Society of Friends - Quakers之友协会 - 贵格会

General Information一般信息

The Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers, is a body of Christians that originated in 17th century England under George Fox.本,社会之友谊俗称,是一种身体的基督徒福克斯起源于十七世纪,英国在乔治。In 1988 the society had 200,260 members, with heavy concentrations in the United States (109,000), East Africa (45,000) and Great Britain (18,000). Quakers unite in affirming the immediacy of Christ's teaching; they hold that believers receive divine guidance from an inward light, without the aid of intermediaries or external rites. 1988年,社会发生了(109,000)二十〇万零二百六美国成员,重浓度的,东非(45,000)和英国(18,000)。 谊团结在肯定教学直接基督的,他们认为信徒接受来自神的指导外来光线,没有仪式的中介机构或外部援助。

Meetings for worship can be silent, without ritual or professional clergy, or programmed, in which a minister officiates. 会议的崇拜可以保持沉默,没有仪式或专业神职人员,或编程,其中一名部长主持。

Although their antecedents lie in English Puritanism and in the Anabaptist movement, the Society of Friends was formed during the English Civil War.尽管他们的前因在于英国清教和再洗礼派运动之友协会的成立,在英国内战。Around 1652, George Fox began preaching that since there was "that of God in every man," a formal church structure and educated ministry were unnecessary. His first converts spread their faith throughout England, denouncing what they saw as social and spiritual compromises and calling individuals to an inward experience of God.大约1652年,乔治福克斯开始说教,既然是“上帝认为在每一个男人,”一个正式的教会结构和教育部是不必要的。他的第一个转换他们的信仰传播到英国,谴责他们所看到的社会和精神的妥协,并呼吁以神的外来经验的个人。 In spite of schism and persecution, the new movement expanded during the Puritan Commonwealth (1649 - 60) and after the restoration of the monarchy (1660).尽管在迫害和分裂,新的运动扩大清教徒在英联邦(1649 - 60)和后)恢复君主制(1660。By openly defying restrictive legislation, Friends helped achieve passage of the Toleration Act of 1689.通过公开藐视限制性立法,朋友帮助实现1689年通过法令的宽容。

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In colonial America, enclaves of Quakers existed in Rhode Island, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and western New Jersey.在殖民地美国,新泽西州西部的飞地谊中存在的罗得岛,北卡罗莱纳州,宾夕法尼亚州和。In Pennsylvania, founded by William Penn as a refuge for Quakers and as a "holy experiment" in religious toleration, Friends maintained an absolute majority in the assembly until 1755 and remained a potent force until the American Revolution.在宾夕法尼亚州,成立由威廉佩恩作为避难谊,并作为“神圣的实验宽容”宗教,朋友保持着绝对多数的议会,并在1755年之前仍然是一个强大的力量,直到美国革命。 Between 1754 and 1776, Friends throughout America strengthened their commitment to pacifism and began to denounce slavery.和1776年,整个美国朋友1754年加强了与和平主义的承诺,并开始谴责奴隶制。After the Revolution, Friends concentrated on a wide variety of reform activities: Indian rights, prison reform, temperance, abolition, freedmen's rights, education, and the women's movement.革命后,友集中在各种各样的改革活动:印度的权利,监狱改革,戒酒,撤销,自由民的权利,教育和妇女运动。

In a conflict over theology that was complicated by social tensions, the Society underwent a series of schisms beginning in 1827 and ending with the formation of three major subgroups: Hicksites (liberal), Orthodox (evangelical), and Conservative (quietist). During the 20th century, however, Friends have attempted to heal their differences.在紧张的冲突的神学,社会是复杂的,社会经历了1827年开始的一系列分裂和终止与自由主义的形成三大群:Hicksites(),东正教(福音派和保守(寂静主义)。在20世纪,然而,朋友试图弥合他们的分歧。 Many yearly meetings have merged, and most Friends cooperate in organizations such as the Friends World Committee for Consultation and the Friends World Conferences.每年有许多会议合并,大部分的朋友组织合作,如友会世界协商委员会会议和世界的朋友。The rapid growth of pastoral Quakerism in Africa and of silent meetings in Europe makes the Society of Friends an international organization.牧区Quakerism快速增长在非洲和欧洲的沉默,使之友协会会议的国际组织。

The American Friends Service Committee is an independent service organization founded in 1917 to aid conscientious objectors.美国朋友服务委员会是一个独立的服务组织,成立于1917年援助良心拒服兵役者。Today it also provides help to the needy in the United States and a number of Third World countries.今天,它也向各国提供帮助有需要的在美国和一些国家的第三世界。

J William Frost威廉J弗罗斯特

Bibliography 书目
H Barbour, and JW Frost, The Quakers (1988); TD Hamm, The Transformation of American Quakerism: Orthodox Friends, 1800 - 1907 (1988); E Russell, The History of Quakerism (1942). Ĥ巴伯,和JW寒意,公谊会(1988年);运输署哈姆,美国的Quakerism转型:东正教的朋友们,1800年至1907年(1988年),电子商务罗素,史Quakerism期(1942年)。


Religious Society of Friends宗教之友协会

General Information一般信息

The Society of Friends (in full, Religious Society of Friends), is the designation of a body of Christians more commonly known as Quakers.之友协会(全额,宗教之友协会),是基督徒指定的一个机构更普遍称为谊。Their fundamental belief is that divine revelation is immediate and individual; all persons may perceive the word of God in their soul, and Friends endeavor to heed it.他们的基本信念是神圣的启示是立即和个人;所有的人可能会认为他们的灵魂在上帝的话语,朋友们努力倾听它。Terming such revelation the "inward light," the "Christ within," or the "inner light," the first Friends identified this spirit with the Christ of history. They rejected a formal creed, worshiped on the basis of silence, and regarded every participant as a potential vessel for the word of God, instead of relying upon a special, paid clergy set apart from the rest.无理这种启示的“向内轻”,“基督内”或“内部情况,”基督历史的第一之友认同这种精神。 他们拒绝了正式的信条,沉默崇拜的基础上,把每作为上帝的参与者潜在的船只字为后,而不是单靠一个特殊的,有薪休息神职人员的分隔。

Beliefs信仰

Quakerism emphasizes human goodness because of a belief that something of God exists in everyone. Quakerism强调人类善良的信念,因为每个人的东西的上帝存在研究。At the same time, however, it recognizes the presence of human evil and works to eradicate as much of it as possible.在同一时间,但是,它承认人类的邪恶存在并致力于消除它,尽量多。Quakerism is a way of life; Friends place great emphasis upon living in accord with Christian principles. Quakerism是一种生活方式的;友进行基督教原则协议后,非常重视生活与研究。Truth and sincerity are Quaker bywords; thus, Quaker merchants refuse to bargain, for bargaining implies that truth is flexible.真相与诚意是贵格谚语,因此,贵格会商人拒绝讨价还价,讨价还价意味着,真理是灵活的。Emulating Christ, the Friends attempt to avoid luxury and emphasize simplicity in dress, manners, and speech.效法基督之友试图避免奢侈,强调简洁的服饰礼仪,并讲话。Until late in the 19th century, they retained certain forms of speech known as plain speech, which employed "thee" as opposed to the more formal "you"; this usage indicated the leveling of social classes and the spirit of fellowship integral to Quaker teaching.直到19世纪后期,他们一定会保留桂格教学的组成形式的讲话被称为纯讲话,雇用“你”而不是更为正式的“你”;的这种用法表明平整研究生奖学金的社会阶层和精神。

In the administration and privileges of the society, no distinction between the sexes is made.在政府和社会的特权,没有男女之间作出区别。Membership qualifications are based on moral and religious grounds and on the readiness of the candidate to realize and accept the obligations of membership.会员资格是基于道德和宗教的理由,并准备对候选人的认识和接受会员国的义务。Meetings for worship are held regularly, usually once or twice a week, and are intended to help members to feel God's presence as a guiding spirit in their lives.崇拜的是定期举行会议,通常是每周一次或两次,并旨在协助会员在他们的生活感到上帝的指导精神的存在,1。In these meetings the members measure their insights and beliefs against those of the meeting as a whole.在这些会议的成员衡量他们的见解和信仰的一个整体对那些作为本次会议。Because the religion of the Quakers was founded as a completely spiritual belief requiring no physical manifestation, the meetings have traditionally had no prearranged program, sermon, liturgy, or outward rites.由于宗教的贵格会的成立是表现为一种完全无需物理精神信仰,传统的会议并没有预先安排的方案,讲道,礼仪,或向外仪式。 Today, however, more than half of the Friends in the US use paid ministers and conduct meetings for worship in a programmed or semiprogrammed manner.然而,今天,美国一半以上在使用拜友在semiprogrammed编程方式或支付会议的部长和行为。

In both the unprogrammed and programmed meetings members accept a great deal of responsibility.在这两个未列入方案和方案的会议成员接受的责任很大。A group called Worship and Ministry, or Ministry and Oversight, accepts considerable responsibility for the spiritual life of the meeting.A组和所谓的宗教部,或部和监督,接受会议很大的责任为生命的精神。Overseers undertake to provide pastoral care for the member or share in that care when a regular pastor is employed.监督员承诺提供的是就业关爱的牧师成员或普通股时,在这照顾。The religious discipline and administration of the society are regulated by periodic meetings known as Meetings for Business.宗教纪律和社会管理的是受商业周期有关会议的会议称为。One or more congregations constitute a Monthly Meeting, one or more Monthly Meetings form a Quarterly Meeting, and the Quarterly Meetings within a stated geographical area form a Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends.一个或多个教区构成月会,一个或多个每月例会的形式一季度会议上,和友协会在季度会议上表示的地理区域形式的宗教会议一年度。 The decisions of the Yearly Meeting are the highest authority for all doctrinal or administrative questions raised in any subsidiary meeting within its jurisdiction.其管辖的决定的年度会议在会议中提出的问题是任何附属行政的最高权力理论或所有。Usually no voting takes place in Quaker meetings; members seek to discover the will of God by deliberation concerning any matter at hand.通常不会在会议上进行表决时桂格燕;成员寻求发现眼前的将神的事情有关的任何审议。As an integral part of Quaker doctrine, at meetings members are regularly and formally queried on their adherence to Quaker principles.作为贵格学说的组成部分,在会议正式成员坚持定期向贵格会质疑他们的原则。These queries relate to such matters as the proper education of their children, the use of intoxicants, care of the needy, and, on a broader scale, racial and religious toleration and the treatment of all offenders in a spirit of love rather than with the object of punishment.这些问题涉及到其子女教育等问题的妥善,使用的饮酒,有需要照顾的,而且,和对待所有罪犯在爱的精神,而不是一个,更大范围内的种族和宗教宽容惩罚的对象。 Most American groups of Friends are represented by the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), founded in 1917.团体之友大部分美国人所代表的美国朋友服务委员会(香港航煤供应)1917年,成立。Originally established to handle many of their philanthropic activities, the organization today is primarily concerned with creating a society in which violence need not exist.最初成立处理今天大多数的慈善活动,该组织主要是社会关注的创造中,暴力不应该存在。

Origins起源

The Society of Friends may be traced to the many Protestant bodies that appeared in Europe during the Reformation.之友协会可追溯到新教改革的许多机构,在欧洲出现时。These groups, stressing an individual approach to religion, strict discipline, and the rejection of an authoritarian church, formed one expression of the religious temper of 17th-century England.这些群体,强调个人对宗教的态度,严格的纪律,反对教会的权威,形成了一个英国表达世纪的宗教脾气的第17位。Many doctrines of the Society of Friends were taken from those of earlier religious groups, particularly those of the Anabaptists and Independents, who believed in lay leadership, independent congregations, and complete separation of church and state.之友协会的许多理论都是从早期的宗教群体,特别是那些教会的anabaptists和无党派人士,谁相信奠定领导,独立和国家完整的分离和教堂。 The society, however, unlike many of its predecessors, did not begin as a formal religious organization.社会,但是,它的许多前任不同,才开始作为一个正式的宗教组织。Originally, the Friends were the followers of George Fox, an English lay preacher who, about 1647, began to preach the doctrine of "Christ within"; this concept later developed as the idea of the "inner light." Although Fox did not intend to establish a separate religious body, his followers soon began to group together into the semblance of an organization, calling themselves by such names as Children of Light, Friends of Truth, and, eventually, Society of Friends. In reference to their agitated movements before moments of divine revelation, they were popularly called Quakers. The first complete exposition of the doctrine of "inner light" was written by the Scottish Quaker Robert Barclay in An Apology for the True Christian Divinity, as the Same Is Held Forth and Preached by the People Called in Scorn Quakers (1678), considered the greatest Quaker theological work.最初,朋友们一英语追随者乔治福克斯,奠定布道者谁,约1647年,开始宣讲基督学说“内”,这个概念后来发展为轻内的思想的“。”虽然福克斯没有打算建立一个独立的宗教组织,他的追随者很快就开始组一起进入该组织的假象,要求以自己的名字由这些儿童的光,真理之友,并最终之友协会。 在谈到自己的激动变动前启示神圣的时刻,他们被俗称谊。第一基督教神学全面的阐述真正的学说“内光由苏格兰桂格燕罗伯特巴克利”写在道歉的,因为同一举行第四和信徒的)1678民间称为鄙视谊(贵格会认为最大的神学工作。

The Friends were persecuted from the time of their inception as a group. They interpreted the words of Christ in the Scriptures literally, particularly, "Do not swear at all" (Matthew 5:34), and "Do not resist one who is evil" (Matthew 5:39). They refused, therefore, to take oaths; they preached against war, even to resist attack; and they often found it necessary to oppose the authority of church or state.被迫害之友集团从一个时间作为其成立以来。圣经的解释,他们在基督的话的字面,尤其是“不要发誓在所有”(马太5:34),和“不要抵制一个谁是邪恶的“(马太福音5:39)。他们拒绝,因此,采取宣誓,他们鼓吹反对战争,甚至抵制攻击;他们往往认为有必要反对教会或国家权威。 Because they rejected any organized church, they would not pay tithes to the Church of England. Moreover, they met publicly for worship, a contravention of the Conventicle Act of 1664, which forbade meetings for worship other than that of the Church of England.因为他们拒绝任何有组织的教会,他们不会支付什一税的英格兰教会。此外,他们会见了公开的崇拜,一个英国的法令违反了Conventicle 1664年,该会议的禁止教会的崇拜比其他。Nevertheless, thousands of people, some on the continent of Europe and in America as well as in the British Isles, were attracted by teachings of the Friends.然而,成千上万的人,美国的一些欧洲和非洲大陆以及在英伦三岛,是朋友的教义所吸引。

Friends began to immigrate to the American colonies in the 1660s. They settled particularly in New Jersey, where they purchased land in 1674, and in the Pennsylvania colony, which was granted to William Penn in 1681.朋友们开始在17世纪60年代移民到美国的殖民地。他们定居,特别是在新泽西州,在那里他们购买1674年的土地,并在宾夕法尼亚殖民地,在1681年获得宾夕法尼亚威廉。 By 1684, approximately 7000 Friends had settled in Pennsylvania.到1684年,大约有7000友定居在宾夕法尼亚州。By the early 18th century, Quaker meetings were being held in every colony except Connecticut and South Carolina.到18世纪初,贵格会被关押在每一个殖民地,除了康涅狄格州和南部地区。The Quakers were at first continuously persecuted, especially in Massachusetts, but not in Rhode Island, which had been founded in a spirit of religious toleration.谊起初的不断迫害,特别是在马萨诸塞州,但不是在罗得岛,已在宗教容忍的精神成立的。Later, they became prominent in colonial life, particularly in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. During the 18th century the American Friends were pioneers in social reform; they were friends of the Native Americans, and as early as 1688 some protested officially against slavery in the colonies.后来,他们成了突出的殖民地生活,特别是在宾夕法尼亚州和罗德岛州。在18世纪的美国朋友们在社会改革的先锋,他们是美国人的朋友是本地人, 并早在1688年正式对一些抗议奴役的殖民地。By 1787 no member of the society was a slave owner. Many of the Quakers who had immigrated to southern colonies joined the westward migrations into the Northwest Territory because they would not live in a slave-owning society. 到1787年没有一个社会成员,是一个奴隶的主人。有许多贵格会谁移民到南部的殖民地领土加入了向西迁徙到西北,因为他们不是生活在一个奴隶制社会。

During the 19th century differences of opinion arose among the Friends over doctrine.在19世纪不同的意见出现了朋友来的学说中。About 1827, the American Quaker minister Elias Hicks became involved in a schism by questioning the authenticity and divine authority of the Bible and the historical Christ; many Friends seceded with Hicks and were known as Hicksites. This schism alarmed the rest of the society, who became known as Orthodox Friends, and a countermovement was begun to relax the formality and discipline of the society, with a view to making Quakerism more evangelical.关于1827年,美国桂格燕部长埃利亚斯希克斯成为参与了分裂的质疑的真实性和神圣权威的圣经和基督教的历史,许多朋友与分离出去并Hicksites希克斯称为这种分裂感到震惊的,其余的社会谁成了朋友称为东正教,并下蹲是开始放松,以期使Quakerism更多福音的形式,有纪律的社会。 The evangelical movement, led by the British Quaker philanthropist Joseph John Gurney, aroused considerable opposition, particularly in the US, and another schism resulted among the Orthodox Friends.福音派运动,率领由英国桂格燕慈善家约瑟夫约翰相当格尼,引起的反对,尤其在美国,另一间造成分裂的东正教友。A new sect, the Orthodox Conservative Friends, called Wilburites after their leader John Wilbur, was founded to emphasize the strict Quakerism of the 17th century. It is very small today.一个新的教派,东正教保守的朋友,叫他们的领袖约翰后Wilburites威尔伯,成立于17世纪强调严格Quakerism的。这是非常小的今天。 The general result of these modifications, both those dealing with doctrine and those pertaining to the relations of Quakers to the world in general, was a new spirit among all the Friends.这些修改一般的结果,这两个原则处理,并以关系的贵格会在一般的世界有关,是一种新的精神之友所有。Most abandoned their strange dress and speech and their hostility to such worldly pursuits as the arts and literature.最奇怪的服装和遗弃他们的言论和他们的敌视和文学艺术等世俗追求的。

Numerically, the Friends have always been a relatively small group. In the early 1980s world membership totaled about 200,000, distributed in about 30 countries.数控之友一直是一个相对较小的群体。在20世纪80年代初世界会员总计约20万,分布在大约30个国家。The greatest number of Friends is in the US, where, according to the latest available statistics, the society had about 1100 congregations with about 117,000 members. The Yearly Meetings in Africa, with about 39,000 members, and in the United Kingdom and Ireland, with about 21,000 members, are the next largest groups.之友最多约117,000成员。在美国,在那里,根据最新统计数字约1100教会,社会同非洲的年度会议中,约3.9万成员,在英国和爱尔兰,与约21,000名成员,是第二大群体。 Other groups are located in Central America, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.其他团体位于中美洲,澳大利亚,加拿大和新西兰。The Friends World Committee for Consultation is the international organization of the society.之友会世界协商委员会是国际社会的组织。

Edwin B. Bronner埃德温乙布龙纳


Quakers - Society of Friends贵格 - 之友协会

Advanced Information先进的信息

Known also as Quakers, the Society of Friends can best be understood through the lives of the early leaders.已知的朋友也谊,该协会通过才能最好地理解生命的早期领导人的。The founder was George Fox, whose youth saw the rule of Charles I and his marriage to a French princess who was a Roman Catholic, the Petition of Right, Archbishop Laud's harsh rules for Nonconformists, the Puritan emigration to America, and the meetings of the Long Parliament.公司创始人是乔治福克斯,其青年看到了查尔斯统治我和他结婚的法国公主谁是罗马天主教中,新教徒信访右劳德的严厉规则,大主教,清教徒移民到美国,和会议龙议会。 His public career coincided with the defeat and execution of Charles I, the Puritan Commonwealth under Cromwell, the Stuart Restoration and the rule of James II, the Bill of Rights, and the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688. Some of his contemporaries were Locke, Hobbes, Milton, Dryden, Bunyan, Cromwell, Newton, Harvey, Baxter, and Ussher.他的公职生涯克伦威尔正好与失败下和执行查理一世清教徒英联邦,中,司徒雷登恢复和詹姆斯二世统治,权利法案和“1688年光荣革命”的。同时代他的一些被洛克霍布斯,米尔顿,德莱顿,本仁,克伦威尔,牛顿,哈维,巴克斯特和厄舍尔。

In 1647 Fox experienced a profound change in his religious life.福克斯在1647年经历了一个在他的宗教生活的深刻变化。In 1652 he said that he had a vision at a place called Pendle Hill; from that point on, he based his faith on the idea that God could speak directly to any person.在1652年,他说,他叫彭德尔山一个梦想在一个地方, 从该点上,他以他个人的信仰,上帝的想法可以直接向任何发言。

Some of the first converts of Fox were called "Friends" or "Friends in Truth."福克斯的一些初步的转换被称为“朋友”或真“朋友。”The term "Quaker" was described by Fox as follows.所谓“贵格”是由福克斯描述如下。"The priest scoffed at us and called us Quakers. But the Lord's power was so over them, and the word of life was declared in such authority and dread to them, that the priest began trembling himself; and one of the people said, 'Look how the priest trembles and shakes, he is turned a Quaker also.'" According to Fox, the first person to use the term was Justice Bennet of Derby. “牧师嘲笑我们,叫我们谊。但主的力量是如此了他们,生命话语被宣布在这种权力和恐惧给他们,说,神父开始颤抖自己;以及一说,人们的你看如何祭司颤抖和动摇,他打开了一个贵格也。“根据福克斯的第一人使用的术语是司法德比班纳特的。 Among the early converts were English Puritans, Baptists, Seekers, and other Nonconformists.在早期转换为英文清教徒,浸信会,求职者和其他新教徒。The work spread to Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.这项工作扩展到爱尔兰,苏格兰和威尔士。

Quakerism took on certain characteristics such as simplicity in the manner of living, encouraging women to be ministers, spiritual democracy in meeting, absolute adherence to truth, universal peace and brotherhood regardless of sex, class, nation, or race. Quakers refused to remove their hats to those in authority and used the singular "thee" and "thou" in their speech, while the common people were supposed to address their betters as "you." Quakerism了某些特征,例如生活在简单的方式,鼓励妇女成为部长,在满足精神的民主,绝对坚持真理,世界和平与友爱不分性别,阶层,民族或种族。谊,以消除他们的拒绝权威的帽子,用在那些奇异“你”和“你讲话”在他们,而老百姓应该解决“你的上司们为。” In turn, they influenced the thought and social ethics of the English - speaking world far out of proportion to their numbers.反过来,他们的思想影响世界社会道德,讲的英语-远不成比例,他们的人数。Fox was imprisoned eight times during his life, but he pioneered care for the poor, aged, and insane, advocated prison reform, opposed capital punishment, war, and slavery, and stood for the just treatment of American Indians.福克斯被监禁8次在他的生命,但他开创老年护理的穷人,和疯狂,监狱改革的主张,反对死刑,战争,奴役,并主张对美国印第安人的公正待遇。

George Fox died in 1691, and the movement went into a quiet period. The center shifted to America.乔治福克斯死于1691年,和运动期间进入一个安静的。中心转移到美国。The first Friends to visit American were Mary Fisher and Anne Austin, who arrived in Massachusetts in 1656.第一次访问美国的朋友玛丽费舍尔和安妮奥斯汀,谁在1656年抵达马萨诸塞州。They were sent away by the magistrates, but others arrived after them.他们送走了裁判,但其他人后,他们抵达。In 1659 William Robinson and Marmaduke Stephenson were hanged on Boston Common, as was Mary Dyer the following year.在1659年威廉罗宾逊和马曼杜克斯蒂芬森被绞死在波士顿,如玛丽代尔下一年。

Probably the best known historical figure in the Society of Friends was William Penn.也许最有名的历史人物之友协会在为威廉佩恩。Born in 1644, he became a Quaker in 1667 and was an embarrassment to his father, Admiral Penn. 1644年出生于,他成为贵格会在1667年,是一佩恩尴尬他的父亲,海军上将。King Charles II gave young William a grant of land in American to repay a debt to his father, and thus was launched Pennsylvania, a "holy experiment." By 1700 there were Friends meeting in all of the colonies.查尔斯二世国王给年轻的威廉一批在美国的土地以偿还债务,以他的父亲,因而发起宾夕法尼亚州,一个“神圣的实验。”到1700年有朋友在所有殖民地会议的。

Penn's tolerant policies attracted immigrants from many places. Difficulties arose from the fact that the Quakers wanted only to be at peace, while the British expected them to support the colonial wars against the French and Indians.佩恩的宽容的移民政策,吸引了来自许多地方。困难产生于一个事实,即谊只是想在和平,而英国预计他们支持法国和印第安人的殖民战争的反对。 A similar situation arose when the colonists revolted against the British in 1776.类似的情况出现时,殖民者在1776年起义反对英国。

A division occurred in the Society of Friends about 1827, with one group supporting the views of Elias Hicks, who believed that one should follow the inner light.发生在一个师友协会,共约1827 ,其中一个支持内部光的意见埃利亚斯希克斯,谁相信,一应遵循的。The other group was influenced by the evangelical movement and put great emphasis on belief in the divinity of Christ, the authority of the Scriptures, and the atonement. 另一组是由福音派运动的影响,把基督的伟大的神的信仰强调,圣经的权威,和赎罪。

Friends were also active in the antislavery movement.朋友们也积极参与反对奴隶制运动。John Woolman, Anthony Benezet, Lucretia Mott, and John Greenleaf Whittier were involved in such activities as the underground railroad and the Colonization Society.约翰伍尔曼,安东尼贝尼泽特,柳克丽霞莫特和约翰格林利夫惠蒂尔殖民协会参与了这些活动的地下铁路和。Benjamin Lundy's ideas were presented in The Genius of Universal Emancipation.本杰明伦的想法是将解放天才介绍通用。

The tradition of caring for others carried on through the American Civil War, and the American Friends Service Committee was formed in 1917.战争对美国的传统民间关怀他人进行通过和美国朋友服务委员会成立于1917年。The purpose of the organization was to provide young conscientious objectors with alternative service opportunities during wartime.该组织的目的,是提供机会,战时青年拒服兵役者的替代服务。A red and black star was chosen to symbolize the group.红色和黑色星被选为象征组。

The Society of Friends are optimistic about the purposes of God and the destiny of mankind. Their ultimate and final authority for religious life and faith resides within each individual.之友协会是人类乐观的宗旨上帝和命运。它们的终极信仰的权威的宗教生活和个人驻留在每个。 Many, but not all, seek for this truth through the guidance of the inner light.许多人,但不是全部,这个真理寻求通过光线指导内。 They believe that they are bound to refuse obedience to a government when its requirements are contrary to what they believe to be the law of God, but they are willing to accept the penalties for civil disobedience. They practice religious democracy in their monthly meetings.他们认为,他们必然要服从政府拒绝其要求时,违反了他们认为是神的法律,但他们愿意接受公民抗命的惩罚。 会议的做法,他们每月的宗教民主研究。After discussion of an issue, for example, the clerk states what appears to be the mind of the group; but if a single Friend feels that he cannot unite with the group, no decision is made. Their stand for religious toleration is symbolized by the inscription on the statue of Mary Dyer across from Boston Common: "Witness for Religious Freedom. Hanged on Boston Common, 1660." 经过讨论这个问题的,例如,秘书国看来是该集团的脑海中,但如果一个单身的朋友认为他不能团结组,没有作出决定。姑息主张宗教是象征的碑文上代尔雕像对面的玛丽波士顿共同:“自由证人宗教。1660年挂在波士顿。”

The Society of Friends has no written creed. Their philosophical differences can be seen in the fact that Richard Nixon was born into the group, while Staughton Lynd joined because of their teachings. 之友协会并没有成文的信条。他们的哲学差异可以看到他们的教义的事实,理查德尼克松出生到组,而斯顿林德加入的原因。They do have an interest in education, with the founding of Haverford, Earlham, Swarthmore, and other colleges.他们确实有兴趣的教育,与高校成立的哈弗福德,阿勒姆,斯沃斯莫尔等。The teaching by example has caused some to ask why Quakers do not preach what they practice.该示例教学造成了一些人问,为什么不谊宣扬他们的做法。Their ideal is to pursue truth at all costs, and it is hard to imagine a higher calling here on earth.他们的理想是追求真理的所有费用,这是很难想像在地球上要求更高。

JE Johnson流行性乙型脑炎约翰逊
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
H Barbour, The Quakers in Puritan England; WC Braithwaite, The Beginnings of Quakerism and The Second Period of Quakerism; RM Jones, The Later Periods of Quakerism; E Russell, The History of Quakerism; DE Trueblood, The People Called Quakers; MH Bacon, The Quiet Rebels; AN Brayshaw, The Quakers: Their Story and Message; HH Brinton, Friends for Three Hundred Years; WR Williams, The Rich Heritage of Quakerism. Ĥ巴伯,贵格会在英格兰清教徒;厕所布雷斯韦特,该Quakerism开端和第二期的Quakerism;马币琼斯时期的Quakerism举行;电子邮件罗素,史Quakerism的;署署长特鲁布拉德,人们称为谊;氢培根,安静的叛军;安布雷肖,该谊:他们的故事和消息;架HH布林顿,为三百多年的老朋友,西铁的威廉姆斯,对Quakerism丰富的文化遗产。


Society of Friends (Quakers)之友协会(贵格会)

Catholic Information天主教信息

The official designation of an Anglo-American religious sect originally styling themselves "Children of Truth" and "Children of Light", but "in scorn by the world called Quakers".该教派的官方指定一个英美原本造型自己是“真理儿童”和“光儿童”,而是“由贵格会蔑视世界所谓的”。

The founder of the sect, George Fox, son of a well-to-do weaver, was born at Fenny Drayton in Leicestershire, England, July, 1624.织该教派创始人乔治福克斯做儿子的富裕的,出生于芬尼德雷顿在莱斯特郡,英格兰,7月,1624。His parents, upright people and strict adherents of the established religion, destined him for the Church; but since the boy, at an early period, felt a strong aversion to a "hireling ministry", he was, after receiving the bare rudiments of education, apprenticed to a shoemaker.他的父母,直立人,并建立严格的宗教信徒的,注定他的教会,但由于男孩时期,在早期,感到一种强烈的反感的“雇工部”,他是在收到雏形教育的裸,一个鞋匠学徒。 He grew to manhood a pure and honest youth, free from the vices of his age, and "endued", says Sewel, "with a gravity and stayedness of mind seldom seen in children".他成长为一个纯粹的男子汉气概和诚实的青年,不受年龄的恶习,与“赋”,说塞韦尔“,”儿童与重力和心灵stayedness看到的很少。 In his nineteenth year, while at a fair with two friends, who were "professors" of religion, he was so shocked by a proposal they made him to join them in drinking healths, that he abandoned their company.在他19年,而在一个公平与两个朋友,谁是“教授宗教”的,他是如此震惊该建议提出了他加入他们的健康照护他们在喝酒,他放弃了他们的公司。 Returning home, he spent a sleepless night, in the course of which he thought he heard a voice from heaven crying out to him: "Thou seest how young men go together into vanity, and old people into the earth; thou must forsake all, young and old, keep out of all, and be a stranger unto all."回到家里,他花了不眠之夜,在这一过程中,他以为他听到他的声音从天上喊出来:“你看见年轻男人们的虚荣心如何一起进入,老人们进入地球,你必须抛开一切,青年人和老年人,避开所有,是一个陌生人那里的。“ Interpreting the injunction literally, Fox left his father's house, penniless and with Bible in hand to wander about the country in search of light.禁令从字面上解读,福克斯离开他父亲的家,身无分文,并在手与圣经根据国家有关漫步在搜索。His mental anguish at times bordered on despair.在他的精神痛苦绝望的时候接壤。He sought counsel from renowned "professors"; but their advice that he should take a wife, or sing psalms, or smoke tobacco, was not calculated to solve the problems which perplexed his soul.他要求律师从知名教授“”,但他们的意见,他应该采取的妻子,或唱诗歌,或烟草烟雾,是不计算来解决问题,困扰他的灵魂。 Finding no food or consolation in the teachings of the Church of England or of the innumerable dissenting sects which flooded the land, he was thrown back upon himself and forced to accept his own imaginings as "revelations".寻找淹没的土地并没有任何异议教派食物或安慰,在无数的教诲,教会英格兰或者,他就被扔回到自己身上,被迫接受“启示”作为他自己的想像。 "I fasted much", he tells us in his Journal, "walked abroad in solitary places many days, and often took my Bible and sat in hollow trees and lonesome places until night came on; and frequently in the night walked mournfully about by myself. For I was a man of sorrows in the first working of the Lord in me." “我禁食得多”,他告诉我们,他的杂志,“走出孤独地在国外许多天,常常把我的圣经,坐在空心树和寂寞的地方,直到夜幕降临;及经常在夜间走过悲伤地对自己的。因为我是我一个人在主工作的痛苦中第一个。“ This anguish of spirit continued, with intermissions, for some years; and it is not surprising that the lonely youth read into his Bible all his own idiosyncrasies and limitations. Founding his opinions on isolated texts, he gradually evolved a system at variance with every existing form of Christianity.这种精神痛苦持续中场,与,对于一些年,它是不奇怪的孤独的青年限制他的圣经都读入自己的特质和。建国孤立的文本他的意见,他又逐渐演变每个现有制度的差异与形式的基督教。 His central dogma was that of the "inner light", communicated directly to the individual soul by Christ "who enlightenth every man that cometh into the world".他的中心法则是“认为,”内光,直接传达到每一个灵魂的基督“谁enlightenth每个人来到这个世界带入”。 To walk in this light and obey the voice of Christ speaking within the soul was to Fox the supreme and sole duty of man.走在这光线和服从基督的声音在说话的灵魂是福克斯的唯一责任人的最高和。Creeds and churches, councils, rites, and sacraments were discarded as outward things.教义和教堂,议会,礼仪,和圣礼被丢弃的外向的东西。Even the Scriptures were to be interpreted by the inner light.即使是圣经都必须加以解释的内心。This was surely carrying the Protestant doctrine of private judgment to its ultimate logical conclusion.这肯定是携带私人的判断新教教义其最终合乎逻辑的结论。Inconvenient passages of Holy Writ, such as those establishing Baptism and the Eucharist, were expounded by Fox in an allegorical sense; whilst other passages were insisted upon with a literalness before unknown.不方便通道洗礼和圣体圣等令状,因为这些建立,阐述了由福克斯在一个寓言意义;而其他通道的坚持与前一后不明文字的。 Thus, from the text "Swear not at all", he drew the illicitness of oaths, even when demanded by the magistrate.因此,从文本“发誓绝对不会在所有的”,他提请宣誓illicitness的,即使裁判官所要求的。Titles of honour, salutations, and all similar things conducive to vanity, such as doffing the hat or "scraping with the leg", were to be avoided even in the presence of the king. War, even if defensive, was declared unlawful.打招呼标题的荣誉,和所有的虚荣心类似的事情有利于“,如脱了帽子或腿”刮的,是要避免的,即使在战争中存在的国王。,即使防御,被宣布为非法。 Art, music, drama, field-sports, and dancing were rejected as unbecoming the gravity of a Christian.艺术,音乐,戏剧,现场体育,跳舞被拒绝作为基督教的严重性不相称的。As for attire, he pleaded for that simplicity of dress and absence of ornament which later became the most striking peculiarity of his followers.至于服装,装饰品,他恳求说简单的衣着和缺席,后来成为他的追随者最突出的特点。There was no room in his system for the ordained and salaried clergy of other religions, Fox proclaiming that every man, woman or child, when moved by the Spirit, had an equal right to prophesy and give testimony for the edification of the brethren. Two conclusions, with disagreeable consequence to the early Friends, were drawn from this rejection of a "priesthood"; the first was, that they refused to pay tithes or church rates; the second, that they celebrated marriage among themselves, without calling in the services of the legally appointed minister. Impelled by frequent "revelations", Fox began the public preaching of his novel tenets in 1647.有没有两个房间英寸他的系统的其他宗教和受薪祝圣的神职人员,福克斯宣称每一个男人,妇女或儿童接受,移动时的精神,had的平等权利和give预言的证词的熏陶的兄弟年初朋友的结论,与令人不快的后果,这是来自“拒绝了”祭司,第一是,他们拒绝支付什一税或教堂率;第二,他们庆祝自己的婚姻中,没有服务的调用依法任命的部长。“迫于频繁”透露,福克斯在1647年就开始宣扬他的小说原理公众。 It was not his intention to increase the religious confusion of the time by the addition of a new sect.这是不是他打算增加新教派的宗教混淆了时间的增加。He seems to have been persuaded that the doctrine by means of which he himself had "come up in spirit through the flaming sword into the paradise of God" would be greeted alike by Christian, Turk, and heathen.他似乎已经相信,上帝学说的手段,其中由他自己“通过又来了精神火焰的剑天堂为”异教徒都将迎接由基督徒,土耳其人和。 The enthusiasm and evident sincerity of the uncouth young preacher gained him numerous converts in all parts of Britain; whilst the accession of Margaret, wife of Judge Fell, afterwards of Fox himself, secured to the Friends a valuable rallying-point in the seclusion of Swarthmoor Hall, Lancashire.粗鲁的热情和诚意明显的年轻牧师为他赢得了英国各地众多的转换,而玛格丽特的加入,费尔妻子的法官,后来的福克斯本人,担保的朋友在一个封闭的斯瓦斯莫尔团结的可贵之处,厅,兰开夏郡。 In an incredibly short time, a host of unordained apostles, male and female, were scouring the two hemispheres, carrying to the ends of the earth the gospel of Fox.在极短的时间,一个女主持人的unordained使徒,男,被冲刷的两个半球,携带着给福克斯的福音地球两端的。One enthusiast hastened to Rome to enlighten the pope; a second went to the Orient to convert the sultan.一个发烧友赶紧罗马教皇启发;第二次来到东方转换苏丹。The antagonistic religions dominant in England before and after the Restoration, Presbyterianism and the Established Church, made equally determined efforts, through the aid of the civil power, to crush the growing sect.敌对宗教占主导地位在英国之前和之后的恢复,长老教会的成立,作出同样决定的努力,通过援助的民间力量,粉碎了越来越多节。 From the detailed record which the Friends, in imitation of the primitive Christians, kept of the sufferings of their brethren, we gather that during the reign of Charles II, 13,562 "Quakers" were imprisoned in various parts of England, 198 were transported as slaves beyond seas, and 338 died in prison or of wounds received in violent assaults on their meetings.从详细记录该朋友,在模仿的原始基督徒弟兄们,保持他们的疾苦,我们聚集在一起,在13562年间,查尔斯二世,“谊”被监禁的英国各地区,198人作为奴隶运超越海洋,338死于监狱或暴力创伤的会议上接受了他们的攻击。 They fared still worse at the hands of the Puritans in Massachusetts, who spared no cruelty to rid the colony of this "cursed sect of heretics", and hanged four of them, three men and a woman, on Boston Common.他们仍然表现较差的殖民地摆脱了手中的清教徒在马萨诸塞州,谁不遗余力地爱护这个“诅咒异端教派的”,并挂有四个,三名男子和一名妇女常见,在波士顿。 What marked them out for persecution was not so much their theory of the inward light or their rejection of rites and sacraments, as their refusal to pay tithes, or take the oaths prescribed by law, or to have anything to do with the army; these offences being aggravated in the estimation of the magistrates by their obstinacy in refusing to uncover their head in court and "thouing and theeing" the judges.什么标记出来的迫害是没有这么多的圣礼理论的外来光线或与他们反对仪式,因为他们拒绝支付什一税,或采取与军队的誓言由法律规定,或有什么关系,这些犯的罪行是严重thouing和法官theeing“中估计的裁判官在其顽固拒绝揭露其头部在法庭上和”。 The suffering Friends found at last a powerful protector in the person of their most illustrious convert, William, son of admiral Penn, who defended his coreligionists in tracts and public disputes, and, through his influence with the last two Stuart kings, was frequently successful in shielding them from the violence of the mob and the severity of the magistrates.友的苦难的人终于找到一个强大的保护者的最杰出的转换,威廉的儿子,海军上将佩恩,谁在捍卫他的coreligionists大片和公共纠纷,国王,他的影响力通过司徒雷登与近两年,经常被成功裁判官在屏蔽他们从暴力的暴徒和严重程度。 Penn furthermore secured for them a safe refuge in his great colony of Pennsylvania, the proprietorship of which he acquired from Charles II in liquidation of a loan advanced to the Crown by his father.佩恩还为他们担保由他的父亲是一个安全的庇护在他的伟大的殖民地,宾夕法尼亚,独资企业清算的,他收购了由查尔斯二世的官方贷款先进。 With the accession to the throne of James II the persecution of the Friends practically ceased; and by successive Acts of Parliament passed after the Revolution of 1688, their legal disabilities were removed; their scruples about paying tithes and supporting the army were respected; and their affirmation was accepted as equivalent to an oath.随着朋友加入詹姆斯二世的宝座的迫害几乎停止,并且由1688年议会通过的法令革命后,他们的法律障碍被拆除,军队他们不惜付出什一税和支持得到尊重,他们的肯定被接纳为等同于宣誓。

Meanwhile, Fox, in the intervals between his frequent imprisonments, had laboured to impart the semblance of an organization to the society; whilst the excesses of some of his followers compelled him to enact a code of discipline. His efforts in both these directions encountered strong opposition from many who had been taught to regard the inward light as the all-sufficient guide.与此同时,福克斯,在频繁的监禁之间的间隔,他曾辛勤传授的假象该组织对社会;而他的追随者的一些过激行为迫使他制定纪律守则。指示他的这些努力,都遇到强劲许多反对谁教已经把外来光线充足的指南作为全。 However, the majority, sacrificing consistency, acquiesced; and before the death of Fox, 13 Jan., 1691, Quakerism was established on the principles which it has since substantially preserved.然而,多数,牺牲的一致性,默许和死亡前Quakerism福克斯,1691年1月13日,是建立在保留原则,它已自不少。

Although the Friends repudiate creeds as "external" and "human", yet they, at least the early Quakers and their orthodox modern followers, admit the fundamental dogmas of Christianity as expounded in the Apostles' Creed. Rejecting as non-Scriptural the term Trinity, they confess the Godhead of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; the doctrine of the Redemption and salvation through Christ; and the sanctification of souls through the Holy Spirit.虽然朋友信条为推翻“外部”和“人”,但他们,至少在早期贵格会和他们的正统的现代追随者,承认基督教的基本教义为信条阐明了党在使徒。三位一体拒绝非圣经术语他们承认鬼神性的父亲,儿子,和圣灵,基督的教义的赎回通过和拯救;和圣灵圣洁的灵魂通过圣灵。 Their ablest apologists, as Robert Barclay and William Penn, have not been able to explain satisfactorily in what respect the "inward light" differs from the light of the individual reason; neither have they reconciled the doctrine of the supreme authority of the "inner voice" with the "external" claims of Scripture and the historic Christ.他们能干辩护士佩恩,罗伯特巴克利和威廉,未能圆满解释的理由在什么方面的“向内轻个人”,从不同的光的,他们也没有调和的声音学说“党内的最高权力机构的“与”外部“索赔的经文和历史悠久的基督。 These doctrinal weaknesses were fruitful germs of dissensions in later times.这些理论上的弱点是富有成果的纠纷细菌在稍后的时间。

Though one of the earliest of Fox's "testimonies" was in reprobation of "steeple-houses", that is, the stately edifices with which Catholic piety had covered the soil of England, nevertheless, as his adherents grew in numbers, he was forced to gather them into congregations for purposes of worship and business.虽然“一证词最早的福克斯电视台的”是“非难的”尖顶房子,就是庄严华厦与其中天主教的虔诚已覆盖了英格兰的土壤,然而,作为他的信徒人数增长了,他被迫他们将收集业务为目的的崇拜聚会。 These "particular meetings" assembled on the first day of the week. They worshipped without any form of liturgy and in silence until some man, woman, or child was moved by the Spirit to "give testimony", the value of which was gauged by the common sense of the assembly.这些“特别会议”周组装的第一天。崇拜他们没有任何形式的礼仪和沉默,直到一些男人,女人,还是孩子的精神感动了,以“作证”,通过价值是衡量大会的常识。 By a process of development, a form of church government came into being, which has been described as follows:由一个发展过程,政府对教会的形式应运而生,它被描述如下:

"The whole community of Friends is modelled somewhat on the Presbyterian system. Three gradations of meanings or synods -- monthly, quarterly, and yearly -- administer the affairs of the Society, including in their supervision matters both of spiritual discipline and secular policy. The monthly meetings, composed of all the congregations within a definite circuit, judge of the fitness of new candidates for membership, supply certificates to such as move to other districts, choose fit persons to be elders, to watch over the ministry, attempt the reformation or pronounce the expulsion of all such as walk disorderly, and generally seek to stimulate the members to religious duty. They also make provision for the poor of the Society, and secure the education of their children. Overseers are also appointed to assist in the promotion of these objects. At monthly meetings also marriages are sanctioned previous to their solemnization at a meeting for worship. Several monthly meetings compose a quarterly meeting, to which they forward general reports of their condition, and at which appeals are heard from their decisions. The yearly meeting holds the same relative position to the quarterly meetings that the latter do to the monthly meetings, and has the general superintendence of the Society in a particular country."他说:“整个社会是仿照友一定程度上的长老制度。三个层次的含义或主教会议-月度,季度和年度-管理社会的事务,包括政策的监督和世俗的事项都精神纪律。每月的会议,成员组成的新的候选人的所有教会内的健身明确法官的电路,供应证书,如转移到其他地区,选择适合的人是长者,观看了该部的改革尝试或宣布驱逐所有的义务,如乱走,并普遍寻求刺激成员的宗教。它们也使社会为穷人提供的,并确保他们的子女教育。巡察亦获委任为协助推广这些对象。在每月的会议还批准的婚姻是以前他们在一个礼拜往常会议。撰写的几个季度每月例会会议,他们提出的条件一般的报告,并在该上诉的决定听取了他们的。该年会持有相同的相对位置,以每月的会议季度会议,后者做的,并有特定国家的一般监督协会在一个。“ (See Rowntree, Quakerism, Past and Present, p. 60.)(见朗特里,Quakerism,过去和现在,第60页。)

All the yearly meetings are supreme and independent, the only bond of union between them being the circular letters which pass between them.所有的年度会议是最高的,独立的,它们之间的唯一纽带的工会正在它们之间的循环通过字母。The annual letter of London Yearly Meeting is particularly prized.每年的年度会议的信伦敦尤其珍贵。With the passing away of its founders and the cessation of persecution, Quakerism lost its missionary spirit and hardened into a narrow and exclusive sect.随着其创始人的去世而停止迫害,Quakerism失去了它的传教精神和教派硬化成一个狭隘和排他性。Instead of attracting new converts, it developed a mania for enforcing "discipline", and "disowned", that is, expelled, multitudes of its members for trifling matters in which the ordinary conscience could discern no moral offence.而不是吸引新的转换,它制定了执行一躁狂症“纪律”和“否定”,即驱逐,没有道德的罪行看出其成员众多琐碎事项,其中普通良心能。 In consequence, they dwindled away from year to year, being gradually absorbed by other more vigorous sects, and many drifting into Unitarianism.因此,他们越来越少逐年,逐步吸收其他教派更有力,许多单一制漂流到。

In the United States, where, in the beginning of the last century, they had eight prosperous yearly meetings, their progress was arrested by two schisms, known as the Separation of 1828 and the Wilburite Controversy.在美国,在那里,在本世纪初的最后,他们有8个繁荣的年度会议,其进展之争1828年被捕,Wilburite由两个已知的分裂,因为分离。 The disturbance of 1828 was occasioned by the preaching of Elias Hicks (1748-1830), an eloquent and extremely popular speaker, who, in his later years, put forth unsound views concerning the Person and work of Christ.在1828年紊乱是因基督宣扬埃利亚斯希克斯(1748至1830年),雄辩地和极为流行的喇叭,谁在他的晚年,提出不健全有关人士的意见和工作。 He was denounced as a Unitarian; and, although the charge seemed well founded, many adhered to him, not so much from partaking his theological heresies, as to protest against the excessive power and influence claimed by the elders and overseers.他被指责为一个统一,以及,虽然收费似乎很有道理,很多坚持到他,他的神学异端没有这么多的意旨,以抗议过多的权力和影响力和监督员所声称的长者。 After several years of wrangling, the Friends were split into two parties, the Orthodox and the Hicksite, each disowning the other, and claiming to be the original society.经过几年的争吵之友被分成两方,东正教和希克斯特,每个disowning另一方面,和自称是原始的社会。Ten years later the Orthodox body was again divided by the opposition of John Wilbur to the evangelistic methods of an English missionary, Joseph John Gurney. 10年后,东正教的尸体被再次除以威尔伯反对派约翰约瑟夫约翰格尼布道方法的英国传教士。As the main body of the Orthodox held with Gurney, the Wilburite faction set up a schismatic yearly meeting.由于与东正教举行格尼主要在车身的Wilburite派成立了一个分裂的年度会议。These schisms endure to the present day.这些分裂忍受到今天。There is also a microscopical sect known as "Primitive" Friends, mainly offshoots from the Wilburites who claim to have eliminated all the later additions to the faith and practice of the early founders of the society.还有一个显微教派声称被称为“原生”之友Wilburites谁,主要分支从已经清除了所有后来增加的信仰和社会实践创办的初期。

In the fields of education, charity, and philanthropy the Friends have occupied a place far out of proportion to their numbers.在慈善领域的教育,以及慈善事业之友已占领的地方远不成比例,他们的人数。 There exist in the United States many important colleges of their foundation.存在于美国的许多重要大学的基础。They are exemplary in the care of their poor and sick.他们是模范的关心他们的穷人和病人。Long before the other denominations, they denounced slavery and would not permit any of their members to own slaves.早在其他教派,他们谴责奴隶制,不会允许任何成员对他们以自己的奴隶。They did not, however, advocate the abolition of slavery by violent measures.他们没有,但是,主张暴力的措施,奴隶制废除。 They have also been eminently solicitous for the welfare and fair treatment of the Indians. According to Dr. HK Carroll, the acknowledged authority on the subject of religious statistics (The Christian Advocate, Jan., 1907), the standing of the various branches of Friends in the United States is as follows:他们显然也殷勤的印第安人的福利和公平待遇。据香港卡罗尔博士,各分局的公认权威,在1月的主题宗教统计(基督教提倡1907年)的各种列为本的在美国的朋友如下:

Orthodox: 1302 ministers, 830 churches, 94,507 communicants东正教:1302部长,830教堂,94507圣餐

Hicksite: 115 ministers, 183 churches, 19,545 communicants希克斯特:115部长,183个教堂,19545圣餐

Wilburite: 38 ministers, 53 churches, 4,468 communicants Wilburite:38个部长,53个教堂,4,468圣餐

Primitive: 11 ministers, 9 churches, 232 communicants原生态的:11个部长,9个教堂,232圣餐

Publication information Written by James F. Loughlin.出版信息撰稿:詹姆斯F劳克林。Transcribed by Thomas J. Bress. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.转录由托马斯J Bress。天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1909.1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M.+约翰米Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教纽约

Bibliography书目

SCHAFF, Creeds and Christendom (New York, 1884), I, III; THOMAS, ALLAN C. AND RICHARD H., History of the Society of Friends in America in American Church History Series (New York, 1894), XII--contains excellent bibliography; SMITH, JOSEPH, Descriptive Catalogue of Friends' Books (London, 1867; supplement, London, 1893); IDEM, Bibliotheca Anti-Quakeriana, A Catalogue of Books Adverse to the Society of Friends (London, 1873); JANNEY, History of the Religious Society of Friends from the Rise to the year 1828 (2nd ed., Philadelphia, 1837-50).沙夫,教义和基督教(纽约,1884),一,三,托马斯,阿伦C.和理查德H,历史的美国之友协会在美国教会历史系列(纽约,1894年),第十二章-包含优秀书目;史密斯,约瑟夫,叙录之友'的书籍(伦敦,1867年,补充,伦敦,1893年);同上,藏书反Quakeriana,阿图书目录的不利之友协会(伦敦,1873年);詹尼,历史上的宗教之友协会从1828年兴起的(第二版。费城,1837年至1850年)。 The Works of FOX were published at London, 1694-1706; the Works of BARCLAY were edited by WILLIAM PENN (London, 1692).福克斯作品在伦敦出版,1694年至1706年,巴克莱的作品)编辑威廉佩恩(伦敦,1692。


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