Radical Reformation激进改革

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Also known as the Left Wing of the Reformation and the Third Reformation, it includes all reforming elements not identified with the magisterial reformation.也被称为第三次改革左翼的改革和,它包括所有的改革内容改革与威严没有确定。Common to all its participants was disappointment with moral aspects of territorial Protestantism and the rejection of some of its doctrines and institutions.共同所有参加者的机构失望的教义和道德方面的新教领土和拒绝一些。While various interlocking historical connections and doctrinal variations limit the validity of typological and ideological classifications, three main groupings of radicals have been identified: Anabaptists, spiritualists, and evangelical rationalists.虽然不同的历史渊源和理论联锁变化限制了分类的有效性和意识形态的类型学,三个主要的自由基集团已经确定:Anabaptists的,招魂,理性主义和福音。


The Anabaptist movement had a varied cast of characters.再洗礼派运动有不同的字符铸。From it has evolved the Free Church tradition.从它演变的自由教会的传统。

From Luther to twentieth century scholar Karl Holl, the opinion prevailed that Anabaptism began with revolutionaries and spiritualizers such as the Zwickau Prophets and Thomas Munzer and reached its logical conclusion with the violent Munsterites.从路德至二十世纪的学者卡尔霍尔,意见占了上风,即Anabaptism Munsterites开始了革命者的暴力和spiritualizers如茨维考先知和托马斯闵采尔,与达到其合乎逻辑的结论。In the 1940s Harold S Bender inaugurated a new era in American Anabaptist studies.在研究20世纪40年代美国哈罗德S本德尔再洗礼派成立一个新时代的研究。Using primary sources and following up directions indicated earlier by CA Cornelius and other Europeans, Bender distinguished between Anabaptists and revolutionaries.使用的主要来源和跟进的方向如前所述由CA科尼利厄斯和其他欧洲人,本德尔区分anabaptists和革命家。 He placed Anabaptist origins in the circle of Conrad Grebel, which left Zwingli's reformation when Zwingli compromised its biblical basis. From Zurich the movement was spread by missionaries from Switzerland to Austria and Moravia, South Germany, and the Low Countries.他把圣经的基础上再洗礼派的起源及其在圈子康拉德格雷贝尔,留下茨温利的改革时,茨温利受损。来自瑞士苏黎世的运动是由传教士传播到奥地利和摩拉维亚,德国南部和低地国家。 Bender described the movement as the logical culmination of the reform begun but left unfinished by Luther and Zwingli.Bender说,改革运动作为逻辑的顶点开始,但在未完成的路德和茨温利。Its principal characteristics were discipleship, biblicism, and pacifism其主要特点是门徒,biblicism,以及和平主义

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Beginning in the late 1960s scholars challenged and, to a considerable measure, reoriented Bender's findings. 20世纪60年代后期开始,学者质疑,并在相当大的措施,重新调整本德尔的调查结果。They described a pluralistic rather than a homogenous movement with several points of origin and a multiplicity of reforming impulses.他们描述了一个多元化的,而不是一个同质性的运动与几个点的起源和多样性的改革冲动。

Swiss Anabaptism瑞士Anabaptism

Anabaptism in Switzerland developed from Zwingli's early supporters.瑞士Anabaptism发达国家从茨温利的早期支持者。These future radicals included the Grebel circle, which gathered in the home of Andreas Castelberger for Bible study, and priests from the outlying towns of Zurich.这些未来的激进分子包括格雷贝尔圆圈,聚集在研究圣经的家安德烈亚斯Castelberger的,苏黎世和外围城镇神父。 For different reasons the urban and rural radicals became disillusioned with Zwingli's reform.对于不同的原因,城市和农村自由基成为改革与温格利失望的。

Seeing the Bible as an alternative authority to Rome, the Grebel circle desired Zwingli to proceed rapidly to purify the city's religious establishment of such corruptions as the Mass. When Zwingli allowed the city council to determine the speed of reformation, it seemed to the radicals the substitution of one oppressive authority for another.看到罗马圣经作为替代的权力,格雷贝尔圈所需温格利进行迅速,净化城市的腐败行为作为宗教的马萨诸塞州设立这样当温格利让市议会来确定改革的速度,它似乎激进派的权力压迫的一个替代另一个。 The radical movement developed social as well as religious dimensions when its members joined forces with rural priests such as Simon Stumpf at Hongg and Wilhelm Reublin at Wittikon, who sought to establish self - governing Volkskirchen in the rural communities, independent of Zurich's central authority, both religious and civil.激进运动的发展以及与社会,包括宗教因素在其管理局成员联手与农村祭司等西门施通普夫在亨格和威廉Reublin在Wittikon,谁试图建立中央-自管Volkskirchen中的农村社区,独立的苏黎世宗教和民间。 The rebaptisms which occurred first on January 21, 1525, and from which come the name Anabaptism, originally expressed an anticlerical opposition to civil and religious authority outside of the local parish rather than a Free Church theological concept.1525年发生的rebaptisms 1月21日第一次,并从其中的名称Anabaptism来,原本是当地教区表示反对反圣职者的民事和宗教之外的权威,而不是一个自由教会神学观。

Ultimately the attempts to become a mass movement failed and there emerged the idea of the church of the separated, persecuted, and defenseless minority.最终,试图成为一个群众运动失败,就出现了迫害思想,教会的分离,手无寸铁的少数民族。The Schleitheim Articles of 1527, edited by Michael Sattler, consolidated this Swiss Anabaptism. 1527施莱特海姆的文章,萨特勒编辑的迈克尔,综合这家瑞士Anabaptism。Its goal was not the purification of existing Christianity, as it was for the early Zurich radicals, but rather the separation of congregations of believers from the world.它的目标不是基督教净化现有的,因为它是为早期自由基苏黎世,而是全世界的信徒从教会分离。Thus at Schleitheim first emerged the idea of a "free church."因此,在施莱特海姆首次出现教会所主张的“自由”。These Swiss Brethren came to be known for their legalistic approach to the Bible, a salvation manifesting itself in the creation of separated congregations, and baptism which symbolized that salvation and made the baptizand a member of the congregation.这些瑞士的弟兄们来到被称为洗礼,他们墨守成规的态度,以圣经,一个拯救自己的分离表现在建立教会,并标志着救亡和取得的baptizand一众成员。

South German Anabaptism南德国Anabaptism

In spite of the mutual practice of adult baptism, Anabaptism in South Germany was a quite different movement from the Swiss Brethren.在德国,尽管在南方共同实践Anabaptism成人洗礼,瑞士是一个完全不同的运动规律弟兄。 South German Anabaptism stems from the reformulation of ideas from Thomas Munzer by Hans Hut and Hans Denck (c. 1500 - 1527).南德国Anabaptism源于闵采尔改写思想托马斯汉斯必胜客和汉斯Denck(公元前1500年至1527年)。 Reflecting a medieval, mystical outlook, Munzer envisioned the inner transformation of persons through the Spirit and an accompanying external transformation of the entire society, with the newly transformed individuals acting in revolutionary fashion to usher in the kingdom of God.反映了中世纪,神秘的前景,闵采尔的人所设想的精神,通过内部改造和伴随而来的整个社会转型的外部,与新改造的上帝革命个人行事的方式迎接王国。 This revolution, along with Munzer, died in the May 1525 massacre of peasants at Frankenhausen.这场革命,随着闵采尔,死于1525年5月屠杀农民在弗兰肯豪森战役。

Hans Denck's concept of inner transformation was pacifist in expression, with focus more on the renewal of individuals than of society.汉斯Denck的转变思想,表达内心的和平是在与社会更注重对个人,而不是重建。This inner, transforming Christ served Denck as an alternative authority both to the Roman hierarchy and to the learned exegesis of the Reformers.这种内在的,转化基督担任改革者Denck作为一种替代的权威同时向罗马层次和所学的注释。Positing the inner Christ as ultimate authority made Denck less than absolute in his approach to adult baptism and the written word, both positions which brought upon him the criticism of the Swiss Brethren.并主张的内在基督弟兄会最终权力作出Denck不到绝对在他向成年洗礼和文字,这两个职位后,使他在瑞士的批评。

Hans Hut understood the inner transformation to be accomplished through the experience of both inner and outer struggle and suffering.汉斯必胜客理解内在的转化是痛苦的经验和成就,通过内部和外部两斗争。Hut modified Munzer's revolutionary outlook, commanding the transformed believers to keep the revolutionary sword sheathed until God called for it.胡特修订闵采尔的革命人生观,指挥转化信徒保持革命剑护套直到上帝它呼吁。Unlike the Swiss Brethren, Hut's practice of rebaptism was not to form separated congregations, but rather to mark the elect for the end - time judgment.不同的是瑞士弟兄们,必胜客的rebaptism做法并不形成分离的毕业典礼,而是要标记结束选出的-时间的判断。 Hut's movement gradually died out following his death in a jail fire.胡特的运动逐渐消失后,他在监狱火灾死亡。

A Hut legacy continued through several metamorphoses.一间小屋的遗产继续通过若干变动。One form developed in Moravia, out of the conflict in the congregation at Nikolsburg between the pacifist Stabler (staff bearers), influenced by Hut and Swiss Brethren refugees, and the Schwertler (sword bearers), the majority party under the influence of Balthasar Hubmaier, who had established a state church form of Anabaptism in the city.一种形式摩拉维亚发展,目前,在冲突中的难民聚集在Nikolsburg的弟兄之间的和平斯特布勒(工作人员承担者瑞士),必胜客和影响,以及Schwertler(剑委员)中,巴尔塔萨Hubmaier多数党的影响下,谁建立了一个形式的城市国家,基督教教会的Anabaptism研究。 Forced to leave Nikolsburg in 1529, the Stabler pooled their few possessions as a survival necessity. 1529年被迫离开在Nikolsburg,汇集了斯特布勒一种生存需要很少的财产作为。This community of goods, which became the movement's trademark, soon received a theological justification, making it a social expression of the inner mystical transformation of believers envisioned by Hut. Following the dispute - filled early years Jacob Hutter's strong leadership from 1533 to 1536 consolidated this Anabaptist form. His name still identifies the Hutterites in the twentieth century.本品社区,成为该运动的商标,很快获得了神学的理由,使其成为一个由必胜客社会表达的信徒所设想的转型内在神秘。随着争端-年雅各布胡特尔的坚强领导下从1533年填补初至1536巩固了这一再洗礼派的形式。标识他的名字仍然在20世纪的哈特莱特的。

Another form of the Hut legacy developed in South Germany around Pilgram Marpeck.另一种形式德国Marpeck周围皮尔格拉姆遗产小屋发展南部地区。Although he left his native Tyrol after adopting Anabaptism, and while he was forced further to move several times because of his Anabaptist views, Marpeck's skills as a civil engineer enabled him to live in relative security.虽然他离开家乡后,通过Anabaptism蒂罗尔州,虽然他被迫进一步提出土木工程师几次再洗礼派的技巧,因为他作为一个意见,Marpeck的使他能够生活在相对安全。 Marpeck's view was not widely held and therefore is not normative for Anabaptism; but he did develop a mediating position on the Bible, critical both of the legalist Swiss and of spiritualist views. Marpeck的看法是没有得到广泛的举行,因此不Anabaptism规范性,但他并制定一本圣经,调解的立场的关键都法家瑞士和巫师的意见。 Rather than the radical social separation of the Swiss Brethren, Marpeck held to a separation of church and state which did not withhold all cooperation by believers.而不是激进的瑞士弟兄社会分离的,Marpeck举行一个信徒在教会和国家分离的不隐瞒所有的合作。

Low Countries Anabaptism低地国家Anabaptism

The third major Anabaptist movement was planted in the Low Countries by Melchior Hofmann (c. 1495 - 1543). An erstwhile Lutheran preacher in Sweden and Schleswig - Holstein, always zealously interested in eschatological speculation, Hofmann found in the Strasbourg Anabaptists influenced by Hans Denck the ideas which precipitated his break with Luther and enabled him to develop his own form of Anabaptism.第三个大再洗礼派运动是种植在低地国家的梅尔基奥尔霍夫曼(公元前1495年至1543年)。一个昔日路德会牧师在瑞典和石勒苏益格-荷尔斯泰因,总是热情地投机的兴趣在末世论,霍夫曼Denck汉斯Anabaptists的影响,发现在斯特拉斯堡他的意见,这些沉淀路德打破,使他发展他的Anabaptism自己的形式。 Hofmann believed in the near inbreaking of God's kingdom into the world, with divine vengeance upon the wicked.霍夫曼认为,在不久的inbreaking上帝的王国走向世界,与邪恶的神圣复仇后。The righteous would participate in this judgment, not as agents of vengeance but as witnesses to the coming peace. Hofmann's baptism served to gather the elect into an end - time congregation to build this new Jerusalem.义人将参加这一判决,而不是报复,而是和平的代理人向证人来。霍夫曼的洗礼有助于收集到结束的选举-众时间建立这个新的耶路撒冷。 He died after ten years imprisonment in Strasbourg.他死在斯特拉斯堡年监禁后,10。

Two lines carried on in transformed fashion the Hofmann legacy.在霍夫曼的遗产转化的方式进行两行。 One, the revolutionary Melchiorites, founded the short - lived kingdom of Munster, 1534 - 35.一,革命Melchiorites,成立了短-明斯特,居住王国1534年- 35。Under Jan Matthys, baptized as a disciple of Hofmann, and then under Jan van Leiden, who seized power at the death of Matthys, the revolutionary Melchiorites in the city of Munster gave a political and social expression to Hofmann's end - time kingdom.根据1月Matthys,受洗成为霍夫曼弟子,然后在扬凡莱登,谁抓住Matthys功率死亡,明斯特市在革命的Melchiorites了一种政治和社会表达霍夫曼的终结-时间的王国。 They transformed his idea of divine vengeance so that in Munster the members of the kingdom carried out vengeance upon anyone who opposed them.他们改变了他的复仇思想,以便在明斯特神圣王国的成员对他们进行报复后,任何人谁反对。Following the fall of the city revolutionary Melchioritism died out, although it was carried on for a time by personages such as Jan van Batenburg.随着城市的秋天革命Melchioritism死了,虽然是对车进行巴滕堡一时间人士,如1月

The pacifist line from Hofmann runs through Menno Simons, who left the priesthood in 1536 and whose name twentieth century Mennonites carry.从霍夫曼和平主义者线贯穿门诺门诺西门子,谁留在晋铎1536年和20世纪的名字进行。After the fall of Munster, Menno rallied the peaceful Melchiorites as well as the surviving Munsterites disillusioned with violence.蒙斯特倒台后,门诺凝聚了和平Melchiorites以及尚存Munsterites暴力与失望。Menno replaced Hofmann's near end time with the idea of a time of peace which had already begun with Jesus.门诺取代霍夫曼的开始与结束时已经接近耶稣的时间与有想法的时候的和平。Using the aberrant "celestial flesh" Christology of Hofmann which he adopted, Menno developed concepts of the transformation of the individual and of the assembly of a spotless church.使用异常的“天肉”通过基督,他的霍夫曼,门诺教会发展观念的转变,一尘不染的个人和大会的一个研究。

Although beginning from different presuppositions, Menno's positions on transformed individuals and a pure, separated church resembled closely the outlook of the Schleitheim Articles.虽然开始从不同的前提,是施莱特海姆文章门诺的立场上改变个人和纯,分离教会的密切相似的前景。 The heirs of the various Anabaptist groups came to recognize their common emphases on the Bible, adult baptism, pacifism, and sense of separation from the state church and worldly society.再洗礼派团体的继承人的各种来认识和世俗社会的共同重点研究圣经,成人洗礼,和平主义,分离意识的国家教堂。They had contacts and discussions and divisions.他们的接触和讨论,分歧。While they never united into one homogeneous body, some sense of unity developed, as represented by the Concept of Cologne signed in 1591 by fifteen preachers, the first confession of faith accepted simultaneously by Dutch and High and Low German Mennonites.虽然他们从来没有团结成一个单一的机构,一些发达国家的团结意识,作为科隆代表由1591年签署的概念由15个传教士,首先供认的信仰,同时接受了荷兰和德国的高与低门诺派。


Radicals characterized as spiritualizers downplayed significantly or rejected altogether external forms of church and ceremonies, opting instead for inner communion through the Holy Spirit.自由基的显着特点是spiritualizers淡化或完全拒绝教会和外部形式的仪式,选择通过内部交流,而不是为圣灵。 Thus for example Silesian nobleman Kasper Schwenckfeld held that there had been no correct baptism for a thousand years, and in 1526 he recommended suspension of the observance of the Lord's Supper, the Stillstand observed by his followers until 1877, until the question of its proper form could be settled.因此,举例来说西里西亚贵族卡斯帕施文克费尔德认为,出现了一千年不正确的洗礼的,并在1526年他建议晚餐暂停的纪念活动的主,Stillstand观察他的追随者,直到1877年的形式,直到适当的问题其可以得到解决。 Sebastian Franck (1499 - 1542) rejected altogether the idea of an external church.塞巴斯蒂安弗兰克(1499年至1542年)完全拒绝了教会的想法外部。He saw external ceremonies as mere props to support an infant church and which in any case had been taken over by the antichrist immediately after the death of the apostles.他看到单纯的道具外部仪式,以支持教会和婴儿在任何情况下已采取了敌基督的使徒后立即死亡的。Franck held the true church to be invisible, its individuals nurtured by the Spirit but remain scattered until Christ gathered his own at his second coming. Marpeck combated this individualistic, invisible church as the principal threat to South German Anabaptism.弗兰克举行真正的教堂是不可见的,其个人培育的精神,但remain分散聚集,直到基督德国Anabaptism带着自备的他第二次来。Marpeck打击这种以South个人主义,作为the invisible教会的主要威胁。

Evangelical Rationalists福音理性

Other radicals, given significant weight to reason alongside the Scriptures, came to reject aspects of traditional theology, principally in Christological and Trinitarian matters.其他激进分子,由于有重要影响的原因,以圣经的同时,来拒绝神学方面的传统,主要是在基督和三位一体的事项。Michael Servetus, burned in Calvin's Geneva for his views, is a noteworthy example of antitrinitarianism. Antitrinitarianism attained institutional form in the pacifistic Polish Brethren, later known as Socinians, and in the Unitarian churches in Lithuania and Transylvania.迈克尔塞尔维特,日内瓦焚烧卡尔文对他的看法,是一种antitrinitarianism值得注意的例子。Antitrinitarianism达到波兰弟兄们在和平主义体制形式,后来被称为苏西尼,在立陶宛和特兰西瓦尼亚的寻道教会。 A remnant of the latter survives into the twentieth century.阿后残余的生存到20世纪。Other modern Unitarians inherit the intellectual if not the historical legacy of antitrinitarianism.其他现代知识论派继承antitrinitarianism如果没有遗产的历史。

JD Weaver韦弗第纳尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

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T Bergsten, Balthasar Hubmaier; CJ Dyck, Introduction to Mennonite History and (ed.), A Legacy of Faith; R Friedmann, Hutterite Studies; HJ Hillerbrand, ed., A Bibliography of Anabaptism and A Fellowship of Discontent; W Klassen, Covenant and Community; M Lienhard, ed., The Origins and Characteristics of Anabaptism; Mennonite Encyclopedia, I - IV; JS Oyer, Lutheran Reformers Against Anabaptists; WO Packull, Mysticism and the Early South German - Austrian Anabaptist Movement; JM Stayer, Anabaptists and the Sword and "The Swiss Brethren,"; JM Stayer and WO Packull, eds., The Anabaptists and Thomas Munzer; JM Stayer, WO Packull, and K Deppermann, "From Monogenesis to Polygenesis," MQR 49; DC Steinmetz, Reformers in the Wings; GH Williams, The Radical Reformation. Ŧ伯格斯登,巴尔塔萨Hubmaier;终审法院首席法官戴克,门诺历史和简介(编辑),一种信仰遗产与r弗里德曼,Hutterite研究;黄建忠Hillerbrand,编辑。,阿Anabaptism书目和阿金的不满; W克拉森,圣约与社区,间林哈德,编辑。,起源和Anabaptism特征;门诺百科全书,我-四; js中耶,反对再洗礼派路德宗教改革和安Packull,神秘主义与早期南德国-奥地利再洗礼派运动; JM斯特耶,anabaptists和剑和“瑞士弟兄们,”JM斯特耶和WO Packull,合编。,和托马斯闵采尔的anabaptists; JM斯特耶,窝Packull和K德佩曼,无性生殖“从以多细胞繁殖,”MQR 49;直流斯坦梅茨,在改革者的翅膀;生长激素威廉姆斯,激进改革。

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