Sect, Sectarianism

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(Lat. secta, "party, school, faction," perhaps deriving from the past participle either of secare, "to cut, to separate," or of sequi, "to follow").(Lat. secta,“党,学校,派,”也许secare源于任过去分词,“切割,分离,”或塞奎,“跟踪”)。A group whose identity partially consists of belonging to a larger social body, typically a religious body.A组的组成部分,其身份属于一个更大的社会团体,通常是一个宗教组织。The sect's identity is further derived from its principal leader or from a distinctive teaching or practice.该教派的身份是进一步从它的主要领导人或从一个独特的教学或实践。The term has regularly been applied to groups that break away from existing religious bodies, such as the early Christians who separated from Judaism or the Protestants who separated from Roman Catholicism.这个词经常被应用到群体摆脱现有的宗教团体,如罗马天主教从早期基督徒谁离不开谁或犹太教分离新教徒。 The term has also been applied to such groups as maintain their identity without separating from the larger religious body, for example, the Pharisees among the Jews or the Puritans in the Church of England.这个词也被应用到组等维持宗教机构的更大的身份没有分开,例如,英国的法利教会之间的犹太人或清教徒。In the broadest sense even an unorganized popular religious movement can be called a sect.从广义上讲,甚至是无组织的民间宗教运动可以被称为一个教派。Occasionally some condemnation or criticism of the group so named may be implied.偶尔有一些批评,谴责或命名组,以便对可能暗示。

"Sectarianism" in a narrow sense denotes zeal for, or attachment to, a sect. “宗派主义”的,一个教派在狭义上指的热情,或附件。Likewise, it connotes an excessively zealous and doctrinaire narrow - mindedness that would quickly judge and condemn those who disagree.同样,它意味着一个过分热心的和教条的狭隘-意识,以便迅速判断和谴责那些谁不同意。In a broader sense, however, "sectarianism" denotes the historical process by which all the divisions in major world religions have come about.在更广泛的意义上说,但是,“宗派主义”是指历史过程,所有的世界主要宗教部门来约。In the history of Christianity, for example, sectarianism is a prevalent theme from the Judaizers and Nicolaitans of the NT to the many new denominations emerging in recent times.在基督教历史上的例子,因为,宗派主义是近年流行的时代主题,从Judaizers和尼哥拉一党人的NT以新兴教派的许多新的。

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Sociologists of religion have appropriated the term "sect" as a label for a specific type of religious movement.对挪用的宗教社会学家将“教派的宗教运动”作为一个特定类型的标签。In the typology of religious movements that has developed from the pioneering work of Ernst Troeltsch, the sect is a formally organized religious body that arises in protest against and competition with the pervasive religion of a society.在特勒尔奇类型安永会计师事务所对宗教工作的开拓性运动,已经从,该教派的宗教是一个正式组织,社会团体,抗议一出现,竞争的宗教与普及。

The pervasive religion, whether Jewish, Islamic, or Christian, is classified as a "church" or "denomination."在普遍的宗教,不论是犹太教,伊斯兰教,或基督徒,是面额列为“教会”或“。”The pervasive religion is highly organized and deeply integrated into the society's social and economic structure, but it makes few demands on members for active participation or personal commitment.社会上普遍的宗教是高度的组织结构和深深融入了社会的社会和经济,但它使少数成员的要求积极参与或个人承担。 The sect, however, demands a high degree of participation and a suitable display of individual loyalty and spiritual commitment.该教派,但是,要求高的参与程度和精神的承诺合适的展示个人的忠诚和。While the church has compromised and accommodated its doctrines and practices to the secular society, the sect rejects all such accommodations or compromises and sets itself against both church and secular society to defend a purer doctrine and practice.虽然教会已妥协和照顾它的教义和做法,以世俗社会,该教派拒绝所有这些住宿或妥协,并提出自己对社会都教会和世俗捍卫一个纯理论和实践。 Comparative study of the many Christian sects has led scholars to suggest several different categories of sect types such as the conversionist, the adventist, and the gnostic.基督教教派的比较研究,导致了许多学者提出,在台安作为conversionist几种不同类型的节类型,例如,与诺斯底。 The organization and government of most sects are more democratic than that of a church or denomination; likewise, the leadership is frequently less experienced and nonprofessional.政府的组织和教派大多数面额民主或更比一所教堂,同样地,领导经常缺乏经验及外行。

The life span of a sect is usually short.一个教派的寿命通常较短。Many, but not all, sects gradually lose their sectarian character and acquire the status of a church after a generation or two.许多人,但不是所有教派逐渐失去其特性和教会宗派经过两一代或收购的地位1。Thus, modern Protestant denominations began as sects.因此,现代的新教教派的教派开始。Yet, not all sects mature into churches.然而,并不是所有的教派成熟进入教堂。The so - called established sect manages to avoid accommodation and compromise and keeps its spirit of religious protest and opposition to secular society viable indefinitely.所谓-所谓既定的管理,避免教派和解和妥协的精神,保持其无限期的抗议和反对宗教世俗社会可行的。

HK Gallatin香港加拉廷
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
RK Mac Master, NCE , XIII; TF O'Dea, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, XIV; HR Niebuhr, Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, XIII, and The Social Sources of Denominationalism; WJ Warner, A Dictionary of the Social Sciences; WJ Whalen, NCE , XIII; WT Whitley, HERE , XI; E Troeltsch, The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches; BR Wilson, Sects and Society: A Sociological Study of the Elim Tabernacle, Christian Science, and Christadelphians; J Wilson, Religion in American Society: The Effective Presence; JM Yinger, Religion in the Struggle for Power. RK的Mac硕士,罗富国教育学院,十三,转铁蛋白奥德亚,社会科学国际百科全书的,十四,人力资源尼布尔,第十三社会科学百科全书,以及来源宗派社会; WJ通讯公司华纳,阿社会科学词典; WJ通讯公司惠伦,竞争性考试,第十三;小波变换惠特利,在这里,第十一,电子商务特勒尔奇,基督教教会的社会训导的; BR威尔逊,教派与社会:基督教科学社会学研究的伊琳幕,和基督弟兄; J威尔逊,宗教美国社会:有效存在; JM莺儿,宗教的权力斗争的。


Sect and Sects教派和教派

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. ETYMOLOGY AND MEANING一,词源和意义

The word "sect" is not derived, as is sometimes asserted, from secare, to cut, to dissect, but from sequi, to follow (Skeat, "Etymological Dict.", 3rd ed., Oxford, 1898, sv).单词“教派”是不是派生,因为有时声称,从secare,切割,解剖,而是从塞奎,遵循(斯基特“词源快译通。”第三版。,牛津,1898年,SV)型。 In the classical Latin tongue secta signified the mode of thought, the manner of life and, in a more specific sense, designated the political party to which one had sworn allegiance, or the philosophical school whose tenents he had embraced.在古典拉丁舌头secta标志着思维模式,生活态度和意识,以更具体,指定哪一个政党已宣誓效忠,或哲学学派的拥抱tenents他。 Etymologically no offensive connotation is attached to the term.从词源没有攻击性的内涵是重视的术语。In the Acts of the Apostles it is applied both in the Latin of the Vulgate and in the English of the Douay version to the religious tendency with which one has identified himself (xxiv, 5; xxvi, 5; xxviii, 22; see xxiv, 14).在看到第24条的行为;的22使徒是同时适用于在拉丁美洲的武加大和英文在Douay版本的宗教倾向与其中一个已经确定自己(24,5,26,5,二十八, 14)。The Epistles of the New Testament disparagingly apply it to the divisions within the Christian communities.新约书信的轻蔑地应用到各司内的基督教社区。The Epistle to the Galatians (v, 20) numbers among the works of the flesh, "quarrels, dissensions, sects"; and St. Peter in his second Epistle (ii, 1) speaks of the "lying teachers, who shall bring in sects of perdition". 20书信向加拉太书(五)肉数目之间的作品,“争吵,纠纷,教派”;和圣彼得在他的第二书信(二)谈到“说谎的教师,谁应引入教派的灭亡“。In subsequent Catholic ecclesiastical usage this meaning was retained (see August. contra Faust. Manich. XX, 3); but in Christian antiquity and the Middle Ages the term was of much less frequent use than "heresy" or "schism".在随后的天主教教会使用这个意义被保留(见8月。禁忌浮士德。马尼希。× ×,3),但在基督教的古代和中世纪的任期比更是频繁使用“异端”或“分裂”。These words were more specific and consequently clearer. Moreover, as heresy directly designated substantial doctrinal error and sect applied to external fellowship, the Church, which has always attached paramount importance to soundness in doctrine, would naturally prefer the doctrinal designation.这些话都比较具体,因而更清晰。此外,直接指定为异端重大理论错误和教派适用于外部团契,教会,一向非常重视健全的学说,自然希望指定的教义。

With the rise of Protestantism and the consequent disruption of the Christian religion into numerous denominations, the use of the word sect has become frequent among Christians.随着基督教的兴起和众多的宗教教派从而打乱到基督教,该教派使用这个词已经成为经常包括基督徒。It usually implies at present disapproval in the mind of the speaker or writer.它通常意味着在当前反对扬声器或作家在心里的。Such, however, is not necessarily the case as is evidenced by the widely used expression "sectarian" (for denominational) institutions and by the statement of the well-known authority HW Lyon that he uses the word "in no invidious sense" ("A Study of the Sects", Boston, 1891, p. 4).这样,但是不一定是用来表达人们普遍认为此案是证明了“宗派主义”(即教会)机构,由里昂声明著名权威硬件,他没有令人反感的意义上使用这个词“中的”(“ “学习的教派,波士顿,1891年,第4页)。This extension of the term to all Christian denominations results no doubt, from the tendency of the modern non-Catholic world to consider all the various forms of Christianity as the embodiment of revealed truths and as equally entitled to recognition.这个术语扩展到所有的基督教教派的结果毫无疑问,从世界趋势的现代非天主教考虑和得到承认的平等权利作为所有各种形式的基督教真理的化身的显现出来。 Some churches, however, still take exception to the application of the term to themselves because of its implication, in their eyes, of inferiority or depreciation.一些教会,但是,仍然不同意这个词应用到自己,因为它的含义,在他们眼中,自卑或贬值。The Protestant denominations which assume such an attitude are at a loss to determine the essential elements of a sect.新教教派的态度而承担这种损失,是在一个确定一个教派的基本要素。In countries like England and Germany, where State Churches exist, it is usual to apply the name "sect" to all dissenters.在存在国家,例如英国和德国,在那里的国家教会,这是通常采用的名称“教派”的所有异议人士。Obedience to the civil authority in religious matters thus becomes the necessary prerequisite for a fair religious name.服从宗教事务的民间权威,也因此成为公平宗教的名义为必要前提。In lands where no particular religion is officially recognized the distinction between Church and sect is considered impossible by some Protestants (Loofs, "Symbolik", Leipzig, 1902, 74).在第一节的土地如果没有特定的宗教和教会正式承认之间的区别被认为是不可能的一些新教徒(卢夫斯,“Symbolik”,莱比锡,1902年,74)。 Others claim that the preaching of the pure and unalloyed Word of Go, the legitimate administration of the sacraments and the historical identification with the national life of a people entitle a denomination to be designated as a Church; in the absence of these qualifications it is merely a sect (Kalb, 592-94).有些人则认为转到说教和非合金Word中的纯洁的,合法的圣礼管理和人民生活的历史认同与国家有权将一个教派教会指定为一,在资格的情况下,这些仅仅是一节(卡尔布,592-94)。 This, however, does not solve the question; for what authority among Protestants will ultimately and to their general satisfaction judge of the character of the preaching or the manner in which the sacraments are administered?然而,这并不能解决问题,什么新教徒之间的权力,并最终将他们的圣礼,是管理的总体满意法官的性质,其中的说教或方式吗? Furthermore, an historical religion may contain many elements of falsehood.此外,历史宗教可能含有虚假的许多内容。Roman paganism was more closely identified with the life of the nation than any Christian religion ever was, and still it was an utterly defective religious system.罗马异教更密切了与以往任何时候都确定了民族宗教生活比任何基督教,但仍然是一个完全有缺陷的宗教体系。It was a non-Christian system, but the example nevertheless illustrates the point at issue; for a religion true or false will remain so independently of subsequent historical association or national service.这是一个非基督教的制度,但不过的例子说明了问题点,为真或假宗教等服务仍将独立后的历史联系或国家。

To the Catholic the distinction of Church and sect presents no difficulty.对于天主教的教会和教派的区别并没有任何困难。For him, any Christian denomination which has set itself up independently of his own Church is a sect.对他来说,任何基督教教派已经为自己确定了自己独立的教会是一个邪教。According to Catholic teaching any Christians who, banded together refuse to accept the entire doctrine or to acknowledge the supreme authority of the Catholic Church, constitute merely a religious party under human unauthorized leadership.根据天主教的教学任何教会的基督徒谁,联合起来拒绝接受整个学说或承认天主教的最高权威,只是人类构成非法宗教党的领导下。 The Catholic Church alone is that universal society instituted by Jesus Christ which has a rightful claim to the allegiance of all men, although in fact, this allegiance is withheld by many because of ignorance and the abuse of free-will.天主教会才是社会的人普遍实行了耶稣基督的有正当要求所有效忠的,但事实上,这所扣的忠诚是因为许多无知和滥用的意志的自由。 She is the sole custodian of the complete teaching of Jesus Christ which must be accepted in its entirety by all mankind. Her members do not constitute a sect nor will they consent to be known as such, because they do not belong to a party called into existence by a human leader, or to a school of thought sworn to the dictates of a mortal master.她是全人类的唯一保管人教学的完整的在耶稣基督必须接受它的全部通过。她的成员并不构成一节他们也不会同意被称为这样,因为他们不属于任何一个政党叫进存在一个人类领袖,或学校思想宣誓主支配的一个凡人。 They form part of a Church which embraces all space and in a certain sense both time and eternity, since it is militant, suffering, and triumphant.他们形成永恒的一部分,一所教堂,把所有空间和在一定意义上的时间和,因为它是激进,痛苦和胜利。This claim that the Catholic religion is the only genuine form of Christianity may startle some by its exclusiveness.这一索赔天主教是唯一真正的基督教形式可能由一些惊吓排他性。But the truth is necessarily exclusive; it must exclude error just as necessarily as light is incompatible with darkness.但事实是必然排斥的;它必须排除错误一样一定是黑暗的光不符合。As all non-Catholic denominations reject some truth or truths taught by Christ, or repudiate the authority instituted by him in his Church, they have in some essential point sacrificed his doctrine to human learning or his authority to self-constituted leadership.由于所有非天主教教派拒绝一些真理或真理或教导基督,否认他的教会提起由他的权力,他们点了一些必要的牺牲在他的学说对人类学习或他的权威,以自我组成的领导。 That the Church should refuse to acknowledge such religious societies as organizations, like herself, of Divine origin and authority is the only logical course open to her.这教会应该拒绝承认这些神圣的宗教社团的组织,像她这样,原产地和权威,是唯一合乎逻辑的课程开放给她。No fair-minded person will be offended at this if it be remembered that faithfulness to its Divine mission enforces this uncompromising attitude on the ecclesiastical authority.没有公正的人会在这个冒犯它必须记住,如果忠实于它的神圣使命执行这个教会权威的不妥协态度。It is but a practical assertion of the principle that Divinely revealed truth cannot and must not be sacrificed to human objection and speculation.它不过是揭示真理的实践断言神圣的原则,不能,不能牺牲人类反对和猜测。 But while the Church condemns the errors of non-Catholics, she teaches the practice of justice and charity towards their persons, repudiates the use of violence and compulsion to effect their conversion and is ever ready to welcome back into the fold persons who have strayed from the path of truth.不过,虽然教会谴责,对非天主教徒的错误,她教的人绳之以法,慈善对他们的做法,否定了强制使用暴力,并影响他们的转换,并随时准备欢迎回折的人都偏离了谁真理的道路。

II.二。HISTORICAL SURVEY; CAUSES; REMEDY OF SECTARIANISM历史考察;原因;宗派主义的补救措施

The recognition by the Church of the sects which sprang up in the course of her history would necessarily have been fatal to herself and to any consistent religious organization.她的历史的认识,教会的教派,其中在兴起过程中的必然已经死亡对自己和任何的宗教组织。From the time when Jewish and pagan elements threatened the purity of her doctrine to the days of modernistic errors, her history would have been but one long accommodation to new and sometimes contradictory opinions.从当时的犹太人和异教徒的元素学说的纯洁性威胁到现代主义的错误,她的天,她的历史将是一个长期的居所,但新的,有时相互矛盾的意见。 Gnosticism, Manichæism, Arianism in the earlier days and Albigensianism, Hussitism, and Protestantism of later date, to mention only a few heresies, would have called for equal recognition.诺斯替主义,摩尼教,Hussitism阿里乌教派在早期和Albigensianism,新教和日期后,只提几个歪理邪说,本来是要求平等的承认。 The different parties into which the sects usually split soon after their separation from the Mother Church would have been entitled in their turn to similar consideration.类似的考虑到其中的不同党派通常教派的分裂后不久,其母亲分离教会将有资格在他们的依靠。Not only Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Zwinglianism, but all the countless sects springing from them would have had to be looked upon as equally capable of leading men to Christ and salvation.不仅路德教,加尔文教和Zwinglianism,但所有这些雨后春笋般从无数教派将不得不被视为男人同样能导致基督和救恩。 The present existence of 168 Christian denominations in the United States alone sufficiently illustrates this contention.该国目前仅存在美国基督教派在168个充分说明了这一论点。A Church adopting such a policy of universal approval is not liberal but indifferent; it does not lead but follows and cannot be said to have a teaching mission among men.一个教会采取这样的审批政策普遍宽松,但不冷漠,它不会领先,但遵循并不能说有一个男人之间的教学任务。Numerous general causes may be assigned for the disruption of Christianity. Among the principal ones were doctrinal controversies, disobedience to disciplinary prescriptions, and dissatisfaction with real or fancied ecclesiastical abuses.许多一般的原因可能是委派的基督教的影响。其中主要是理论上的争论,不服从纪律处方和滥用不满现实或幻想教会。Political issues and national sentiment also had a share in complicating the religious difficulty.政治问题和民族情绪也有宗教每股复杂困难的。Moreover reasons of a personal nature and human passions not infrequently hindered that calm exercise of judgment so necessary in religious matters.人类激情的理由,而个人性质的而不是偶尔阻碍该冷静的判断,以便必要事项行使宗教。These general causes resulted in the rejection of the vivifying principle of supernatural authority which is the foundation of all unity.这些一般原因导致的团结拒绝了所有的生机原则超自然的权力基础,是。

It is this principle of a living authority divinely commissioned to preserve and authoritatively interpret Divine Revelation which is the bond of union among the different members of the Catholic Church.正是这种权力原则的生活神圣委托保存和权威性解释神圣的启示是教会债券天主教联盟成员之间的不同。To its repudiation is not only due the initial separation of non-Catholics, but also their subsequent failure in preserving union among themselves.它不仅是由于休妻的天主教徒初步分离非,但他们彼此之间也随后失败工会在维护。Protestantism in particular, by its proclamation of the right of private interpretation of the Sacred Scriptures swept away with one stroke all living authority and constituted the individual supreme judge in doctrinal matters.基督教,特别是通过宣布其圣经的神圣的权利与私人解释一举扫除了所有生活中的权威和法官组成的理论问题的个人至上。 Its divisions are therefore but natural, and its heresy trials in disagreement with one of its fundamental principles.但它的分歧是自然的,因此,它的异端审判与分歧的基本原则之一。The disastrous results of the many divisions among Christians are keenly felt today and the longing for union is manifest.基督徒之间的分歧的许多灾难性的后果都深切感受到今天和工会渴望的是清单。The manner, however, in which the desired result may be attained is not clear to non-Catholics.的方式,但是,其中可能达到预期的结果是不明确的非天主教徒。Many see the solution in undogmatic Christianity or undenominationalism.许多人认为解决的undenominationalism基督教或在非教条。The points of disagreement, they believe, ought to be overlooked and a common basis for union thus obtained. Hence they advocate the relegation of doctrinal differences to the background and attempt to rear a united Christianity chiefly on a moral basis.分歧的意见,他们认为,应该被忽视和工会共同基础所得。因此,他们主张的分歧的理论保级的主要背景和基督教的道德基础上的企图后方团结。 This plan, however, rests on a false assumption; for its minimizes, in an unwarranted degree, the importance of the right teaching and sound belief and thus tends to transform Christianity into a mere ethical code.这一计划,然而,建立在一个错误的假设,在一个莫须有的程度;为最大限度地减少,相信重视教学的权利和声音,因此往往会转化成一个单纯的代码基督教道德。 From the inferior position assigned to doctrinal principles there is but one step to their partial or complete rejection, and undenominationalism, instead of being a return to the unity desired by Christ, cannot but result in the destruction of Christianity. It is not in the further rejection of truth that the divisions of Christianity can be healed, but in the sincere acceptance of what has been discarded; the remedy lies in the return of all dissenters to the Catholic Church.从法理上的原则劣势分配上,只有一步一个脚印,其部分或完全拒绝,并undenominationalism,而不是作为一个基督的回报期望的团结的,不能不导致基督教破坏。这不是在进一步拒绝真理,基督教的分歧是可以治愈的,但是在被丢弃真诚接受了什么;补救办法在于持不同政见者返回所有的天主教教会。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息韦伯写不适用。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.奉献给耶稣圣心天主教百科全书,卷十三。 Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography书目

Catholic authorities: BENSON, Non-Catholic Denominations (New York, 1910); MÖHLER, Symbolism, tr.天主教当局:本逊,非天主教教派(纽约,1910);莫赫勒,象征主义,文。ROBERTSON, 3rd ed.罗伯逊,第3版。(New York, sd); PETRE, The Fallacy of Undenominationalism in Catholic World, LXXXIV (1906-07), 640-46; DÖLLINGER, Kirche u. (纽约,标准差);彼得,世界天主教Undenominationalism的谬误,LXXXIV(1906至07年),640-46;多林格,Kirche美国 Kirchen (Munich, 1861); VON RUVILLE, Back to Holy Church, tr. SCHOETENSACK (New York, 1911); a Catholic monthly magazine specifically devoted to Church unity is The Lamp (Garrison, New York) non-Catholic authorities: CARROLL, The Religious Forces of the United States, in American Church Hist. Series I (New York, 1893); KALB, Kirchen u.基兴(慕尼黑,1861年);冯RUVILLE,回到圣教会,文。舍滕扎克(纽约,1911年),天主教月刊,专门针对教会的合一是灯(驻军,纽约)非天主教当局:卡罗尔,美国宗教势力的,在美国教会历史。系列I(纽约,1893年);卡尔布,基兴美国。 Sekten der Gegenwart (Stuttgart, 1907); KAWERAU, in Realencyklop. Sekten德格根瓦特(斯图加特,1907年);卡威劳,在Realencyklop。f.prot.原始印欧语系。Theol., 3rd ed., sv; SEKTENWESEN in Deutschland; BLUNT, Dict.Theol。,第三版。,希沃特;在德国SEKTENWESEN;钝,快译通。 of Sects (London, 1874); MASON, A Study of Sectarianism in New Church Review, I (Boston, 1894), 366-82; MCBEE, An Eirenic Itinerary (New York, 1911).教派(伦敦,1874年);马森,检讨研究会在新的宗派主义,我(波士顿,1894年),366-82;麦克比,安怗行程(纽约,1911)。


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