Realism写实

General Information一般信息

Realism denotes two distinct sets of philosophical theories, one regarding the nature of universal concepts and the other dealing with knowledge of objects in the world.现实主义是指两个理论,其中一套独特的哲学关于世界本质的普遍观念和知识与其他交易对象。

In late - classical and medieval philosophy, realism was a development of the Platonic theory of Forms and held, generally, that universals such as "red" or "man" have an independent, objective existence, either in a realm of their own or in the mind of God.在晚-古典与中世纪哲学,现实主义是发展的理论形式的柏拉图和举行,一般来说,是共性,如“红色”或“人”的境界本国或在一个独立的,一个客观存在,无论是在神铭记。 Medieval realism is usually contrasted with Nominalism, and the classic critiques of realism from this point of view were provided by Peter Abelard and William of Occam.中世纪的现实主义通常是对比与唯名,并从这个角度批判现实主义的经典被奥卡姆提供彼得阿贝拉尔和威廉。

In modern philosophy realism is a broad term, encompassing several movements whose unity lies in a common rejection of philosophical Idealism.在现代哲学的现实主义是一个广泛的术语,包括一些唯心主义哲学运动的团结的共同排斥在于1。In its most general form realism asserts that objects in the external world exist independently of what is thought about them.在其最一般形式的现实主义声称,在外部世界中的对象存在独立于他们的是什么思想。The most straightforward of such theories is usually known as naive realism.最简单的理论,正是这样的通常称为天真的现实主义。It contends that in perception humans are made directly aware of objects and their attributes and thus have immediate access to the external world.它争辩说,在人类感知的属性直接了解对象及其从而能够立即访问到外部世界。 This view fails, however, to explain perceptual mistakes and illusions, and most realists argue that causal processes in the mind mediate, or interpret, directly perceived appearances.这种看法是不够,但解释知觉错误和幻想,最现实主义者认为,在调解过程中考虑到因果,或解释,直接感知亮相。 Thus the objects remain in essence independent, although the causal mechanism may distort, or even wholly falsify, the individual's knowledge of them.因此,物体在本质上仍然是独立的,虽然因果机制可能扭曲,甚至完全捏造,个人的这些知识。

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Bibliography 书目
AH Armstrong, The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy (1967); DM Armstrong, Universals and Scientific Realism (1978); RM Chisholm, Realism and the Background of Phenomenology (1960); J Leplin, ed., Scientific Realism (1985); H Putnam, Meaning and the Moral Sciences (1978); RM Rorty, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature (1979); J Smart, Philosophy and Scientific Realism (1963); P Smith, Realism and Progress of Science (1982); H Veatch, Realism and Nominalism Revisited (1954); J Wild, Introduction to Realistic Philosophy (1984).啊阿姆斯特朗,1967年)剑桥历史后来希腊和中世纪早期哲学(;马克阿姆斯特朗,共性和科学现实主义(1978年);马币奇泽姆,现实主义与现象学背景(1960年); J里普林,编辑。,科学现实主义( 1985年); Ĥ普特南,意义和1978年)道德科学(;马币罗蒂,哲学与自然之镜(1979年); J智能,哲学和科学实在论(1963年); P史密斯,现实主义和科学进展(1982) ; Ĥ威奇,现实主义和唯名论回顾(1954年); J野生,介绍现实哲学(1984年)。


Realism现实主义

Advanced Information先进的信息

The theory of knowledge that maintains that "universals" (general concepts representing the common elements belonging to individuals of the same genus or species) have a separate existence apart from individual objects.知识理论,坚持“共性”(或同一属种的一般概念代表的共同要素属于个人的)有一个单独的存在除了个别的对象。It stands in contrast to nominalism, which held that universals had no reality apart from their existence in the though of an individual.它站在相反,唯名,认为他们的共性是从没有存在的现实,但除了一个人。Plato's insistence that there is a realm of universals above the material universe as real as individual objects themselves had a great influence on medieval thought.柏拉图的坚持是有共性的中世纪领域对上述材料作为现实的个人宇宙物体本身有很大的影响进行了思考。

Anselm's form of realism led him to the belief that by giving proper attention to universal concepts one could prove the truths of theology.安瑟伦的现实主义的形式使他相信,通过给予适当的重视普遍的一个概念,可以证明神学的真理。He accepted revealed truth, but was convinced that one should exercise reason in apprehending the truth.他接受揭示真相,但相信应该行使的真理在逮捕的原因。For example, he was convinced that by "necessary reasons" he could demonstrate the existence of God.例如,他确信,通过“必要的理由”,他可以证明上帝存在。Because God is the greatest of beings, Anselm reasoned in his Proslogion, he must exist in reality as well as in thought, for if he existed in thought only, a greater being could be conceived of.因为上帝是最伟大的人,安瑟伦Proslogion理由在他的,他必须存在于现实,以及在思想,如果他认为只存在于一个更大的设想是可能的。 Thus from consideration of an ideal or universal Anselm believed that he could derive truth about what actually exists.因此,从安瑟伦考虑一个理想的或普遍认为,他能得到什么实际存在的事实。

Augustine had modified Plato's realism by holding that universals existed before the material universe in God's creative mind.奥古斯丁修改了物质宇宙柏拉图的现实主义的前举行,共性存在于上帝的创造精神。This viewpoint was expanded by twelfth century ultrarealists, such as Duns Scotus, Odo of Tournai, and William of Champeaux (in his early years), to posit that the logical and real orders are exactly parallel.这一观点,扩大了第十二世纪ultrarealists(如邓司各脱的,小户图尔奈,和威廉香浦早年),以假定的逻辑和真实的订单是完全平行的。 By proposing that universals come before individuals, the ultrarealists maintained that the reality of individuals came from the universal.由个人提出的共性来过,ultrarealists坚持认为个人的现实来自普遍。 Thus humanity as a universal preceded individual men. In this fashion they explained theological concepts such as transmission of original sin in the human race and the oneness of the Trinity: God comes first; Father, Son and Holy Spirit share together in God.因此,人类作为一个普遍性的男子前面的人。这种方式,他们在解释传播种族原罪在神学概念,如人类和统一性的三位一体:上帝至上;子和圣灵一起分享上帝之父。

Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologica amended this ultrarealist position by developing Aristotle's doctrine that universals have a being only in material objects.托马斯阿奎那神学大全修订本在他的学说ultrarealist亚里士多德的立场,发展有一个共性的对象将仅限于在材料。 According to Aquinas we cannot assert that universals exist wholly apart from individual objects inasmuch as we know of them only through sensory impressions of individual objects.根据阿奎那我们不能断言对象因为我们知道他们只有通过感官印象对象的个人,从个人存在的共性完全分开。Thus universals are abstracted from the knowledge rooted in individual things.因此,共性是抽象的东西,从个人的知识层次。This "moderate realism" stressed that human reason could not totally grasp God's being. One could profitably use reason, then, to determine universals, and one could use reason in theology whenever it was concerned with the connection between universals and individual objects.这种“温和的现实主义”强调,人类理性不能完全掌握上帝的福利。一个可以盈利的使用理由,那么,确定共性,一个神学理由可以使用它在每次对象涉及个人的普遍与之间的联系。

Realism had a great effect on the "natural theology" of medieval scholasticism.现实主义有很大的影响中世纪经院哲学的“自然神学”。It affected both the method of demonstration and the shape of the theological dogmas which resulted.这既影响的方法,示范和形状的教条而导致的神学。One notes its influence to a lesser extent after the Reformation in both Roman Catholic Neo - Thomist circles and among Protestants who emphasize the "unity" of the human race in the passing on of original sin (eg, WGT Shedd).人们注意到它的影响力在较小程度上改造后的两个新罗马天主教-托马斯主义各界和新教徒之间谁强调通过对)原罪wgt谢德(例如,“团结”人类种族的。

DA Rausch多巴胺劳施

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
DM Armstrong, Universals and Scientific Realism: Nominalism and Realism, II; F Copleston, History of Philosophy, II; R Seeberg, Textbook of the History of Doctrines; M deWulf, History of Medieval Philosophy, I; WGT Shedd, Dogmatic Theology; E Gilson, History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages.马克阿姆斯特朗,共性和科学现实主义:唯和现实主义,二,女科普尔斯顿,哲学史,二;ṛ西贝尔格,理论教材的历史,间德维尔夫,哲学史的中世纪,我; wgt谢德,教条式的神学; é吉尔森,基督教哲学史在中世纪。


An Additional Observation另一种看法

I write to inform you that the well written article on 'Realism - Advanced Information' contains an error of fact which is incorrectly attributed to St. Anselm's ontological argument of the existence of God. The error is contained in the following quotation (bold type):我写信通知你,这一条对'写得很好的现实主义-先进的信息'包含一个上帝的错误事实的不正确归因于圣安瑟伦存在的本体论的论点的。错误的类型包含在下面的报价(粗体) :

Anselm's form of realism led him to the belief that by giving proper attention to universal concepts one could prove the truths of theology. He accepted revealed truth, but was convinced that one should exercise reason in apprehending the truth.安瑟伦的现实主义的形式使他相信,通过给予适当的重视普遍的一个概念,可以证明神学的真理。他接受揭示真相,但相信应该行使的真理在逮捕的原因。 For example, he was convinced that by "necessary reasons" he could demonstrate the existence of God.例如,他确信,通过“必要的理由”,他可以证明上帝存在。Because God is the greatest of beings, Anselm reasoned in his Proslogion, he must exist in reality as well as in thought, for if he existed in thought only, a greater being could be conceived of. Thus from consideration of an ideal or universal Anselm believed that he could derive truth about what actually exists.因为上帝是最伟大的人,安瑟伦Proslogion理由在他的,他必须存在于现实,以及在思想,如果他只存在于思想,一为高,可以设想。因此,从安瑟伦考虑一个理想的或普遍相信他能得到什么实际存在的事实。

Anselm also stated 'rational considerations' as a means to understanding Holy Scripture:安瑟伦还说'理性的考虑作为一个手段,以了解神圣经文:
If sometimes on the basis of rational considerations we sometimes make a statement which we cannot clearly exhibit in the words of Holy Scripture, or cannot prove by reference to these words, nonetheless in the following way we know by means of Scripture whether the statement ought to be accepted or rejected.如果有时在考虑的基础上理性,我们有时一份声明中,我们不能清楚地表明,在圣经的话,或无法证明参照这些话,方式仍然在下面我们圣经知道的手段是否发言应接受或拒绝。

Even from this quotation 'necessary reasons' cannot be applied to demonstrate the existence of God.即使从这个报价的理由'必要不能用于证明上帝存在。Anselm consistently shows that the application of reason can be given to explain why a thing is not impossible but necessary, but not to presume by reason to understand the cause of truth in itself.安瑟伦不断表明,之所以能得到应用,解释为什么事情是不可能的,但不是必要的,但不能假设的原因,了解真相的事业本身。

Dr. Ciro Vecchione.西罗韦基奥博士。


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