Protestant Reformation宗教改革

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A wide - ranging movement of religious renewal in Europe concentrated in the sixteenth century but anticipated by earlier reform initiatives, eg, by Waldensians in the Alpine regions, Wycliffe and Lollardy in England, and Hussites in Bohemia.宽-在欧洲的宗教复兴运动的范围集中在16世纪,但预计到以前的改革举措,如韦尔,在高山地区,威克里夫和Lollardy在英国,波希米亚胡斯派研究。 Although inseparable from its historical context, political (the emergent nation - states and the tactical interplay of forces and interests in Imperial Germany and in the loose Swiss Confederation), socio - economic (particularly urban growth, with expanding trade, the transition to a money economy, and new technologies, notably printing, promoting a new assertive middle class, alongside persistent peasant discontents), and intellectual (chiefly the Renaissance, especially in the Christian humanism of northern Europe), it was fundamentally religious in motivation and objective.虽然它的历史背景分不开的,政治(新兴民族-国家和瑞士联邦战术相互作用的力量和利益在德意志帝国和松散),社会-经济(尤其是城市增长,扩大贸易,过渡到钱经济,新技术,尤其是印刷,促进新的自信的中产阶级,同时坚持农民的不满),智力(主要是文艺复兴时期的欧洲,特别是在北部的基督教人文主义),这是从根本上宗教的动机和目的。

It was not so much a trail blazed by Luther's lonely comet, trailing other lesser luminaries, as the appearance over two or three decades of a whole constellation of varied color and brightness, Luther no doubt the most sparkling among them, but not all shining solely with his borrowed light.也没那么多寂寞彗星的一个线索闪耀路德,尾随其他较小的灯具,由于亮度出现在两个或三十年不同的颜色整个星座的,路德无疑是最有波光粼粼之间,但并非所有的光辉只他借来的光。 The morning star was Erasmus, for most Reformers were trained humanists, skilled in the ancient languages, grounded in biblical and patristic sources, and enlightened by his pioneer Greek NT of 1516.上午的明星是伊拉斯谟,对于大多数改革者人文主义者接受了培训,语言技能,在古代,来源立足于圣经和教父,他的开明和1516先驱希腊新台币。 Although Luther in Wittenberg's new university in rural Saxony had a catalytic effect felt throughout Europe, reform was astir in numerous centers.虽然路德在维滕贝格在萨克森州农村的新的大学有催化作用整个欧洲感到,改革是中心,激动了许多。

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Probably independent in origin was Zwingli's radical reform in Zurich, provoking the thoroughgoing Anabaptist radicalism of the Swiss Brethren.也许是温格利独立起源的激进改革在苏黎世,瑞士的弟兄们挑起彻底的再洗礼派的激进主义。Strasbourg under Bucer's leadership illustrated a mediating pattern of reform, while Geneva, reformed under Berne's tutelage, had by midcentury become an influential missionary center, exporting Calvinism to France, the Netherlands, Scotland, and elsewhere.斯特拉斯堡的领导下布塞珥的说明了一个调解模式的改革,而日内瓦,伯尔尼根据改革的指导下,已到本世纪中叶成为一个有影响力的传教中心,出口加尔文法国,荷兰,苏格兰,和其他地方。 Much of Germany and Scandinavia followed Luther's or perhaps Melanchthon's Lutheranism, while England welcomed a welter of continental currents, at first more Lutheran, later more Reformed, to energize indigenous Lollard undercurrents.许多德国和斯堪的纳维亚之后路德或者梅兰希顿的路德教,而英格兰队迎来了嘈杂的电流大陆,起初更信义,后来更多改革,激发土著罗拉德暗流。

Protestant Objections新教反对

The Reformers' target may be generally described as degenerate late medieval Catholicism, over against which they set the faith of the apostles and the early fathers. Some central target areas may be specified.改革者'的目标大致可描述为堕落中世纪晚期天主教,对危害他们设置的使徒信仰和早期的父亲。一些中央的目标地区可能被指定。

Papal Abuses教皇滥用

There was proliferating abuse, theological and practical, connected with penance, satisfactions, and the treasury of merit.有增殖虐待,神学和实践,满意度与忏悔,以及国库的优点。These practices were the basis of indulgences, to which were directed Luther's Ninety - five Theses with their pivotal affirmation that "the true treasure of the Church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God."这些做法是针对基础上的宽容,对其中路德的95 - 5的肯定与他们的关键论文说,“真正的财富,教会的恩典是神的福音和最神圣的荣耀。”Luther's anguished quest had taught him the bankruptcy of an exuberant piety that never lacked exercises for the unquiet conscience, vows, fasts, pilgrimages, masses, relics, recitations, rosaries, works, etc. The Reformation answer, to which Luther's new understanding of Romans 1 brought him through many struggles, was justification by God's grace in Christ alone received by faith alone.路德的痛苦的追求已教他的良知破产旺盛的虔诚从未不平静的缺乏锻炼的,誓言,斋戒,朝圣,群众,文物,复习,念珠,工程等的改革的答案,而路德的新认识罗马书一带来了许多他通过斗争,理由是由上帝的恩典在基督单仅收到的信仰。

"The righteousness of God is that righteousness whereby, through grace and sheer mercy, he justifies us by faith." “上帝公义的,是正义的,即,通过纯粹的恩典和怜悯,他证明了我们的信心。”Christ's righteousness credited to the believer gave him assurance before God, while he never ceased to be sinful and penitent, for "the whole life of the Christian is one of penitence."基督的义记入了他的信徒在神面前保证,而他从来没有停止有罪和忏悔的基督徒,为“一生的忏悔是其中之一。” Jesus said "Be penitent" (Greek), not "Do penance" (Latin Vulgate).耶稣说:“忏悔”(希腊),而不是“不要忏悔”(拉丁语武加大)。Luther's theology of the cross was a protest against the "cheap grace" of a commercialized, fiscal religion.路德的十字架神学的是一种宗教抗议“廉价恩典财”的商业化。

The False Foundations of Papal Authority教皇权威的虚假的基础

Lorenzo Valla's exposure of the forged Donation of Constantine combined with fresh biblical and historical study to undermine papal pretensions.洛伦索瓦拉的暴露了伪造捐赠君士坦丁结合新的研究圣经和历史,以破坏教皇伪装。 The rock on which the church was built was Peter's faith, and in the early centuries the Roman bishop enjoyed no more than a primacy of honor. While most Reformers professed a readiness to accept a reformed papacy that served to edify the church, so resistant did it prove to even moderate reform that Antichrist seemed a deserved designation.内置岩石上,教会是彼得的信仰,在世纪初的罗马主教享有的荣誉超过一个至高无上的改革者。尽管大多数宣称愿意接受一个经过改革的教皇,它是为了造就教会,所以没有抗它证明,即使温和的改革,反基督似乎是当之无愧的称号。

The Ecclesiastical Captivity of the Word of God对神的话语教圈养

Whether by papal magisterium, church dogma, or the sophistries of schoolmen, canonists, and allegorists, this was a leading target of Luther's "Reformation Treatises" of 1520.不论是由罗马教皇训导,教会教条,或canonists人的院哲学的诡辩和allegorists,这是一个主要目标的1520路德的“论文改革”。 In 1519 he had denied the infallibility of general councils.1519年,他拒绝了议会犯错误一般。The Reformers liberated the Bible, by vernacular translation (notably Luther's German Bible), expository preaching (recommenced by Zwingli), and straighforward grammatichistorical exegesis (best exemplified in Calvin's commentaries).改革者解放圣经中,白话翻译(尤其是路德的德语圣经),讲道(温格利重新开始的),和straighforward grammatichistorical注释(最佳评论体现在加尔文的)。Disputations, often critical in the pacing of reform, operated like communal Bible studies. Disputations,往往改革的关键在起搏,如社区进修部圣经。Thus were the Scriptures enthroned as judge of all ecclesiastical traditions and the sole source of authentic doctrine, as well as experienced as the living power of God in judgment and grace.因此是真实主义的圣经坐床担任法官的所有传统和教会的唯一来源,以及经验丰富的恩典作为判断和生活上帝的力量研究。

The Superiority of the "Religious" Life而“宗教”生命优势

The Reformers maintained a tireless polemic against monasticism, one of the most prominent features of Latin Christianity.改革者保持了不懈的论战对修道,基督教的一个突出特点,拉丁美洲最大。They rejected the distinction between the inferior life of the secular Christian and the higher "religious" world of monk and nun.他们拒绝了较高的区分劣质生活的世俗的基督教和“宗教”和尚和尼姑的世界。The Reformation was a strident protest against this distorted set of values.改革是一个扭曲的价值观强烈抗议这种对立。Luther and Calvin both stressed the Christian dignity of ordinary human callings of artisan, housewife, and plowman.路德和加尔文都强调,家庭主妇基督教呼召普通的工匠人类尊严和农夫。Reformers almost insisted on clerical marriage, by their own example elevating the importance of family life.改革者几乎坚持婚姻文书,由他们自己生活中的例子提升家庭的重要性。From another angle they objected to clerical intrusion into civil affairs, eg, the administration of marriage and divorce, and regarded political office as one of the most significant Christian vocations.从另一个角度来看,他们反对把公务员事务文书入侵,例如,结婚和离婚的管理,并把最重要的基督教职业政治办公为一体的。

Perverted Priesthood and Usurped Mediation扭曲的神职人员和篡调解

The mediation of Mary (though not necessarily her perpetual virginity) and the intercession of the saints were denied alike by the Reformers. Christ alone was exalted as man's advocate before God and God's appointed priest to bear our sins and minister to our frailty.调解的玛丽(尽管不一定是她永远童贞)和圣徒祈求都被剥夺了由改革者。基督单是提倡崇高的人的上帝面前和上帝的任命神父要承担我们的罪过和部长对我们的脆弱性。 By rejecting all but two, baptism and Lord's Supper, of the seven medieval sacraments, the Reformation liberated the faithful from the power of the priesthood.通过拒绝所有主的晚餐,7个中世纪的圣礼,但二,洗礼,并在改革解放了神职人员的信徒从权力。The church lost its indispensable role as sacramental dispenser of salvation.该教堂失去了得救的作用不可或缺圣礼分配器。Transubstantiation was refuted, along with the sacrificial character of the Mass except as the response of thankful hearts and lives.质变是驳斥,随着祭祀性质和生活的群众的心,除了作为响应的感谢。In accordance with NT usage all believers were declared to be by baptism a royal priesthood, free to fulfill a priestly service to others in need of the Word of life.在使用按照新台币所有信徒被宣布为一个皇家神职人员的洗礼,自由,满足生活的圣言祭司需要服务他人。

The Hierarchical Captivity of the Church教会的层次圈养

In response to allegations of innovation and disruption of the church's long - lived unity, the Reformers claimed to be renovators, restorers of the primitive face of the church.在回应指控团结创新生活和破坏教会的长-改革者声称是r enovators,恢复系的教堂的原始面貌。Such a church was not dependent on communion with the papacy or hierarchical succession but was constituted by its election and calling in Christ and recognized by faithfulness to the word and sacraments of the gospel.这样的教会不是依赖继承层次上的交流与教皇或选举产生,但其并呼吁在基督和福音承认这个词的忠诚和圣礼的。Although several Reformers experienced doubts about infant baptism, and both Luther and Bucer hankered after a closer congregation of the truly committed, in the end all stood by the baptism of infants. A major factor was their fear of dividing the civil community which by common baptism could be regarded as coterminous with the visible church.虽然经历了一些改革者怀疑婴儿的洗礼,都路德和布塞珥热衷于众后,更密切的真正的承诺,最终站在所有婴儿的洗礼。一个主要因素是他们怕分裂民间的共同洗礼可视为扩能与有形的教会。 Although the distinction between the church visible (seen by human eyes) and invisible (known only to God) was used by the Reformers, it was not their customary way of acknowledging the mixed character of the church.虽然有形的教会之间的区别(人眼看到的)和无形(只知道向上帝)所使用的是改革者,这不是他们习惯的方式教会承认的混合特征。

The Confusion of Divine and Human神和人的困惑

Reformation theology was strongly theocentric, and clearly reasserted the distinction between Creator and creation.改革神学强烈theocentric,并明确重申了造物主和创造之间的区别。Confusion between the two blighted medieval doctrine in various spheres, Eucharist, church, papacy, and made its influence felt in other areas, such as mysticism and anthropology.混淆两者之间的秕中世纪的学说在各个领域,圣体圣事,教会,教皇,并认为其影响在其他领域的人类学,例如神秘主义和。 With a starkly Augustinian understanding of original sin (qualified somewhat by Zwingli), the Reformers asserted mankind's total spiritual inability apart from the renewal of the Spirit.随着有点温格利赤裸裸地理解奥古斯丁合格的(原罪),改革者主张人类共有的精神无法除了精神重建的。On unconditional election the Reformation spoke almost as one voice.无条件的选举改革上几乎一个声音说话。If Calvin related predestination more closely to providence and directed all his theology to the goal of the glory of God, Luther no less saw God's sovereign Word at work everywhere in his world.如果卡尔文更密切相关的宿命天意,并指示他的所有神学的上帝的荣耀的目标,路德同样看到了他的世界各地神的主权词的工作。

The Legacy of the Reformation论改革开放遗产

Quite apart from the varying hues and shades of their theologies, which owe much to different intellectual and religious formations as well as to temperament, sociopolitical setting, and conviction, the Reformers were not agreed on all issues.且不说从不同的色调和色彩的神学问题,这实有赖不同的智力和宗教编队以及气质,社会政治环境,信念,改革者都没有同意。

Most notoriously they parted company on the Lord's Supper.最臭名昭著的,他们分手的圣餐公司。For Luther the solid objectivity of Christ's presence was created by his word ("This is my body") and could not be vulnerable to the recipient's unbelief.对于路德的存在坚实的客观性基督是由他的字(“这是我的身体”),不能脆弱到收件人的不信。(His position is wrongly called "consubstantiation," because this implies that it belongs to the same conceptual order as "transubstantiation.") Others, even the mature Zwingli, stressed faith's spiritual eating of Christ's body and blood, and Calvin further focused on communion with the heavenly Christ by the Spirit. (他的立场是错误的所谓“consubstantiation”,因为这意味着它属于同一个“质变概念的命令”。)其他,甚至是成熟的茨温利,强调信仰的血精神吃基督的身体,和Calvin进一步交流重点与天上的基督所体现的精神。 In reform of worship and church order both Lutherans and Reformed adopted respectively conservative and more radical approaches.改制改革的崇拜和教会秩序都lutherans和分别通过保守和更激进的做法。A significant difference lay in attitudes toward the Mosaic law.一个显着的差异在于对法律的态度马赛克。Whereas for Luther its primary function is to abase the sinner and drive him to the gospel, Calvin saw it chiefly as the guide of the Christian life.路德鉴于其主要职能是侮的罪人,把他的福音,卡尔文看到它主要是为生命引导基督教。Again, while for Luther Scripture spoke everywhere of Christ and the gospel, Calvin handled it in a more disciplined and "modern" manner.再次,而路德圣经到处讲基督和福音,卡尔文处理方式是在一个更有纪律和“现代”。Overall, "careful Calvin orchestrated Protestant theology most skillfully, but fertile Martin Luther wrote most of the tunes" (JI Packer).总的来说,“认真策划的新教加尔文神学最熟练,但肥沃的马丁路德说曲调大部分”(巴刻)。

Separate attention must be paid to the orthodox Anabaptist Radicals whose Reformation was more sweeping than the "new papalism," as they called it, of the magisterial Reformers. Believers' baptism identified and safeguarded the bounds of the church, the gathered community of the covenanted band.独立必须注意的再洗礼派正统教会自由基的改革“较为彻底的比新papalism,”作为他们所谓的,权威的改革者。信徒的洗礼确定范围和保障的,所收集社会人士对契约约束乐队。 Discipline was essential to maintain its purity (a point not lost on influential Reformed circles).纪律是必须保持其纯度(点没有失去对各界有影响力的改革)。The church's calling was to suffering and pilgrimage, and to total separation from the world. By its accommodation with the empire of Constantine the church had fatally "fallen."该教会的呼召是痛苦和朝圣,并从世界总分离。通过其住所与君士坦丁帝国教会了致命的“下降”。The restitution of the apostolic pattern in all particulars entailed the renunciation of the sword and of oaths.在宣誓归还和剑使徒格局中的所有细节带来的放弃。By advocating toleration, religious liberty, and separation of church and state, such Anabaptists were ahead of their time, and suffered for it.通过倡导宽容,宗教信仰自由,政教分离的教会,并为这些再洗礼派的时间提前,而且遭受。As Christendom dies out in the West, the attraction of the Radical Reformation option appears in a clearer light.由于基督教在西方死亡,选择最精彩的激进改革中出现较清晰的光。

At times, eg, c.有时,如角1540 in Germany, it seemed as though reform - minded Catholics might prevail. 1540在德国,它仿佛改革-志同道合的天主教徒可能会占上风。Rome thought otherwise, and in theology the Catholic reforms of Trent were in large measure counter - Protestant reaction.罗马不以为然,在神学和天主教改革的遄达是在很大程度上打击-新教的反应。If renewal was more evident elsewhere, in the new Jesuit order, the Spanish mystics, and bishops like Francis of Sales, not until the twentieth century and Vatican Council II did the Roman Church take to heart the theological significance of the Reformation.如果重建是其他地方更明显,在新的耶稣会为了销售,直到二20世纪和梵蒂冈理事会,西班牙神秘主义者,主教弗朗西斯没有像罗马教会采取心脏的神学意义的改革。

DF Wright东风赖特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
AC Cochrane, Reformed Confessions of the Sixteenth Century; BJ Kidd, Documents Illustrative of the Continental Reformation; HJ Hillerbrand, The Reformation in Its Own Words; HA Oberman, Forerunners of the Reformation: The Shape of Late Medieval Thought; W Cunningham, The Reformers and the Theology of the Reformation; BMG Reardon, Religious Thought in the Reformation; H Strohl, La pensee de la Reforme; GW Bromiley, Historical Theology: An Introduction; H Cunliffe - Jones, ed., A History of Christian Doctrine; S Ozment, The Age of Reform, 1250 - 1550; HJ Grimm, The Reformation Era 1500 - 1650; AG Dickens, The English Reformation; IB Cowan, The Scottish Reformation; GH Williams, The Radical Reformation; FH Littell, The Anabaptist View of the Church; GF Hershberger, ed., The Recovery of the Anabaptist Vision; PE Hughes, The Theology of the English Reformers; PDL Avis, The Church in the Theology of the Reformers.交流科克伦,归正世纪自白第十六次;北京基德,文件改革说明性的大陆;黄建忠Hillerbrand,言改革在自身;医管局奥伯曼,改革的先声:思想形状的中世纪晚期; W坎宁安的改革者与改革神学的; BMG公司里尔登,宗教思想的改革; Ĥ斯特罗尔,喇庞塞代改革报;毛重罗米立,历史神学:导言; Ĥ坎利夫-琼斯,编辑。,一个基督教学说史中,S欧扎门特,改革时代,1550至50年;黄建忠格林,改革时代的1600至50年;公司狄更斯,英国的宗教改革,兴业科安,苏格兰宗教改革;生长激素威廉姆斯,激进改革;跳频利特尔,再洗礼派的教会观;绿赫什伯格,编辑。,视力恢复的再洗礼派;体育休斯,神学的改革者,英文;牙周阿维斯,改革者在教会的神学。

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