Scottish Realism苏格兰现实主义

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Scottish Realism was a popular movement in eighteenth and nineteenth century Britain, which attempted to overcome the epistemological, metaphysical, and moral skepticism of the Enlightenment philosophy of David Hume (1711 - 76) with a philosophy of common sense and natural realism. The founder of Scottish Realism was a moderate (as opposed to evangelical) Presbyterian clergyman, Thomas Reid (1710 - 96), born in Strachan, Kincardineshire, and educated at Marischal College. He became professor at King's College, Aberdeen, in 1751.苏格兰19世纪现实主义是一种流行的运动在18和英国都无法克服的哲学常识和自然的现实主义启蒙哲学,大卫休谟(1711 - 76)的认识论,形而上学,道德持怀疑态度。的创始人苏格兰是一个温和的现实主义(而不是福音)长老会牧师,托马斯里德(1710 - 96),出生于斯特拉坎,金卡丁郡,与大学教育在玛丽西尔。他成为教授,在国王学院,1751年香港仔。Reid was disturbed by studying Hume's Treatise of Human Nature (1739), which he thought denied the objective reality of external objects, the principle of causation, and the unity of the mind.里德是通过研究对象不安休谟)的人性论(1739年,他认为拒绝外部的客观现实的因果关系的原则和团结一心的。In answer, Reid wrote An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense in 1764, and the same year was appointed professor in Glasgow.在回答,里德说人类心灵的探究意识上的共同原则在1764年,并于同年被任命为格拉斯哥教授研究。In 1785, he wrote Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, and in 1788, Essays on the Active Powers of Man.在1785年,他写散文的人对权力的知识分子,在1788年,散文的人的积极力量。

Reid traced Hume's skepticim to what he considered a common fallacy in the great philosophers Descartes, Locke, and Berkeley: representational idealism, which postulates that "the mind knows not things immediately, but only by the intervention of the ideas it has of them" (Essay on Intellectual Powers, IV,4,3).里德追溯到休谟的skepticim什么,他认为一个伟大的哲学家常见的谬误在笛卡尔,洛克,和Berkeley:代表性的唯心论,其主要观点为“心不知道的事情立即,但只能由他们干预的想法它已”(征文智力,四,4,3)。 That is, ideas are an intermediary between the mind and things, which prevents direct knowledge of the actual things, so that we do not immediately know the external reality in itself, but only the idea (or representation or impression) that it causes in us.也就是说,思想是一个中介的东西和事物之间的心灵,而实际无法直接了解的,所以我们不会立即知道外部现实本身,而只是概念(或代表或展示),它导致我们。

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On the contrary, the human mind, argued Reid, perceives external objects directly through intuitive knowledge.相反,人的心灵,里德说,通过直观的感知外部对象的知识直接。We know reality, not by a "conjunction" of separated sense experiences, but by immediate "judgements of nature," which we make because our mind is constituted by God to know reality directly.我们知道现实,而不是由一个“共同经验”的分离意识,但眼前的“判断的性质”,这使我们,因为我们的心灵是由上帝知道构成直接的现实。 These "original and natural judgements" (by which we know real objects) "make up what is called the common sense of mankind; and what is manifestly contrary to any of those first principles is what we call absurd" (Inquiry, VII, 4).这些“原始和自然的判断”(我们知道真正的对象)“弥补所谓的人类的共同意识;,什么是明显违背这些原则,任何首先就是我们所说的荒谬”(调查,七,四)。 These first principles, of course, cannot and need not be proved: they are "self - evident" to the common experience of mankind.这些第一的原则的过程中,不能和无须证明:他们是“自我-显然”是人类的共同经验。 Among these principles are the existence of external objects, cause and effect, and the obligations of morality.在这些原则的影响存在外部对象,原因和和道德义务。Any philosophy that denies these commonly accepted principles on which all men must base their lives is of necessity defective.任何哲学,否认了这些普遍接受的原则上所有的人必须以自己的生命是必不可少的缺陷。

Dugald Stewart (1753 - 1828), professor at Edinburgh and a distinguished successor of Reid, laid more stress on observation and inductive reasoning, and subscribed to an empiricist approach to psychology.杜格尔德斯图尔特(1753年至1828年),教授在爱丁堡和杰出的继承者的里德,奠定更加注重归纳推理的观察和,并订阅了经验主义的方法,心理学。 Stewart's successor, Thomas Brown, moved even further in an empiricist direction, and is considered a bridge between Scottish Realism and the empiricism of JS Mill.斯图尔特的继任者托马斯布朗,提出经验主义的方向,甚至进一步在一,并被认为是一个米尔苏格兰之间的桥梁和JS的现实主义的经验主义。 Sir William Hamilton (1791 - 1856), Edinburgh professor, attempted the impossible task of uniting the epistemologies of Reid and Kant (who tried to meet the skepticism of Hume in an entirely different way, by asserting that unity and structure are imposed upon the phenomena of sensation by forms in the mind).威廉汉密尔顿(1791年至1856年),爱丁堡教授,试图在不同的方式不可能完成的任务团结认识论的里德和康德(谁试图在休谟完全满足怀疑的,由主张,团结和结构现象强加给在脑海中所形成的感觉)。 JS Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy administered an empiricist death blow to Scottish Realism.穆勒的考试威廉汉密尔顿爵士的管理经验主义哲学的死亡打击,苏格兰现实主义。Empiricism in Britain and idealism in Germany drove realism from the field.德国的经验主义在英国现实主义和理想主义从外地开车。

The Scottish philosophy, however, had wide and profound effects. Royer - Collard, Cousin, and Jouffroy gave it wide circulation in early nineteenth century France.苏格兰哲学,然而,有广泛而深刻的影响。罗耶-科勒德,表哥,并把它茹弗鲁瓦世纪初法国广泛流通19。Sydney Ahlstrom has shown that it exercised supreme influence over American theological thought in the nineteenth century.悉尼阿尔斯特罗姆表明,19世纪,它行使最高影响力超过美国的神学思想。While it has long been recognized that the conservative Calvinist theologians of Princeton adopted Scottish Realist epistemology wholesale.虽然早已认识到,普林斯顿神学家加尔文采取保守的现实主义认识论苏格兰批发。Ahlstrom demonstrates a less noted fact: moderate Calvinists of Andover, liberals of Yale, and Unitarians of Harvard were also deeply indebted to the same commonsense realism.阿尔斯特罗姆演示了一个没有注意到的事实:温和的加尔文教派的安多弗,自由派的耶鲁,哈佛时代宗教的人也深深感激同一常识的现实主义。 Thus it provided the epistemological structure utilized by both "liberals" and "conservatives" in nineteenth century America.因此,它提供了认识论的结构美双方利用“民主派”和“世纪保守派”在19。

DF Kelly东风凯利
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
T Reid, Works, Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, and Philosophical Orations; SE Ahlstrom, "The Scottish Philosophy and American Theology," CH 24; S Grave, The Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense; R Metz, A Hundred Years of British Philosophy; J McCosh, The Scottish Philosophy; A Seth, Scottish Philosophy; JS Mill, Collected Works, IX. Ŧ里德,工程,文散文智力上的,而哲学演说辞;东南阿尔斯特罗姆说:“苏格兰和美国神学哲学,”星座24;墓,铿锵苏格兰哲学与r梅斯,英国的百年哲学;苏格兰哲学J麦科什的;阿塞思,苏格兰哲学;穆勒,文集,第九。


Scotism and ScotistsScotism和Scotists

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. SCOTISM一SCOTISM

This is the name given to the philosophical and theological system or school named after John Duns Scotus.这是邓司各脱的名字赋予哲学和神学的约翰后,系统或学校命名。It developed out of the Old Franciscan School, to which Haymo of Faversham (d. 1244), Alexander of Hales (d. 1245), John of Rupella (d. 1245), William of Melitora (d. 1260), St. Bonaventure (d. 1274), Cardinal Matthew of Aquasparta (d. 1289), John Pecham (d. 1292), Archbishop of Canterbury, Richard of Middletown (d. about 1300), etc. belonged.它开发出了旧济上学,其中1244 Haymo的法弗舍姆(四),1245亚历山大黑尔斯(草1245)博士,约翰Rupella(),1260威廉Melitora(草),圣文德(草1274),红衣主教1289马修Aquasparta(草),约翰佩彻姆(草1292),)的坎特伯雷大主教理查德米德尔敦(草约1300年,属于等。 This school had at first but few peculiarities; it followed Augustinism (Platonism), which then ruled theology, and which was adopted not only by the Parisian professors belonging to the secular clergy (William of Auvergne, Henry of Ghent, etc.), but also by prominent teachers of the Dominican Order (Roland of Cremona, Robert Fitzacker, Robert of Kilwardby, etc.).这所学校曾在第一,但几个特点,它遵循Augustinism(柏拉图),而当时统治神学,并获得通过(不只是世俗的神职人员在巴黎教授威廉属于奥弗涅,根特的亨利等),但还等突出的教师,多米尼加基尔沃比令(罗兰的克雷莫纳,罗伯特Fitzacker,罗伯特)。 These theologians knew and utilized freely all the writings of Aristotle, but employed the new Peripatetic ideas only in part or in an uncritical fashion, and intermingled with Platonic elements.这些神学家知道所有的自由和利用亚里士多德的著作,但采用的新的巡回想法只是部分或在不加批判的方式,和元素交织与柏拉图。 Albertus Magnus and especially St. Thomas (d. 1274) introduced Aristoteleanism more widely into Scholasticism.特别是大阿尔伯特和圣托马斯(草1274)更广泛地引入到士林Aristoteleanism。The procedure of St. Thomas was regarded as an innovation, and called forth criticism, not only from the Franciscans, but also from the secular doctors and even many Dominicans.圣托马斯程序被视为一个创新,并要求提出的批评,不要只从济会,但也从世俗的医生,甚至许多多米尼加。At this time appeared Scotus, the Doctor Subtilis, and found the ground already cleared for the conflict with the followers of Aquinas.在这个时候出现司各脱,医生枯草,发现地面阿奎那的追随者已经清除抵触的。He made indeed very free use of Aristoteleanism, much freer than his predecessors, but in its employment exercised sharp criticism, and in important points adhered to the teaching of the Older Franciscan School -- especially with regard to the plurality of forms or of souls, the spiritual matter of the angels and of souls, etc., wherein and in other points he combatted energetically St. Thomas.他确实非常免费使用的aristoteleanism,远远比他的前任更自由,但在行使其就业的尖锐批评,并在方济各学校坚持重点旧的教学内容-特别是关于灵魂的形式或多元化,在等事项的精神和灵魂的天使,其中和他对抗通胀在其他点大力圣托马斯。 The Scotism beginning with him, or what is known as the Later Franciscan School, is thus only a continuation or further development of the older school, with a much wider, although not exclusive acceptance of Peripatetic ideas, or with the express and strict challenge of the same (eg the view that matter is the principium individuationis).与他Scotism开始,或者是什么学校后来被称为济,因此,只有继续或年龄较大的学校进一步发展的,具有更为广泛的,虽然不是唯一接受巡回想法,或明确和严格的挑战相同的(例如,认为此事是原理individuationis)。 Concerning the relation of these schools to each other, or the relation of Scotus to Alexander of Hales and St. Bonaventure, consult the work of the Flemish Recollect, M. Hauzeur.关于这些学校的关系,相互关系或向文德司各脱亚历山大的黑尔斯和圣,咨询Hauzeur工作的弗拉芒记得,米。

Concerning the character and teaching of Scotus we have already spoken in the special article, where it was stated that he has been unjustly charged with Indeterminism, excessive Realism, Pantheism, Nestorianism, etc. What has been there said holds good of Scotism in general, the most important doctrines of which were substantially developed by Scotus himself.关于司各脱的性质和教学我们已经一般性发言的专文,其中有人说,他一直在与非决定不公正的指控,过多的现实主义,泛神论,景教等什么一直在那里说,拥有良好的Scotism,最重要的他自己的学说其中司各脱大幅开发。 Little new has been added by the Scotists to the teaching of their master; for the most part, they have merely, in accordance with the different tendencies of the day, restated its fundamental position and defended it.小新已被添加的Scotists到主教学的,在大多数情况下,他们只是按照日常的不同倾向,重申其基本立场,捍卫它。It will be sufficient here to mention two works in which the most important peculiarities of the Scotist theology are briefly set forth and defended -- Johannes de Rada, "Controversiae theol. inter S. Thom. et Scotum" (1598- ); Kilian Kazen berger, "Assertiones centum ad mentem . . . Scoti" (new ed., Quaracehi, 1906).这将足以在这里提一下在这两部作品的Scotist神学最重要的特点进行了简要阐述和捍卫-约翰内斯德拉达“Controversiae theol。除南培养基。等Scotum”(1598 - );基尔安卡齐伯杰,“Assertiones横河CENTUM广告mentem。。。斯科蒂”(新版。,Quaracehi,1906)。Reference may, however, be made to the influence which Scotism exercised on the teaching of the Church (ie on theology).可参考,但必须向神学的影响力,对Scotism行使,即在教学(教会)。It is especially noteworthy that none of the propositions peculiar to Scotus or Scotism has been censured by ecclesiastical authority, while the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception was soon accepted by all schools, orders, and theologians outside the Dominican Order, and was raised to a dogma by Pius IX.这是特别值得注意的是,Scotism没有一个特有的主张司各脱或已被当局谴责了教会,而观学说的圣母很快就接受了所有学校的订单,以及订单的神学家以外的多米尼加,并提高到一个教条比约九。 The definition of the Council of Vienne of 1311 that all were to be regarded as heretics who declared "quod anima rationalis . . . non sit forma corporis humani per se et essentialiter" (the rational soul is not per se and essentially the form of the human body), was directed, not against the Scotist doctrine of the forma corporeitatis, but only against the erroneous view of Olivius; it is even more probable that the Scotists of the day suggested the passing of the Decree and formulated it (see B. Jansen, loc. cit., 289 sqq., 471 sqq.).在1311年定义的维埃纳省议会,所有的人被视为异端,谁申报“狴灵魂rationalis。。。非坐在预计corporis humani本身等essentialiter”(即理性的灵魂本身并没有本质上的形式人体),是针对,不反对预计corporeitatis Scotist学说的,但只有反对Olivius错误观点,它更可能是这一天的Scotists的建议通过的法令,制定它(见B.扬森,同上。前。,289时12 sqq。,471时12 sqq。)。

Nominalism is older than Scotus, but its revival in Occamism may be traced to the one-sided exaggeration of some propositions of Scotus.唯名是年龄比司各脱,但其Occamism复兴可追溯到约命题的司各脱一夸大片面的。The Scotist Formalism is the direct opposite of Nominalism, and the Scotists were at one with the Thomists in combatting the latter; Occam himself (d. about 1347) was a bitter opponent of Scotus.形式主义的Scotist是直接相反的唯名,而后者的Scotists是在打击之一,Thomists;奥卡姆本人(草约1347)是一个痛苦的对手司各脱。 The Council of Trent defined as dogma a series of doctrines especially emphasized by the Scotists (eg freedom of the will, free co-operation with grace, meritoriousness of good works, the causality of the sacraments ex opere operato, the effect of absolution).在安理会的遄达教条定义为一系列理论所强调的,特别是优雅的Scotists(例如自由将合作与自由,工作体面的好,赦免因果关系的opere圣礼前operato,该效应)。 In other points the canons were intentionally so framed that they do not affect Scotism (eg that the first man was constitutus in holiness and justice).在其他各点的大炮是故意这样措辞,他们不会影响Scotism(例如,第一个男子在圣洁和公义constitutus)。 This was also done at the Vatican Council.这也是做在梵蒂冈理事会。In the Thomistic-Molinistic controversy concerning the foreknowledge of God, predestination, the relation of grace to free will, the Scotists took little part.在托马斯主义,Molinistic神的预知有关的争议,宿命,宽限期,以自由意志的关系,小部分的Scotists了。 They either supported one of the parties, or took up a middle position, rejecting both the predetermination of the Thomists and the scientia media of the Molinists.他们要么支持的政党之一的,或拿起一个中间立场,拒绝都预先确定的Thomists和Molinists的物理学媒体。 God recognizes the free future acts in His essence, and provides a free decree of His will, which does not predetermine our free will, but only accompanies it.上帝承认在他的本质自由的未来行为,并提供了他的意志自由的法令,它不预先确定我们的自由意志,但只有伴随着它。

Jesuit philosophers and theologians adopted a series of the Scotist propositions.耶稣会的哲学家和神学家采取了一系列的Scotist主张。Later authorities reject in part many of these propositions and partly accept them, or at least do not directly oppose them.后来当局拒绝部分主张许多这些,部分接受,或至少没有直接反对。This refers mostly to doctrines touching the deepest philosophical and theologieal questions, on which a completely certain judgment is difficult to obtain.这主要是指触及最深的哲学学说和theologieal问题,更是一个完全肯定的判断是很难获得。The following are generally rejected: formalism with the distinctio formalis, the spiritual matter of angels and of the soul, the view that the metaphysical essence of God consists in radical infinity, that the relationes trinitariae are not a perfection simpliciter simplex; that the Holy Ghost would be a distinct Person from the Son, even though He proceeded from the Father alone; that the angels can naturaliter know the secreta cordium (secret thoughts); that the soul of Christ is formally holy and impeccable, not by the very fact of the hypostatic union, but through another gratia creata (the visio beatifica); that the merits of Christ are not simpliciter et intrinsece, but only extrinsece and secundum quid, infinite; that there are indifferent acts in individuo; that the gratia sanctificans and the charitas habitualis are the same habitus; that circumcision is a sacrament in the strict sense; that transubstantiation makes the Body of Christ present per modum adductionis, etc. Another series of propositions was misunderstood even by Catholie theologians, and then in this false sense rightly rejected -- eg the doctrine of the univocatio entis, of the acceptation of the merits of Christ and man, etc. Of the propositions which have been accepted or at least favourably treated by a large number of scholars, we may mention: the Scotist view of the relation between essentia and existentia; that between ens and nihil the distance is not infinite but only as great as the reality that the particular ens possesses; that the accidens as such also possesses a separate existence (eg the accidentia of bread and wine in the Eucharist); that not only God, but also man can produce an esse simpliciter (eg man by generation); haecceitas as the principium individuationis.以下是一般拒绝:formalis形式主义与distinctio,在物质和精神的天使的灵魂,是形而上学的观点,即上帝的无限本质在于激进,认为relationes trinitariae不是一个单纯擅用完美,这圣灵将是一个独特的人的儿子,尽管他从父亲单独进行,这是天使可以naturaliter知道分泌物cordium(秘密的想法);,基督灵魂是神圣和完美正式的,而不是事实的非常本质的联盟,而是通过另一种特惠克雷娅察(在Visio beatifica),那基督的优点是不擅用等intrinsece,但只有extrinsece和孔型槟榔,无限的,并在individuo漠不关心的行为;的特惠sanctificans和charitas habitualis是相同的习性,这割礼是一个严格意义上的圣礼,这使得质变莫杜基督身体的每本adductionis等一系列的另一个命题被误解甚至Catholie神学家,然后在这个意义上虚假理所当然地拒绝了-例如恩蒂斯学说的univocatio,验收的关系在对案情的看法和基督的人Scotist等的命题已被接受或积极治疗至少大批学者:我们可能会提到之间essentia和existentia;护士和nihil之间的距离不是无限的,但只是作为具有巨大的现实,尤其是护士,这是accidens这样还拥有一个单独的存在(如圣体accidentia的面包和酒) ,这不仅是上帝,但也能产生一个埃塞人擅用(如代人所); individuationis haecceitas的原理。Also many propositions from psychology: eg that the powers of the soul are not merely accidents even natural and necessary of the soul, that they are not really distinct from the substance of the soul or from one another; that sense perception is not purely passive; that the intellect can recognize the singular directly, not merely indirectly; that the soul separated from the body forms its knowledge from things themselves, not merely from the ideas which it has acquired through life or which God infuses into it; that the soul is not united with the body for the purpose of acquiring knowledge through the senses but for the purpose of forming with it a new species, ie human nature; that the moral virtues are not necessarily inter se connexae, etc. Also many propositions concerning the doctrine of the angels: eg that the angels can be numerically distinct from one another, and therefore several angels can belong to the same species; that it is not merely through their activity or the application of their powers that angels can be in a given place; that they cannot go from place to place without having to traverse the intermediate space; that they do not acquire all natural knowledge from infused ideas only, but also through contemplation of things themselves; that their will must not necessarily will good or evil, according as it has once decided.从心理学也有许多主张:例如,灵魂的权力,不只是意外甚至自然和灵魂的必要的,他们是不是真正从一个互有区别的实质或灵魂,这不是单纯意义上的看法是消极的;可以说,理智的奇异直接承认,而不仅仅是间接,这灵魂脱离身体形成了事物的知识,从自身,而不是仅仅从它的想法,它已收购或通过生活注入到神,这是不是灵魂团结的;性质的机构,目的是为了通过获取知识的感觉,但人类的形成与它的目的的一个新种,即认为道德美德不一定相互connexae等又在许多有关的命题原则天使:天使如该数值可以从另一个截然不同之一,因此几个天使可以属于同一物种,这不仅是权力,通过他们的活动或他们的应用是天使可以在一个特定的地方,他们不能从一个地方到地方,而不必遍历中间的空间,他们不掌握还事物本身通过沉思的所有自然知识的灌输,但想法只,而他们的意愿必须不一定会好或邪恶的,根据它已一旦决定。 Furthermore, that Adam in the state of innocence could sin venially; that mortal sin, as an offence against God, is not intrinsically and simpliciter, but only extrinsically infinite; that Christ would have become man, even if Adam had not sinned; that the human nature of Christ had its proper created existence; that in Christ there were two filiationes, or sonships, a human and a Divine; that the sacraments have only moral causality; that, formally and in the last analysis, heavenly bappiness consists not in the visio Dei, but in the fruitio; that in hell venial sin is not punished with everlasting punishment; etc.此外,这一天真亚当在国家可以罪venially,这弥天大罪的罪行,作为对上帝,没有本质和擅用,但只有外在无限的,这会成为基督的人,即使亚当没有犯过罪,这是基督的人性的存在有其适当的创造,这在基督里有两个filiationes,或sonships,人类和神圣,这圣礼只有道义上的因果关系,这正式并在最后的分析,天上bappiness包括未在Visio中棣,但在fruitio,这在地狱venial罪孽不是惩罚的惩罚与永恒的,等等

Scotism thus exercised also positively a wholesome influence on the development of philosophy and theology; its importance is not, as is often asserted, purely negative -- that is, it does not consist only in the fact that it exercised a wholesome criticism on St. Thomas and his school, and thus preserved science from stagnation.因此,行使Scotism还积极健康的影响和神学一个哲学上的发展,它的重要性,并非如通常所称的,纯粹的消极-也就是说,它并不仅仅在于它行使的事实,对健康的批评圣托马斯和他的学校,因此从科学保存停滞。 A comparison of the Scotist teaching with that of St. Thomas has been often attempted -- for example, in the abovementioned work of Hauzeur at the end of the first volume; by Sarnano, "Conciliatio omnium controversiarum etc."一个比较圣托马斯认为Scotist教学,目前已有往往试图-例如为,上述工作在Hauzeur年底由第一册;萨尔纳诺在“Conciliatio奥尼厄姆普controversiarum等等” (1589- ).(1589 - )。 It may be admitted that in many cases the difference is rather in the terminology, or that a reconciliation is possible, if one emphasize certain parts of Scotus or St. Thomas, and pass over or tone down others. However, in not a few points the contradiction still remains.这可能是承认,在很多情况下是相当差的术语,或者说一个和解是可能的,如果强调圣托马斯司各脱或某些地区,并越过或淡化等。然而,在不少问题矛盾依然存在。 Generally speaking, Scotism found its supporters within the Franciscan Order; certainly, opposition to the Dominicans, ie to St. Thomas, made many members of the order disciples of Scotus.一般而言,Scotism发现其支持者在济秩序的;当然,反对的多米尼加人,即圣托马斯,由该命令弟子司各脱许多成员。 However, this does not mean that the foundation and development of Scotism is to be referred to the rivalry existing between the two orders.但是,这并不意味着发展的基础和Scotism是交由争夺订单两国业已存在的。Even Aquinas found at first not a few opponents in his order, nor did all his fellow-Dominicans follow him in every particular (eg Durandus of St. Pourçain, d. 1332).即使阿奎那第一次发现在他的命令没有几个对手,也没有他的所有同胞多米尼加跟随)他在每一个特定的(四如Durandus圣Pourçain,1332。 The Scotist doctrines were also supported by many Minorites, of whose purity of purpose there can be no doubt, and of whom many have been included in the catalogue of saints and beati (eg Sts. Bernardine, John Capistran, Jacob of the March, Angelus of Chiavasso, etc.).该Scotist理论也支持许多少数民族,纯度的,其目的就不可能有任何怀疑,其中许多已被列入在册部落和目录的圣人如贝亚蒂(。伯纳迪恩,约翰Capistran,三钟经雅各的3月,对Chiavasso等)。 Furthermore, Scotism found not a few supporters among secular professors and in other religious orders (eg the Augustinians, Servites, etc.), especially in England, Ireland, and Spain.此外,Scotism发现不是,和西班牙的一些支持者之间的世俗教授和其他宗教命令(如奥古斯丁,Servites爱尔兰等),特别是在英国。 On the other hand, not all the Minorites were Scotists.另一方面,不是所有的少数人被Scotists。Many attached themselves to St. Bonaventure, or favoured an eclecticism from Scotus, St. Thomas, St. Bonaventure, etc. The Conventuals seem to have adhered most faithfully to Scotus, particularly at the University of Padua, where many highly esteemed teachers lectured.许多重视自己圣文德,或赞成1的Conventuals折衷主义从司各脱,圣托马斯,圣文德,等似乎最忠实地遵守司各脱讲课,特别是在帕多瓦大学的教师,有许多高度尊敬。 Scotism found least support among the Capuchins, who preferred St. Bonaventure. Scotism发现至少文德支持Capuchins之间,谁喜欢圣。Besides Scotus, the order had other highly-prized teachers, such as Alexander of Hales, Richard of Middleton, and especially St. Bonaventure (proclaimed Doctor ecclesia by Sixtus V in 1587), the ascetico-mystical trend of whose theology was more suited to wide circles in the order than the critical, dispassionate, and often abstruse teaching of the Subtle Doctor.此外司各脱,该命令有其他令人向往的教师在1587年,五,如亚历山大黑尔斯理查德米德尔顿,尤其是圣文德埃克尔西亚(医生宣布由西斯)中,更适合ascetico神秘主义的趋势,其神学为了在较广泛的各界的关键,冷静,常常深奥博士教学的微妙。 In Spain the martyred tertiary, Blessed Raymund Lullus (d. 1315), also had many friends.在西班牙的烈属,大专,有福瑞慕容Lullus(草1315),也有很多朋友。It may be said that the whole order as such never had a uniform and special school of Scotists; the teachers, preachers, etc. were never compelled to espouse Scotism.可以说,整个秩序,这种从未有过一所特殊学校的Scotists统一和,教师,传教士等,从来没有被迫拥护Scotism。 His disciples did indeed call Scotus "Doctor noster", "Doctor (vel Magister) Ordinis", but even among these many partly followed their own course (eg Petrus Aureolus), while Walter Burleigh (Burlaeus, d. about 1340) and still more so Occam were opponents of Scotus. It is only at the end of the fifteenth or the beginning of the sixteenth century that a special Scotist School can be spoken of.他的弟子确实呼吁司各脱“医生诺斯特”,“博士(韦尔马吉斯特)Ordinis”,但其中许多部分甚至按照自己的课程(如佩特鲁斯Aureolus),而沃尔特伯利(Burlaeus,草约1340年),更所以奥卡姆被对手司各脱的。它是只在15月底或交谈开始的16世纪,一个特殊的Scotist学校都可以。 The works of the master were then collected, brought out in many editions, commentated, etc. Since 1501 we also find numerous regulations of general chapters recommending or directly prescribing Scotism as the teaching of the order, although St. Bonaventure's writings were also to a great extent admitted (ef. Marian Fernández Garcia, "Lexicon scholasticum etc.", Quaracchi, 1910; "B. Joan. Duns Scoti: De rerum principio etc.", Quaracchi, 1910, preface article 3, nn. 46 sqq., where many regulations of 1501-1907 are given).主人的作品当时收集,带出许多版本,解说,1501等由于我们也发现许多章节规定的一般或直接推荐处方为Scotism作为教学的,虽然圣文德的著作也为大程度上承认(ef.玛丽安费尔南德斯加西亚“等词汇scholasticum”,Quaracchi,1910年,“二琼。邓斯科蒂:德rerum普林奇皮奥等”,Quaracchi,1910年,序言第3条,神经网络。46时12 sqq。,其中的许多法规给予1901至07年)。Scotism appears to have attained its greatest popularity at the beginning of the seventeenth century; during the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries we even find special Scotist chairs, eg at Paris, Rome, Coimbra, Salamanca, Alcalá, Padua, and Pavia. Scotism似乎已达到了17世纪最伟大的流行开始时,在16和17世纪,我们甚至找到特别Scotist椅子,Eg位于巴黎,罗马,科英布拉,萨拉曼卡,阿尔卡拉,帕多瓦和帕维亚。 In the eighteenth century it had still an important following, but in the nineteenth it suffered a great decline.在18世纪,它仍然是一个重要的有以下,但它在19一落千丈。One of the reasons for this was the repeated suppressions of the order in almost every country, while the recommendation of the teaching of St. Thomas by several popes could not be favourable to Scotism. It has even been asserted that it is now merely tolerated; but this statement is a priori improbable in regard to a school of which not a single proposition has been censured, and to which so many highly venerated men (bishops, cardinals, popes, and saints) have belonged; and it is still less probable in view of the approval of the various general statutes (repeated so often down to the present day), in which Scotism is at least recommended. Scotism一个有利的原因一再打压,这是在该命令的托马斯几乎每一个国家,而对教学的建议由几个教皇圣无法。有人甚至断言,它现在仅仅是不能容忍的;但这种说法是不可能的先验有关这方面的指责学校,其中没有一个命题一直以来,以如此众多的高度尊敬的男性(主教,枢机主教,教皇,和圣人)均是和它更可能是在至少批准,各一天)一般法规(重复经常下降到目前的中Scotism是鉴于建议。 In their Decrees Leo XIII and Pius X have recommended not alone St. Thomas, but also Scholasticism in general, and this includes also the Scotist School.在他们的法令利奥十三世和庇护X中建议不要单独圣托马斯,而且士林一般,这也包括Scotist学校。In 1897 Leo XIII approved the "Constitutiones Generales Fratrum Minorum", of which article 245 prescribes for the members of the order: "In doctrinis philosophicis et theologicis antiqae scholae Franciscanae inhaerere studeant, quin tamen ceteros scholasticos negligant" (In philosophical and theological doctrine they shall take care to follow the ancient Franciscan School, without, however, neglecting the other Schoolmen.) On 11 April, 1904, in a letter to the Minister General, Father Dionysius Schuler, Pius X expressed his pleasure at the revival of studies in the order in connexion with the Franciscan schools of the Middle Ages, and on 19 June, 1908, in a letter to the abovementioned Father Marian, praised his book, "Mentis in Deum quotidiana elevatio duce B. Joanne Duns Scoto etc." 1897年批准的利奥十三世在“Constitutiones Generales Fratrum Minorum”,其中第245条规定的顺序为成员:“在doctrinis philosophicis等theologicis antiqae scholae Franciscanae inhaerere studeant,奎恩塔门ceteros scholasticos negligant”(在他们的哲学和神学教义应注意遵循古方济各学校,但不忽略其他院哲学。4月)11,1904年,一信向部长表示一般,父亲狄奥尼舒勒,比约X在研究中,他很高兴在复苏为了在Connexion公司与中世纪方济各学校,并于1908年6月19日玛丽安,在父亲的信,展翅称赞他的书“等门蒂斯在谢恩赞美歌quotidiana elevatio达斯乙乔安妮邓斯科托”(Quaracehi, 1907. See Marian, op. cit., n. 66.)(Quaracehi,1907年。见玛丽安,同前。前。,注66。)

II.二。ScotistsScotists

Most Scotists are both philosophers and theologians.大多数Scotists都是哲学家和神学家。

Fourteenth Century14世纪

Pupils of Scotus: Francis Mayron (d. 1327), a very fruitful writer, who introduced the actus sorbonicus into the University of Paris, ie the uninterrupted disputation lasting the whole day.小学生的司各脱:弗朗西斯Mayron(草1327),一个非常富有成果的作家,谁介绍了巴黎大学而犯罪的sorbonicus进入,即不间断的争论持续了一整天。 Petrus Aureolus (d. about 1322), Archbishop of Aix.佩特鲁斯Aureolus(草约1322),艾克斯大主教。William de Rubione (about 1333).威廉德Rubione(约1333)。Jerome de Atharia, Order of the Blessed Trinity (about 1323).杰罗姆德Atharia)订购的祝福三一(约1323。Antonius Andreae (d. about 1320) from Aragon, a true disciple of Scotus, who is said to have written several treatises attributed to the master.安东尼Andreae(草约1320)由阿拉贡,一个真正的大师弟子司各脱,谁据说已写了一些论文归功于。John de Bassolis (d. about 1347).约翰德Bassolis(草约1347)。Alvarus Pelagius (d. about 1350).Alvarus贝拉基(草约1350年)。Bishop Petrus de Aquila (d. 1371), called Scotellus from his faithful adherence to Scotus, of whose teaching he issued a compendium (new ed., Levanti, 1907-).主教佩特鲁斯德雕(草1371),所谓Scotellus从他的忠实遵守司各脱,他发表了他的教学简编(新版。,莱文蒂,1907年- )。Landulf Caraccioli (d. 1351), Archbishop of Amalfi. Landulf卡拉乔利(草1351),阿马尔菲大主教。Nicolaus Bonet (Bovet), who went to Peking and died as Bishop of Malta in 1360; John Bacon, Carmelite (d. 1346).Nicolaus的博内(博韦),谁去北京和死亡主教马耳他在1360;约翰培根,加尔默罗(草1346)。

Fifteenth Century15世纪

William Butler (d. 1410).威廉巴特勒(草1410)。Petrus de Candia (d. 1410 as Pope Alexander V). Nicolaus de Orbellis (d. about 1465), who wrote a commentary on the Sentences (many editions) William Vorilong (Vorlion etc., d. 1464), a celebrated theologian, who wrote a frequently quoted "Comm. super Sentent.", but who also followed St. Bonaventure.佩特鲁斯德坎地亚(草1410年为教皇亚历山大五)。Nicolaus的德Orbellis(草约1465),谁写了一个神学家评注句(许多版本)威廉Vorilong(Vorlion等四1464),著名的,谁写了经常引述“通讯。超级Sentent。”,但谁也跟着圣文德。 Angelus Serpetri, General of the Order (d. 1454). William Gorris (about 1480), not a Franciscan, who composed the "Scotus pauperum".安格卢斯Serpetri,不是一般的命令(四1454)。威廉Gorris(约1480),方济各,谁组成的“司各脱贫民”。 Blessed Angelus of Chivasso (d. 1495), whose "Summa" (called Angelica) is extant in about thirty editions and contains a great deal of Scotist doctrine; it was publicly burned by Luther with the "Corpus juris canonici" in 1520.有福安格卢斯的基瓦索(草1495),他的“总结”(简称当归)是现存的大约30版,并包含一个很大的Scotist学说,它是公开烧毁路德的“法典canonici”于1520年。 Antonius Sirretus (Sirectus, d. about 1490), famous for his "Formalitates", to whieb several later Scotists wrote commentaries.安东尼Sirretus(Sirectus,四约1490),Scotists有名的“Formalitates”,以whieb几个后来写道评论。 Tartaretus (about 1495), rector of the University of Paris, and not a Franciscan; Elector Frederick III of Saxony had his philosophical commentaries introduced into the University of Wittenberg at his expense. Tartaretus(约1495),巴黎大学的校长,而不是济;萨克森选腓特烈三世在他牺牲了他的哲学介绍到评论维滕贝格大学。Thomas Pencket, Augustinian (d. 1487), knew Scotus almost by heart, and edited his works.托马斯Pencket,奥古斯丁(草1487),知道心脏几乎司各脱,和编辑他的作品。Francis Sampson, General of the Order (d. 1491), was called by Pope Sixtus IV, before whom he held a disputation, the most learned of all.弗朗西斯桑普森,1491年总的订单(草),由教皇西斯都被称为第四,在他所举行的争论中,几乎所有获悉。Francis de Rovere (d. 1484 as Sixtus IV), who defended in a disputation before Pius II and also in his writings the doctrine that the blood shed by Christ on the Cross was released from the hypostatic union.弗朗西斯德罗韦雷(四四为西斯1484),谁在第二争论辩护前庇护,并在他的著作的理论,血液流在十字架上的基督释放了工会的本质的。 Stephen Brulefer (d. about 1499), renowned professor in Paris and later a Franciscan, who wrote "Comm. in Bonavent. et Scotum" (often edited).斯蒂芬Brulefer(草约1499年),在巴黎著名的教授,后来成为方济,谁写道:“通讯。在博纳旺。等Scotum”(通常编辑)。

Sixteenth Century16世纪

This period is very rich in names.这个时期是非常丰富的名字。The following may be mentioned: Paul Scriptoris (d. 1505), professor at the University of Tübingen, who had as students all the other professors and many other members of religious orders. Nicholas de Nüsse (d. 1509).以下可能会提到:保罗Scriptoris(草1505),)教授在1509年的图宾根大学博士,曾作为学生谁所有其他成员和其他许多教授的宗教命令。尼古拉斯德努瑟(。 Mauritius a Portu (d. 1513 as Archbishop of Tuam, Ireland), who wrote a commentary on many works of Scotus.毛里求斯一Portu(草1513年的爱尔兰大主教蒂厄姆),谁写的司各脱一许多作品评注。Francis Lichetus, General of the Order (d. 1520).弗朗西斯Lichetus)总订单(草1520。Anthony Trombetta, Archbishop of Athens (d. 1518), who wrote and edited able Scotist works.安东尼特朗贝塔,1518雅典大主教(草),谁写和编辑能够Scotist工程。Philip Varagius (about 1510). Johannes de Monte (about 1510).菲利普Varagius(约1510)。约翰内斯去蒙特卡罗(约1510)。Gometius of Lisbon (d. 1513), re-edited the often issued fourteenth-century "Summa Astesana".1513 Gometius里斯本(草),重新编辑了经常发出14世纪“总结Astesana”。Frizzoli (d. 1520).弗里佐利(草1520)。James Almainus (about 1520), Parisian magister and not a Franciscan, favoured Gallicanism.詹姆斯Almainus(约1520),巴黎马吉斯特而不是济,赞成Gallicanism。Antonius de Fantes, physician, composed in 1530 a Scotus lexicon. Jerome Cadius (d. 1529).安东尼德凡特斯,医师,1530年组成的一个司各脱词典。杰罗姆Cadius(死于1529年)。Le Bret (about 1527), wrote "Parvus Scotus".勒布雷(约1527),写了“帕尔武斯司各脱”。Paduanus Barletta (about 1545). Paduanus巴列塔(约1545)。James Bargius (about 1560).詹姆斯Bargius(约1560)。Johannes Dovetus, who wrote in 1579 "Monotesseron formalitatum Scoti, Sieretti, Trombettae et Bruliferi". Joseph Angles, bishop and celebrated moralist (d. 1587), wrote the often edited "Flores theol.".约翰内斯Dovetus,谁在1579年写道:“Monotesseron formalitatum斯科蒂,Sieretti,Trombettae等Bruliferi”。约瑟夫角,主教和庆祝卫道士(草1587),写了经常编辑“弗洛雷斯theol。”。 Damian Giner issued the "Opus Oxoniense Scoti" in a more convenient form (1598).达米安希内尔发表了“一部Oxoniense斯科蒂”在一个更方便的形式(1598年)。Cardinal Sarnanus (d. 1595), a highly distinguished scholar, wrote a commentary on some philosophical works of Scotus, and edited the works of many Scotists.红衣主教Sarnanus(草1595),一个非常杰出的学者,写了司各脱评论对一些哲学著作,并编辑了许多Scotists工程。 Salvator Bartolucci (about 1586), also a zealous editor.萨尔瓦托尔伯图鲁斯(约1586),也有热心的编辑器。Felix Perettus (d. 1590 as Sixtus V).费利克斯Perettus(草作为西斯V 1590年)。

Seventeenth Century17世纪

Of very many names we may mention: Gothutius (about 1605).其中很多名字我们可能会提到:Gothutius(约1605)。Guido Bartholucci (about 1610).圭多Bartholucci(约1610)。Petrus Bonaventura (about 1607).佩特鲁斯波纳文图拉(约1607)。Ruitz (about 1613) Smissing (d. 1626).Ruitz(约1613)Smissing(草1626)。Philip Faber (d. 1630).菲利普法贝尔(草1630)。Albergonius, bishop (d. 1636). Albergonius,主教(死于1636年)。Centini, bishop (d. 1640).琴蒂尼,主教(草1640)。Matthaus de Sousa (about 1629).马特乌斯德索萨(约1629)。Merinero, bishop (about 1663). Francis Felix (about 1642).梅里内罗,主教(约1663)。弗朗西斯菲利克斯(约1642)。Vulpes (d. 1647) wrote "Summa" and "Commen. theologiae Scoti" in twelve folio volumes.武尔佩斯(草1647)写道:“总结”和“提出相应。theologiae斯科蒂”的12开本册。Blondus, bishop (d. 1644) - Gavatius, archbishop (d. 1658).Blondus,主教(草1644) - Gavatius,大主教(草1658)。 Wadding (d. 1657), a well-known annalist, edited with other Irishmen in the College of S. Isidore at Rome the complete works of Scotus (12 vols., Lyons, 1639), with the commentaries of Pitigianus of Arezzo (d. 1616), Poncius (d. 1660), Mauritius a Portu (Mac Caughwell), Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland (d. 1626), and Anthony Illckey (d. 1641); reprinted Paris, 1891-95.填料(草1657),著名的编年史,编辑罗马南伊西多尔在与其他学院爱尔兰人在一个良好的工程司各脱完成(12卷。,里昂,1639年),与阿雷佐的Pitigianus评述,(四。1616),Poncius(草1660),毛里求斯一Portu(苹果Caughwell),1626阿马大主教D.和灵长类动物的爱尔兰(),和安东尼Illckey(草1641);转载巴黎,1891年至1895年。 Bricemo, named on account of his keenness of intellect the Second Scotus, Bishop of Venezuela (d. 1667). Bricemo,(命名为委内瑞拉帐户的锋利,他的智力第二司各脱,主教四1667)。Belluti (d. 1676), edited with Mastrius a highly prized "Philosophia ad mentem Scoti" (many editions). Belluti(草1676),斯科蒂编辑与Mastrius一个珍贵“睿哲广告mentem”(许多版本)。Mastrius himself (d. 1673) wrote a celebrated "Disputationes theol."Mastrius自己(草1673)写了著名的“Disputationes theol。”(many editions) and "Theologia ad mentem Scoti" (1671, etc.). (许多版本)和“神学广告mentem斯科蒂”(1671,等)。Ferchius (d. 1666) wrote "Vita et apologia Scoti, etc."Ferchius(草1666)写道:“维塔等辩解斯科蒂,等等”Bruodinus (d. 1664). Bruodinus(草1664)。Herinckx (d. 1678), Bishop of Ypres. Stümel (d. 1681 at Fulda). Herinckx(草1678),主教伊普尔。Stümel(四富尔达在1681年)。Boivin, highly esteemed philosopher and theologian (several editions of works, 1678, etc.) Sannig (about 1690).博伊文,高度评价哲学家和神学家(等几个版本的作品,1678年)Sannig(约1690)。Lambrecht (about 1696), named the Viennese Scotus.兰布雷得勒支(约1696),命名为维也纳司各脱。Bishop Gennari (d. 1684).主教真纳(草1684)。Cardinal Brar `catius (d. 1693), held in high favour by several popes.红衣主教布拉尔`catius(草1693),赞成举行高几个教皇。 Hernandez (d. 1695).-Macedo (d. 1681), a Portuguese, professor at Padua is said to have composed over one hundred writings and was renowned for his public disputations.埃尔南德斯(草1695).-马塞(草1681),葡萄牙,帕多瓦教授组成,据说有超过100的著作,是他的公共disputations闻名。

Eighteenth Century18世纪

Frassen (d. 1711) was for thirty years a celebrated professor at the Sorbonne and wrote "Scotus academicus seu universa theo Scoti" (many editions, 1672, etc.; last ed., Rome 1900- ), a very profound and lucid work. Frassen(草1711)30年是一个著名的索邦大学教授,并写下了“司各脱academicus东南大学universa西奥斯科蒂”(许多版本,1672等;最后版。,罗马1900年- ),一个非常深刻和清晰的工作。Du randus (d. 1720) wrote the great "Clypeus scotisticus (many editions). Dupasquier, "Summa phil." an "Summa theol." (about 1720; many editions). Hieronymus a Montefortino "Duns Scoti Summ.杜randus(草1720)写了伟大的“唇基scotisticus(许多版本)。杜帕斯奎尔,”总结菲尔。“一”总结theol。“(约1720年,许多版本)。海欧纳莫斯1蒙特福尔蒂诺”邓斯科蒂萨姆。 theol.theol。ex universis opp.当然universis奥普。eius .eius。..juxta ordiner Summæ Angelici Doctoris" (6 vols., 1728-34; new ed., Rome, 1900-03), a very able work. Panger (d 1732 at Augsburg), Scotist moralist. Kikh (d. 1769 at Munich), Scotist dogmatic theologian. Pérez López (d. 1724). Krisper (d. 1749). Hermann, Abbot of St. Trudbert, "Theologia sec.旁体ordiner Summæ Angelici Doctoris“(6卷。,1728年至1734年,新的海关。,罗马,1900年至03年),一个非常能干的工作。Panger(四在奥格斯堡1732),Scotist道德。Kikh(逝世于慕尼黑1769) ,Scotist教条式的神学家。佩雷斯洛佩斯(草1724)。克里斯佩尔(草1749)。赫尔曼,Trudbert住持圣,“神学秒。Scoti principia" (1720). Melgaco (1747). Bishop Sarmentero (d. 1775).斯科蒂原理“(1720)。梅尔加索(1747)。主教Sarmentero(草1775)。

Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries19世纪和20世纪

In the nineteenth century, although Scotism was retained in the schools of the Franciscan Order in accordance with the statutes, we meet but few tractates secundum mentem Scoti, in any case no celebrated ones.在19世纪,虽然Scotism是留存在章程,按照学校的济秩序,我们开会但很少tractates孔型mentem斯科蒂情况下,没有任何庆祝的。 The twentieth century appears to promise better.在20世纪出现的承诺更好。Father Fernández, a Spaniards, is a zealous Scotist. Beside the abovementioned writings, he has written a large "Scotus Lexicon", and is at present (1911) issuing new edition of Scotus's "Comment. in Sentent.' Another zealous worker is Father Deodat-Marie de Basley; his fortnightly journal, "La bonne parole" (now entitled "Revue Duns Scot."), contains much Scotistica. He is also engaged on the "Capitali opera B. Joan.父亲费尔南德斯,一个西班牙人,是一个热心的Scotist著作。除了上述的,他写了一大“司各脱词典”,是目前(1911年)发行“评论新版本的司各脱的。在Sentent。'另一个热心的工人是父亲德奥达-玛丽德巴斯利,他的双周刊杂志,“拉博讷假释”(现名为“歌剧邓苏格兰人。”),含有大量Scotistica。琼,他也参与了“资本充足歌剧二。 Duns Scoti" (Le Havre, 1908) of which the "Praeparatio philosophica" and "Synthesis theologica credendorum" have already appeared. Father Parthenius Minges has explained and defended much of the Scotist doctrine in his "Compend.邓斯科蒂“(勒阿弗尔,1908年),其中的”Praeparatio philosophica“和”神学credendorum合成“已经出现。父Parthenius明杰斯解释和辩护提要许多他的”Scotist学说研究。 theolog.theolog。dogmat. specialis et generalis" (Munich, 1901-02), and in a number of other works. dogmat。特别等知通“(慕尼黑,01年至1902年),并在一些其他的作品。

Publication information Written by Parthenius Minges.出版信息明杰斯写Parthenius。Transcribed by Kevin Cawley. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.转录由凯文考利。天主教百科全书,卷十三。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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