Protestant Scholasticism新教士林

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A method of thinking developed in early Protestantism, which grew stronger in the seventeenth century and became a widely accepted way to create systematic Protestant theologies.阿法的新教神学思想发展的早期基督教,而成长壮大,并在17世纪成为一个被广泛接受的方法来创建系统。Even though the major Protestant Reformers attacked the theology of the medieval schoolmen and demanded total reliance on Scripture, it was impossible either to purge all scholastic methods and attitudes derived from classical authors or to avoid conflicts that required intricate theological reasoning as well as biblical interpretation.尽管主要的新教改革者攻击经院神学的中世纪,并要求对圣经完全依赖,要么是不可能清除所有的学术方法和态度源于经典作家或避免冲突,需要复杂的推理以及神学解释圣经。

Several factors account for the growth of Protestant scholasticism: formal education, confidence in reason, and religious controversy. Reliance on logical methods derived from Greek and Roman authors was purged from sixteenth century educational insititutions.有几个因素占了士林增长新教:正规教育,因此信心,罗马作家和宗教的争论。希腊和依赖于逻辑方法得出的激励制度整肃从16世纪的教育。 Aristotle, for example, upon whom the medieval scholastics had relied, continued to be taught by Protestants: Melanchthon at Wittenberg, Peter Martyr Vermigli at Oxford, Jerome Zanchi at Strassburg, Conrad Gesner at Zurich, Theodore Beza at Geneva.亚里士多德,例如,经院哲学的人所依赖的中世纪,仍然是新教徒教导方式:在烈士韦尔米利维滕贝格梅兰希在牛津,杰罗姆赞基在康拉德斯特拉斯堡,格斯纳西奥多在苏黎世,日内瓦贝萨,彼得。 Though these teachers did not accept Thomas Aquinas's medieval scholastic theology, which also relied heavily on Aristotle's logic and philosophy, they did teach Aristotle's deductive logic and gave reason an important place in theology.虽然这些教师没有接受托马斯阿奎那的中世纪经院神学,哲学,这也很大程度上依赖于亚里士多德的逻辑,并教导他们亚里士多德的演绎逻辑,使人们有理由在神学重要的地位。

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Though Luther (following William of Ockham) and Calvin (following French humanists) decried scholastic reliance on reason and wanted instead to limit their theology to humanist linguistic analysis of Scripture, the Protestant scholastics, without breaking from the major Reformers, were more amenable to human reason.虽然路德(以下奥卡姆的威廉)和卡尔文(以下法国人道主义者)谴责学术上的原因,而不是依赖,想限制他们的圣经神学,以人为本的语言分析,新教院哲学,没有摆脱主要改革者,更适合人类理由。 Reason became a means to develop coherent theology out of the great variety of biblical texts.理性成为一种手段,制定协调一致神学出种类繁多的圣经文本。Further, Renaissance learning, though it stressed textual analysis, also placed confidence in human rationality.此外,文艺复兴时期的学习,但它强调文本分析,也放置在人类理性的信心。The Protestant use of scholastic techniques and attitudes consequently kept them in the mainstream of early modern philosophy, which, though it moved away from deductive logic, maintained confidence in reason.新教的使用和态度对学校的技术因而不断,他们在哲学的主流是早期现代,虽然它远离演绎逻辑,保持信心的原因研究。Protestant theologians, especially the Calvinists, could use scholastic methods to inquire beyond biblical texts into the intricacies and implications of Protestant theology, especially when election and the will of God were considered.新教神学家,特别是加尔文教派,可以使用的方法,在学术上超越圣经文本查询到的复杂性和影响的新教神学,尤其是当选举和上帝的意志进行了审议。

Theological controversy also encouraged Protestant scholasticism. When Luther and Zwingli disagreed over the Lord's Supper and when Calvinists entered great controversies over predestination, protagonists often resorted to scholastic logic.新教神学争论还鼓励士林。路德和茨温利时不同意在圣餐时加尔文教派进入了宿命很大的争议,主角往往诉诸学术逻辑。The controversies themselves called for thorough, intricate argumentation; for biblical texts on the issues were interpreted in a variety of ways. Also, those who won the controversies embodied victory in tightly reasoned doctrinal statements.争论本身的要求彻底论证,复杂的,因为这些问题对圣经文本的方式诠释了一个品种。此外,那些谁赢得了合理的理论陈述争议的胜利,体现了紧密。 Thus, there is strong evidence of Protestant scholasticism in the Canons of Dort, the Westminister Confession, and the Helvetic Confession of 1675.因此,有强烈的大炮的dort证据在新教士林,在西敏寺供认,以及1675年海尔维自首。

The influence of Protestant scholasticism was both immediate and long - range.士林影响的新教既是当前和长远-范围。Among Lutherans, the essential doctrine of justification by faith was transformed into a rather complicated theory of conversion by the most famous Lutheran scholastic, Johann Gerhard (1582 - 1637).在路德会,由信仰的基本教义的理由变成了一个相当复杂的理论转化的最有名的信义学业,约翰总理(1582年至1637年)。 Gerhard used Aristotelian and scriptural proof in his Loci Theologicae (9 vols.).格哈德使用Theologicae(9卷亚里士多德和圣经的证据都在他的位点。)。While this work was important for shaping Lutheran orthodoxy, in the seventeenth century German pietists replaced scholasticism with a greater emphasis on experiential Christianity.虽然这项工作是十分重要的塑造路德正统的世纪,在17德国虔诚主义取代基督教经院哲学与体验一个更大的重视。 Among the Reformed, two scholastic traditions were developed.其中的改革,制定了两个学术传统。Peter Ramus modeled his logic on Plato and Cicero in an attempt to avoid too great an emphasis on metaphysics.彼得拉默斯蓝本太伟大的形而上学逻辑,强调他在柏拉图和西塞罗避免企图。Though his work was banned in various continental Protestant centers (Wittenberg, Leiden Helmstedt, Geneva), Ramus had a great influence on Puritan thought in England and America.虽然他的工作)禁止各种日内瓦大陆新教中心(维滕贝格,莱顿黑尔姆施泰特,惠民有重大影响的清教徒思想在英国和美国。

The dominant Reformed scholastics, however, were Beza, Vermigli, Adrianus Heerebout, and, most importantly, Francis Turretin (1623 - 87).改革院哲学占主导地位,但是,他们贝萨,韦尔米利,阿德里亚努Heerebout,以及最重要的是,弗朗西斯特里田(1623 - 87)。Turretin's Institutio became the standard work for modern Protestant scholastics, as it was used as a textbook to shape the modern Princeton Theology.特里田的院所成为新教院哲学对现代标准的工作,因为它是作为一个神学教科书来塑造现代普林斯顿。Reformed scholasticism in this tradition led to what is generally labeled Calvinist orthodoxy.在加尔文主义的正统改革士林这一传统导致了人们普遍的标签。

The theology of this branch of Protestant scholasticism was, as in the case of Gerhard, dependent on scriptural evidences and Aristotelian logic.士林神学的新教这个分支的是,在逻辑案件格哈德亚里士多德,依赖于圣经的证据和。The Reformed scholastics concentrated for the most part on questions evolving from predestination, and thus produced a rather rigid Calvinism.改革院哲学家的宿命集中用于发展的问题在大多数的一部分,从而产生了相当严格的加尔文主义。 At the same time, the movement was amenable to the use of reason, thus allowing the Reformed to adapt to modern rationalist and Enlightenment philosophy quite easily.同时,该运动是适合使用的原因,从而使改革,以适应现代理性主义和启蒙哲学很容易的。Noteworthy in this regard is the rather easy accommodation of philosophy and thelogy in the Scottish Enlightenment.在这方面值得注意的是哲学和启蒙很容易住宿thelogy在苏格兰。The impact of Protestant scholasticism's methods and outlook was threefold: it created a systematic, well - defined, and aggressive Protestant theology; it led to a reaction by those who emphasized the emotional character of Christian piety; and it encouraged accommodation to early modern philosophy.对经济前景的影响新教院哲学的方法,并于三个方面:它创建了一个系统,那么-界定,并积极新教神学,它导致了一个虔诚的反应那些谁强调基督教的情感特征;并鼓励住宿早期现代哲学。

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Bibliography 书目
B Armstrong, Calvinism and the Amyraut Heresy; JW Beardslee, III, ed.乙阿姆斯特朗,加尔文和Amyraut邪教; JW比尔兹利,三编。and tr., Reformed Dogmatics; JP Donnelly, "Italian Influences on the Development of Calvinist Scholasticism," SCJ 7:81 - 101; JH Leith, An Introduction to the Reformed Tradition; NCE, III; O Grundler, "The Influence of Thomas Aquinas upon the Theology of G Zanchi," in Studies in Medieval Culture; B Hall, "Calvin Against the Calvinists," in John Calvin, ed.和TR。,改革教义;太平绅士唐纳利,“加尔文士林意大利对发展的影响,”SCJ 7:81 - 101,改革传统的家雷斯,概论;罗富国教育学院,三; Ø Grundler,“托马斯的影响阿奎那神学后,赞基G的,“在研究中世纪文化; B馆”加尔文教派卡尔文反对,“在约翰卡尔文,编辑。GE Duffield; PO Kristeller, Renaissance Thought: The Classic, Scholastic, and Humanist Strains; R Scharlemann, Aquinas and Gerhard: Theological Controversy and Construction in Medieval and Protestant Scholasticism.通用电气杜菲尔德;婆克里斯特勒,文艺复兴思想:经典,学术和人文菌株与r Scharlemann,阿奎那和格哈德:争论与士林神学在中世纪建筑和新教。

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