vitality and power than it did at this time, immediately after a large portion of Europe had been torn from its grasp. Printing-presses poured forth literature not only to meet the controversial needs of the moment but also admirable editions of the early Fathers to whom the Reformed Churches appealed - sometimes with more confidence than knowledge. Armies of devoted missionaries were scientifically marshalled. Regions of Europe which had seemed to be lost for ever [for example, the southern portion of Germany and parts of Austria-Hungary] were recovered to the Papacy, and the claims of the Vicar of Christ were carried far and wide through countries where they had never been heard before" (RH Malden, classical lecturer, Selwyn College, Cambridge, in "Foreign Missions", London, 1910, 119-20). “罗马教会的”反基督教运动中的一个新教作家说,“这是一般所谓的反宗教改革,实在是了不起至少本身的改革。也许这将是毫不夸张地称之为最显着的单事件已发生过教会在基督教的历史上。它的直接的成功,更大的新教运动比对,其结果是完全永久的日间在目前大。它提出了所谓的传教热情不爆裂,如已已露面的圣灵降临节的第一天。至于组织方面,就没有生命力question是罗马的地幔的men谁made的罗马帝国的地落到教会,而且它从来没有放弃其突出proof of more比时间和力量却在这之后,立即对欧洲大部分已掌握其撕毁。印花机倒出来的文学不仅要满足目前的需要,但争议的早期版本的父亲也到了令人钦佩的人归正教会呼吁-有时更多的知识与信心比。传教士军专门讨论了科学编组。看来,欧洲地区,而我们要永远失去为例[匈]南部部分,德国和奥地利的部分恢复到教皇,和基督的牧师的索赔进行远近通过“国家,他们从来没有听说过”(相对湿度莫尔登,古典讲师,塞尔温学院,剑桥,在外国使团“,伦敦,1910年,119-20 )。

Dr. G. Warneck, a protagonist of the Evangelical Alliance in Germany, thus describes the result of the Kulturkampf: "The Kulturkampf (ie struggle for superiority of Protestantism against Catholicism in Prussia), which was inspired by political, national, and liberal-religious motives, ended with a complete victory for Rome. When it began, a few men, who knew Rome and the weapons used against her, foretold with certainty that a contest with Romanism on such lines would of necessity end in defeat for the State and in an increase of power for Romanism. . . . The enemy whom we met in battle has brilliantly conquered us, though we had all the arms civil power can supply. True, the victory is partly owing to the ability of the leaders of the Centre party, but it is truer still that the weapons used on our side were blunted tools, unfit for doing serious harm. The Roman Church is indeed, like the State, a political power, worldly to the core, but after all she is a Church, and therefore disposes of religious powers which she invariably brings into action when contending with civil powers for Supremacy. The State has no equivalent power to oppose. You cannot hit a spirit, not even the Roman spirit . . ."博士湾Warneck,一德国福音派联盟的主角在,从而说明了文化斗争的结果:“该文化斗争(即在普鲁士优势斗争的新教反对天主教),这是灵感的政治,国家和自由派宗教动机,结束了罗马的全面胜利。开始时,几个人,谁知道武器用于对付她,预言肯定罗马和一个线路竞赛等将与浪漫主义的必要性和失败为结束该国在浪漫主义增加权力。。。。我们的敌人战斗的人会面,已出色地征服了我们,虽然我们拥有所有武器民事权力可以供应。诚然,胜利的部分原因是该中心能力的领导人党,但它仍然是真实使用的武器方对我们是迟钝的工具,不适合做严重伤害。罗马教会是事实上,像国家,一个政治力量,世俗的核心,但毕竟她是一个教会,因此处置的权力至上的宗教带来她总是把权力与民间行动时争夺。相当于该国已没有权力反对。你不能触及的精神,甚至罗马的精神。。。“ (Der evangelische Bund und seine Gegner", 13-14). The anti-religious Government of France is actually renewing the Kulturkampf; but no more than its German models does it succeed in "hitting the Roman spirit". Endowments, churches, schools, convents have been confiscated, yet the spirit lives. (德evangelische外滩北达科围网盖格纳“,13-14)。法国政府的宗教反实际上是革新文化斗争,但不超过其在德国的模式是否成功”打罗马精神“。禀赋,教堂,学校,修道院也被没收,但精神的光辉。

The other mark of Catholic vitality - the power of propagation - is evident in missionary work.天主教活力其他标志-传播权力-是明显的传教工作。Long before the birth of Protestantism, Catholic missionaries had converted Europe and carried the Faith as far as China.早在基督教诞生,皈依天主教传教士和欧洲进行的信仰据中国。After the Reformation they reconquered for the Church the Rhinelands, Bavaria, Austria, part of Hungary, and Poland; they established flourishing Christian communities all over North and South America and in the Portuguese colonies, wherever, in short, Catholic powers allowed them free play.改造后,他们征服了波兰教会的Rhinelands,巴伐利亚,奥地利,匈牙利的一部分,和,他们建立了蓬勃的自由发挥各地的基督教社区北美和南美和葡萄牙的殖民地,何地,总之,天主教的权力让他们。 For nearly three hundred years Protestants were too intent on self-preservation to think of foreign missionary work.将近三百年的新教徒过于自我保护的目的,认为外国传教士的工作。At the present day, however, they develop great activity in all heathen countries, and not without a fair success.在今天,但是,他们国家的巨大发展异教徒在所有的活动,而不是不公平的成功。Malden, in the work quoted above, compares Catholic with Protestant methods and results: although his sympathy is naturally with his own, his approbation is all for the other side.莫尔登,在上面引述的工作,比较结果天主教与新教的方法和:尽管他的同情,自然是与他自己,他的赞许,是对其他方所有。

XI.十一。CONCLUSION结论

Catholicism numbers some 270 millions of adherents, all professing the same Faith, using the same sacraments, living under the same discipline; Protestantism claims roundly 100 millions of Christians, products of the Gospel and the fancies of a hundred reformers, people constantly bewailing their "unhappy divisions" and vainly crying for a union which is only possible under that very central authority, protestation against which is their only common denominator.天主教信徒人数约270百万,所有信奉同一信仰,使用相同的圣礼,纪律生活在相同;新教严厉索赔100百万基督徒,福音产品的改革者和幻想的一个100,人们经常怨声载道的“不幸师“和妄想分母哭了联盟,这是唯一可能的根据该中心非常权威,抗议针对的是他们唯一的共同。

Publication information Written by J. Wilhelm.出版信息写了J.威廉。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.奉献给耶稣圣心天主教百科全书,卷十二。 Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

For controversial matter see any Catholic or Protestant textbooks.对于有争议的问题看不到有任何天主教或新教的教科书。The Catholic standard work is BELLARMINE, Disputations de Controversiis Christianoe fidei etc.天主教标准工作贝拉明,Disputations德Controversiis Christianoe信德奥迹等(4 vols., Rome, 1832-8); on the Protestant side: GERHARD, Loci Theologici, etc. (4卷。,罗马,1832-8);在新教方面:格哈德,个位点theologici等(9 vols., Berlin, 1863-75). (九卷。,柏林,1863年至1875年)。For the historical, political, and social history of Protestantism the best works are: DÖLLINGER, Die Reformation (3 VOLS., Ratisbon, 1843-51); The Church and the Churches, tr.对于历史,政治,社会和基督教历史上最好的作品是:多林格,模具改造(3卷。,拉蒂斯邦,1843年至1851年),教会和教会,文。 MACCABE (1862); JANSSEN, Hist.麦凯布(1862年);扬森,组织胺。of the German People at the close of the Middle Ages, tr. CHRISTIE (London, 1896-1910); PASTOR, Hist.德国人在中世纪结束对中东,文。斯蒂(伦敦,1996至10年);牧师,组织胺。of the Popes from the close of the Middle Ages, tr.对,章中世纪的教皇从关闭中。ANTROBUS (London, 1891-1910); BALMES, Protestantism and Catholicity in their effects on the civilization of Europe, tr.安特罗比斯(伦敦,1891年至一〇年);巴尔梅斯,基督教和天主教中,章其影响对欧洲的文明。HANFORD AND KERSHAW (1849); BAUDRILLART, The Catholic Church, the Renaissance and Protestantism, tr.汉福德和克肖(1849);博德里亚,天主教教堂,文艺复兴和新教,文。GIBBS (London, 1908), these are illuminating lectures given at the Institut Catholique of Paris by its rector.吉布斯(伦敦,1908年),这是由于在巴黎启发讲座天主教的研究所由校长。On the Protestant side may be recommended the voluminous writings of CREIGHTON and GARDINER, both fair-minded.在新教方可能会被推荐公正的克赖顿的大量著作和嘉丁纳两者。


Also, see:此外,见:
Canons of Dort大炮的dort
Belgic Confessionbelgic自白
Heidelberg Confession海德堡的自白

Helvetic Confession
Westminster Confession
Augsburg Confession


class='qxt' style='DIRECTION: ltr; TEXT-ALIGN: left'>This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语


Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html