Puritanism, Puritans清教主义,清教徒

General Information一般信息

Puritans was the name given in the 16th century to the more extreme Protestants within the Church of England who thought the English Reformation had not gone far enough in reforming the doctrines and structure of the church; they wanted to purify their national church by eliminating every shred of Catholic influence. In the 17th century many Puritans emigrated to the New World, where they sought to found a holy Commonwealth in New England.清教徒是教堂的名称载于教义和结构改革的16世纪的更极端的新教徒的英格兰教会内的足够谁认为英格兰宗教改革以来,并没有走, 他们想消除每一丝一毫净化他们的民族教会的天主教的影响力。在17世纪的许多清教徒移居到新的世界,在那里他们试图找到一个新英格兰神圣英联邦研究。 Puritanism remained the dominant cultural force in that area into the 19th century.清教主义仍是主导该地区的文化力量在进入19世纪。

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English Puritanism英国清教

Associated exclusively with no single theology or definition of the church (although many were Calvinists), the English Puritans were known at first for their extremely critical attitude regarding the religious compromises made during the reign of Elizabeth I. Many of them were graduates of Cambridge University, and they became Anglican priests to make changes in their local churches.没有相关的专门教会神学的或单一的定义(尽管许多人加尔文教派),英国清教徒在他们的第一个已知的非常重要的他们的态度一,关于伊丽莎白的许多宗教统治作出妥协是大学毕业生在英国剑桥大学,他们成为英国圣公会牧师,使在当地教堂的变化。 They encouraged direct personal religious experience, sincere moral conduct, and simple worship services.他们鼓励直接个人宗教经验,真诚的品行,和简单的礼拜服务。Worship was the area in which Puritans tried to change things most; their efforts in that direction were sustained by intense theological convictions and definite expectations about how seriously Christianity should be taken as the focus of human existence.崇拜是在这方面的清教徒试图改变的东西最;这个方向努力,是持续存在的激烈的神学信念的人力和一定的期望如何认真基督教重点应被视为。

After James I became king of England in 1603, Puritan leaders asked him to grant several reforms.1603年后,詹姆斯一世成为英格兰国王,清教徒领袖要求他给予几项改革。At the Hampton Court Conference (1604), however, he rejected most of their proposals, which included abolition of bishops.在汉普顿法院会议(1604年),但是,他拒绝了大多数主教的建议,其中包括取消。Puritanism, best expressed by William Ames and later by Richard Baxter, gained much popular support early in the 17th century.清教,最好由威廉巴克斯特表示艾姆斯,后来由理查德,赢得了民心17世纪早期研究。The government and the church hierarchy, however, especially under Archbishop William Laud, became increasingly repressive, causing many Puritans to emigrate.政府和教会等级制度,但劳德,尤其是在大主教威廉,成为越来越多的镇压,造成许多清教徒移民。Those who remained formed a powerful element within the parliamentarian party that defeated Charles I in the English Civil War.这些谁仍然形成党,击败了强大的元素内的国会议员查尔斯战争我在英国内战。After the war the Puritans remained dominant in England until 1660, but they quarreled among themselves (Presbyterian dominance gave way to Independent, or congregational, control under Oliver Cromwell) and proved even more intolerant than the old hierarchy.战争结束后仍然占主导地位的清教徒在英国,直到1660年,但他们彼此争吵(长老统治地位让位给了独立,或公理,奥利弗克伦威尔控制之下),并证明更比旧的等级制度不能容忍。 The restoration of the monarchy (1660) also restored Anglicanism, and the Puritan clergy were expelled from the Church of England under the terms of the Act of Uniformity (1662). Thereafter English Puritans were classified as Nonconformists.神职人员恢复君主制(1660)也恢复了圣公会,清教徒和被驱逐出英国教会的新教徒的条件下作为法的均匀度(1662年)。 归类此后被英国清教徒。

American Puritanism美国清教

Early in the 17th century some Puritan groups separated from the Church of England. Among these were the Pilgrims, who in 1620 founded Plymouth Colony. Ten years later, under the auspices of the Massachusetts Bay Company, the first major Puritan migration to New England took place.早在17世纪的一些英国清教徒群体分离的教会。 在这些人的朝圣者,谁在1620年创立普利茅斯殖民地。英格兰10年后,新建的主持下在马萨诸塞湾公司,第一大清教徒迁移了地方。 The Puritans brought strong religious impulses to bear in all colonies north of Virginia, but New England was their stronghold, and the Congregationalist churches established there were able to perpetuate their viewpoint about a Christian society for more than 200 years.清教徒带来了强烈的宗教冲动承担一切殖民地弗吉尼亚州北部,但新英格兰是他们的据点,并在那里建立的公理教会能延续他们的观点对超过200年一基督教社会更多。

Richard Mather and John Cotton provided clerical leadership in the dominant Puritan colony planted on Massachusetts Bay.理查德马瑟和约翰棉花提供马萨诸塞湾文职领导的清教徒殖民地的种植优势。 Thomas Hooker was an example of those who settled new areas farther west according to traditional Puritan standards.托马斯胡克是一个标准的例子,那些谁解决的新领域远西根据传统清教徒。Even though he broke with the authorities of the Massachusetts colony over questions of religious freedom, Roger Williams was also a true Puritan in his zeal for personal godliness and doctrinal correctness.虽然他打破了宗教与自由的问题,当局在马萨诸塞州的殖民地,威廉斯在他的热情也一个真正的清教徒个人信仰和理论的正确性。 Most of these men held ideas in the mainstream of Calvinistic thought. In addition to believing in the absolute sovereignty of God, the total depravity of man, and the complete dependence of human beings on divine grace for salvation, they stressed the importance of personal religious experience. These Puritans insisted that they, as God's elect, had the duty to direct national affairs according to God's will as revealed in the Bible.这些人大多在举行加尔文思想的主流思想。除了信奉上帝的绝对主权,人的总堕落,并为神的恩典得救完全依赖对人的生命,他们强调个人的宗教的重要性经验。这些清教徒坚持,他们作为上帝的选举,有责任向国家事务的直接根据上帝的意志作为圣经显示了。 This union of church and state to form a holy commonwealth gave Puritanism direct and exclusive control over most colonial activity until commercial and political changes forced them to relinquish it at the end of the 17th century.这对教会和国家联盟,形成一个神圣的英联邦了清教商业和政治变化的直接和最独家控制的殖民地,直到活动迫使他们放弃它在十七世纪结束的。

Because of its diffuse nature, when Puritanism began to decline in America is difficult to say.由于其弥漫性的性质,当清教徒开始下降,在美国是很难说。Some would hold that it lost its influence in New England by the early 18th century, but Jonathan Edwards and his able disciple Samuel Hopkins revived Puritan thought and kept it alive until 1800.有些人会认为它失去了18世纪初在新英格兰地区的影响力,但乔纳森爱德华兹和他的弟子能够塞缪尔霍普金斯复苏清教徒思想和保持它活着,直到1800年。 Others would point to the gradual decline in power of Congregationalism, but Presbyterians under the leadership of Jonathan Dickinson and Baptists led by the example of Isaac Backus (1724 - 1806) revitalized Puritan ideals in several denominational forms through the 18th century.其他人则指出了公理权力逐渐下降,但-长老会的领导下1724年的乔纳森(巴科斯迪金森和艾萨克浸信会领导的例子,1806年)振兴清教徒理想形式,通过在一些教派18世纪。

During the whole colonial period Puritanism had direct impact on both religious thought and cultural patterns in America.在整个殖民时期的清教在美国已直接影响这两个宗教思想和文化模式。In the 19th century its influence was indirect, but it can still be seen at work stressing the importance of education in religious leadership and demanding that religious motivations be tested by applying them to practical situations.在19世纪的影响是间接的,但它仍然可以看到在工作领导的重要性,强调宗教的教育,并要求宗教动机的情况下进行测试被应用到实际。

Henry Warner Bowden亨利华纳鲍登

Bibliography 书目
S Bercovitch, The Puritan Origins of the American Self (1975); S Brachlow, The Communion of Saints (1988); C Cohen, God's Caress: The Psychology of the Puritan Religious Experience (1986); P Collinson, The Elizabethan Puritan Movement (1967); W Haller, The Rise of Puritanism (1938); CE Hambrick - Stowe, The Practice of Piety (1982); C Hill, Puritanism and Revolution (1967); RD Kendall, The Drama of Dissent 1986); P Lake, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church (1982); P Miller, The New England Mind (1939, 1953); ES Morgan, Visible Saints: The History of a Puritan Idea (1963); SE Prall, ed., The Puritan Revolution: A Documentary History (1968); DB Ruttman, American Puritanism: Faith and Practice (1970); A Simpson, Puritanism in Old and New England (1955); LJ Trinterud, ed., Elizabethan Puritanism (1971); H Trevor - Roper, Catholics, Anglicans, and Puritans (1988); D Wallace, ed., The Spirituality of the Later English Puritans: An Anthology (1988).S Bercovitch,上帝的爱抚清教徒的起源是美国自(1975年);选Brachlow,共融的圣人(1988年);三科恩:该)心理学清教徒的宗教经验(1986年; P哥,伊丽莎白清教徒运动( 1967年); W阿莱,在清教兴起(1938);行政长官哈姆布里克-斯托,实践孝道(1982年); C希尔,清教主义和革命(1967年);路肯德尔,1986年戏剧的异议); P湖,适度清教徒和伊丽莎白教堂(1982年); p米勒,新英格兰心灵(1939年,1953年);胚胎干摩根,可见圣人:)历史的清教徒思想(1963年,东南普罗尔,编辑。,清教徒革命:纪录片的历史(1968年);数据库华特鲁特曼,美国清教:信仰与实践(1970年);阿辛普森)清教在旧的和新英格兰(1955;洛伊Trinterud,编辑。,伊丽莎白清教(1971年); Ĥ特雷弗-罗珀,天主教徒,英国圣公会和清教徒(1988条),d华莱士,编辑。,清教徒灵性的后期英语:文选(1988年)。


Puritanism清教

Advanced Information先进的信息

Puritanism was a loosely organized reform movement originating during the English Reformation of the sixteenth century.清教是一个组织松散的改革运动起源于16世纪的英语教学改革。The name came from efforts to "purify" the Church of England by those who felt that the Reformation had not yet been completed.这个名字来自努力“净化”未完成尚未英格兰教会那些谁认为,改革了。Eventually the Puritans went on to attempt purification of the self and society as well.最终,清教徒接着尝试社会的自我净化和好。

History历史

The theological roots of Puritanism may be found in continental Reformed theology, in a native dissenting tradition stretching back to John Wycliffe and the Lollards, but especially in the theological labors of first - generation English reformers.根的清教神学可能会发现在大陆归正神学,反对在当地Lollards传统可以追溯到约翰威克里夫和,尤其是在劳动第一的神学-一代英语改革者。 From William Tyndale (d. 1536) the Puritans took an intense commitment to Scripture and a theology which emphasized the concept of covenant; from John Knox they absorbed a dedication to thorough reform in church and state; and from John Hooper (d. 1555) they received a determined conviction that Scripture should regulate ecclesiastical structure and personal behavior alike.从威廉代尔(草1536)清教徒了一个强烈的契约承诺,圣经和神学的概念强调,从约翰诺克斯吸收了他们致力于彻底改革的教会和国家,以及从约翰胡珀(草1555)他们收到了决心要坚信圣经教会结构和规范个人行为一样。

Puritans achieved a measure of public acceptance in the early years of Queen Elizabeth's reign.清教徒统治的措施取得了伊丽莎白女王的年公众接受早期。They then suffered a series of reverses that lasted through the reigns of her successors James I and Charles I.然后,他们遭受了一系列挫折和查尔斯的一,通过持续的统治她的继承人詹姆斯一世In the days of James I some Puritans grew discouraged about their reforming efforts and separated entirely from the Church of England. These Separates included the "Pilgrims," who after a sojourn in Holland established in 1620 the Plymouth Colony in what is now southeastern Massachusetts.在詹姆斯的日子里,我有些气馁清教徒增长对他们的改革努力和失散完全从英国教会。分隔包括这些“朝圣者”,谁后,旅居荷兰的殖民地成立于1620年的普利茅斯在现在的马萨诸塞州东南部。

When Charles I attempted to rule England without Parliament and its many Puritan members, and when he tried systematically to root Puritans out of the English church, a larger, less separatistic body emigrated to Massachusetts Bay (1630), where for the first time Puritans had the opportunity to construct churches and a society reflecting their grasp of the word of God.当查尔斯一世企图统治英格兰议会没有和它的许多清教徒的成员,当他试图系统地根清教徒脱离英国教会,一个更大的,更少分裂组织移民到马萨诸塞州湾(1630),其中首次有清教徒有机会兴建教堂和社会反映他们的神掌握的单词。 In England other Puritans continued the struggle for reform.清教徒在英国其他改革继续奋斗。When war with Scotland forced Charles I to recall Parliament in 1640, civil war was the ultimate result.当战争与苏格兰查尔斯一世被迫召回议会在1640年,内战是最终结果。

That conflict ended with the execution of the king (1649), the rise of Oliver Cromwell to the protectorate of England, the production of the Westminster Confession and Catechisms, and the erection of a Puritan Commonwealth.冲突结束与国王执行情况(1649年),崛起的奥利弗克伦威尔的英国保护国,生产的要理问答和威斯敏斯特认罪,并竖立一个清教徒英联邦。 Yet Cromwell, for all his abilities, found it impossible to establish a Puritan state.然而克伦威尔,他的所有能力,发现它不可能建立一个清教徒的国家。After his death (1658), the people of England asked the son of Charles I to return, a restoration marking the collapse of organized Puritanism in England.在他死后(1658),英国的人问我的儿子查尔斯返回,标志着英国崩溃恢复有组织的清教研究。Across the Atlantic a vital Puritanism survived only a little longer.横跨大西洋的一个重要清教存活时间只有一点点。By the time of Cotton Mather (d. 1728) Indian warfare, the loss of the original Massachusetts charter, and a growing secularization had brought an end to Puritanism as a way of life in America.时间到了世俗化的棉花奥美(草1728)印度战争中,美国马萨诸塞州的损失原章程,并带来了越来越结束清教作为一种美的方式生活。

Convictions定罪

Puritanism generally extended the thought of the English Reformation, with distinctive emphases on four convictions: (1) that personal salvation was entirely from God, (2) that the Bible provided the indispensable guide to life, (3) that the church should reflect the express teaching of Scripture, and (4) that society was one unified whole.清教普遍延长了改革思想的英语,与信念:独特的四个重点(1),个人得救完全是上帝,(2)圣经提供了必不可少的生活指南,(3)教会应反映表达教学圣经,(4),社会是一个统一的整体。

The Puritans believed that humankind was utterly dependent upon God for salvation. With their predecessors in England and with Luther and Calvin they believed that reconciliation with God came as a gift of his grace received by faith. 清教徒认为,人类完全依赖上帝救赎卡尔文它们的前辈在英格兰和路德和他们认为,和解与上帝的信仰来作为一个礼物,他收到的宽限期。 They were Augustinians who regarded humans as sinners, unwilling and unable to meet the demands, or to enjoy the fellowship, of a righteous God apart from God's gracious initiative.他们是谁奥古斯丁认为人类的罪人,不愿和不能满足要求,或享受奖学金的神,一个正义除了神的恩典的倡议。

But Puritans also made distinctive contributions to the general Reformed idea of salvation.但是,清教徒也取得了显着贡献的救赎一般改革的想法。They advocated a "plain style" of preaching, as exemplified in the masterful sermons of John Dod (1555 - 1645) and William Perkins (1558 - 1602), which was consciously designed to point out simply the broad way of destruction and the strait gate to heaven. They also placed a new emphasis on the process of conversion.他们主张“的”说教平原风格,体现和门海峡的高超说教约翰国防部(1555年至1645年)和威廉珀金斯(1558年至1602年),这是有意识地设计出简单一点的方式广泛的破坏到天上去了。他们也把一个新的转换过程中的重点。 In the journals and diaries of leaders like Thomas Shepard (1605 - 49) they charted the slow, and often painful, process by which God brought them from rebellion to obedience.在期刊和)日记49的领导人喜欢托马斯谢泼德(1605年-他们绘制了缓慢,而且往往是痛苦的,过程,神使他们从反叛到服从。 They also spoke of salvation in terms of "covenant." In the notes to the Geneva Bible, the translation of proto - Puritans completed during the reign of Mary Tudor, emphasis was on a personal covenant of grace, whereby God both promised life to those who exercised faith in Christ and graciously provided that faith, on the basis of Christ's sacrificial death, to the elect.他们还谈到了在公约条款的拯救“。”在强调说明,以日内瓦圣经翻译,原玛丽-清教徒统治期间完成铎,这些是在个人生活公约的宽限期,即上帝都答应谁行使在基督信仰和慷慨地提供了这种信心,在死亡的基础上,基督的牺牲,为选出。

Later Puritans expanded the idea of covenant to take in the organization of churches, seen most clearly in the rise of Congregationalism (or Independency) and the structuring of all society under God, of which the "Holy Commonwealths" of Massachusetts and Connecticut were the major examples.后来清教徒扩大了公约的理念参加教会组织的,最清楚地看到所有社会中的上升公理(或独立性的结构)和上帝之下,其中的“神圣独联体”马萨诸塞州和康涅狄格州是主要的例子。

With the early English Reformers the Puritans believed, second, in the supreme authority of the Bible. The use of Scripture, however, soon came to be a great cause of offense between Puritans and their Anglican opponents and among Puritans themselves.随着早期英语改革者清教徒认为,第二圣经在至高无上权力。使用的圣经,但是,很快就成为一个清教徒自己的伟大事业中的罪行和他们之间的清教徒和英国圣公会的对手。 Puritans, Anglicans, and the many in between all believed in the Bible's final authority. But Puritans came to argue that Christians should do only what the Bible commanded.清教徒,英国圣公会,和许多的最终权力的关系都相信圣经。 但清教徒来到认为,基督徒应该做的只是什么圣经指挥。Anglicans contended rather that Christians should not do what the Bible prohibited. The difference was subtle but profound.圣公会争辩而基督徒不应该做什么圣经禁止的。所不同的是微妙而深刻的。 Among Puritans considerable differences eventually appeared over what Scripture demanded, especially in questions relating to the church.在清教徒相当大的分歧最终出现什么经文要求,特别是在教会的问题有关。

Some (mostly in England) contended for a presbyterian state - church organization, others (in Massachusetts and Connecticut) supported a congregational organization in league with the state, while still others (English Independents and Baptists as well as Roger Williams in New England) believed that the Bible mandated congregational churches separate from the state.一些国家(主要在英国)争夺的一个长老会的状态-教会组织和康涅狄格等(马萨诸塞州)支持国家堂组织联赛,而还有些人(英文独立和浸礼会以及罗杰威廉斯在新英格兰)认为圣经授权的国家从公理教会分开。 In short, Puritans disagreed with Anglicans about the way to interpret the Bible, but they differed among themselves about which biblical interpretations were best. The former disagreement dominated English religious life so long as the king and his episcopalian allies were in control.总之,清教徒不同意圣公会约圣经的方式来解释,但他们自己不同的解释圣经中哪些是最好的。分歧,前者占主导地位的宗教生活英语,只要国王和他的圣公会盟友控制的研究。 The latter came to the fore after the success of the Puritan Revolution, and it led to the disintegration of Puritanism in England.后者来到革命成功后,脱颖而出的清教徒,它导致了英国解体的清教研究。

These disagreements should not hide the Puritans' overriding commitment to the authority of Scripture. They made as serious an attempt as has ever been made in the English - speaking world to establish their lives on the basis of biblical instruction. When Puritan efforts to reform the kingdom of England faltered in the last years of Elizabeth's reign, they turned to the one sphere they could still control, their individual families.这些分歧不应该隐藏清教徒对圣经的权力压倒一切的承诺。 作出认真的改革,他们企图是有史以来取得的英文-全球基础上建立自己的生活圣经的指示。当清教徒的努力英格兰王国的统治摇摇欲坠的伊丽莎白在过去几年中,他们把一个领域,他们仍然可以控制,他们的每一个家庭。 It was during this period around 1600 that Puritans began to place new emphasis on the sabbath, to revive family worship, and to encourage personal acts of mercy to the sick and dying.正是在这个时期1600年左右,即安息日清教徒开始就发生的新重点,要重振家庭礼拜,并鼓励个人行为的怜悯的生病和死亡。 When Puritan prospects brightened in the 164os, this "spiritualization of the household" emerged into the open.当清教徒前景光明的164os,这个家庭的“精神文明的”出现公开化。

Puritans believed, third, that the church should be organized from Scripture. Anglicans contended that episcopacy, since it was tried and tested by time and did not violate any command of Scripture, was a godly and appropriate way of organizing the church. 清教徒认为,第三,教会应该是圣经举办。圣公会主教争辩说,因为它是经得起考验的时候,并没有违反任何命令的圣经,是一个虔诚的教会组织和适当的方法。 Puritans responded that the defenders of episcopacy missed the point, for they neglected to follow the positive teachings of the Bible. Puritans argued that Scripture laid down specific rules for constructing and governing churches.清教徒回应时表示,主教的捍卫者忽略了一点,因为他们忽视了按照圣经的积极教诲。清教徒认为圣经教会定下具体的规则管辖的建设和。 Furthermore, the Bible taught a system of church order that was not based on bishops.此外,圣经教导一阶系统的主教教堂,这不是基于。Puritans maintained this conviction even when they failed among themselves to agree on what that biblical system was.清教徒保持这种信念,即使在他们自己之间未能达成一致意见是什么圣经系统。But even these disagreements were fruitful, for they grounded the modern polity of Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Baptists as well.但是,即使这些分歧是富有成果的,因为他们的基础,公理现代政体的长老会,浸信会,以及和。

The reason that Puritan beliefs concerning salvation, Scripture, and the church created such upheaval was their fourth basic conviction, that God had sanctioned the solidarity of society. Most Puritans believed that a single, coordinated set of authorities should govern life in society.清教徒信仰的原因,关于救赎,圣经和教会建立这种动乱是他们第四个基本信念, 上帝已经批准了社会的团结。大部分清教徒认为,一个单一的,协调机关应设置管理社会生活研究。The result was that Puritans sought nothing less than to make all England Puritan. Only late during the Puritan Commonwealth did ideas of toleration and of what is known today as pluralism arise, but these ideas were combated by most Puritans themselves and firmly set to rest for another generation by the restoration of Charles II.其结果是,要求英国清教徒清教徒不亚于让所有。只有在后期清教徒英联邦没有容忍的想法和对什么是已知的今天多元化的出现,但这些想法本身就是打击最清教徒和牢固树立休息另一个由查尔斯二世恢复发电。

From a modern vantage point the intolerance entailed by a unified view of society has harmed the Puritans' reputation.从现代的高度,社会的看法的不容忍现象的统一引致了已损害了清教徒的声誉。From a more disinterested perspective it is possible also to see great advantages.从一个更超然的角度来看是有可能也看到了巨大的优势。The Puritans succeeded in bursting the bonds of mere religiosity in their efforts to serve God.清教徒成功爆破为上帝努力债券单纯的宗教研究。Puritanism was one of the moving forces in the rise of the English Parliament in the early seventeenth century.清教是世纪一17世纪初的力量在运动中的崛起,英国议会。For good and for ill, it provided a foundation for the first great political revolution in modern times.对于好的,是坏,它提供了一个时代的基础,首次在现代伟大的政治革命。It gave immigrants to Massachusetts a social vision whose comprehensively Christian character has never been matched in America.它给移民马萨诸塞州的社会远景的全面基督徒的品格美国从来没有匹配研究。And, for such a putatively uncreative movement, it liberated vast energies in literature as well.而且,对于这样一个公认缺乏创造性的运动,它解放了大量的精力以及文学。

Notable Puritans值得注意的清教徒

The Puritans enjoyed a great number of forceful preachers and teachers.清教徒享有和教师大量的有力鼓吹者。The learned Dr. William Ames explained "the doctrine of living of God" in The Marrow of Theology, a book used as a text during the first fifty years of Harvard College.博学的威廉艾姆斯博士解释说:“上帝学说的生活学院”的哈佛图书骨髓年神学,一首50作为一个文本中。The sermons and tracts of William Perkins outlined with sympathy the steps that a repentant sinner should take to find God.帕金斯的说教和大片的威廉与同情概述的步骤,一个忏悔的罪人应采取寻找上帝。John Preston preached the severity of God's law and the wideness of his mercy fearlessly in the courts of James I and Charles I. John Owen, adviser to Cromwell and vice - chancellor of the University of Oxford, wrote theological treatises on the atonement and on the Holy Spirit which still influence Calvinistic thought in the English - speaking world.约翰普雷斯顿法律严重性宣扬上帝的怜悯宽度和他的无畏地在法庭上,副詹姆斯一世和查尔斯一约翰欧文,顾问克伦威尔-牛津大学的校长,论文写在神学上的赎罪和圣灵仍然影响世界加尔文思想讲英语- 。His contemporary, Richard Baxter, published nearly two hundred works expounding the virtues of theological moderation and the truths of what CS Lewis in the twentieth century would call "mere Christianity."他的当代,理查德巴克斯特,出版了近200工程阐述了真理的世纪和20 CS刘易斯在什么神学美德节制称之为“纯粹的基督教。”In America, Boston's John Cotton labored to present God's glory in conversion, and Hartford's Thomas Hooker glorified God in the labors of the converted.在美国,波士顿的约翰棉花辛勤提出上帝的荣耀的转换,和哈特福德的托马斯胡克颂扬上帝在劳动力的转换。

The Westminster Confession and Catechisms which Puritan divines wrote at the request of Parliament (1643 - 47) remain a guide to Reformed theology, especially in Presbyterian circles, to this day. 西敏寺认罪,catechisms的清教徒神学家(写在要求国会1643年至1647年)仍是指导改革的神学,尤其是在长老界,到今天。 Together, the works of the Puritans comprise Protestantism's most extensive library of sacred and practical theology.总之,清教徒的作品包括基督教的最广泛和实用神学图书馆的神圣。

Important as the contributions of ministers were, the greatest contribution of Puritans to Christian history probably resided with its laymen.作为部长的重要贡献是,在清教徒基督教历史上最伟大的贡献可能与普通人居住的。The English - speaking world has never seen such a cluster of thoroughly Christian political leaders as the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell, the governor of Massachusetts John Winthrop, or the governor of Plymouth William Bradford.英语-世界上从来没有见过这样一个总督布雷德福普利茅斯集群彻底的基督教政治领导人或护国公奥利弗克伦威尔,总督约翰温斯洛普马萨诸塞州。 These leaders erred, perhaps often, but they yet devoted their lives to public service, self - consciously and whole - heartedly, out of deepest gratitude to the God of their salvation.这些领导人犯了错误,也许经常,但他们却献身公共服务,自我-自觉地和整个-全心全意,出于最深切的感谢上帝的拯救他们。

We also glimpse the genius of Puritanism when we look beyond its politicians to its writers.我们还看到了天才的清教主义作家,当我们超越了它的政治家。It is all too easy to forget that John Milton, who in Paradise Lost dared "assert Eternal Providence / And justify the ways of God to men," had earlier defended the execution of Charles I and served as Cromwell's Latin (or corresponding) secretary.这是太容易忘记,约翰弥尔顿,天堂谁在丢失敢“断言永恒的普罗维登斯/和证明上帝的方式男人”,此前捍卫查尔斯执行的我和秘书担任克伦威尔的拉丁语(或相应)。 John Bunyan served in Cromwell's army and preached as a layman during the Commonwealth before he was jailed in Bedford for his Puritan beliefs, where he redeemed the time by writing The Pilgrim's Progress.约翰本仁担任克伦威尔的军队和联邦门外汉在鼓吹作为贝德福德被判入狱前,他在他的清教徒信仰,他赎回的进展的时间创作的朝圣者。 In America, Puritanism produced a woman poet of note in Anne Bradstreet (1616 - 72).在美国,清教制作(72)1616 -女人诗人注意到安妮布拉德斯特里特。It also gave us the poems of Edward Taylor (1645 - 1729), a retiring country minister.这也给我们的)诗爱德华泰勒(1645年至1729年,卸任的国家部长。Taylor's meditations, composed to prepare his own heart for quarterly celebrations of the Lord's Supper, are among the finest poems ever written by an American.泰勒的沉思,他准备组成的圣餐主的心为自己的季度庆祝活动,是经由美国的书面有史以来最好的诗。

Evaluation评价

The Puritans resemble other groups in Christian history who, in forsaking all for God, have won back not only God but much of the world as well. They stand with the early Franciscans, the Protestant Reformers, the Jesuits, the Anabaptists, the early Methodists, and the Reformed Dutch of the late nineteenth century who, in their own separate ways, were transfixed by the glories of redemption and who went far in redeeming the world around themselves. With these groups the Puritans also verified the truth of the gospel words: they sought first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and much more was added to them besides.清教徒类似于基督教团体以及其他历史谁,在放弃所有为上帝,不仅夺回了上帝,但大部分的世界。 济的立场,他们在早期的新教改革者,耶稣会士,的anabaptists,早期卫,以及荷兰,谁改革的19世纪晚期谁,在自己单独的方法,是辉煌呆若木鸡的赎回远在挽救自己周围的世界。随着这些团体的清教徒话也证实了福音的真理:他们首先寻求正义的上帝和他的王国,以及更多被添加到他们除了。

Mark A Noll标志着诺尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
EH Emerson, ed., English Puritanism from John Hooper to John Milton; D Neal, The History of the Puritans; W Haller, The Rise of Puritanism; P Collinson, The Elizabethan Puritan Movement; C Hill, Society and Puritanism in Pre - Revolutionary England; RS Paul, The Lord Protector: Religion and Politics in the Life of Oliver Cromwell; R Baxter, Reliquiae Baxterianae; P Miller and T Johnson, eds., The Puritans; FJ Bremer, The Puritan Experiment; P Miller, The New England Mind; S Bercovitch, The Puritan Origins of the American Self; ES Morgan, The Puritan Family and the Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop; W Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation.高血压艾默生,教育署。,英国清教徒约翰胡珀约翰弥尔顿;清教徒Ð尼尔的,历史; W阿莱,在清教兴起; P哥,伊丽莎白清教徒运动; C希尔,社会和清教先秦-革命英格兰护国公遥感保罗的:宗教和政治在奥利弗克伦威尔的生命与r巴克斯特,Reliquiae Baxterianae; p米勒和T约翰逊编。,清教徒;巧的布雷默,清教徒实验; p米勒,新英格兰心灵中,S Bercovitch,美国自清教徒的起源;清教徒困境胚胎干摩根,清教徒家庭和:故事的约翰温斯洛普; W布拉德福德,在普利茅斯种植园。


Puritans清教徒

Catholic Information天主教信息

One of the chief difficulties in studying the various movements loosely spoken of as Puritanism is to frame an exact definition capable of including the varied and sometimes mutually inconsistent forms of belief usually classified under that name.下一个该名称的主要信仰通常分为学习困难的各种运动形式松散谈到作为清教是一个确切的定义框架的能力,包括不同的,有时相互不一致。 In its original meaning it signified "those who strove for a worship purified from all taint of popery" (Maitland, op. cit. inf., 590).在其原来的意思是它标志着“谁争取的污点popery一个礼拜都纯化”(梅特兰,同前。前。inf文件。,590)。A more recent writer adopting and expanding this definition adds: "The many various sects and persons who fall under this definition, were usually characterized both by an aversion from gaiety and by a passionate love of civic freedom" (Trevelyan, op. cit. inf., 60).最近的一个作家通过和扩大这一定义补充说:“许多不同教派和人谁属于这个定义,特点通常是由一个欢乐都厌恶从一个公民的自由和充满激情的爱”(特里维廉,同前。前。inf文件。,60)。 We may see the first beginnings of English Puritanism in the attitude of those who in 1563 entered into the "Vestiarian Controversy" by opposing the use, by the clergy, of the cap and gown in daily life and of the surplice in church.我们可以看到那些清教主义的态度,在开始的第一个英文是谁在1563年进入“Vestiarian争用”的反对,由神职人员,帽和长袍在日常的生活和教会法衣研究。 English exiles from Geneva were active in the cause, and by 1565 their resistance to the queen's wishes subjected some of them to loss of benefices.来自日内瓦的英国流亡者们积极的原因,他们的抵抗和1565年向女王的愿望受到其中一些以benefices损失。 This controversy of rights and vestments developed into a controversy of polity, until Presbyterianism emerged in antagonism to Episcopalianism.这法衣争议的权利,并发展成为一个争议的政体,直到长老会出现对立到Episcopalianism。 Yet in the process the movement developed on such divergent lines that Puritanism soon included three different theories of Church government.然而,在这个过程中不同的线,如运动的发展在清教尽快包括三个不同的理论教会政府的。First there were the moderates who were willing to retain government by bishops, though they preferred the title "superintendent", but who wished the usages of the Establishment to conform more nearly to Genevan practices.首先有温和派谁愿意保留政府的主教,但他们的首选,题目是“院长”,但谁希望的建立的惯例向符合更接近日内瓦人的做法。 Those who held this system were in agreement with the Scottish Presbyterianism which had been established by John Knox.那些持有这种制度是谁在诺克斯协议与苏格兰长老会的成立了由约翰。Secondly there were the strict Presbyterians who wished for the Calvinistic form of government as well as the theology and order of worship.第二有严格的长老谁愿意为加尔文的政府形式以及神学和秩序的崇拜。 In England the movement was led by Thomas Cartwright of Cambridge, whose doctrine that there should be equality of authority and that bishop and presbyter were all one was soon adopted in Scotland.在英格兰的运动是由托马斯卡特赖特剑桥大学苏格兰,他的学说,应该有平等的权力和主教和长老都是一个在不久获得通过。 Thirdly there were the Free Churchmen or Independents who repudiated all coercive power in the Church and wished all men to be free in forming congregations.第三有免费的牧师或独立谁否定所有的强制力,在教会,并希望所有的人被教会自由的形成。Their leader was Robert Brown, whose followers were at first persecuted by Anglicans and Presbyterians alike, but whose descendants grew in power and influence until under Oliver Cromwell they became the predominant party.他们的领导人是罗伯特布朗,他的追随者一样,都在第一迫害圣公会和长老会,但其后代生长在权力和影响力,直到克伦威尔,他们成为主要的政党。

The three bodies differed from one another in doctrine, in ecclesiastical polity, and in their view of toleration.这三具尸体从一个不同的学说另一个,在教会的政体,并在他们的宽容观。The strength of Puritanism as common to these three bodies lay in the results effected by the general study of the Bible, in which the Puritans learned the relations of man with God as exemplified in the histories and parables of Holy Writ.强度的清教作为共同的这三个机构躺在圣经比喻的结果和影响的全面研究的圣经,清教徒的历史中吸取的关系人与神的体现。This private study of the Scriptures was carried on by the aid of private interpretation which inevitably resulted in the multiplication of minor sects such as Fifth Monarchy men, Levellers, Diggers, and others.这私人研究圣经上所进行的援助,作为私人的解释小不可避免地导致在这些乘法教派第五君主立宪制的男子,平水,铲土机,等等。 Thus Puritanism could never attain a recognized dogmatic system.因此,清教永远无法达到公认的教条式的制度。At first it shared many Calvinistic views with the theologians of the Established Church, but these were abandoned by some and Calvin's doctrines were rejected first by the Baptists and afterwards by the Quakers and the Unitarians.起初它同意成立教会许多神学家加尔文与意见,但这些都放弃了一些论派和卡尔文的教义被拒绝首先由浸信会的,后来由贵格会和。 However, the lack of a consistent theology was the less felt because of the great stress which the Puritans laid upon "serving God in spirit and in truth" - by feeling and conduct rather than by doctrine.然而,缺乏一致的神学是少“感到了巨大的压力,因为该真相清教徒摊开在上帝”的服务精神和-由感情和行为,而不是教条。 This spirit is most pronounced in the Puritan works which achieved the highest popularity: Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress", George Fox's "Journal", Thomas Ellwood's "History of My Own Life" and Baxter's "Saint's Everlasting Rest".这种精神是最明显的清教徒工程,取得最高的受欢迎程度:本仁的“朝圣者的进步”,乔治福克斯的“杂志”,托马斯埃尔伍德“的”历史的我自己的生活“和巴克斯特的”圣永远的休息。 In matters of Church government some kind of system became necessary and the Scottish Presbyterians evolved a plan, embodied in the First Book of Discipline which had been drawn up in the Edinburgh Assembly of 1560, and which was concerned chiefly with the congregation itself.在制度的事项政府某种形式的教会成为必要和苏格兰长老会发展计划,体现在学科第一本书已被提请大会1560年在爱丁堡,并关注本身主要是与众。 This was supplemented by the Second Book of Discipline of 1578 which regulated the dependence of the congregation on the higher courts.这是补充了1578年第二次图书的纪律,规范了法院的依赖性就越高众。By it Presbyterianism was fully established; for the superintendents were abolished and all authority was transferred from individual ministers to four bodies, the Kirk Session, the Presbytery, the Provincial Synod, and the General Assembly.长老会是由它完全建立;为警司被取消,所有部长的权力是从个人转移到四具尸体,柯克会议上,长老会,省主教会议,并在大会发言。

The English Puritans regarded this system from two diametrically opposed points of view.英国清教徒把这个制度从两个截然相反的观点看法。It was approved by the Presbyterians and condemned by the Independents. But for a time they were kept united by the common necessity of opposing the alliance between the High Church party and the Crown which took place under James I. The struggle became political, and the Arminianism, Episcopalianism, and divine right of the sovereign maintained by the one party were opposed by the Calvinism, Presbyterianism, and Republicanism of the other.它是由长老会批准,无党派人士谴责。但他们是一个和时间,不停地团结成为政治斗争的必要性的共同反对联盟党之间的高教会官方的和发生的根据詹姆斯一,亚米纽斯主义,Episcopalianism,和神圣的主权权利,维护党的一其他一些反对的加尔文主义,长老会,在与共和的。 When the enactments of the Long Parliament had resulted in victory for the Puritans, their own internal differences clamoured for settlement and the Westminster Assembly of 1643 was an unsuccessful attempt at composing them.当龙议会颁布的胜利导致了对清教徒,他们自己的内部分歧,叫嚣要解决和1643年威斯敏斯特议会是一个不成功的尝试在他们撰写。 The four parties, Moderate Presbyterians, Scottish Presbyterians, Erastians, and Independents having quarrelled fiercely, agreed on a compromise favouring the Moderates.这四个政党,适度长老,苏格兰长老会,Erastians,激烈争吵后,无党派人士,温和派商定了一个折衷偏袒。 The Presbyterians, however, gradually lost ground, owing to the growing power of the Independents who had the strong support of Cromwell and his army.英国长老教会的,但是,渐渐失去了地面,由于他的军队日益强大的独立谁克伦威尔并有强大的支持。They in their turn were destroyed as a political power by the Restoration, since when Puritanism ceased to be a force in England under that name, and survived only in the various Nonconformist sects which have increased and multiplied in number down to the present day, without, however, any augmentation of collective strength.他们在又被毁坏了恢复的政治权力,因为当清教不再是英格兰的名字下,一个力量,并没有只存活在今天,各种异己教派有成倍增加,数量下降到但是,任何力量增强集体。 Many of these bodies have long ceased to represent Puritanism in any respect save that of dissent from the Established Church.其中许多机构都早已不再代表清教在任何方面节省认为异议成立的教会。One of the most picturesque incidents in the history of Puritanism and one of far reaching influence on subsequent American history was the departure of the "Pilgrim Fathers" - seventy-four English Puritans and twenty-eight women - who sailed from England in the May Flower and landed on Plymouth Rock, 25 December, 1620.历史中的一个历史事件的最美丽的清教的美国和一个后续影响是深远的“离境的”朝圣之父- 74英国清教徒和2008年妇女-谁花航行从英国在5月并降落在普利茅斯岩石,1620年12月25日。There they founded a colony, representing both types, the Plymouth colony being Congregationalists, the Massachusetts Bay settlers, Presbyterians.他们在那里建立了殖民地,代表这两种类型,在普利茅斯殖民地被公理,马萨诸塞州湾定居者,长老会。

Publication information Written by Edwin Burton.出版信息撰稿:埃德温伯顿。Transcribed by ME Smith. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.转录我史密斯。天主教百科全书,卷十二。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

CAMPBELL, "Puritanism in Holland, England, and America" (London, 1892); DEXTER, "England and Holland" (London, 1906); GREGORY, "Puritanism" (London, 1895); WAKEMAN, "The Church and the Puritans: 1570-1660" (London, 1887); BYINGTON, "The Puritan in England and New England" (London, 1896), giving a useful bibliography; NEAL, "History of the Puritans, 1517-1688" (London, 1822); STOWELL AND WILSON, "History of the Puritans in England" (London, 1849); HOPKINS, "The Puritans: Church, Court and Parliament during the reigns of Edward VI and Elizabeth" (Boston, 1859-61); MARSDEN, "History of the early Puritans, to 1642" (London, 1850); IDEM, "History of the later Puritans, 1642-62" (London, 1852); TULLOCH, "English Puritanism and its leaders" (Edinburgh, 1861); MAITLAND, "The Anglican Settlement and the Scottish Reformation" in "Cambridge Modern History", II (Cambridge, 1903); TREVELYAN, "England under the Stuarts" (London, 1904).坎贝尔,“清教在荷兰,英格兰,和美国”(伦敦,1892年);德克斯特,“英格兰队和荷兰”(伦敦,1906年);格雷戈里,“清教徒”(伦敦,1895年);魏斐德,“教会和清教徒:1570至1660年“(伦敦,1887年);拜因顿说:”英国清教徒在新英格兰“(伦敦,1896年),给人一种有益的书目;尼尔,1822年”历史的清教徒,1517年至1688年“(伦敦) ;斯托韦尔和威尔逊,“历史的英国清教徒”(伦敦,1849年);霍普金斯,“清教徒:教堂,法院和议会的统治期间和伊丽莎白爱德华六世”(波士顿,1859年至1861年);马斯登“历史上的早期清教徒,以1642“(伦敦,1850年),同上,”)历史上的后来清教徒,1642年至1662年“(伦敦,1852年,塔洛克,”英语清教及其领导人“(爱丁堡,1861年);梅特兰“英国圣公会沉降和苏格兰宗教改革”中的“剑桥近代史”,第二章(剑桥,1903年);特里维廉,“斯图尔特在英格兰”(伦敦,1904年)。 See also "Reprints of the Clarendon Historical Society" (Edinburgh, 1882-6).又见“社会重印的克拉伦登历史”(爱丁堡,1882-6)。


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