Pseudepigrapha Pseudepigrapha

General Information一般信息

The word pseudepigrapha, meaning "books with false titles," refers to books similar in type to those of the Bible whose authors gave them the names of persons of a much earlier period in order to enhance their authority. Among the best known are 3 and 4 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasses, which are included in the Apocrypha. pseudepigrapha一词,意思是虚假的头衔“书籍”,是指书籍的类型相似,以给他们那些人的姓名,以提高订单更早时期,他们的权威。其中最有名的圣经的作者是三和四埃斯德拉斯和伪经祈祷的玛拿西,其中包括研究。

The term is applied to many Jewish and Jewish - Christian books written in the period 200 BC - 200 AD.该术语适用于许多犹太人和犹太-公元200 -基督教书籍写在公元前200年期间。The Jewish books include Jubilees, Enoch, Psalms of Solomon, Assumption (or Testament) of Moses, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the Sibylline Oracles, and the Apocalypse of Baruch.犹太人的著作包括伊诺克,诗篇的索罗门,圣母升天(或约)摩西Jubilees,祖师圣经的12中,知未来的甲骨文,和巴鲁克的启示。 Fragments of the Damascus Document have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.文件碎片的大马士革已发现的死海古卷中。

Other pseudepigrapha exist in Greek, Slavonic, and other languages, many of them revisions of Jewish books.其他pseudepigrapha存在于希腊语,斯拉夫语,和其他语言,其中许多图书修订的犹太人。These include the Apocalypse of Peter, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the Ascension of Isaiah.这些措施包括彼得的启示,在黑马牧人的,和以赛亚升天的。The Gospel of Thomas and the Protevangelium of James contain many legends about Jesus and Mary and show the influence of Gnosticism, as does the Apocalypse of Adam.托马斯福音和詹姆斯Protevangelium诺斯替主义的含有许多传说耶稣和玛丽和影响显示一样,亚当的启示。The Gospel of Nicodemus is composed of the Acts of Pilate and the Harrowing of Hell.该尼哥底母福音组成的彼拉多的行为与地狱令人不安的。

The pseudepigrapha are important for the light they throw on Judaism and early Christianity.基督教的pseudepigrapha是重要的光,他们早在犹太教和投掷。The Epistle of Jude, for example, reflects a knowledge of Enoch and the Assumption of Moses.该坟墓的裘德,例如,反映了以诺的知识和摩西的设想。

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Bibliography 书目
IH Brockington, A Critical Introduction to the Apocrypha (1961); RH Charles, ed., Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (1913); JH Charlesworth, ed., Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (1986); O Eissfeldt, The Old Testament: An Introduction (1965); PD Hanson, Old Testament Apocalyptic (1987); JT Milik, ed., The Aramaic Books of Enoch (1968); GW Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature between the Bible and the Mishnah (1981); CC Torrey, The Apocryphal Literature (1945).希金顿,一个批判导言伪经(1961年);相对湿度查尔斯,编辑。,伪经和)Pseudepigrapha的旧约(1913年,JH查尔斯沃思,编辑。,旧约Pseudepigrapha(1986年); Ø Eissfeldt,旧约:导论(1965);帕金森汉森,旧约启示录(1987年);托德米利克,编辑。,阿拉姆语书籍的伊诺克(1968年);毛重Nickelsburg,1981年)犹太圣经和文学之间的米示拿(;消委会托里,该猜测文学(1945年)。


Pseudepigraphic WritingsPseudepigraphic写作

Advanced Information先进的信息

(See vol. i. pp. 37, 38, and other places.)(见第二卷。岛页。37,38,和其他地方。)

ONLY the briefest account of these can be given in this place; barely more than an enumeration.只有这个地方,其中以最短的帐户可以得到;勉强超过1枚举。

I. The Book of Enoch. As the contents and the literature of this remarkable book, which is quoted by St. Jude (vv. 14, 15), have been fully described in Dr. Smith's and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography (vol. ii. pp. 124-128), we may here refer to it the more shortly.以诺书。由于内容和显着的15本文学书籍,这是引述了圣裘德(vv. 1月14日),已充分说明在史密斯博士的和wace的第一卷基督教传记辞典(二。页。124-128),我们可以在这里是指在短期内给它的更多。

It comes to us from Palestine, but has only been preserved in an Ethiopic translation (published by Archbishop Laurence [Oxford, 1838; in English transl. 3rd ed. 1821-1838; German transl. by AG Hoffmann], then from five different MSS. by Professor Dillmann [Leipzig, 1851; in German transl. Leipzig, 1853]).它给我们从巴勒斯坦,但至今只有1838年保留在衣索比亚翻译,出版(由大主教劳伦斯[牛津,英文译。第三版。1821年至1838年,德国译。霍夫曼由公司],然后从5个不同的重置。教授Dillmann [莱比锡,1851年,在德国译。莱比锡,1853])。But even the Ethiopic translation is not from the original Hebrew or Aramaic, but from a Greek version, of which a small fragment has been discovered (ch. lxxxix. 42-49;published by Cardinal Mai. Comp. also Gildemeister, Zeitschr. d. D. Morg. Ges. for 1855, pp. 621-624, and Gebhardt, Merx' Arch. ii. 1872, p. 243).但即使是埃塞俄比亚语翻译是不是从原来的希伯来文或阿拉姆语,而是来自希腊的版本,其中一小片段被发现(章lxxxix。42-49;麦发表的基数。比赛。也是德马吉,Zeitschr。Ð Morg。四。格斯。对于1855年,页。621-624,和格巴尔,Merx'拱。二。1872年,第243页)。

As regards the contents of the work: An Introduction of five brief chapters, and the book (which, however, contains not a few spurious passages) consists of fiveparts, followed by a suitable Epilogue.至于工作的内容:简要的介绍五个章节,和书籍(但包含了不少似是而非的段落)fiveparts包括,尾声其次是合适的。 The most interesting portions are those which tell of the Fall of the Angels and its consequences, of Enoch's rapt journeys through heaven and earth, and of what he saw and heard (ch. vi.-xxxvi.); the Apocalyptic portions about the Kingdom of Heaven and the Advent of the Messiah (lxxxiii-xci.); and, lastly, the hortatory discourses (xci.-cv.).最有趣的部分是那些告诉旅途秋季的天使和全神贯注的后果,以诺的通过天地,以及他所看到和听到(章想不起她的名字,三十六。);关于世界末日的部分王国天坛和lxxxiii-xci.降临的弥赛亚()和,最后,劝告话语(xci.-cv.)。 When we add, that it is pervaded by a tone of intense faith and earnestness about the Messiah, 'the last things,' and other doctrines specially brought out in the New Testament, its importance will be understood.当我们添加的,它是由一个充满激烈的语调弥赛亚信仰和对语重心长,'过去的事情,'和新约其他学说的专门带出,其重要性将会被理解。 Altogether the Book of Enoch contains 108 chapters.以诺书共包含108个章节。

From a literary point of view, it has been arranged (by Schurer and others) into three parts:,1.从文学的角度来看,它已被安排(由斯许雷尔以及其他的)分为三个部分:1。The Original Work (Grundschrift), ch.原来的工作(Grundschrift),通道。i.-xxxvi.; lxxii.-cv.一,三十六。; lxxii. -简历。This portion is supposed to date from about 175 BC 2.这部分应该是公元前175日期由约2。The Parables, ch. xxxvii.- liv.的比喻,通道。第三十七.-丽芙。6; lv.6;吕。3-lix.; lxi.-lxiv.; lxix.3 - lix。; lxi. - lxiv。; lxix。26-lxxi.26 lxxi。This part also dates previous to the Birth of Christ, perhaps from the time of Herod the Great.这部分还日期前到基督诞生的,也许从大希律时间。3.3。The so-called Noachian Sections, ch.所谓Noachian组,总。liv.丽芙。7-lv.7 - LV的。2; lx.; lxv.-lxix.2; lx的。; lxv. - lxix。25. 25。To these must be added ch.这些必须补充通道。cvi., and the later conclusion in ch.CVI的。,并在通道后的结论。cviii.cviii。On the dates of all these portions it is impossible to speak definitely.关于发言的日期肯定所有这些部分是不可能的。

II.二。Even greater, though a different interest, attaches to the Sibylline Oracles, written in Greek hexameters.甚至更大,虽然是不同的利益,重视, 知未来的甲骨文,hexameters写在希腊。[1 We have in the main accepted the learned criticism of Professor Friedlieb (Oracula Sibyllina, 1852.] In their present form they consist of twelve books, together with several fragments. Passing over two large fragments, which seem to have originally formed the chief part of the introduction to Book III., we have (1) the two first Books. These contain part of an older and Hellenist Jewish Sibyl, as well as of a poem by the Jewish Pseudo-Phocylides, in which heathen myths concerning the first ages of man are curiously welded with Old Testament views. The rest of these two books was composed, and the whole put together, not earlier than the close of the second century, perhaps by a Jewish Christian. (2) The third Book is by far the most interesting. Besides the fragments already referred to, vv. 97-807 are the work of a Hellenist Jew, deeply imbued with the Messianic hope. This part dates from about 160 before our era, while vv. 49-96 seem to belong to the year 31 BC[1我们主要有在学教授接受了批评弗里德利布(Oracula Sibyllina,1852年。]在它们目前的形式组成12书籍,连同几个片段。传球形成了两个大的碎片,这似乎本来行政三,部分图书的介绍。,我们有(1)前两个图书。这些包含部分旧hellenist犹太人和犹太锡比,以及作为一个诗的犹太伪Phocylides,其中第一个异教徒神话有关奇怪的是男子年龄意见焊接旧约。其余的书籍这两个组成,整个放在一起,不早于本世纪即将结束的第二次基督教,也许一个犹太人。(2)的第三本书是由到目前为止,最有趣的。除了片段已经提到,空隙率。97-807是犹太人的一个hellenist希腊人的工作,深入充满希望的救世主。这部分历史可以追溯到大约160在我们的时代,而空隙率。49-96似乎属于公元前31年

The rest (vv. 1-45, 818-828) dates from a later period.其余的(vv. 1-45,818-828)的日期从后期。We must here confine our attention to the most ancient portion of the work.在这里,我们必须集中我们的注意力到工作中最古老的部分。 For our present purpose, we may arrange it into three parts.就我们现在的目的,我们可以安排它分为三个部分。In the first, the ancient heathen theogony is recast in a Jewish mould, Uranus becomes Noah; Shem, Ham, and Japheth are Saturn, Titan, and Japetus, while the building of the Tower of Babylon is the rebellion of the Titans.在第一,古代异教徒神谱是在一个犹太模具重铸,天王星成为诺亚,闪,含,雅弗是土星,土卫六,和亚珀图斯,而巴比伦建设的塔是泰坦的叛乱。 Then the history of the world is told, the Kingdom of Israel and of David forming the centre of all.那么世界历史上被告知,以色列王国和大卫形成了所有中心。What we have called the second is the most curious part of the work.我们所谓的第二个是最好奇的工作的一部分。It embodies ancient heathen oracles, so to speak, in aJewish recension, and interwoven with Jewish elements.它体现了古代异教徒预言,这么说吧,在aJewish校订,犹太和要素交织在一起。The third part may be generally described as anti-heathen, polemical, and Apocalyptic.第三部分一般可称为反异教徒,论战,和世界末日。

The Sibyl is thoroughly Hellenistic in spirit. She is loud and earnest in her appeals, bold and defiant in the tone of her Jewish pride, self-conscious and triumphant in her anticipations.精神是彻底的锡比希腊英寸她响亮,认真大胆,她呼吁在犹太人和自豪蔑视她的语调,自我意识和期望,在她的胜利。 But the most remarkable circumstance is, that this Judaising and Jewish Sibyl seems to have passed, though possibly only in parts, as the oracles of the ancient Erythraean Sibyl, which had predicted to the Greeks the fall of Troy, and those of the Sibyl of Cumae, which, in the infancy of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus had deposited in the Capitol, and that as such it is quoted from by Virgil (in his 4th Eclogue) in his description of the Golden Age.但最显着的情况是,此Judaising和犹太锡比似乎已经过去了零件,虽然可能只有在作为特洛伊神谕古Erythraean锡比,它曾预测到希腊人的秋天,和那些在锡比库迈,其中,在婴儿时期的罗马,塔克文纽斯超级巴士已存放在国会大厦,并因此它是引用了维吉尔(在他的第四牧歌)在他描述的黄金年龄。

Of the other Sibylline Books little need be said.其他知未来的书没有必要说。 The 4th, 5th, 9th, and 12th Books were written by Egyptian Jews at dates varying from the year 80 to the third century of our era.第4,第5,第9和第12届图书写的是犹太人在埃及每年日期不同时代从80到我们的第三个世纪。Book VI.第六卷。is of the Christian origin, the work of a Judaising Christian, about the second half of the second century.起源是基督教,基督教工作的Judaising世纪,关于第二个是下半年。Book VIII., which embodies Jewish portions, is also of Christian authorship, and so are Books X. and XI.图书八。,体现犹太部分,也是基督教作者,图书等都是十和十一。

III.三。The collection of eighteen hymns, which in their Greek version bear the name of the Psalter of Solomon, must originally have been written in Hebrew, and dates from more than half a century before our era. 所罗门收集18赞美诗,这在他们的希腊文版本名称普索尔特承担的必须在原来已被写入希伯来语和日期从50多世纪以前的时代。 They are the outcome of a soul intensely earnest, although we not unfrequently meet expressions of Pharisiac self-religiousness.他们是灵魂的结果一紧张认真,虽然我们没有unfrequently满足宗教性表达Pharisiac自我。 [1 Comp.[1比赛。for example, ix.例如,九。 7, 9.]7,9。]

It is a time of national sorrow in which the poet sings, and it almost seems as if these 'Psalms' had been intended to take up one or another of the leading thoughts in the corresponding Davidic Psalms, and to make, as it were, application of them to the existing circumstances. [2 This view which, so far as I know, has not been suggested by critics, will be confirmed by an attentive perusal of almost every 'Psalm' in the collection (comp. the first three with the three opening Psalms in the Davidic Psalter).这是一个民族的悲哀唱的时间,其中的诗人,几乎好像这些'诗篇'已打算采取一个或另一个相应的大卫的诗篇的领导思想,并提出,因为它是,他们应用到现有的情况。[2此批评者认为,这种经验据我所知,并没有因有人建议,将确认由一个细心阅读几乎每个'诗篇三'在收集(comp.的的第一人在三个开放的davidic普索尔特诗篇)。 Is our 'Psalter of Solomon,' as it were, an historical commentary by the typical 'sage?'是我们的'普索尔特所罗门,'因为它是一个'圣人的历史评论的典型吗?'And is our collection only a fragment?] Though somewhat Hellenistic in its cast, the collection breathes ardent Messianic expectancy, and firm faith in the resurrection, and eternal reward and punishment (iii. 16; xiii. 9, 10; xiv. 2, 6, 7; xv. 11 to the end). ,是我们收集只是一个片段?投]虽然它在某种程度上希腊,收集呼吸殷切期望救世主,复活的信仰和坚定的,和永恒的奖励和处罚(iii. 16;十三。九,十,十四。二, 6,第7条;十五。11完)。

IV.四。Another work of that class, 'Little Genesis,' or 'The Book of Jubilees' , has been preserved to us in its Ethiopic translation (though a Latin version of part of it has lately been discovered) and is a Haggadic Commentary on Genesis. Professing to be a revelation to Moses during the forty days on Mount Sinai, it seeks to fill lacunae in the sacred history, specially in reference to its chronology.另一个类的工作是,'小创世纪'或' 一书的jubilees,一直保存在我们的衣索比亚翻译(虽然它的一个拉丁美洲部分版本最近已被发现),是一对阿haggadic成因述评。自称是天西奈山一在第四启示摩西,旨在填补历史空白的神圣,年表中特别提到的。 Its character is hortatory and warning, and it breathes a strong anti-Roman spirit.其特点是劝告和警告,并呼吸一个强烈的反罗马的精神。It was written by a Palestinian in Hebrew, or rather Aramaean, probably about the time of Christ.它是由一个巴勒斯坦希伯来文亚兰,或者说,大概是基督时间。The name, 'Book of Jubilees,' is derived from the circumstance that the Scripture-chronology is arranged according to Jubilee periods of forty-nine years, fifty of these (or 2,450 years) being counted from the Creation to the entrance into Canaan.这个名字,'本书的jubilees的,'是源于何种情况下,圣经,按年代排列禧时期四十九年,其中50岁(或2450)被计算从创作到迦南入口进入。

V. Among the Pseudepigraphic Writings we also include the 4th Book of Esdras, which appears among our Apocrypha as 2 Esdras ch.五,在写作的Pseudepigraphic我们也包括我们的伪经四书埃斯德拉斯之间这似乎为2埃斯德拉斯通道。 iii.-xiv.iii.十四。(the two first and the two last chapters being spurious additions).(两个第一和最后两个章节被虚假的补充)。The work, originally written in Greek, has only been preserved in translation into five different languages (Latin, Arabic, Syriac, Ethiopic, and Armenian).这项工作,原本写在希腊,只被保存在亚美尼亚翻译成5)不同的语言(拉丁文,阿拉伯文,叙利亚,埃塞俄比亚语和。 It was composed probably about the end of the first century after Christ.这大概是由基督世纪结束后的第一次。From this circumstance, and the influence of Christianity on the mind of the writer, who, however, is an earnest Jew, its interest and importance can be scarcely exaggerated.从这种情况下,夸大和基督教的影响几乎没有心灵上的作家,谁,但是,是一个认真的犹太人,它的利益和重要性可以。 The name of Ezra was probably assumed, because the writer wished to treat mainly of the mystery of Israel's fall and restoration.在以斯拉名称可能是假设,因为笔者想治疗主要是恢复以色列神秘的下降和。

The other Pseudepigraphic Writings are:其他Pseudepigraphic著作有:

VI. The Ascension (ch. i.-v.) and Vision (ch. vi.-xi.) of Isaiah, which describes the martyrdom of the prophet (with a Christian interpolation [ch. iii. 14-iv. 22] ascribing his death to prophecy of Christ, and containing Apocalyptic portions), and then what he saw in heaven.六。 对于升天节 (章i.-v.) 和远景 (章vi.-xi.通道) 的以赛亚书,其中说明[殉难基督教先知插值(与1。三。14四。22]他的死归咎于基督预言的,并载有大难临头的部分),然后他看到天上研究。 The book is probably based on an older Jewish account, but is chiefly of Christian heretical authorship.这本书可能是基于一个老犹太人的帐户,但主要是基督教异端著作。It exists only in translations, of which that in Ethiopic (with Latin and English versions) has been edited by Archbishop Laurence.它只存在于衣索比亚的翻译,其中的(与拉丁语和英语版本)已经由劳伦斯编辑大主教。

VII. The Assumption of Moses (probably quoted in St. Jude ver. 9) also exists only in translation, and is really a fragment.七。 圣母升天节摩西的报价可能在圣裘德版本。九)也只存在于翻译,是真正的片段。It consists of twelve chapters.它由12个章节。After an Introduction (ch. i.), containing an address of Moses to Joshua, the former, professedly, opens to Joshua the future of Israel to the time of Varus.经过简介(章一),其中载有摩西对约书亚处理,前,自称,打开约书亚以色列未来的时间内翻。

This is followed by an Apocalyptic portion, beginning at ch.其次是一大难临头的一部分,总在开始。 vii.七。and ending with ch.和CH结尾。 x.The two concluding chapters are dialogues between Joshua and Moses.这两个结论章是摩西与约书亚之间的对话。The book dates probably from about the year 2 BC, or shortly afterwards.该书的日期可能是从约公元前2年,或不久之后。Besides the Apocalyptic portions the interest lies chiefly in the fact that the writer seems to belong to the Nationalist party, and that we gain some glimpses of the Apocalyptic views and hopes, the highest spiritual tendency, of that deeply interesting movement.除了有趣的运动启示录部分的利益所在,主要是在事实的作家似乎属于国民党党,那我们得到的一些深瞥见了世界末日的意见和希望,最高精神的倾向。 Most markedly, this Book at least is strongly anti-Pharisaic, especially in its opposition to their purifications (ch. vii.).最显着,这本书至少是大力净化(章第七反自以为是,尤其是在反对他们的。)。We would here specially note a remarkable resemblance between 2 Tim.在这里我们将特别注意一个显着的相似性介于2添。iii.三。1-5 and this in Assump. 1-5,这在Assump。Mos.摩斯。vii.七。3-10:3-10:

(3) 'Et regnabunt de his homines pestilentiosi et impii, dicentes se esse iustos, (4) et hi suscitabunt iram animorum suorum, qui erunt homines dolosi, sibi placentes, ficti in omnibus suiset onmi hora diei amantes convivia, devoratores gulae (5) .(3)'等五regnabunt代他homines pestilentiosi等impii,dicentes本身埃塞iustos,(4)等高科技suscitabunt的IRAM animorum suorum,夸erunt homines dolosi,锡比placentes(ficti在综合suiset onmi一点钟diei阿曼特斯convivia,devoratores gulae ) (6) [paupe] rum bonorum comestores, dicentes se haec facere propter misericordiam eorum, (7) sed et exterminatores, queruli et fallaces, celantes se ne possint cognosci, impii in scelere, pleni et inquitate ab oriente usque ad occidentem, (8) dicentes: habebimus discubitiones et luxurian edentes et bibentes, et potabimus nos, tamquam principes erimus.(6)[paupe]朗姆酒bonorum comestores,dicentes本身勇夺facere propter动人eorum,(7)桑达等exterminatores,queruli等fallaces,celantes本身东北possint cognosci,scelere impii中,pleni等inquitate从头东方usque广告occidentem,(8 )dicentes:habebimus discubitiones等luxurian edentes等bibentes,等potabimus数,tamquam principes erimus。(9) Et manus eorum et dentes inmunda tractabunt, et os eorum loquetur ingentia, et superdicent: (10) noli [tu me] tangere, ne inquines me.'(9)等马努斯eorum等登特斯inmunda tractabunt,等操作系统eorum loquetur ingentia,等superdicent:(10)诺利[图我] tangere,inquines我东北 'But it is very significant, that instead of the denunciation of the Pharisees in vv.但它是非常重要的,这不是在VV在谴责法利。9,10 of the Assumptio, we have in 2 Tim.圣母9,10的,我们在2添。iii.三。5.5。the words 'having the form of godliness, but denying the power thereof.'字'具有神圣的形式,但否认其中的权力。

VIII. The Apocalypse of Baruch. This also exists only in Syriac translation, and is apparently fragmentary, since the vision promised in ch lxxvi.八。 在巴鲁克的启示。这也只存在于叙利亚文翻译,显然是零零碎碎的,因为视觉lxxvi承诺在CH。3 is not reported, while the Epistle of Baruch to the two and a half tribes in Babylon, referred to in lxxvii.三是不报告,而巴鲁克坟墓的两个部落在巴比伦和半提到第七十七号到英寸19, is also missing. 19日,也下落不明。The book had been divided into seven sections(i.-xii.; xiii.-xx.; xxi.-xxxxiv.; xxxv.-xlvi.; xlvii.-lii.; liii.-lxxvi.; lxxvii.-lxxxvii.).该书已被分为七个部分(一至十二。; xiii.-xx.; xxi. - xxxxiv。; xxxv.,四十六。; xlvii. -吕氏。; liii. - lxxvi。; lxxvii.,第八十七号。 )。

The whole is in a form of revelation to Baruch, and of his replies, and questions, or of notices about his bearing, fast, prayers, &c.整个是一个启示的形式向巴鲁克,他的答复,问题,或对他轴承通知,快速,祈祷,及角The most interesting parts are in sections v.最有趣的部分是在第诉and vi.和vi。In the former we mark (ch. xlviii. 31-41) the reference to the consequence of the sin of our first parents (ver. 42; comp. also xvii. 3; xxiii. 4; liv. 15, 19), and in ch.在前者,我们纪念(章48。31-41)的42个参考ver.后果(我们的罪的第一个父母;可比。也是十七。三,二十三。四,丽芙。15,19),以及在CH。 xlix.第四十九届。the discussion and information; with what body and in what form the dead shall rise, which is answered, not as by St. Paul in 1 Cor.讨论和信息;与什么机构,以及以何种形式死人要崛起,这是回答肺心病,而不是由圣保罗1。xv., though the question raised (1 Cor. xv. 35) is precisely the same, but in the strictly Rabbinic manner, described by us in Vol.十五。,虽然提出的问题(1肺心病。十五。35)是完全相同的,但在严格的拉比方式,我们描述了在卷。ii.二。pp. 398, 399.页。398,399。 In section vi.第六节。we specially mark (ch. lxix.-lxxiv.) the Apocalyptic descriptions of the Last Days, and of the Reign and Judgment of Messiah.我们特别纪念(章lxix. - LXXIV号。)的末日启示录的描述,以及执政和弥赛亚的判决。

In general, the figurative language in that Book is instructive in regard to the phraseology used in the Apocalyptic portions of the New Testament.一般来说,在这比喻书是指导新约中关于世界末日的部分中使用的措辞。Lastly, we mark that the views on the consequences of the Fall are much more limited than those expressed in 4 Esdras.最后,我们纪念,今年秋季的后果意见的更为有限埃斯德拉斯4比表示。Indeed, they do not go beyond physical death as the consequence of the sin of our first parents (see especially liv. 19: Non est ergo Adam causa, nisi animae suaetantum; nos vero unusquisque fuit animae suae Adam).事实上,他们没有超出我们的第一次家长肉体死亡的后果的罪恶(尤其见丽芙。19:非编制测功亚当荣誉博士,暂准animae suaetantum;数维罗unusquisque fuit animae suae亚当)。At the same time, it seems to use, as if perhaps the reasoning rather than the language of the writer indicated hesitation on his part (liv. 14-19; comp. also first clause of xlviii. 43).同时,它似乎使用,因为如果可能的推理,而不是作家语言的犹豫,他表示14-19部分(liv.;可比。也是第一四十八条。43)。 It almost seems as if liv.它几乎好像丽芙。14-19 were inteded as against the reasoning of St. Paul, Rom.14-19被inteded作为对光盘推理圣保罗。v. 12 to the end.五,12到结束。

In this respect the passage in Baruch is most interesting, not only in itself (see for ex. ver. 16: Certo enim qui credit recipiet mercedem), but in reference to the teaching of 4 Esdrasm which, as regards original sin, takes another direction than Baruch.在这方面,通过在巴鲁克最有趣的是,不仅本身(参见前。版本。16:切尔托enim夸信贷recipiet mercedem),但在提到另一教学4 Esdrasm其中,关于原罪,需要方向比巴鲁克。But I have little doubt that both allude to the, to them, novel teaching of St. Paul on that doctrine.但我毫不怀疑,无论暗示的,对于他们来说,新的教学圣保罗对这一原则。Lastly, as regards the question when this remarkable work was written, we would place its composition after the destruction of Jerusalem.最后,关于耶路撒冷问题的出色工作时,这是写的,我们将破坏其组成后举行。Most writers date if before the publication of 4 Esdras, Even the appearance of a Pseudo-Baruch and Pseudo-Esdras are significant of the political circumstances and the religious hopes of the nation.如果大多数作家日期前埃斯德拉斯出版4,即使埃斯德拉斯外观伪巴鲁克和伪显着的政治环境和民族宗教的希望。

For criticism and fragments of other Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, comp.对于批评和比赛片段其他旧约Pseudepigrapha。Fabricius, Codex Pseudepigraphus Vet. Test., 2 vols.法氏囊,食品Pseudepigraphus兽医。测试。,2卷。(ed. 2, 1722). (编辑2,1722)。The Psalter of Sol., IV.对溶胶普索尔特。,四。Esdr. (or, as he puts it, IV. and V. Esd.), the Apocal of Baruch, and the Assumption of Mos., have been edited by Fritzsche (Lips. 1871); other Jewish (Hebrew) OT Pseudepigraphs, though of a later date, in Jellinek's beth haMidrash (6 vols.), passin. Esdr。(或者如他所说的那样,四。五,公共服务电子化和。)时,巴鲁克Apocal的,和摩斯的设想。已编辑的弗里切(Lips. 1871年),其他的犹太人(希伯来语)加时赛Pseudepigraphs,虽然1日后,在耶利内克的贝丝haMidrash(6卷。),以传递。 A critical review of the literature of the subject would here be out of place.一个关键的主题审查文献,在这里是不适当的。

From Appendix 1, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah从附录一,生命与时代的耶稣弥赛亚
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886由阿尔弗雷德爱德生,1886年


Also, see:此外,见:
Apocrypha (Old Testament)apocrypha (旧约)
New Testament Apocrypha新约圣经apocrypha

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