Reformed Churches归正教会

General Information一般信息

The Reformed churches, which originally used this designation to distinguish themselves from the "unreformed" Roman Catholic church, are those denominations of Protestants which are Calvinistic in theology and usually Presbyterian in church organization. They trace their origin to the reforming work in Zurich of Ulrich Zwingli and in Geneva of John Calvin .归正会,原本用这个名称来区分教堂本身也是“未经改革的”罗马天主教,是那些组织教派的新教徒中的加尔文的神学和教会通常长老英寸他们的起源可追溯至苏黎世乌尔里希改革工作茨温利加尔文在日内瓦的约翰

The Reformed perspective spread rapidly to Germany, France, Holland, Hungary, Bohemia, and elsewhere on the Continent.改革后的观点迅速蔓延到德国,法国,荷兰,匈牙利,波希米亚,以及非洲大陆其他地区。In the British Isles, its principles shaped the Church of Scotland and influenced the Church of England, especially through Puritanism.在英伦三岛,其原则塑造了苏格兰教会和影响英国通过,尤其是清教徒的教会。The Presbyterians constitute the largest Reformed bodies in America.该长老会构成美国最大的机构改革。Active Reformed churches are found worldwide where European settlers have migrated (as in South Africa).主动归正教会在世界各地被发现已移居非洲,欧洲殖民者(如南)。Since 1877 a World Alliance of Reformed Churches has provided a forum for discussion and consultation.自1877年世界归正教会联盟提供了一个论坛供讨论和协商。

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Reformed Church in America美国归正会

General Information一般信息

The Reformed Church in America is a Protestant denomination with roots in Dutch Calvinism .在美国归正教会是一个在荷兰新教加尔文教派的根源In 1989 it numbered nearly 337,408 members in more than 963 churches, with its greatest strength in the Middle Atlantic states, Michigan, and Iowa. By 1628, Dutch settlers had established a church in New Amsterdam (now New York City).在1989年教会人数超过963多近337408成员,其最大的优势在密歇根州的大西洋中部,和爱荷华州。通过1628年,荷兰定居者建立了一个城市的教会在新阿姆斯特丹(现在的纽约)。 This and other American churches were directed from Amsterdam until the 18th century when, under the influence of revivalist Theodore Jacob Frelinghuysen (1691 - 1747), an American body was formed (1748).这和其他美国的教堂是针对从阿姆斯特丹直到18世纪时,在)的影响西奥多复兴雅各林胡森(1691年至1747年,美国机构成立(1748)。 Difficulties between this group and others loyal to the Dutch body were eventually resolved (1771) through the efforts of John Henry Livingston (1746 - 1825), an influential leader at Queens College (now Rutgers University), New Brunswick, NJ , which had been founded by the Dutch Reformed.这与身体的困难群体和其他忠于荷兰人最终解决(1771)通过)努力约翰亨利利文斯顿(1746年至1825年,一学院(有影响力的领导人在皇后现在拉特格斯大学),新不伦瑞克,新泽西州,已被成立由荷兰改革。 The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church adopted a new constitution in 1792; in 1867 it changed its name to the Reformed Church in America.新教的荷兰归正教会于1792年通过了一个新的宪法,在1867年更改为归正教会在美国它的名字。

The denomination's doctrinal standards are the Belgic Confession (1561), the Heidelberg Catechism (1563), and the canons of the Synod of Dort (1619). 该教派的教义标准是比利时信条(1561),海德堡问答(1563年),和1619年)的主教会议的大炮的dort(。Its organization is essentially Presbyterian. It is somewhat closer to mainline Protestant bodies than a sister denomination of Dutch Calvinists, the Christian Reformed Church. 其组织基本上是长老会。这是有点接近基督教归正教会新教教派的姐妹机构比1荷兰加尔文教派的。

Mark A Noll标志着诺尔

Bibliography 书目
GF De Jong, The Dutch Reformed Church in The American Colonies (1978); FJ Hood, Reformed America (1980); JW Van Hoeven, ed., Piety and Patriotism: Bicentennial Studies of the Reformed Church in America, 1776 - 1976 (1976).绿德容,荷兰归正)教会(1978年美国的殖民地,巧的姑娘,改革后的美国(1980年); JW凡胡芬,教育署。,在美国归正孝和拜森泰尼亚尔研究爱国主义:,1776年至76年(1976年)。


The Reformed Tradition改革传统

Advanced Information先进的信息

The term "Reformed" is used to distinguish the Calvinistic from the Lutheran and Anabaptist traditions .所谓“改革”是用来区分传统路德和加尔文的再洗礼派 The Reformed tradition finds its roots in the theology of Ulrich Zwingli , the first reformer in Zurich, and John Calvin of Geneva, who in his biblical commentaries, his pamphlets, but especially in the Institutes of the Christian Religion, developed a Protestant theology. Calvin's teachings have been followed by many different individuals and groups who came out of the Reformation down to the present day, but they have not always followed exactly the same line of thinking or development .改革传统认为新教神学的根源在神学乌尔里希第一茨温利 ,改革者在苏黎世的发展, 约翰加尔文的日内瓦,谁在他的圣经评论,他的小册子,研究所但特别是在基督宗教。 加尔文其次教诲已经由很多不同的个人和团体谁出来的改革下降到目前的一天,但他们并不总是完全遵循同一路线或发展的思想Thus in the Reformed tradition Calvinists, while basically agreeing and resembling each other in many ways, have certain differences produced by historical and even geographical circumstances.因此,在改革传统的加尔文教派,而基本上同意和许多类似的方式互相,产生了一些分歧,甚至历史地理情况。 These differences have resulted in a number of what might be called lines or strains in the tradition.这些差异导致了传统的数量可称之为线或品系的。

The Reformation and the Reformed Tradition改革后的改革与传统

The first line of development in the Reformed tradition was that which has been common to northwest Europe, Switzerland, France, Holland, Germany, and has also had an influence to the east in Hungary and to the south in the Waldensian church in Italy.改革传统的第一线发展的是,已共同向西北欧洲,瑞士,法国,荷兰,德国和匈牙利也产生了影响,在东部和南部的意大利教堂中的Waldensian。 The Reformed churches in the first - named areas were very active in producing the early confessions of faith and catechisms still held as doctrinal standards in many of the churches.在第一天的归正教会-命名领域十分活跃在生产早期招供的信仰和Catechisms仍然教堂举行,因为很多理论标准研究。 Calvin drew up the first Reformed catechism in 1537 and rewrote it in 1541.卡尔文制定了改革在1537年第一教义和它改写了1541英寸This work was translated into a number of different languages and was widely influential.这项工作被翻译成数种语言的不同,受到广泛的影响力。Even more important was the Heidelberg Confession of 1563, which is still a standard confessional document in most European Reformed churches.更重要的是,1563年海德堡忏悔,这仍然是一个标准的归正教会教派的文件,大多数欧洲。The Helvetic Confessions (1536, 1566), the Gallic Confession (1559), and the Belgic Confession (1561) also set forth a Calvinistic doctrinal position.该海尔维自白(1536,1566),没食子供认了(1559),以及比利时信条(1561)也提出了加尔文教义的立场。

Across the channel in the British Isles, Calvinism was a dominant influence in the Reformation.整个岛通道在英国,加尔文的改革是一个支配性的影响研究。While the Church of England was obliged by Queen Elizabeth to retain a quasi - Romanist liturgy and form of government, Calvinism was the underlying theology as expressed in the Thirty - nine Articles (1563), which were a rewritten version of Archbishop Cranmer's earlier Forty - two Articles (1553).虽然英格兰教会是伊丽莎白不得不女王保留一个准-浪漫主义礼仪和政府形式,加尔文主义为基础的神学中所表达的30 - 9条(1563年),这是一个改写版本大主教克兰默先前40 -两篇文章(1553年)。Calvin's Institutes also provided English theological students with their basic theological instruction into the seventeenth century.卡尔文的院校还提供了17世纪英国的神学学生教学与他们的基本神学。The Puritans, consisting of Independents and Presbyterians and more consistently Calvinistic, sought to have all traces of Roman Catholicism eliminated from the Established Church. At the same time a considerable number of Protestants influenced by Anabaptism, while accepting adult baptism as the only proper method of administering the sacrament, also accepted most Reformed doctrines.清教徒,加尔文和无党派人士组成的长老和更一致,试图将所有的痕迹罗马教会成立天主教淘汰。 在同一时间由Anabaptism新教徒人数相当的影响,而接受成人洗礼的方法是唯一正确的管理圣餐,还接纳了大部分改革理论。Because of their belief in the doctrine of predestination they were known as "Particular" Baptists, as distinguished from the "Freewill" Baptists who rejected the doctrine. 由于其学说的信仰在他们的宿命学说被称为“特殊”浸信会拒绝,因为有别于“自由意志”浸礼会谁。

These nonconformist groups were responsible for the drawing up of the Westminister Confession of Faith, catechisms, Form of Church Government, and Directory of Worship, which have become the standards of all English - speaking Presbyterian churches.这些异己组负责制订长老教会韦斯特米尼招供的信仰,对理问答,表格教会政府来说,和目录的崇拜,它的标准已成为所有英语- 。The Presbyterian church in Scotland, the Church of Scotland, which had originally used the Scots Confession (1560) and the Genevan Catechism, adopted the Westminister standards in 1647, after the English Parliament, dominated by the Independents, had refused to agree to their becoming the standards of the Church of England.在苏格兰长老教会,教会的苏格兰,原先使用的苏格兰自白(1560)和采用的标准的Genevan问答在1647年的西敏寺,英国议会后,无党派人士占主导地位的,拒绝同意他们成为对英格兰教会的标准。

The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries17世纪和18世纪

In the European and British colonies throughout the world Reformed and Presbyterian churches from the late seventeenth century on were founded by the colonists who emigrated to Massachusetts, New York, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and other places.长老会在世界的改造和地方的整个欧洲和英国的殖民地教会和其他从17世纪末,世纪的成立是由殖民者谁移居马萨诸塞州,纽约,南非,澳大利亚,新西兰。 Although they often received little support from the home churches, at least at first, they nevertheless developed churches of their own, usually following the doctrinal, liturgical, and governmental traditions of the ecclesiastical background from which they had come.虽然他们经常收到一些家庭教会的支持,至少在第一,但是,它们开发了自己的教堂,通常从以下的教会背景,他们来到了理论,礼仪,和政府的传统。 Most Presbyterian churches accept the Westminister documents as their subordinate standards, while those in the European Reformed tradition hold to the confessions and catechisms of the bodies from which they came.大多数长老教会接受他们的下属标准威斯敏斯特证件,而传统的欧洲改革举行的口供,并来到理问答的机构从他们所属的。

The history of the Reformed tradition has been by no means peaceful or noncontroversial.这一传统在改革的历史已绝非和平或失地。Problems have arisen at times that have required those holding to the Reformed position to reexamine and defend their basic beliefs.问题出现在信仰倍,已要求那些持有到改革的立场重新审视和捍卫自己的基本。One of the best examples and most influential developments was that which began with Dutch theologian James Arminius, who rejected Calvin's doctrines of grace.一个最好的例子,最有影响力的发展是其中宽限期开始与荷兰神学家詹姆斯亚米纽斯,谁拒绝卡尔文的教义。In 1610 his followers set forth a Remonstrance against those opposing them, bringing the matter to a head.在1610年他的追随者提出了他们对那些反对谏,使此事头。

The outcome was a synod held at Dordrecht in the Netherlands in 1618, made up of theologians from a number of countries, who condemned the Arminian teachings, asserting (1) the total depravity of man; (2) unconditional divine election; (3) that Christ's atonement was limited to the elect; (4) that divine grace is irresistible; and (5) the perseverance of the elect until the end. The Arminians were forced out of the Reformed church, but established their own bodies, and have had a wide influence, forming the basis for Wesleyan Methodism and other non - and anti - Reformed Christian groups. The Canons of the Synod of Dort are one of the Three Forms of Unity, the doctrinal standards of most Dutch Reformed churches, the other two being the Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism.其结果是在1618年1多德雷赫特在荷兰举行的主教,神学家组成了由多个国家,谁谴责该arminian教义主张,(1)的总堕落的人;(二)无条件神圣的选举;(3)基督的赎罪是有限的选择;(4)神的恩典是不可抗拒的;(5)最后毅力的选举,直到。的阿敏念派被迫退出归正教会,而是建立自己的身体,有着广泛的影响力,形成和基础卫斯理循道其他非-和反-归正基督教团体。 大炮的多特的主教会议是一个统一的三种形式,荷兰改革教会的教义最标准,其他两个是在比利时信条和海德堡问答。

In England and Scotland a somewhat different conflict took place.在英格兰和苏格兰的一个有点不同的冲突发生。In the Puritans' attempts to bring about a complete reform of the Church of England, they found themselves opposed by Elizabeth and her two successors, James I and Charles I. Influential in Parliament, they were able to oppose the monarchy, but eventually this led to war.在清教徒的企图,以实现全面改革的英格兰教会的,他们发现自己的影响反对伊丽莎白和她的两个接班人,詹姆斯一世和查尔斯一,在议会中,他们能够反对君主制,但最终这导致战争。 The actual cause or starting point of the war was in Scotland, where Charles I sought to force episcopacy upon the Presbyterians.实际的原因或出发点的战争是在苏格兰,查尔斯在那里我试图迫使长老会主教呼吁。They resisted, and when Charles sought to raise an army in England the Puritans in Parliament made such demands upon him that he attempted to overawe them by force.他们抵制,当查尔斯试图提出一个英国军队的清教徒在议会对他提出这样的要求,他企图威吓迫使他们通过。He was defeated, captured, and executed by the Parliament in 1649.他被打败,捕获和议会在1649年执行的。

For the next nine years Cromwell ruled the country, but shortly after his death Charles II, Charles I's son, ascended the throne and sought to follow his father's policies in both England and Scotland. Although the Puritans in England were forced to submit, the Scots by taking up arms against Charles carried on a type of guerrilla warfare.在接下来的9年克伦威尔统治的国家,但不久后他去世查尔斯二世,查尔斯一世的儿子,登上了王位,并试图跟随英格兰和苏格兰他父亲的政策。虽然在英国清教徒被迫提出,苏格兰人查尔斯采取了对武器进行游击战争的一个类型。 The Covenanters, so called because they had covenanted together to defend the "Crown Rights of Jesus Christ," continued their opposition when Charles's brother James, a Roman Catholic, became king, and did not lay down their arms until James was forced off the British throne and was succeeded by William, Prince of Orange, in 1688.该盟约,所谓的,因为他们立约,共同捍卫“官方基督权利耶稣,”继续他们的反对,查尔斯的弟弟詹姆斯,罗马天主教,成为国王,并没有放下武器,直到詹姆斯被迫离开英国宝座是,接替威廉王子奥兰治在1688年。

While the Reformed tradition has had its conflicts, it also has had a very positive influence in the world.虽然改革的传统有其冲突,它也已在世界上非常积极的影响。In the eighteenth century it was one of the principal centers of the evangelical revival.在18世纪,它是一个复兴的福音的主要中心。In Scotland the movement had begun by 1700 through the influence of Thomas Boston and the Marrow Men, so called because they had been greatly influenced by the Puritan work The Marrow of Modern Divinity.在苏格兰,运动已经开始的1700年男子的影响,通过波士顿和托马斯的骨髓,所谓的,因为他们的工作已经大大影响了清教徒的神骨髓现代。 The revival associated with the work of this group eventually merged with the Evangelical revival in England through the influence of George Whitefield.本小组的工作有关的复兴与最终合并,在英国通过福音复兴乔治Whitefield的影响。At the same time in the American colonies Jonathan Edwards was involved in the Great Awakening, which was again linked to the English movement through Whitefield.在同一时间通过怀特菲尔德英语运动在美国的殖民地乔纳森爱德华兹参与了大觉醒,这是联系在一起了。In all these cases Calvinistic theology was the underlying influence.在所有这些案件加尔文神学是根本影响。

The Reformed Tradition in Recent Times在近代改革传统

The revival of evangelical preaching and power did not stop there, for through Scottish influence it was carried to Europe in 1818, when Robert Haldane visited Switzerland on an evangelistic tour.那里的复兴福音传教和权力并没有停止,通过苏格兰影响它在欧洲进行到1818年,当罗伯特霍尔丹参观游览瑞士的福音。He greatly influenced such men as Cesar Malan and Merle d'Aubigne, and through them the Evangelical revival spread to other parts of Europe.他极大地影响了这些人以德奥比涅塞萨尔马兰和梅尔,并通过他们的福音复兴蔓延到欧洲其他地区。 In Holland it had a particularly strong impact, resulting in the labors of Groen van Prinsterer, Herman Bavinck, and Abraham Kuyper.在荷兰,它有一个特别强烈的冲击,导致凯珀和亚伯拉罕在劳动力的格罗恩面包车普林斯特勒,赫尔曼巴文克。 Kuyper was the founder of the Free University of Amsterdam, the leader of the movement that separated from the state church to form the Gereformeerde Kerk, and in 1901, as leader of the Anti - Revolutionary Party, became prime minister.凯珀创始人是阿姆斯特丹自由大学,该运动领导人认为教会脱离状态,形成Gereformeerde柯克,并于1901年,作为领导者的反-革命党,出任总理。 As a result of Kuyper's work a revival of Calvinism took place not only in ecclesiastical circles but in many other aspects of Dutch life, which have had an influence far beyond Holland.由于工作结果凯珀的一个加尔文复兴带领荷兰举行,不仅在教会界,但影响力远远超出在其他很多方面有一个荷兰人的生活方式,有。

In the British Isles the same Reformed tradition was bearing similar fruit.在不列颠群岛同样是改革传统的轴承类似的成果。One of the most important ecclesiastical events was the exodus of a large part of the Church of Scotland to form the Free Church of Scotland.活动其中最重要的是苏格兰教会的教会出走一个大的一部分,形成了苏格兰自由教会。Although the immediate cause was the opposition to the right of patrons to impose ministers on congregations, fundamentally the cause was the fact that the Church of Scotland had largely given up its Reformed position, and those who wished to maintain it insisted that they must be free to choose their own ministers.虽然直接原因是引起反对的权利,对顾客实行部长们聚会,根本上是事实,是苏格兰教会在很大程度上放弃了改革的立场,和那些谁希望保持它坚持认为,他们必须释放选择自己的部长。 When this was denied, they withdrew and formed their own denomination.当这个被剥夺,他们撤回,并形成自己的面额。But it was not just in the ecclesiastical sphere that those of Reformed persuasion took action.但它不只是在教会的领域上,说服那些对改革采取了行动。

The Industrial Revolution in Britain had caused great changes, with widespread exploitation of the workers.工业革命在英国造成了很大的变化,与工人广泛开发利用。To counteract this men such as Anthony Ashley Cooper, the Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury in England, the Rev. Thomas Chalmers in Scotland, and others worked to have laws passed to protect factory hands, miners, and those with physical disabilities.为了对付这种英格兰安东尼阿什利库珀,在第七届沙夫茨伯里伯爵这个人,牧师托马斯查默斯在苏格兰,和其他工作有矿工通过法律来保护工厂的手,和残疾的身体。 Many of these leaders were strong Calvinists, and later in the century many with the same Christian views sat in the British Parliament and were responsible for other laws to ameliorate the condition of the working classes.这些都是许多领导人强烈加尔文教派,后来在本世纪许多观点相同的基督教议会坐在英国和其他负责人的法律,以改善工作条件的班级。

This Reformed practice of social and political involvement was carried to America, where those in the Reformed tradition have taken a considerable part in such matters.这种政治参与的社会和改革的实践进行到美国,其中在传统的改革采取了这样的问题相当一部分研究。Many in the Presbyterian and Reformed churches were participants in the movement to abolish slavery, and more recently have been prominent in civil rights and similar movements.许多长老会和归正教会运动参与者的废除奴隶制,以及最近一直在民权运动的突出和类似。Unfortunately in South Africa the Reformed tradition has been involved in support of racial apartheid policies and their application, but this is changing as some of the Reformed elements within the country and Reformed churches outside, through agencies such as the Reformed Ecumenical Synod, are putting pressure on South African churches to change their attitudes toward the government's policies.不幸的是在南非的改革传统一直参与支持申请的种族政策和种族隔离,但这种状况正在改变和改革以外的一些教会的改革分子在该国境内,通过机构,如归正基督教主教会议,是施压在南非教会改变的政策对他们的态度的政府。

The Reformed tradition has always been strongly in favor of the education of church members.改革传统一直强烈赞成教会成员的教育。Calvin's insistence upon catechetical training of the young, and his establishment of what is now the University of Geneva, was imitated in Scotland by John Knox in the educational provisions in the First Book of Discipline, in the Netherlands by the establishment of such institutions as the University of Leiden, and in France by the founding of various seminaries.卡尔文的坚持后,年轻的教义问答训练,他的建立在现在的大学日内瓦,是模仿在苏格兰约翰诺克斯第一书在在教育规定的纪律,在荷兰作为建立这种机构莱顿大学,在法国和各种神所成立。 Similarly in America this educational tradition was responsible for the founding of universities such as Harvard and Yale.同样在美国,这是大学教育传统的创始负责,如哈佛和耶鲁。In more recent years Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, Redeemer College in Hamilton, Ontario, and similar institutions indicate that Reformed tradition in education is still functioning and is fulfilling an important part in developing an educated, Christian citizenry.在最近几年卡尔文机构在大急流城大学,密歇根州,加拿大安大略省汉密尔顿救世主学院和类似表明,改革传统的教育观念仍然运作,是履行一个公民的重要组成部分基督教在一个受过教育的发展。

During the latter part of the nineteenth and throughout the twentieth centuries, there has been a growing stress upon the importance of Christian scholarship.在19世纪后期和整个20世纪,出现了一个基督教的奖学金后,压力越来越重要。Although there had always been Reformed scholars, Abraham Kuyper stimulated a strong interest in this field, which was followed in other countries.虽然一直是改革的学者,亚伯拉罕凯珀刺激了其他国家在这一领域的强烈兴趣,其中其次。Outstanding modern scholars include Herman Dooyeweerd, DH Th Vollenhoven, JH Bavinck, and others in the Netherlands, particularly in the Free University of Amsterdam; James Orr in Scotland; J Gresham Machen and Cornelius Van Til in the United States; Pierre Marcel in France; and many others who have devoted themselves to developing a Reformed approach in many learned fields.现代杰出的学者,包括卫生署钍Vollenhoven,JH巴文克等人在荷兰赫尔曼Dooyeweerd,特别是在阿姆斯特丹自由大学的James奥尔在苏格兰; J Gresham的麦根和Cornelius范泰尔在美国,法国皮埃尔马塞尔的;和许多其他潜心开发谁必须学会在许多领域的改革办法。

From 1850 another noticeable development has been the endeavors of the various Reformed and Presbyterian churches to cooperate in many ways.从1850年另一个值得注意的发展是长老教会的努力的各种改革,并在许多方面进行合作。In 1875 the World Alliance of Reformed Churches holding the Presbyterian system was organized, and still continues.在1875年,世界归正会联谊会举行长老会制度是有组织的,并仍在继续。As some of the churches in the alliance, however, have drifted away from a truly Reformed theological position, as evidenced by new confessions and practices which do not seem to be Reformed, a number of Reformed denominations, particularly recently formed bodies, have refused to join the WAR C.作为联盟中的一些教会,然而,漂流距离一个真正的归正神学的立场,因为这些尸体证明了新的供词和做法,似乎不进行改革,改革的面额数字,特别是最近成立的,予以拒绝参战长

As a result in the 1960s a new body, the Reformed Ecumenical Synod, was established to ensure that a fully Reformed witness would be maintained.由于身体造成20世纪60年代一个新的,归正基督教主教会议,成立的目的是确保全面改革证人将予以保留。Just prior to this some nonecclesiastical organizations had come into being.只是在此之前,一些nonecclesiastical组织已应运而生。In 1953 at Montpellier, France, under the leadership of Pierre Marcel, the International Association for Reformed Faith and Action was founded, and in the United States more recently the National Association of Presbyterian and Reformed Churches was organized.在1953年在法国蒙彼利埃按行动领导皮埃尔马塞尔,信仰和改革国际协会成立,并在美国最近的长老会全国协会和归正举办。 In this way Reformed Christians are increasingly working together to set forth the gospel to the world. The outcome is that the Reformed tradition is exercising an influence not only in the Western world, but even at times more powerfully in such places as South Korea, Indonesia, India, and Africa.这样改革的基督徒越来越多合力提出了福音到世界各地。其结果是,改革传统是行使西方世界的影响力不仅在,甚至有时,印尼,韩国更有力地在这些地方如,印度和非洲。

The Reformed tradition has formed an important part of Western culture, influencing many different aspects of thought and life. Gradually, however, much of its contribution has been secularized, the religious roots being discarded and rejected.在改革传统已经形成了西方文化的重要组成部分,影响思想和生活的许多不同方面。渐渐地,然而,其贡献已被许多世俗化,宗教根源被丢弃和拒绝。 One cannot help wondering, therefore, if the condition of the Western world today is not the result of this rejection, with selfcenteredness taking the place of doing all things "to the glory of God."不禁怀疑,因此,如果西方世界形势的今天是不是排斥结果这个上帝,荣耀与selfcenteredness到地方做一切事情的“吧。”

WS Reid为里德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
J Bratt, ed., The Heritage of John Calvin; WS Reid, ed., John Calvin: His influence in the Western World; WF Graham, The Constructive Revolutionary; JT McNeil, The History and Character of Calvinism. J布拉特,编辑。时,约翰卡尔文遗产;是里德,编辑。,约翰卡尔文:他在西方世界的影响力;永丰格雷厄姆的建设性革命;托德麦克尼尔,加尔文主义的历史和特征。


Reformed Churches归正

Catholic Information天主教信息

The name given to Protestant bodies which adopted the tenets of Zwingli and, later, the doctrinal principles of Calvin.后来这个名字zwingli和给予通过了新教团体的宗旨的,原则加尔文的教义。This distinctive title originated in 1561 at the colloquy of Poissy.这个独特的名称起源于1561年在普瓦西讨论会的。Initiated in Switzerland, the movement from which the Churches sprang gained ground at an early date in France, some German states, the Netherlands, England, Scotland, Hungary, and Poland.发起在瑞士,法国从该教会运动兴起的抬头早日在一,德国的一些州,荷兰,英格兰,苏格兰,匈牙利和波兰。Later, emigration and colonization secured a still wider diffusion of the Calvinistic system.后来,移民和殖民统治获得了更广泛的加尔文制度仍然扩散。Some of the denominations which adopted it go today under a special name, eg Presbyterianism: they receive separate treatment in this work.一些教派今天通过了它去下一个特别的名字,如长老:他们收到这方面的工作分开处理研究。 Others became national churches and are mentioned under the name of the country in which they exist.其他人则成为国家教会,并根据他们的存在提到国名在其中。(See ZWINGLIANISM; CALVINISM; REFORMATION; ARMINIANISM; HOLLAND; NETHERLANDS; HUGUENOTS; SCOTLAND; etc.).(见ZWINGLIANISM;加尔文;改革;亚米纽斯主义,荷兰,荷兰,胡格诺派,苏格兰,等等)。The following bodies are here considered:下列机构在这里考虑:

I. THE REFORMED (DUTCH) CHURCH IN AMERICA一,改革(荷兰)教会在美国

(1) Name, Doctrinal Standards, and Organization(一)名称,教义标准,并组织

The denomination known as "The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in North America" until 1867, when the present name was adopted, asserts with Protestants generally the sole sufficiency of the Scriptures as a rule of faith.该教派被称为“新教的荷兰归正教会在美国北”,直到1867年,当目前的名字是通过声称与新教徒的圣经信仰作为一项规则通常是唯一的充分性。 Its recognized theological standards are the Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian Creeds, the Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, and the Canons of the Synod of Dort.其公认的神学标准是使徒,尼西亚,以及亚他那修信仰,在比利时信条,海德堡问答,并在大炮的dort主教的。It believes in the spiritual reception of Jesus Christ by the believer in the Lord's Supper, and also accepts the distinctively Calvinistic doctrine of a limited election to salvation.它认为在耶稣基督的精神接待由信徒在主的晚餐的,也接受了有限的选举鲜明加尔文主义的拯救。The liturgy is characterized by great simplicity; its forms are optional, except in the administration of the sacraments.礼仪是非常简单的特点,它的形式是可选的圣礼,除了在对行政部门。In policy, the Church is Presbyterian; the constitution recognizes four kinds of officers: ministers of the word, professors of theology, elders, and deacons.在政策,是长老教会;宪法承认四种人员:部长的话,长者教授神学,和执事。The elders exerecise spiritual functions and the deacons are in charge of temporal interests.长老exerecise精神功能和执事在利益负责的时间。At the head of individual congregations is the Consistory, which is composed of minister, elders, and deacons.在教会的头是康西斯托个人,这是长老组成的部长,和执事。The authority over a district is vested in the Classis which is itself under the jurisdiction of the Particular Synod.该地区行使权力的一个归属底盘主教会议本身是在特定的司法管辖区的。The General Synod exercises supreme control in the Church.总议会行使教会的最高控制研究。The elders and deacons are elected to office for two years, after which they may be re-elected.长老和执事当选为任期两年,之后他们可以连选连任。Former elders and deacons may be called together for consultation in what is known as the "Great Consistory".前长老和执事可称为共同协商在什么是“被称为”大康西斯托。The other Reformed Churches especially treated in this article are similarly constituted and organized.其他归正特别是在对待这篇文章也同样构成和组织。

(2) History(2)历史

The Dutch Reformed Church was organized among settlers from Holland in New York City in 1628 by Rev. Jonas Michaelius.荷兰归正教会组织之间Michaelius来自荷兰定居在纽约市在1628年由牧师乔纳斯。Fifty communicants were present at the first celebration of the Lord's Supper.50人出席了圣餐的晚餐首次庆祝主的。When, in 1664, the colony passed from Dutch into English hands, 11 Reformed churches, with an approximate membership of 10,000 souls, existed in the country; they were all situated in New York and neighbouring states.当在1664年,通过殖民地从荷兰到英国教会手中,11改革,大致与1万成员的灵魂,存在于国家,他们都坐落在纽约和邻国。 By the terms of surrender the Dutch were granted "the liberty of their consciences in divine worship and in church discipline".通过对投降的条款授予的荷兰人“在神圣的崇拜自由,他们的良心,在教会的纪律”。During the first decade of English occupation this provision was faithfully observed. Later, however, the governors sought to impose English ecclesiastical customs upon their Dutch subjects, in consequence of which much bitterness was engendered, and a prolonged struggle ensued.在英国占领的头十年是忠实地遵守这一规定。然而,后来的省长试图强加给他们的宗教习俗荷兰语英语科目后,在其中的后果是产生了很多苦,和一个长期的斗争接踵而至。 In spite of this unfavourable circumstance and the cessation of Dutch immigration, the number of churches, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, had increased to thirty-four.尽管这种不利的情况和移民停止荷兰,一些教堂的世纪,在18开始的,已增加到34。They were under the jurisdiction of the Classis of Amsterdam.他们都是在阿姆斯特丹管辖的底盘。In 1738 a petition for the authorization of a cœtus, or ecclesiastical assembly, was sent to that body.1738年1集会请愿,要求教会授权的cœtus,或者被送到该机构。But it was only after nine years that a favourable reply was received.但是,只有9年后,一个有利收到答复。This was the first step towards independence, which was completely realized in 1755 by the authorized formation of a classis.这是一个底盘第一步迈向独立,而在1755年实现完全形成的批准。This action of some members of the cœtus led to protracted strife, which was to be healed by the plan of union submitted by the Rev. JH Livingston in 1771 and accepted by the Amsterdam Dutch churches and the Classis of Amsterdam.这对阿姆斯特丹行动底盘和一些成员cœtus导致旷日持久的纷争,这是由被治愈的联盟提交的计划牧师接受JH利文斯顿在1771年,由荷兰阿姆斯特丹教堂。 After the troublous times of the Revolution, the internal organization was further perfected in 1792 by the adoption of a constitution, which provided for a General Synod.内部组织后的乱世革命,是在1792年进一步完善了主教会议通过的宪法,其中规定了一般。In 1794, this synod met for the first time; it held triennial sessions until 1812, and then became an annual and representative body.在1794年,这个主教举行了第一次,它每三年举行会议,直到1812年,然后成为一个年度和代表机构。A period of increased prosperity opened for the denomination in 1846, when numerous Hollanders settled in the Middle West and connected themselves with the church.一个繁荣时期增加开放的面额在1846年,当许多荷兰人定居在美国中西部,连接自己的教堂。In 1910 the Dutch Reformed Church numbered 728 ministers, 684 churches, and 116,815 communicants (statistics of Dr. Carroll in the "Christian Advocate", New York, 26 Jan., 1911; this statistical authority is cited throughout for the United States). 1910年荷兰归正教会编号728部长,684教堂和116815圣餐(统计博士卡罗尔在“基督教主张”,纽约,1911年1月26日,这是国家统计当局援引美国各地的)。 Through the emigration just referred to, the Christian Reformed Church was also transplanted to America.通过移民刚才提到,基督教归正教会也移植到美国。This denomination was organized in Holland (1835) as a protest against the rationalistic tendencies of the State Church.这是有组织的面额在荷兰(1835年),作为教会抗议该国对理性主义倾向。To it were joined in the United States in 1890 the diminishing members of the True Reformed Church, a body organized in 1822 by several clergymen.它是在1890年加入美国在一些神职人员的减少成员真在1822年,归正教会的机构组织。It numbers today 138 ministers, 189 churches, 29,006 communicants.它今天138号部长,189个教堂,29006圣餐。

(3) Educational Institutions and Missionary Activity(3)教育机构和传教活动

Some of the educational institutions controlled by the Church were established at a very early date.教会的一些人士所控制的机构的教育是建立在非常早的日期。Rutgers College was founded in 1770 under the name of Queen's College at New Brunswick, New Jersey, where a theological seminary was also established in 1784.拉特格斯大学成立于1784年在1770年女王的名义对学院在新不伦瑞克,新泽西州,在那里建立一个神学院也。At Holland, Michigan, Hope College was founded in 1866, and the Western Theological Seminary in 1867.在荷兰,密歇根州,希望学院成立于1866年,1867年和西方神学院神学研究。A board of education organized by private persons in 1828 was taken over by the General Synod in 1831; it extends financial assistance to needy students for the ministry.在一个1828人的董事会由私立教育组织接管由总议会于1831年,它提供财政援助,该部有需要的学生。A "Disabled Ministers' Fund" grants similar aid to clergymen, and a "Widows' Fund" to their wives.一个“残疾人部长基金”援助赠款类似牧师,以及所谓的“寡妇基金”,他们的妻子。A Board of Publication has been in operation since 1855.甲出版局自1855年开始运作。The proselytizing activity of the Church is not confined to America; a Board of Foreign Missions established in 1832 was supplemented in 1875 by a Woman's Auxiliary Board.该教会的传教活动的情况并不局限于美国;一局成立于1832年的外国代表团补充,是1875年由一个女人的辅助板。The Church maintains stations at Amoy, China, in the districts of Arcot and Madura, India, in Japan, and Arabia.教会认为,阿科特和马都拉,印度在站区的厦门,中国,在日本和沙特阿拉伯。

II.二。THE REFORMED (GERMAN) CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES经过改革(德国)在美国教会

This church was founded by immigrants from the Palatinate and other German districts of the Reformed faith.这座教堂是由信仰移民来自普法尔茨的改造和德国其他地区。Its history begins with the German immigration of the last quarter of the seventeenth century.它的历史开始于17世纪德国移民的最后一个季度。Among its early ministers were Philip Boehm and George M. Weiss, whose fame is eclipsed, however, by that of the real organizer of the Church, Michael Schlatter.在其早期的部长们菲利普Boehm和乔治M韦斯,他的成名是黯然失色,但是,通过施拉特认为,迈克尔的真正组织者的教会。 The latter visited most of the German Reformed settlements, instituted pastors, established schools, and, in 1747, formed the first coetus.后者大部分定居点访问的德国改革,实行牧师,建立了学校,并在1747年,成立了第一个coetus。On a subsequent journey through Europe he obtained financial aid for the destitute churches by pledging the submission of the coetus to the Classis of Amsterdam.在随后通过欧洲的旅程,他获得了阿姆斯特丹coetus的底盘由财政援助承诺的贫困教会必须提交。Six young ministers accompanied him to America in 1752; the supply of clergymen, however, was insufficient for many years and resulted in some defections.六名青年部长陪同他到美国在1752年,在牧师的供应,然而,不足多年,叛逃导致一些。In 1793 the synod replaced the coetus and assumed supreme authority in the church, which now comprised approximately 180 congregations and 15,000 communicants. 1793年的主教取代coetus并承担15000圣餐在教会的最高权威,现在包括大约180众和。The process of organization was completed in 1819 by the division of the synod into districts or classes.该组织过程完成于1819年由班分工或主教区的。About 1835 the "Mercersburg controversy", concerning certain theological questions, agitated the Church; in 1863 the tercentenary of the adoption of the Heidelberg Catechism was celebrated.关于1835年的“梅塞争议”,关于某些神学问题,情绪激动的教会,1863年,三百年的问答是通过著名的海德堡。 From this time dates the foundation of orphans' homes in the denomination.从这个时间日期,面额基础家园的孤儿。Foreign mission work was inaugurated in 1879 by the sending of missionaries to Japan.外国使团的工作是成立于1879年由传教士派遣到日本。The first theological seminary was organized in 1825 at Carlisle, Pennsylvania; it was removed in 1836 to Mercersburg and in 1871 to Lancaster, Pennsylvania.第一个神学院在1825年举办了卡莱尔,宾夕法尼亚州,它是1836年取消了对梅塞并于1871年兰开斯特,宾夕法尼亚州。 The Church also controls Heidelberg University and Western Theological Seminary (both at Tiffin, Ohio), Ursinus College (Collegeville, Pa.), Catawba College (North Carolina), and several other educational institutions of advanced grade.教会还控制海德堡大学和西方神学院(均在Tiffin,俄亥俄州),辛斯学院(科莱格维尔,宾夕法尼亚州),卡托巴学院(北卡罗莱纳州)和其他一些先进的高档教育机构。 Its present membership is 297,116 communicants with 1226 ministers and 1730 churches.其目前的成员是297116教堂圣餐与1226年和1730年的部长。The Hungarian Reformed Church, which numbers at present 5253 communicants, was organized in 1904 in New York City for the convenience of Hungarian-speaking immigrants.匈牙利归正教会,圣餐人数目前5253,在纽约市举办了1904年新的移民便利匈牙利讲。

III.三。THE REFORMED CHURCHES IN THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA在南非洲联盟归正

Dutch settlers transplanted the Reformed faith to South Africa as early as 1652. Churches 0f some importance at present exist in the country and are organized as the Reformed Churches of Cape Colony, of the Orange Free State, of the Transvaal, and of Natal.荷兰殖民者移植的改革信念南非早在1652年。教会女生在一些目前存在的重要性,并在该国举办的德兰士瓦歌的归正殖民地,在奥兰治自由邦,在和纳塔尔。 The progress in political union favourably influenced church affairs: in 1906 these separate bodies placed themselves under a federal council, and in 1909 under a general synod.工会积极进展,政治影响教会事务:在1906年把这些不同的机构根据联邦议会本身,而一般的主教在1909年根据一项。 Their collective membership amounts to about 220,000 communicants.他们的集体成员,约达22万圣餐。The movement towards union had been preceded by secessions caused by liberal and conservative theological tendencies.工会运动之前,对已造成secessions神学倾向自由派与保守派。As a representative of conservatism the "Reformed Church in South Africa" was organized in 1859 by the Rev. D. Postma.作为一个保守的教会代表在南非的“改革”在1859年举办了由牧师四波斯特马。It has today an aggregate membership of about 16,000 communicants distributed through Cape Colony, the Orange Free State, and Transvaal.据今天的开普殖民地总圣餐通过分布式团员约16,000,奥兰治自由邦和德兰士瓦。An offshoot of the liberal spirit is the separatist "Reformed Church of the Transvaal", which was organized by the Rev. Van der Hoff and has at present about 10,000 communicants.一个分支,自由精神是分裂分子“归正教会德兰士瓦”,这是由致凡德尔奥夫,并已在目前约10000圣餐。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息韦伯写不适用。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录由WGKofron。With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.随着第十二感谢圣母教堂,俄亥俄州阿克伦的天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

SCHAFF, Creeds of Christendom, I (New York, 1877), 354- 816; III, 191-597; CORION,History of the Reformed Church (Dutch) in Amer.沙夫,教义的基督教,我(纽约,1877年),354 - 816;三,191-597;科里翁,阿米尔历史上的归正教会(在荷兰)。Church Hist., Ser., viii; DUBBS, History of the Reformed Church, German, ibid.教会历史。辑。,八,达布斯,历史上的归正,德国同上。(both studies are preceded by extensive bibliographies); CORWIN, Manual of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in America (4th ed., New York, 1902); GOOD, History of the Reformed Church in the US, 1725-92 (Reading, Pa., 1899); ZWIERLEIN, Religion in New Netherland, 1629-1634 (Rochester, 1910). (这两项研究很之前广泛的书目),科温,教会手册的荷兰新教改革在美国(第四版。,纽约,1902年);好,教会历史上的改革,在美国,1725年至1792年(阅读,坝。,1899年);茨维莱因)宗教在新尼德兰,1629年至1634年(罗切斯特,1910年。


Also, see:此外,见:
Canons of Dort大炮的dort
Belgic Confessionbelgic自白
Heidelberg Confession海德堡的自白

Helvetic Confessionhelvetic自白
Westminster Confession西敏寺自白


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