Scholasticism, Schoolmen经院哲学

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Scholasticism is a form of Christian philosophy and theology developed by scholars who came to be called schoolmen.士林是一院哲学的形式被称为基督教哲学和神学学者谁开发的来。It flourished during the medieval period of European history.它蓬勃发展,在欧洲中世纪时期的历史。The heart of scholasticism insisted upon a system that was clear and definitional in tone.心的语气中定义的士林坚持的一个明确而系统。The system attempted to synthesize ideas expressed in classical Roman and Greek writings and in Christian Scripture, the writings of the patristic fathers, and other Christian writings preceding the medieval period.该系统试图表达的意见综合中世纪时期罗马和希腊的古典著作和基督教的圣经,教父的著作的父亲,前和其他基督教著作。 Aristotle's views helped give scholasticism a systematic structure, but Platonism also played a large part in the enterprise.亚里士多德的意见给予帮助士林一个系统的结构,但柏拉图也发挥了很大一部分企业的研究。

Some persons consider scholasticism to have been a boring, dry system emphasizing sheer memorization.有些人认为士林已无聊,干燥系统,强调纯粹的记忆。However, in many respects it was dynamic, truly seeking to settle questions concerning reality.然而,在许多方面它是动态的,真正的问题寻求解决现实问题。The Disputed Questions of Thomas Aquinas, rather than his Summa, point out the vibrancy of the system.该系统的托马斯阿奎那争议问题,而不是他的大全,活力指出。The philosophical aspects of scholasticism were not dicated strictly by a set of theological dogmas but rather worked with both faith and reason in an attempt to understand reality from the viewpoint of a human being.士林的哲学方面并没有一个严格dicated一套神学教条而是同他们合作的信心和理性的观点,试图从现实的了解一个人。

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The method of scholasticism sought to understand the fundamental aspects of theology, philosophy, and law.在士林方法的目的是了解神学,哲学的基本方面和法律。Apparently contradictory viewpoints were offered in order to show how they possibly could be synthesized through reasonable interpretation.看似矛盾的观点,共提供了以显示他们如何可能合成可通过合理的解释。A problem would first be "exposed," and then it would be "disputed" in order to cause a new "discovery" in the mind of the person who was seeking new personal knowledge.首先一个问题是“暴露”,然后将是“有争议”,以造成一个新的“个人知识发现”新的思想的人谁是寻求。Each text investigated had a commentary.每个文本调查了评论。The master helped the student to read the text in such a way that he could really understand what it was saying.主帮助学生阅读文本的说法在这样一种方式,他可以真正明白这是什么。This experience was to be much more than just memorative.这个经验是大大memorative不仅仅是。There were yes - and - no positions to various texts, which sought to keep the student from merely memorizing the text.有是-和-没有文字的立场,不同的文本,试图让学生背诵了从单纯。Abelard developed the yes - and - no method with great precision.阿贝拉尔开发的是-和-没有方法非常精确的。The two most exciting types of disputations were the quaestio disputata, which was a disputed question, and the quodlibet, which was a very subtle form of disputed question that could be publicly disputed only by a truly great master, whereas the disputed questions could be talked about by lesser minds still growing in knowledge.两个最令人兴奋的disputations类型是quaestio disputata,这是一个有争议的问题,以及quodlibet,这是一个有争议的问题很微妙的形式,可以公开争议主人只有一个真正伟大的问题,而有争议的可谈对由小知识的头脑中仍然在增长。

Anselm of Canterbury is the first great developer of scholasticism. His Monologion investigates problems surrounding God from a reasonable and yet prayerful viewpoint.坎特伯雷安瑟伦的就是第一士林大开发。他Monologion调查尚未出现的问题的上帝虔诚的观点从一个合理的。 He developed the famous principle "faith seeking to know."他开发了著名的原则“信仰寻求知道。”

Peter Abelard sought to show various ways in which contradictory texts could be synthesized.彼得阿贝拉尔试图表明是合成各种方式使矛盾的文本可能。He became involved in the disputed question concerning whether "universals" were really things or merely names.他成了名参与了关于有争议的问题,是否只是“共性”的东西还是真的。

Gilbert de la Porree continued to develop various views in a scholastic manner.吉尔伯特德拉Porree学术的方式继续发展在各方面的意见。Hugh of St. Victor sought to give scholasticism more of a mystical flare; he was criticized by many because of his lack of reasonableness.维克托休圣努力为士林更多的是神秘的耀斑,他被批评的合理性,因为他的许多不足。 He was deeply indebted to Augustine for his views.他深深感激奥古斯丁为他的意见。Bernard of Clairvaux developed a psychological view in scholasticism which, although wedded to a form of mysticism, sought to be more reasonable than mystical.伯纳德的克莱尔沃制定了心理的看法,在士林,虽然拘泥于一种形式的神秘主义,寻求更神秘的合理比。

Peter Lombard developed a series of "sentences" that were to be taught to seminarians studying for the priesthood in the twelfth century.彼得伦巴开发出了一系列的“判决”,为修生讲授,以学习为第12世纪的神职人员在。These scholastic sentences were usually simple and also capable of being memorized by the students.这些学术上通常是简单的句子,也有能力的学生正在背诵。It is this form of scholasticism that has caused many persons to discredit it as an uncreative experience.正是这种形式的士林已造成许多人怀疑它作为一个没有创造性的经验。

Albert the Great (Albertus Magnus) was not much of an improvement over Peter Lombard, but he deeply influenced Thomas Aquinas, who was the apogee of scholastic thought.阿尔贝大(Albertus思)不超过一个很大的改善彼得伦巴,但他深深影响托马斯阿奎那,谁是远地点的学术思想。 Thomism has many forms, but they are all trying to interpret the system of thought developed by Thomas Aquinas.托马斯主义有许多形式,但它们都试图解释系统托马斯阿奎那的思想发展。His great effort was to combine what could be called non - Christian philosophy with both Christian philosophy and theology.他的伟大努力,结合可称为非-基督教神学和哲学既基督教哲学。Christian Scripture could be combined with elements of ideas discovered by natural thought unaided by the grace of Scripture.基督教圣经可以结合圣经元素发现的宽限期思想自然是思想外援。Thomas Aquinas was heavily influenced by not only Aristotelianism but also Platonism.托马斯阿奎那的严重影响,而且不仅亚里士多德柏拉图主义。He also attempted to combine the thought of Averroes into his system.他还企图把他结合阿威罗伊系统的思想。Some of his contemporaries considered some of his ideas to be heretical.他的一些想法一些他的同时代人认为是异端邪说。Cardinal Tempier of Paris was especially disturbed by his view concerning the resurrection of the body as it was presented in his Disputed Questions.巴黎Tempier枢机特别感到不安的是他的身体查看关于复活的,因为它是在有争议的问题提出。

Bonaventure was another great schoolman, but his style of presentation is turgid and pales somewhat in relation to the presentations of Aquinas.文德是另一个伟大的烦琐,但他的演讲风格是有点肿胀和相形见绌阿奎那有关的情况介绍。Bonaventure was quite polemical in his attacks against Aristotelianism, which undermined his attempt to be reasonable.文德是相当合理的论战是亚里士多德在他的攻击,这破坏了他的企图。

In the fourteenth century Giles of Rome presented some brilliance within the scholastic tradition, but he was not very consequential in relation to Aquinas.在14世纪的罗马贾尔斯对提交的学术传统在一些辉煌,但他不是很阿奎那相应有关。The great scholastic thinker of the fourteenth century was John Duns Scotus.14世纪伟大的思想家的学术约翰邓司各脱。 He had an extremely subtle understanding of the use of words.他有一个非常微妙的单词使用的理解。He was chiefly interested in the problem of epistemology.他主要感兴趣的是认识论问题的。His school of thought, Scotism, influenced many people in later ages, including Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein.他的思想学派,Scotism,影响后世许多人,包括海德格尔和维特根斯坦。William of Ockham rounds out the glorious age of scholasticism.轮威廉克姆出士林光荣的时代。He was called a nominalist because he wondered if exterior reality to the human mind was given a series of words which remained primarily in the mind.他被称为唯名,因为他想知道如果外部的现实,以人的头脑是给予一系列下决心的话仍然是主要的研究。For William of Ockham it was unclear that the human mind could actually know exterior reality.对于奥卡姆的威廉,目前还不清楚,人的头脑实际上可以知道外部现实。

Scholasticism went into desuetude in the fifteenth century, but it was revived in the sixteenth century.士林走进废止在15世纪,但它是在16世纪复活。The twentieth century has experienced a renewed attempt to make the Thomistic form of scholasticism credible as a system of thought.在二十世纪经历了一个新的尝试,使思想托马斯的形式系统士林可信的。This movement within Roman Catholic circles has been partially successful.这个运动在罗马天主教界已取得部分成功。

TJ German巧德国
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
J Pieper, Scholasticism; E Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas and The Unity of Philosophical Experience. j•皮佩尔,士林,电子邮件吉尔森,基督教哲学的哲学经验圣托马斯阿奎那和的团结。


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The term scholasticism (from the Latin schola, "school") refers properly both to the doctrine and method of teaching in the medieval European schools and to their successive revivals to the present day.任期士林schola(从拉丁语,“学校”)是指既要妥善理论和教学方法,在中世纪欧洲的学校和他们相继复苏至今。As a method, scholasticism involves (1) the close, detailed reading (lectio) of a particular book recognized as a great or authoritative work of human or divine origin - for example, Aristotle in logic, Euclid in geometry, Cicero in rhetoric, Avicenna and Galen in medicine, the Bible in theology - and (2) the open discussion (disputatio) in strict logical form of a relevant question (quaestio) arising from the text.作为一种方法,士林包括:(1)收盘时,详细阅读(lectio)一书,特别起源确认为一个伟大的人或神或权威性的工作-例如,在亚里士多德逻辑,欧几里德几何中,西塞罗在修辞学,阿维森纳在医药和盖伦,在圣经的神学-和(2)公开讨论(d isputatio)在严格的逻辑形式的文本的有关问题的产生(quaestio)。As a doctrine, scholasticism refers to the kind of philosophy, theology, medicine, and law (canon and civil) taught by the faculties responsible for these disciplines.作为一个学说,士林是指药品种哲学,神学,以及法律(佳能和民事)学科教授,由这些院系负责。These four faculties constituted the medieval universities that began to be organized in the 12th century, beginning in Bologna, Paris, and Oxford.这四个学院构成了中世纪大学开始,将在12世纪的组织,牛津开始在博洛尼亚,巴黎和。

The most important faculties, however, were arts (philosophy) and theology, and the term scholasticism is usually understood in the context of those disciplines.最重要的学院,但是,艺术(哲学)和神学,以及长远的士林通常是在这些学科理解的范围内。

The basic philosophy of the faculty of arts was Aristotelian because the greatest and most authoritative books in philosophy were believed to be Aristotle's.基本的艺术哲学系的是亚里士多德和最权威的书籍,因为在哲学的伟大被认为是亚里士多德的。Aristotle, however, was interpreted differently by different professors depending on the commentaries used, notably those of "the Commentator," Averroes; the Christian Neoplatonist, Saint Augustine; or the pagan Neoplatonist, Avicenna.然而,亚里士多德的解释是:“不同的评论员,由不同的教授取决于所使用的评注,特别是那些”阿威罗伊;基督教柏拉图,圣奥古斯丁;或异教的柏拉图,阿维森纳。

Similarly in theology, the Bible was variously interpreted depending on the kind of philosophy used to understand the Christian faith systematically.同样,在神学,圣经是不同的解释取决于哲学种用来了解基督教的信仰系统。Among the numerous ways of systematizing the faith, certain schools of theology stand out as particularly notable and viable throughout the Middle Ages and to the present day.在制度化的信仰的众多途径,某些学校的神学作为特别显着突出的和可行的整个中世纪和到今天。The most important of these scholastic theologies were Thomism, developed from the teaching of Saint Thomas Aquinas; Augustinism, developed from Saint Augustine; Scotism, from John Duns Scotus; Nominalism, from William of Occam; and Suarazianism, formulated by Francisco Suarez, a 16th century Jesuit who tried to synthesize various schools.最重要的神学这些学术被thomism,发达国家从托马斯阿奎那的教学圣; Augustinism,从圣奥古斯丁发展; scotism,由约翰邓司各脱,唯名,从奥卡姆的威廉和suarazianism,制定,制定旧金山苏亚雷斯第16世纪耶稣会谁试图综合各学校。 The basic principle underlying all forms of scholasticism was rational consistency with the Christian faith as taught in the Bible and as understood by the living Church of Rome through the writings of the ancient Greek and Latin Fathers, the rulings of the ecumenical councils, the liturgy, and the continuing teaching and practice of the church.该基本原则是所有形式的士林拉丁教父合理的一致性与希腊和基督教的信念,在教导圣经理解和生活的古老教堂罗马通过的著作,礼仪的裁决合一议会,和持续不断的教学实践和教会的。

Scholasticism is generally divided into three periods: medieval scholasticism, extending from Boethius (5th - 6th century) to the 16th century, with its Golden Age in the 13th century; "second scholasticism," beginning in the 16th century with Thomas de Vio Cajetan, Conrad Koellin, Peter Crokert, Francesco de Vittoria, and Francisco Suarez; and neoscholasticism, beginning in the early 19th century, given impetus by the encyclical Aeterni Patris (1879) of Pope Leo XIII, and continuing at least until the Second Vatican Council (1962 - 65).士林一般分为三个时期:中世纪的经院)范围由伯蒂乌斯(第5 - 6世纪至16世纪,它的黄金时代在13世纪的“第二院07:21卡耶坦,”托马斯德开始在16世纪的,林钜成koellin,彼得Crokert,弗朗切斯科德维多利亚,和弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯和neoscholasticism,世纪初开始,19日,鉴于1962年的动力由谕Aeterni祖国报(1879年狮子座)教皇十三,和持续至少要等到第二次梵蒂冈会议( - 65)。

Medieval Scholasticism.中世纪经院。

Boethius is generally called "the first scholastic" because he provided the first Latin translations of Aristotle's logic and other basic works used in the schools of the early Middle Ages as a prerequisite to understanding the Bible and the Latin Church Fathers and to becoming an educated person.伯蒂乌斯一般称为“第一学术”,因为他提供的一个先决条件第一拉丁语翻译亚里士多德早期中世纪的用于逻辑和其他的基本工程学校的理解圣经和拉丁教会的父亲,并成为一个博学的人。 In this early period, however, the dominant philosophical influence was Platonism or Neoplatonism, particularly as it was reflected in the work of Saint Augustine.在这个早期阶段,但是,占主导地位的哲学的影响是柏拉图或柏拉图,特别是因为它是反映在圣奥古斯丁的工作。Augustine formulated the maxim "Understand so that you may believe, believe so that you may understand" - an approach that lay at the heart of scholasticism - and urged the use of dialectics in examining Christian doctrine. His principles were applied with rigor by such early scholastics as John Scotus Erigena, Saint Anselm, Peter Abelard, Alan of Lille, and numerous teachers in the cathedral schools of Laon, Chartres, Paris, Poitiers, and the abbey school of Saint - Victor in Paris.奥古斯丁提出的格言:“明白,你可以相信,相信,让你可以理解” -的做法,士林躺在心脏-并敦促主义辩证法的使用在研究基督教。他的原则,通过严格适用,这种早期圣院哲学家约翰司各脱埃里杰纳,圣安塞尔姆,彼得阿贝拉尔的,艾伦里尔,学校和教师,并在众多的修道院教堂学校拉昂,沙特尔,普瓦捷,巴黎-巴黎维克多研究。

In a stricter sense, scholasticism began with the Sentences (c. 1150) of Peter Lombard, the Decretum (c. 1150) of Gratian, and the flood of new Latin translations of classical philosophers, including all of Aristotle, made from Greek and Arabic throughout the second half of the 12th century. Assimilation of this new learning took place in the universities of the 13th century through the genius of the Dominicans Saint Albertus Magnus and his great pupil Thomas Aquinas, whose Summa Theologiae is widely regarded as the pinnacle of scholastic theology; and of the Franciscans Saint Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus, and William of Occam (early 14th century), who challenged the Dominican school.在严格意义上说,士林开始与句(约1150)的彼得伦巴,所decretum(约1150格拉)条及洪水的阿拉伯文翻译的新拉丁古典哲学家,包括所有与希腊的亚里士多德,制成在整个12世纪后半期。学习同化这一新的学术发生了13世纪的大学通过对天才的多米尼加圣大阿尔伯特和他的伟大的学生托马斯阿奎那,其顶峰大全Theologiae被广泛的视为神学和圣方济各文德,约翰邓司各脱,奥卡姆的威廉和世纪(早期14次),谁挑战多米尼加学校。

With the multiplication of universities between the 14th and 16th centuries came a decline in the standard of teaching and the caliber of teachers, and a "logicism" or formalism of thought that aroused the animosity of a new humanism that arose mainly outside university circles.随着第16世纪的大学之间的乘法14,来到教学下降的标准和教师素质的,和“逻辑”或圆形形式主义认为引起大学的敌意的一个新的人文精神出现,主要是外面。 The term scholasticism then began to be used in a derogatory sense.任期士林,然后开始被用在贬义的感觉。

Second Scholasticism.第二士林。

The Protestant Reformation in the 16th century stimulated a revival of theology by a return to the language of the Bible, the Fathers of the Church, and the great scholastics of the 13th century.16世纪的新教改革在13世纪的刺激的一个伟大的复兴院哲学家的神学由一回到圣经的语言,在和父亲的教会。This second scholasticism was aided by the founding (1540) of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) by Saint Ignatius Loyola with the approval of Pope Paul III.这第二个院是由计算机辅助成立(1540三)保罗的社会耶稣(圣耶稣会)由教宗依纳爵罗耀拉与批准。Foremost among the Jesuit scholastics of this period were Saint Robert Bellarmine, Francisco Suarez, and Gabriel Vazquez.其中最重要的耶稣会scholastics这一时期被圣罗伯特贝拉明,弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,和Gabriel巴斯克斯。 Due largely to the scientific revolution of the 17th century (beginning with Galileo), the quest for philosophic originality (beginning with Rene Descartes), the rise of nationalism and colonization, and the splintering of Protestant religions, second scholasticism declined.主要原因是与伽利略的科学革命的开始(17世纪),笛卡尔哲学追求原创性(开头刘若英),殖民化的民族主义和崛起,以及宗教分裂的新教,第二士林下降。 Some forms of schoolbook scholasticism, however, remained for a time in Catholic countries, particularly Spain and Latin America.某些形式的教科书士林,但是,美国仍然是一个时间,在天主教国家,尤其是西班牙和拉丁美洲。By the 18th century, scholasticism had again become a derogatory term, especially in non - Catholic countries.到了18世纪,士林已再次成为一个贬词,特别是在非-天主教国家。

Neoscholasticism. Neoscholasticism。

Early in the 19th century in Italy certain Catholic professors of philosophy began to see in Aquinas's teaching basic principles that might resolve the problems associated with Kantian and Hegelian Idealism, British Empiricism, current Rationalism, Skepticism, and Liberalism.早在19世纪在意大利的某些天主教教授,哲学开始看到在阿奎那原则的教学基本是可以解决和自由主义,相关的问题与康德和黑格尔的唯心主义,英国经验主义,当前理性主义,怀疑主义。 By 1850, neo - Thomism or neoscholasticism began to be heard through the writings of Gaetano Sanseverino in Naples, Matteo Liberatore in Rome, and the Jesuit periodical Civilita Cattolica founded in Naples in 1850.到1850年,新- thomism或neoscholasticism开始被卡托利卡听取和Civilita的耶稣会通过定期的著作加埃塔诺桑瑟夫内洛在那不勒斯,利玛窦利贝拉托雷在罗马,那不勒斯成立于1850年。 These efforts were brought to a head by Josef Kleutgen in Germany, Henri Lacordaire in France, Zeferino Gonzales in the Philippines and Spain, and Tommaso Zigliara and Pope Leo XIII in Italy.这些努力被带到一约瑟夫Kleutgen头部拉科代尔在德国,法国,泽费里诺和冈萨雷斯在菲律宾和西班牙,托马索齐利亚拉和教皇利奥十三世在意大利,亨利。 The charter of this neo - Thomism was Leo's Aeterni Patris (1879). Through subsequent encyclicals, Leo exemplified the applicability of Thomistic ideas to contemporary problems.在这个新章程-托马斯主义是狮子座的Aeterni祖国报(1879年)。通过以后的通谕,利奥体现的思想对当代的适用性thomistic原则问题。 All subsequent popes, including John Paul II, reiterated the need for a Christian philosophy based on Thomistic principles.其后所有的教皇,包括约翰保罗二世,重申需要的原则基础上thomistic哲学的基督徒。

The rise of Modernism in the Roman Catholic church after 1900, however, resulted in a multiplicity of ecclesiastical condemnations, a legislated Thomism, and a failure to realize the hopes of Leo XIII.这座教堂崛起的现代主义在罗马天主教1900年以后,但是,导致了托马斯主义多元化的教会谴责,一个立法,并未能实现的希望利奥十三世的。 Despite this and two world wars, much fruitful work was accomplished by outstanding scholars, numerous periodicals, and editors of historical texts, including the critical edition of the works of Aquinas (the Leonine Edition). Among the great number of modern scholars who called themselves Thomists (but not neo - Thomists or neoscholastics) were Jacques Maritain, Etienne Gilson, Martin Grabmann, and Yves Congar.尽管这和两次世界大战,大量卓有成效的工作是由杰出的学者,许多期刊,和文字编辑的历史,包括版)临界工程版阿奎那(即莱奥妮恩。其中的人称自己是伟大的学者人数现代Thomists(但不包括新- thomists或neoscholastics)是雅克马里丹,艾蒂安吉尔森,马丁格拉布曼,和伊夫琼加尔。

For reasons still not fully understood, a decided reaction against Aquinas and neoscholasticism occurred in the 1960s. Some have erroneously associated this with the Second Vatican Council, which turned people's minds toward social rather than doctrinal issues.对于neoscholasticism原因仍然没有完全理解,阿奎那和一对决定的反应发生在20世纪60年代。一些错误有关的问题这与梵蒂冈第二次会议,其中,而不是理论变成人们的思想走向社会。 Aquinas was, however, the only scholastic doctor mentioned by name in all the conciliar documents.阿奎那然而,只有在学术上所提到的医生的名字在所有conciliar文件。The real reasons for the decline of neoscholasticism must be sought in the wider sociological and psychological concerns of contemporary society.衰落neoscholasticism真正的原因,必须寻求和心理关注当代社会更广泛的社会学。

James A Weisheipl詹姆斯阿Weisheipl

Bibliography 书目
FP Cassidy, Molders of the Medieval Mind (1944); Y Congar, A History of Theology (1968); E Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1957) and History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (1955); RM McInerny, ed., New Themes in Christian Philosophy (1968); J Pieper, Scholasticism: Personalities and Problems of Medieval Philosophy (1960); B Smalley, The Becket Conflict and the Schools: A Study of Intellectuals in Politics (1973); JR Weinberg, A Short History of Medieval Philosophy (1964).计划生育卡西迪)模塑中世纪心灵(1944; Ÿ琼加尔,一个神学的历史(1968年),电子商务吉尔松,1955年)基督教哲学的圣托马斯阿奎那(1957年)和基督教的历史哲学的时代(在中东;马币麦金尔尼,教育署。,新的主题在基督教哲学(1968年); j•皮佩尔,士林:人格和)问题的中世纪哲学(1960年乙斯莫利,贝克特冲突与流派:政治学研究中的知识分子(1973年);小温伯格,阿1964)简史中世纪哲学(。


Catholic Information天主教信息

Scholasticism is a term used to designate both a method and a system.士林是用来指定一个方法都和一个系统的术语。It is applied to theology as well as to philosophy.将它应用到神学和哲学。Scholastic theology is distinguished from Patristic theology on the one hand, and from positive theology on the other.士林神学有别于教父神学一方面,从对其他积极神学。The schoolmen themselves distinguished between theologia speculativa sive scholastica and theologia positiva.经院哲学本身区分神学speculativa sive scholastica和神学positiva。Applied to philosophy, the word "Scholastic" is often used also, to designate a chronological division intervening between the end of the Patristic era in the fifth century and the beginning of the modern era, about 1450.应用哲学中,“儒学”也经常使用,指定一个时间顺序划分,干预结束时五分之间在教父时代的世纪和时代的开始,现代约1450。 It will, therefore, make for clearness and order if we consider:它将,因此,作出清晰和秩序,如果我们考虑:

I. The origin of the word "Scholastic";一,这个词的起源“学术”;

II.二。The history of the period called Scholastic in the history of philosophy;该呼吁在哲学史学术时期的历史;

III.三。The Scholastic method in philosophy, with incidental reference to the Scholastic method in theology; and在哲学学术上的方法,并附带提到在神学学术方法,以及

IV.四。The contents of the Scholastic system.对学术制度的内容。

The revival of Scholasticism in recent times has been already treated under the head NEO-SCHOLASTICISM.时代复兴士林已在最近已下处理物体的头部,士林。


There are in Greek literature a few instances of the use of the word scholastikos to designate a professional philosopher.目前在希腊文学是几字使用情况的scholastikos指定一个专业的哲学家。Historically, however, the word, as now used, is to be traced, not to Greek usage, but to early Christian institutions.从历史上看,然而,这个词,因为现在使用,要追查,而不是希腊的用法,但对早期基督教机构。In the Christian schools, especially after the beginning of the sixth century, it was customary to call the head of the school magister scholae, capiscola, or scholasticus.在基督教学校,特别是在本世纪初的第六,这是习惯上称之为scholasticus头学校马吉斯特scholae,capiscola或。 As time went on, the last of these appellations was used exclusively.随着时间的推移,这些称谓最后用专用。The curriculum of those schools included dialectic among the seven liberal arts, which was at that time the only branch of philosophy studied systematically.这些学校的课程包括系统辩证法在七个文科,哲学研究是在当时的唯一分支。The head of the school generally taught dialectic, and out of his teaching grew both the manner of philosophizing and the system of philosophy that prevailed during all the Middle Ages.学校教导主任的一般辩证,并从他的教学都增长方式的哲思和中世纪的制度中普遍存在的哲学在所有。Consequently, the name "Scholastic" was used and is still used to designate the method and system that grew out of the academic curriculum of the schools or, more definitely, out of the dialectical teaching of the masters of the schools (scholastici).因此,命名为“学术”的使用,仍然使用指定的方法和制度,前身是学校的学术课程,或者更明确,出了(scholastici辩证的学校教学的主人的)。 It does not matter that, historically, the Golden Age of Scholastic philosophy, namely, the thirteenth century, falls within a period when the schools, the curriculum of which was the seven liberal arts, including dialectic had given way to another organization of studies, the studia generalia, or universities.不要紧,历史上的,即黄金时代士林哲学,13世纪,研究属于一个时期的学校,课程,其中7个是文科,包括辩证已让位给另一个组织,在studia generalia,或大学。The name, once given, continued, as it almost always does, to designate the method and system which had by this time passed into a new phase of development.这个名字,一经发出,继续它,因为几乎总是这样,到指定的方法和制度的发展已逐步成为新的这个时候通过。 Academically, the philosophers of the thirteenth century are known as magistri, or masters; historically, however, they are Scholastics, and continue to be so designated until the end of the medieval period.在学术上,13世纪的哲学家的被称为马吉斯特里,或主人;历史,但是,它们的scholastics,并继续这样做,直到指定的期限结束时的中世纪。 And, even after the close of the Middle Ages, a philosopher or theologian who adopts the method or the system of the medieval Scholastics is said to be a Scholastic.而且,即使关闭后的scholastics中世纪,哲学家或神学家谁采用的方法或制度,中世纪的是说是一个学术。


The period extending from the beginning of Christian speculation to the time of St.延长的期限从投机开始向基督教的圣时间Augustine, inclusive, is known as the Patristic era in philosophy and theology.奥古斯丁,包容性,被称为教父的神学和哲学的时代。 In general, that era inclined to Platonism and underestimated the importance of Aristotle.在一般情况下,那个时代倾向于柏拉图和亚里士多德低估的重要性。The Fathers strove to construct on Platonic principles a system of Christian philosophy.父亲竭力原则兴建柏拉图的哲学体系的基督徒。They brought reason to the aid of Revelation. They leaned, however, towards the doctrine of the mystics, and, in ultimate resort, relied more on spiritual intuition than on dialectical proof for the establishment and explanation of the highest truths of philosophy.他们带来的理由需要援助的启示。他们倾斜,然而,走向神秘主义的,并在最终的手段,更依赖哲学对真理的精神比最高的直觉建立辩证的证明和解释的。 Between the end of the Patristic era in the fifth century and the beginning of the Scholastic era in the ninth there intervene a number of intercalary thinkers, as they may be called, like Claudianus Mamertus, Boethius, Cassiodorus, St. Isidore of Seville, Venerable Bede etc., who helped to hand down to the new generation the traditions of the Patristic age and to continue into the Scholastic era the current of Platonism.至本世纪末的五分教父时代的思想家开始对闰的学术时代在第九数量有一个介入,因为它们可能被称为法师,像Claudianus Mamertus,伯蒂乌斯,Cassiodorus,塞维利亚圣伊西多尔比德等,谁的手帮助下到新时代的一代教父的传统,并继续成为时代的柏拉图主义的学术电流。 With the Carolingian revival of learning in the ninth century began a period of educational activity which resulted in a new phase of Christian thought known as Scholasticism.随着9世纪加洛林复兴的开始了学习教育活动期间,士林,其中造成新的阶段,在一个基督教的思想是已知的。 The first masters of the schools in the ninth century Alcuin, Rabanus, etc., were not indeed, more original than Boethius or Cassiodorus; the first original thinker in the Scholastic era was John the Scot (see ERIUGENA, JOHN SCOTUS).第九世纪的学校在第一主人的阿尔昆,拉巴努等,并没有确实比原来更Cassiodorus伯蒂乌斯或;第一学术时代的思想家在原有的苏格兰人约翰(见ERIUGENA,约翰司各脱)。 Nevertheless they inaugurated the Scholastic movement because they endeavoured to bring the Patristic (principally the Augustinian) tradition into touch with the new life of European Christianity.但是,它们成立的学术运动,因为他们力图使接触到新生活的欧洲基督教的教父(主要是将传统的奥古斯丁)。 They did not abandon Platonism.他们没有放弃柏拉图主义。They knew little of Aristotle except as a logician.他们知道作为一个小的逻辑学家亚里士多德除外。But by the emphasis they laid on dialectical reasoning, they gave a new direction to Christian tradition in philosophy.但是,他们的重点放在辩证推理,他们给了一个新的方向,以基督教的传统哲学。In the curriculum of the schools in which they taught, philosophy was represented by dialectic.在讲授课程的学校,其中他们,哲学的代表是辩证的。On the textbooks of dialectic which they used they wrote commentaries and glosses, into which.关于加入该教科书的辩证,他们使用的评论和粉饰,他们写道。Little by little, they admitted problems of psychology, metaphysics, cosmology, and ethics.渐渐地,他们承认心理问题的,形而上学,宇宙学,伦理学。So that the Scholastic movement as a whole may be said to have sprung from the discussions of the dialecticians.所以说,整个学术运动,可以说是辩涌现从讨论。

Method, contents, and conclusions were influenced by this origin.方法,内容,结论是影响来源于此。 There resulted a species of Christian Rationalism which more than any other trait characterizes Scholastic philosophy in every successive stage of its development and marks it off very definitely from the Patristic philosophy, which, as has been said, was ultimately intuitional and mystic.基督教有理性,导致其中一个物种比任何其他性状特点及其发展阶段的士林哲学在历届标志着它关闭肯定很神秘从教父哲学,正如人们所说的,最终和直观。 With Roscelin, who appeared about the middle of the eleventh century, the note of Rationalism is very distinctly sounded, and the first rumbling is heard of the inevitable reaction, the voice of Christian mysticism uttering its note of warning, and condemning the excess into which Rationalism had fallen.随着罗瑟兰,谁对11世纪中出现的,理性主义是很明显的说明响起,隆隆的第一反应是听取了不可避免的,神秘主义的声音基督教一言不发注意的警告,并谴责把这些过剩理性下降。 In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, therefore, Scholasticism passed through its period of storm and stress.在11和12世纪,因此,士林通过其应力和风暴时期。On the one side were the advocates of reason, Roscelin, Abelard, Peter Lombard; on the other were the champions of mysticism, St. Anselm, St. Peter Damian, St. Bernard, and the Victorines.在一边是理智的倡导者,罗瑟兰,阿贝拉尔,彼得伦巴,另一方面是神秘主义的冠军,圣安瑟伦,圣彼得达米安,圣伯纳德,和Victorines。 Like all ardent advocates, the Rationalists went too far at first, and only gradually brought their method within the lines of orthodoxy and harmonized it with Christian reverence for the mysteries of Faith.像所有的热心倡导者,理性走得太远在第一,才逐渐使他们的正统的直线法和统一的信念在这奥秘与基督教的崇敬。Like all conservative reactionists, the mystics at first condemned the use as well as the abuse of reason; they did not reach an intelligent compromise with the dialecticians until the end of the twelfth century.像所有保守的反动派,在第一次使用神秘主义者谴责以及滥用的原因,他们没有达到12世纪智能的妥协,直到结束辩。 In the final outcome of the struggle, it was Rationalism that, having modified its unreasonable claims, triumphed in the Christian schools, without, however driving the mystics from the field.在这场斗争最后结果的,它是理性的,有修改了其不合理要求,学校在基督教胜利,但不开车从外地的神秘主义者。

Meantime, Eclectics, like John of Salisbury, and Platonists, like the members of the School of Chartres, gave to the Scholastic movement a broader spirit of toleration, imparted, so to speak, a sort of Humanism to philosophy, so that, when we come to the eve of the thirteenth century, Scholasticism has made two very decided steps in advance.与此同时,杂家,像索尔兹伯里的约翰,和柏拉图主义,希望各成员学校的沙特尔的,给了学术运动的更广泛的包容精神,传授,可以说,一个样的人文哲学,所以,当我们来到13世纪前夕,士林已决定提前两个非常步骤研究。 First, the use of reason in the discussion of spiritual truth and the application of dialectic to theology are accepted with. out protest, so long as they are kept within the bounds of moderation.首先,用理性的神学辩证法在讨论真理的精神和应用程序都接受了。进行抗议,只要他们保持适度的范围内。Second, there is a willingness on the part of the Schoolmen to go outside the lines of strict ecclesiastical tradition and learn, not only from Aristotle, who was now beginning to be known as a metaphysician and a psychologist, but also from the Arabians and the Jews, whose works had begun to penetrate in Latin translations into the schools of Christian Europe.第二,有一个院哲学对部分愿意向,去了解外面的方针,严格教会的传统,不能只从亚里士多德,谁是现在开始被心理学家称为形而上学和,但也从阿拉伯人和犹太人,他们的欧洲工程已经开始渗透在学校教育中的基督教翻译成拉丁文。 The taking of Constantinople in 1204, the introduction of Arabian, Jewish, and Greek works into the Christian schools, the rise of the universities, and the foundation of the mendicant orders -- these are the events which led to the extraordinary intellectual activity of the thirteenth century, which centered in the University of Paris.在考虑到在1204年君士坦丁堡,阿拉伯,犹太引进,和希腊的作品进入教会学校,大学的兴起,以及订单的基础乞讨-这是发生的事件而导致的非凡的智力活动13世纪,这在巴黎大学为中心。 At first there was considerable confusion, and it seemed as if the battles won in the twelfth century by the dialecticians should be fought over again.起初有相当大的混乱,而且好像战斗辩多次在12世纪应该是打一遍。The translations of Aristotle made from the Arabian and accompanied by Arabian commentaries were tinged with Pantheism, Fatalism, and other Neoplatonic errors.亚里士多德的译本,从阿拉伯和评论伴随着阿拉伯被错误的色彩与泛神论,宿命论和其他柏拉图。Even in the Christian schools there were declared Pantheists, like David of Dinant, and outspoken Averroists, like Siger of Brabant, who bade fair to prejudice the cause of Aristoteleanism.即使是在基督教学校有宣布泛神论,迪南大卫像,并直言不讳Averroists,像Aristoteleanism西赫尔布拉班特,谁吩咐公平损害的原因。

These developments were suppressed by the most stringent disciplinary measures during the first few decades of the thirteenth century.这些事态发展镇压最严格的纪律处分措施,在13世纪最初几十年的。While they were still a source of danger, men like William of Auvergne and Alexander of Hales hesitated between the traditional Augustinianism of the Christian schools and the new Aristoteleanism, which came from a suspected source.虽然他们仍是一个危险源,阿莱斯男性喜欢威廉亚历山大奥弗涅和犹豫之间传统的奥古斯丁的基督教学校的和新的Aristoteleanism,它的来源是来自一个怀疑。 Besides, Augustinianism and Platonism accorded with piety, while Aristoteleanism was found to lack the element of mysticism.此外,奥古斯丁和柏拉图都符合虔诚,而Aristoteleanism被发现的神秘主义元素的缺乏。In time, however, the translations made from the Greek revealed an Aristotle free from the errors attributed to him by the Arabians, and, above all, the commanding genius of St. Albertus Magnus and his still more illustrious disciple, St. Thomas Aquinas, who appeared at the critical moment, calmly surveyed the difficulties of the situation, and met them fearlessly, won the victory for the new philosophy and continued successfully the traditions established in the preceding century.假以时日,但是,翻译从希腊发现了亚里士多德摆脱了阿拉伯人的错误归咎于他,最重要的,杰出的天才指挥弟子圣大阿尔伯特和他更加,圣托马斯阿奎那,谁出现在关键时刻,冷静地调查的困难情况,并会见了他们无畏地,赢得胜利的理念,继续为新世纪的成功上建立的传统研究。 Their contemporary, St. Bonaventure, showed that the new learning was not incompatible with mysticism drawn from Christian sources, and Roger Bacon demonstrated by his unsuccessful attempts to develop the natural sciences the possibilities of another kind which were latent in Aristoteleanism.他们的当代,圣文德,表明新的学习不是从来源与基督教神秘主义不相容的绘制,和罗杰培根Aristoteleanism证明了他的尝试失败潜伏在其中发展自然科学的另一种可能性。

With Duns Scotus, a genius of the first order, but not of the constructive type, begins the critical phase, of Scholasticism.随着邓司各脱,一个天才的第一顺序,但键入不是建设性的,开始的,经院的关键阶段。Even before his time, the Franciscan and the Dominican currents had set out in divergent directions.即使在他的时间,方济各和多米尼加电流已订出不同的方向。It was his keen and unrelenting search for the weak points in Thomistic philosophy that irritated and wounded susceptibilities among the followers of St. Thomas, and brought about the spirit of partisanship which did so much to dissipate the energy of Scholasticism in the fourteenth century.这是他渴望和不屈不挠的搜索点,托马斯主义哲学的虚弱,受伤的感情刺激和圣托马斯之间的追随者,并带来了14世纪的精神,而没有这么多党派的士林到消散的能量。 The recrudescence of Averroism in the schools, the excessive cultivation of formalism and subtlety, the growth of artificial and even barbarous terminology, and the neglect of the study of nature and of history contributed to the same result.在学校的Averroism复发,微妙的过度种植和形式主义,人工术语增长,甚至野蛮,性质忽视的研究和历史贡献,以相同的结果。 Ockham's Nominalism and Durandus's attempt to "simplify" Scholastic philosophy did not have the effect which their authors intended.奥卡姆的唯名和Durandus的企图“简化”士林哲学不具有效力,其作者的原意。"The glory and power of scholasticism faded into the warmth and brightness of mysticism," and Gerson, Thomas à Kempis, and Eckhart are more representative of what the Christian Church was actually thinking in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries than are the Thomists, Scotists, and Ockhamists of that period, who frittered away much valuable time in the discussion of highly technical questions which arose within the schools and possess little interest except for adepts in Scholastic subtlety. “士林的荣耀和权力的神秘主义消失在温暖和光明,”和格尔森,托马斯的肯皮斯和埃克哈特更Scotists代表什么基督教教会第十五其实思想在14世纪与21世纪比是Thomists,和微妙Ockhamists那个时期,谁挥霍行家在学术以外的许多宝贵的时间在讨论技术问题而产生的高度兴趣,除了小范围内的学校和具备。 After the rise of Humanism, when the Renaissance, which ushered in the modern era, was in full progress, the great Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese commentators inaugurated an age of more healthy Scholasticism, and the great Jesuit teachers, Toletus, Vasquez, and Francisco Suárez, seemed to recall the best days of thirteenth century speculation.之后,兴起文艺复兴时期的人文主义时,迎来了它在现代的时代,是在全面进步,伟大的意大利,西班牙,葡萄牙和评论家成立一个更健康的士林时代,伟大的耶稣会教师,Toletus,巴斯克斯和弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,似乎还记得13世纪的投机最好的日子。 The triumph of scientific discovery, with which, as a rule, the representatives of Scholasticism in the seats of academic authority had, unfortunately, too little sympathy, led to new ways of philosophizing, and when, finally, Descartes in practice, if not in theory, effected a complete separation of philosophy from theology, the modern era had begun and the age known as that of Scholasticism had come to an end.可惜胜利的科学发现,与其中,作为一项规则的学术议席,,士林中的代表有权力,太少的同情,导致哲思的新途径,而当最后,在实践笛卡尔,如果不是在理论,影响分离神学哲学一个完整的,现代的时代已经开始和结束来岁称为认为士林了。


No method in philosophy has been more unjustly condemned than that of the Scholastics.没有哲学的方法已经更加不公正院学者谴责比。No philosophy has been more grossly misrepresented.没有哲学,更严重歪曲。And this is true not only of the details, but also of the most essential elements of Scholasticism.这是真实的细节不仅是,而且也基本要素士林最。Two charges, especially, are made against the Schoolmen: First, that they confounded philosophy with theology; and second, that they made reason subservient to authority.两项费用,特别是对正在院哲学,提出:第一,他们混淆哲学与神学,第二,他们提出的理由屈从于权威。As a matter of fact, the very essence of Scholasticism is, first, its clear delimitation of the respective domains of philosophy and theology, and, second, its advocacy of the use of reason.作为一个事实上的,经院哲学的本质是,第一,其明确划定的哲学和神学的各自领域的,第二,其原因倡导的使用。

A. Theology and Philosophy答:神学与哲学

Christian thinkers, from the beginning, were confronted with the question: How are we to reconcile reason with revelation, science with faith, philosophy with theology?基督教思想家开始时,被面临着一个问题:我们如何调和的原因与启示,信仰与科学,哲学与神学?The first apologists possessed no philosophy of their own.第一辩护士拥有没有自己的哲学。They had to deal with a pagan world proud of its literature and its philosophy, ready at any moment to flaunt its inheritance of wisdom in the face of ignorant Christians. The apologists met the situation by a theory that was as audacious as it must have been disconcerting to the pagans.他们必须时刻处理任何一个异教徒的文学和哲学,在世界上引以为傲的准备,以面对基督徒的无知炫耀其继承的智慧英寸的辩护士会见的情况作为一个大胆的理论,是因为它必须是令人不安的异教徒。 They advanced the explanation that all the wisdom of Plato and the other Greeks was due to the inspiration of the Logos; that it was God's truth, and, therefore, could not be in contradiction with the supernatural revelation contained in the Gospels.他们解释说,所有先进的智慧,柏拉图和其他希腊人是由于理性的启示,这是上帝的真理,因此,不能将与矛盾在福音中的超自然的启示。 It was a hypothesis calculated not only to silence a pagan opponent, but also to work constructively.据计算,假设一个异教徒的对手不仅是一个沉默,但也作出建设性努力。We find it in St. Basil, in Origen, and even in St. Augustine. The belief that the two orders of truth, the natural and the supernatural, must harmonize, is the inspiration of intellectual activity in the Patristic era.我们发现它在圣巴西尔,在奥利,甚至在圣奥古斯丁。订单的信念,即真理的两个,自然和超自然的,必须统一,是时代灵感的智力活动的教父。 But that era did little to define the limits of the two realms of truth.但那个时代几乎未能确定真理的两个领域限制。St. Augustine believes that faith aids reason (credo ut intelligam) and that reason aids faith (intelligo ut credam); he is, however, inclined to emphasize the first principle and not the second.圣奥古斯丁认为,信仰艾滋病原因(信条UT斯达康intelligam)和因此艾滋病信仰(intelligo UT斯达康credam),他是,不过,倾向于强调的第一条原则,而不是第二。He does not develop a definite methodology in dealing with them.他没有明确的发展与他们打交道的方法研究。The Scholastics, almost from the first, attempted to do so.这样做院哲学的,几乎从第一,试图。

John Scotus Eriugena, in the ninth century, by his doctrine that all truth is a theophany, or showing forth of God, tried to elevate philosophy to the rank of theology, and identify the two in a species of theosophy.约翰司各脱Eriugena,在第九世纪的学说,他认为所有的真理是显灵,或显示出来的上帝,试图提升理念,以职级的神学,并确定神智学的一个物种二英寸 Abelard, in the twelfth century, tried to bring theology down to the level of philosophy, and identify both in a Rationalistic system.阿贝拉尔世纪,第十二,试图把神学到哲学层次,并确定系统都在一个理性。The greatest of the Scholastics in the thirteenth century, especially St. Thomas Aquinas, solved the problem for all time, so far as Christian speculation is concerned, by showing that the two are distinct sciences, and yet that they agree. 13世纪最伟大的scholastics中,尤其是圣托马斯阿奎那,解决所有问题的时候,只要基督教投机而言,通过展示,这两个是不同的科学,但他们同意。 They are distinct, he teaches, because, while philosophy relies on reason alone, theology uses the truths derived from revelation, and also because there are some truths, the mysteries of Faith, which lie completely outside the domain of philosophy and belong to theology.他们是不同的,他教的,因为,而哲学只有依靠理性,从启示神学使用派生的真理,而且还因为有一些真理,神学信仰的奥秘,在于它完全超出了哲学领域和归属感。 They agree, and must agree, because God is the author of all truth, and it is impossible to think that He would teach in the natural order anything that contradicts what He teaches in the supernatural order.他们同意,而且必须同意,因为上帝是真理,所有的作者,是不可能认为他会教自然秩序的任何违背什么,他任教于超自然的秩序。 The recognition of these principles is one of the crowning achievements of Scholasticism.在承认这些原则是至高无上的成就之一士林的。It is one of the characteristics that mark it off from the Patristic era, in which the same principles were, so to speak, in solution, and not crystallized in definite expression.这是人的特点之一是它把从教父时代的标志,其中相同的原则,可以这么说,在解决方案,而不是表现在一定的结晶。 lt is the trait which differentiates Scholasticism from Averroism. It is the inspiration of all Scholastic effort.LT是其中的性状区别Averroism从士林。这是努力的灵感的所有学业。As long as it lasted Scholasticism lasted, and as soon as the opposite conviction became established, the conviction, namely, that what is true in theology may be false in philosophy, Scholasticism ceased to exist.只要持续士林持续,并尽快成为相反的信念建立的信念,那就是什么是真正的哲学在神学可能假,士林不复存在。It is, therefore, a matter of constant surprise to those who know Scholasticism to find it misrepresented on this vital point.它是,因此,一个惊喜的问题不断向那些谁知道士林找到它歪曲这一点至关重要。

B. Scholastic Rationalism乙学术理性

Scholasticism sprang from the study of dialectic in the schools.士林兴起从辩证的学校就读。 The most decisive battle of Scholasticism was that which it waged in the twelfth century against the mystics who condemned the use of dialectic.这场战斗的最决定性的是,士林,它发动的辩证使用的12世纪的神秘主义者的反对谁谴责。The distinguishing mark of Scholasticism in the age of its highest development is its use of the dialectical method.发展的显着标志士林在其最高的年龄是它的辩证方法的使用。It is, therefore, a matter, once more, for surprise, to find Scholasticism accused of undue subservience to authority and of the neglect of reason.它是,因此,这一问题,一旦更多的惊喜,因为,寻找理由不当的士林指责屈从权威和忽视。Rationalism is a word which has various meanings.理性是一个字,有多种含义。It is sometimes used to designate a system which, refusing to acknowledge the authority of revelation, tests all truth by the standard of reason.它有时被用来指定一个制度,拒不承认启示权威,测试标准的原因,一切真理的。In this sense, the Scholastics were not Rationalists.在这个意义上说,scholastics不理性。The Rationalism of Scholasticism consists in the conviction that reason is to be used in the elucidation of spiritual truth and in defence of the dogmas of Faith.理性的士林包括在这样的信念的理由是,用于澄清真相的精神和信仰辩护的教条的。It is opposed to mysticism, which distrusted reason and placed emphasis on intuition and contemplation.它是反对神秘主义,这不信任的原因,放在沉思强调直觉和。In this milder meaning of the term, all the Scholastics were convinced Rationalists, the only difference being that some, like Abelard and Roscelin, were too ardent in their advocacy of the use of reason, and went so far as to maintain that reason can prove even the supernatural mysteries of Faith, while others, like St. Thomas, moderated the claims of reason, set limits to its power of proving spiritual truth, and maintained that the mysteries of faith could not be discovered and cannot be proved by unaided reason.在这一届的温和的意思是所有scholastics深信理性,唯一的区别是,一些像阿贝拉尔和罗瑟兰,过于热心的原因在其宣传使用,而竟然以维持这个理由可以证明即使是托马斯,超自然的神秘的信仰,而其他国家,如圣放缓的原因,索赔,限额为证明其真理的力量的精神,并认为信仰的奥秘,不能被发现,不能证明外援的原因。

The whole Scholastic movement, therefore, is a Rationalistic movement in the second sense of the term Rationalism.整个学术运动,因此,是一个长期的理性主义理性主义运动中的第二个意义。The Scholastics used their reason; they applied dialectic to the study of nature, of human nature and of supernatural truth.经院学者用他们的理由,他们运用辩证的性质研究真理,人的本性和超自然的。Far from depreciating reason, they went as far as man can go -- some modern critics think they went too far -- in the application of reason to the discussion of the dogmas of Faith.原因远非贬值,他们竟然人可以去-一些现代的批评认为他们走得太远的原因-在应用程序的信仰教条的讨论。They acknowledged the authority of revelation, as all Christian philosophers are obliged to do.他们承认权威的启示,因为所有的基督教哲学家不得不这样做。They admitted the force of human authority when the conditions of its valid application were verified.他们承认,核实力的人的权威时,其有效条件的申请进行。But in theology, the authority of revelation did not coerce their reason and in philosophy and in natural science they taught very emphatically that the argument from authority is the weakest of all arguments.但在神学,权威的启示并没有强迫他们的理由和在哲学和自然科学的教授非常强调,他们的权威说法的论据是从最薄弱的一切。 They did not subordinate reason to authority in any unworthy sense of that phrase.他们不服从任何权威的理由辜负这句话的意义。It was an opponent of the Scholastic movement who styled philosophy "the handmaid of theology", a designation which, however, some of the Schoolmen accepted to mean that to philosophy belongs the honourable task of carrying the light which is to guide the footsteps of theology.这是一个移动的对手谁的学术风格的哲学“的”神学的婢女,一个指定的,然而,院哲学,一些接受的意思是,让哲学属于神学的光荣任务,携带轻的脚步是引导。 One need not go so far as to say, with Barthélemy SaintHilaire, that "Scholasticism, in its general result, is the first revolt of the modern spirit against authority."我们不需要走那么远,也就是说,与巴托罗SaintHilaire,即“经院哲学,在其总的结果,是对权力的第一反抗现代精神的。” Nevertheless, one is compelled by the facts of history to admit that there is more truth in that description than in the superficial judgment of the historians who describe Scholasticism as the subordination of reason to authority.然而,一个是迫于历史事实,承认有更多的权力真理在这一描述比理性的判断从属表面历史学家形容为士林谁。

C. Details of Scholastic Method正详细的学术方法

The Scholastic manner of treating the problems of philosophy and theology is apparent from a glance at the body of literature which the Schoolmen produced. The immense amount of commentary on Aristotle, on Peter Lombard, on Boethius, on Pseudo-Dionysius, and on the Scriptures indicates the form of academic activity which characterizes the Scholastic period.神学的学术态度和处理问题的哲学是从一个明显的一瞥在体内产生的经院哲学,文学。亚里士多德的评论数量巨大,对彼得伦巴上伯蒂乌斯修斯,对伪,并在圣经表明时期形成的学术活动,学术特点的。 The use of texts dates from the very beginning of the Scholastic era in philosophy and theology, and was continued down into modern times.该文本使用的日期从一开始神学,哲学和学术的时代,并持续时间下到现代。The mature teacher, however, very often embodied the results of his own speculation in a Summa, which, in time became a text in the hands of his successors.成熟的老师,但是,往往体现了他的继任者手里,结果他自己的猜测在1大全,其中,在当时成为一个文本。The Questiones disputatae were special treatises on the more difficult or the more important topics, and as the name implied, followed the method of debate prevalent in the schools, generally called disputation or determination.论文的Questiones disputatae了特殊的困难或较为重要的课题,并作为顾名思义,随后的辩论方法在学校流行,一般称为争论或裁定。The Quodlibeta were miscellanies generally in the form of answers to questions which as soon as a teacher had attained a widespread renown, began to come to him, not only from the academic world in which he lived, but from all classes of persons and from every part of Christendom.该Quodlibeta被学术界一般从散记的形式对问题的回答是尽快名教师取得了广泛的知名度,开始他来,他不仅在生活,但来自各阶层的人士及所有基督教的一部分。 The division of topics in theology was determined by the arrangement followed in Peter Lombard's "Books of Sentences" (see SUMMA, SIMMULAE), and in philosophy it adhered closely to the order of treatises in Aristotle's works.神学分工,确定主题句丛书由彼得的安排遵循“伦巴第的”(见大全,SIMMULAE),并在哲学,坚持密切合作,以工程订单的亚里士多德的论文。 There is a good deal of divergence among the principal Scholastics in the details of arrangement, as well as in the relative values of the sub-titles, "part", "question", "disputation", "article", etc.有一个很好的协议的分歧中的细节安排,在主要院哲学,以及在副标题的相对值的“一部分”,“问题”,“争论”,“文章”等 All, however, adopt the manner of treatment by which thesis, objections, and solutions of objections stand out distinctly in the discussion of each problem.然而,所有采用的治疗方式,其中论文,反对,反对的解决方案的突出问题,在每一个明显的讨论。We find traces of this in Gerbert's little treatise "De rational) et ratione uti" in the tenth century, and it is still more definitely adopted in Abelard's "Sic et non".我们发现论文的小痕迹这尔贝特“德理性的)泌尿道感染等理由”在10世纪,它更是绝对“通过阿贝拉尔的”非碳化硅等。It had its root in Aristotelean method, but was determined more immediately by the dialectical activity of the early schools, from which, as was said, Scholasticism sprang.它扎根于亚里士多德的方法,但确定的学校,更直接的辩证活动的提前,正如有人说,士林兴起。

Much has been said both in praise and in blame of Scholastic terminology in philosophy and theology.已经说了很多都在赞扬和指责,在神学和哲学术语的学术研究。It is rather generally acknowledged that whatever precision there is in the modern languages of Western Europe is due largely to the dialectic disquisitions of the Scholastics.这是相当普遍承认,无论是精度有欧洲语言在现代的西方主要是由于在院哲学的辩证的学术论文。On the other hand, ridicule has been poured on the stiffness, the awkwardness, and the barbarity of the Scholastic style.另一方面,嘲笑已经倒在刚度,尴尬,和学术风格的野蛮的。In an impartial study of the question, it should be remembered that the Scholastics of the thirteenth century-and it was not they but their successors who were guilty of the grossest sins of style-were confronted with a terminological problem unique in the history of thought.在一个公正研究的问题,应该记住的是,院哲学在13世纪,而且它不是他们,但他们的接班人谁被认为有罪的历史罪恶的粗暴的风格,独特的面临的问题是一个用语。 They came suddenly into possession of an entirely new literature, the works of Aristotle.他们来突然亚里士多德拥有一个全新的文学作品,在。They spoke a language, Latin, on which the terminology of Aristotle in metaphysics psychology etc., had made no impression.他们讲的语言,拉丁语,对其中的术语等亚里士多德形而上学的心理,没有提出任何印象。Consequently, they were obliged to create all at once Latin words and phrases to express the terminology of Aristotle, a terminology remarkable for its extent, its variety, and its technical complexity.因此,他们不得不创造短语一次全部拉丁文字和术语来表达复杂的亚里士多德,一个显着的为它的术语及其程度,品种,其技术。 They did it honestly and humbly, by translating Aristotle's phrases literally; so that many a strange-sounding Latin phrase in the writings of the Schoolmen would be very good Aristotelean Greek, if rendered word for word into that language.他们这样做,是诚实和谦虚地从字面上来看,通过翻译亚里士多德的词组,因此,很多奇怪的冠冕堂皇的经院哲学著作的拉丁文词组的将是很好的亚里士多德希腊,如果提供的语言逐字逐句加以研究。 The Latin of the best of the Scholastics may be lacking in elegance and distinction; but no one will deny the merits of its rigorous severity of phrase and its logical soundness of construction.拉丁美洲的scholastics的最好的可能是缺乏优雅和区别,但没有人会否认建筑的优点,其严格程度的短语的逻辑合理性及其影响。 Though wanting the graces of what is called the fine style, graces which have the power of pleasing but do not facilitate the task of the learner in philosophy, the style of the thirteenth-century masters possesses the fundamental qualities, clearness, conciseness, and richness of technical phrase.虽然想在哲学的青睐什么是所谓的优良作风,青睐有哪些权力,但不讨好便利的学习任务,主人风格的13世纪具有的基本素质,清晰,简洁,和丰富性技术用语。


In logic the Scholastics adopted all the details of the Aristotelean system, which was known to the Latin world from the time of Boethius.在逻辑的scholastics通过时间伯蒂乌斯所有细节的亚里士多德制度,从拉丁美洲的世界这是众所周知的。 Their individual contributions consisted of some minor improvements in the matter of teaching and in the technic of the science.他们的个人贡献的物质组成部分的教学和改进未成年人在科学技术的。Their underlying theory of knowledge is also Aristotelean.他们的知识基础理论,也亚里士多德。It may be described by saying that it is a system of Moderate Realism and Moderate Intellectualism.它可以被说这是一个理智主义制度的温和的现实主义和温和的。The Realism consists in teaching that outside the mind there exist things fundamentally universal which correspond to our universal ideas.包括在教学中的现实主义以外的东西存在的思想从根本上普遍对应于我们的普遍想法。The Moderate Intellectualism is summed up in the two principles:稳健的理智主义可以归结为两个原则:

all our knowledge is derived from sense-knowledge; and我们所有的知识来源于感觉知识;和

intellectual knowledge differs from sense-knowledge, not only in degree but also in kind.智力知识不同于感知识,不仅在程度,而且实物。

In this way, Scholasticism avoids Innatism, according to which all our ideas, or some of our ideas, are born with the soul and have no origin in the world outside us.这样,士林避免天赋论,根据所有我们的想法,或者我们的一些想法,是天生的灵魂,在我们外面的世界没有来源。At the same time, it avoids Sensism, according to which our so-ealled intellectual knowledge is only sense-knowledge of a higher or finer sort.同时,它避免了Sensism,根据我们的所谓ealled智力知识只是感觉那种知识的更高或更精细。The Scholastics, moreover, took a firm stand against the doctrine of Subjectivism.经院学者,而且参加了主观主义学说的坚定的立场反对。In their discussion of the value of knowledge they held that there is an external world which is real and independent of our thoughts.在他们的知识讨论的价值,他们认为,有一个外部世界,是真正的独立和思想的。 In that world are the forms which make things to be what they are.在这世界上是形式的东西是什么使他们的。The same forms received into the mind in the process of knowing cause us not to be the object but to know the object.同样的形式收到知道对象的心中,在进入过程中引起我们不知道的对象,但要到。This presence of things in the mind by means of forms is true representation, or rather presentation.这种心态存在的东西,通过形式手段是真正的代表性,或者更确切地说,演示。For it is the objective thing that we are first aware of, not its representation in us.因为这是客观的东西,我们是第一个知道的,我们不是它的代表性研究。

The Scholastic outlook on the world of nature is Aristotelean.对自然世界的学术前景是亚里士多德。 The Schoolmen adopt the doctrine of matter and form, which they apply not only to living things but also to inorganic nature.该schoolmen采取不教义和形式的问题,他们只适用于生活的东西,但也无机性质。Since the form, or entelechy is always striving for its own realization or actualization, the view of nature which this doctrine leads to is teleological.因为形式,或隐德来希总是现实化追求自己实现,或其中的自然观这一学说导致的是目的论。Instead, however, of ascribing purpose in a vague, unsatisfactory manner to nature itself, the Scholastics attributed design to the intelligent, provident author of nature.相反,但是,指称方式的目的,一个模糊的,不理想,以本身的性质,原因的scholastics设计的智能,自然公积金的作者。 The principle of finality thus acquired a more precise meaning, and at the same time the danger of a Pantheistic interpretation was avoided.在终局原则从而获得更精确的含义,并在同一时间的解释危险泛神论避免了。 On the question of the universality of matter the Schoolmen were divided among themselves, some, like the Franciscan teachers, maintaining that all created beings are material, others, like St. Thomas, holding the existence of "separate forms", such as the angels, in whom there is potency but no matter.关于这个问题的普遍性的问题的经院哲学中被瓜分,有些就如方济各教师,并认为人是所有创造的物质,其他人,像圣托马斯,持有天使的存在的“独立形式”,如在其中有效力,但没有问题。 Again, on the question of the oneness of substantial forms, there was a lack of agreement.同样,在形式问题的唯一性,大量,有一个协议缺乏。St. Thomas held that in each individual material substance, organic or inorganic, there is but one substantial form, which confers being, substantiality and, in the ease of man, life, sensation, and reason.圣托马斯认为,每个人的材料物质,有机或无机,只有一个庞大的形式,其中被授予,实体性,以及在缓解人的感觉,生活,以及原因。 Others, on the contrary, believed that in one substance, man, for instance, there are simultaneously several forms, one of which confers existence, another substantiality, another life, and another, reason.其他人,相反,认为在一个物质,人的实例,适合同时有几种形式,其中赋予的存在,另一种实体性,另一种生活,另一个原因。 Finally, there was a divergence of views as to what is the principle of individuation, by which several individuals of the same species are differentiated from one another.最后,还有一个意见分歧的,什么是个性化原则,其中几个人同种的是另一种区别之一。St. Thomas taught that the principle of individuation is matter with its determined dimensions, materia signata. In regard to the nature of man, the first Scholastics were Augustinians.圣托马斯教授认为,个性化原则是尺寸的问题与确定,中药signata。至于该名男子的性质,第一院哲学是奥古斯丁。 Their definition of the soul is what may be called the spiritual, as opposed to the biological, definition.他们的灵魂的定义是什么可称为精神,而不是生物的定义。They held that the soul is the principle of thought-activity, and that the exercise of the senses is a process from the soul through the body not a process of the whole organism, that is, of the body animated by the soul.他们认为,灵魂是活动的原则,深思熟虑的,而且感官行使过程是一个有机体从灵魂通过身体不是整个一个过程的,就是灵魂被人体动画。 The Scholastics of the thirteenth century frankly adopted the Aristotelean definition of the soul as the principle of life, not of thought merely. 13世纪的院哲学家通过了坦诚的生活亚里士多德的定义原则上的灵魂,而不是仅仅的思想。Therefore, they maintained, man is a compound of body and soul, each of which is an incomplete substantial principle the union being, consequently, immediate, vital, and substantial.因此,他们认为,人是有灵魂的复合体,每一个重大原则,是一个不完整的工会存在,因此,直接的,重要的,实质性的。 For them there is no need of an intermediary "body of light" such as St. Augustine imagined to exist.对他们来说是没有必要的中介奥古斯丁“圣体光”,如想像中存在。All the vital activities of the individual human being are ascribed ultimately to the soul, as to their active principle, although they may have more immediate principles namely the faculties, such as intellect, the senses, the vegetative and muscular powers.所有重要活动的灵魂的人类个体是归因最终,他们以积极的原则,虽然他们可能有更直接的原则,即如智力系,感官,营养和肌肉力量。 But while the soul is in this way concerned with all the vital functions, being, in fact, the source of them, and the body enters as a passive principle into all the activities of the soul, exception must be made in the ease of immaterial thought-activities.不过,虽然灵魂是在这样重要的职能有关的一切,是事实,中,它们的来源,身体容易进入非物质作为一个被动的原则纳入所有活动的灵魂,必须作出例外思考的活动。 They are, like all the other activities, activities of the individual.他们的活动,象所有其他个人活动的。The soul is the active principle of them.灵魂,是他们主动的原则。But the body contributes to them, not in the same intrinsic manner in which it contributes to seeing, hearing, digesting etc., but only in an extrinsic manner, by supplying the materials out of which the intellect manufactures ideas.但身体有助于他们,而不是在同一个内在的方式,它有助于视觉,听觉,消化等,但只能在一个外在的方式,通过提供的材料而进行的智力生产的想法。 This extrinsic dependence explains the phenomena of fatigue, etc. At the same time it leaves the soul so independent intrinsically that the latter is truly said to be immaterial.这外在的依赖解释说,等在同一时间它叶片疲劳现象使独立的内在灵魂,后者是真正的说是无关紧要。

From the immateriality of the soul follows its immortality.从非物质遵循其不朽的灵魂。 Setting aside the possibility of annihilation, a possibility to which all creatures, even the angels are subject, the human soul is naturally immortal, and its immortality, St.撇开毁灭的可能性,一种可能性,而所有的动物,即使是天使是主体,人的灵魂,自然是不朽的,它的不朽,圣Thomas believes, can be proved from its immateriality.托马斯认为,可以从它的非物质性证明。Duns Scotus, however, whose notion of the strict requirements of a demonstration was influenced by his training in mathematics, denies the conclusive force of the argument from immateriality, and calls attention to Aristotle's hesitation or obscurity on this point.邓司各脱,然而,其示范的概念要求一个严格的数学的影响,在他的训练,否认从非物质的决定性力量的论点,并呼吁的犹豫或淡出在这一点上注意亚里士多德。 Aristotle, as interpreted by the Arabians, was, undoubtedly, opposed to immortality.亚里士多德,解释的阿拉伯人,是毫无疑问,反对不朽。It was, however, one of St. Thomas's greatest achievements in philosophy that, especially in his opusculum "De unitate intellectus", he refuted the Arabian interpretation of Aristotle, showed that the active intellect is part of the individual soul, and thus removed the uncertainty which, for the Aristoteleans, hung around the notions of immateriality and immortality.这是,但是,“一圣托马斯智洋最伟大的成就在哲学,尤其是在他的小品”德unitate,他驳斥了阿拉伯亚里士多德的解释,表明了积极的智力是灵魂的一部分个体,从而取消了其中的不确定性,为Aristoteleans,不朽挂非物质的概念及其周围的。 From the immateriality of the soul follows not only that it is immortal, but also that it originated by an act of creation.从非物质的灵魂如下不仅在于它是不朽的,而且它创造了一种行为的起源。It was created at the moment in which it was united with the body: creando infunditur, et infundendo creatur is the Scholastic phrase.它是一个在身体的时刻,它是团结:creando infunditur,等infundendo creatur是学术用语。

Scholastic metaphysics added to the Aristotelean system a full discussion of the nature of personality, restated in more definite terms the traditional arguments for the existence of God, and developed the doctrine of the providential government of the universe.士林添加到亚里士多德形而上学体系的个性的充分讨论的性质,争论更明确地重申了传统的上帝存在,并发展了宇宙学说的天赐的政府。 The exigencies of theological discussion occasioned also a minute analysis of the nature of accident in general and of quantity in particular.神学讨论的迫切需要引起特别分钟也分析事故的性质和数量一般。The application of the resulting principles to the explanation of the mystery of the Eucharist, as contained in St. Thomas's works on the subject, is one of the most successful of all the Scholastic attempts to render faith reasonable by means of dialectical discussion.这些原则的应用所产生的圣体解释了神秘的,因为受载的作品在圣托马斯,是一个辩证的讨论最成功的所有学业的手段企图使合理的信心。 Indeed, it may be said, in general, that the peculiar excellence of the Scholastics as systematic thinkers consisted in their ability to take hold of the profoundest metaphysical distinctions, such as matter and form, potency and actuality, substance and accident, and apply them to every department of thought.事实上,可以说,在一般情况下,经院学者特有的卓越的思想家,作为系统的组成事故的能力和抓住形而上学的最深刻的实质区别,如物质和形式,效力和现状,并将其应用于每一个部门的思想。 They were no mere apriorists, they recognized in principle and in practice that scientific method begins with the observation of facts.他们没有仅仅apriorists,他们认识到在原则上和实践中,科学方法的事实开始与观察。 Nevertheless, they excelled most of all in the talent which is peculiarly metaphysical, the power to grasp abstract general principles and apply them consistently and systematically.不过,他们表现出色,是独有的形而上学中最重要的是人才的权力,掌握和运用抽象的一般原则,稳定的系统。

So far as the ethics of Scholasticism is not distinctly Christian, seeking to expound and justify Divine law and the Christian standard of morals, it is Aristotelean.到目前为止,作为士林伦理是不显着基督教,谋求阐述和辩护神圣的法律和道德的基督教标准,这是亚里士多德。 This is clear from the adoption and application of the Aristotelean definition of virtue as the golden mean between two extremes. Fundamentally, the definition is eudemonistic.这是极端明显,从平均通过两年的应用之间的亚里士多德的定义为黄金的美德。基本上,这个定义是eudemonistic。 It rests on the conviction that the supreme good of man is happiness, that happiness is the realization, or complete actualization, of one's nature, and that virtue is an essential means to that end.它建立在这样的信念:人的最高利益是幸福,这幸福是实现或完成现实化的性质,一个人的,而美德是实现这一目标的重要手段。 But what is vague and unsatisfactory in Aristotelean Eudemonism is made definite and safe in the Scholastic system, which determines the meaning of happiness and realization according to the Divine purpose in creation and the dignity to which man is destined as a child of God.但是,什么是含糊和不理想的亚里士多德德性幸福作出明确的和安全的学术体系,它决定了实现幸福的含义,并根据创作目的和神圣尊严,这名男子是上帝注定要作为一个孩子。

In their discussion of the problems of political philosophy the philosophers of the thirteenth century while not discarding the theological views of St. Augustine contained in "The City of God", laid a new foundation for the study of political organizations by introducing Aristotle's scientific definition of the origin and purpose of civil society.在他们的哲学讨论政治问题的13世纪的哲学家,而不是抛弃了圣奥古斯丁的神学观点城市中的“神”,奠定了新的科学界定的基础研究的政治组织通过引入亚里士多德的起源和民间社会的目的。 Man, says St. Thomas, is naturally a social and political animal.男子说,圣托马斯,自然是一个社会和政治的动物。By giving to human beings a nature which requires the co-operation of other human beings for its welfare, God ordained man for society, and thus it is His will that princes should govern with a view to the public welfare.通过给予人类的性质,需要共同行动人的福利为其他人,神命定人的社会,因此它是他的意愿,认为王子应该以一个福利,以便公众。 The end for which the state exists is, then, not merely vivere but bene vivere.最终为国家的存在,那么,不仅是活不成了,但贝内就活不成了。All that goes to make life better and happier is included the Divine charter from which kings and rulers derive their authority.所有这一切去让生活更美好,更幸福,是神圣的,包括包机是国王和统治者获得权力。The Scholastic treatises on this subject and the commentaries on the "Polities" of Aristotle prepared the way for the medieval and modern discussions of political problems. “亚里士多德的学术专着的”政对这个问题的评论和问题的方式编写了政治的中世纪和现代的讨论。In this department of thought, as in many others, the Schoolmen did at least one service which posterity should appreciate: they strive to express in clear systematic form what was present in the consciousness of Christendom in their day.在这一思想的部门,如许多人一样,经院哲学,并至少有一个服务,其后代应该明白:他们努力形成表达明确的系统是什么日子基督教在他们的意识目前在。

Publication information Written by William Turner.出版信息特纳写由威廉。Transcribed by Tomas Hancil. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.转录由托马斯汉奇尔。天主教百科全书,体积十三。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

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