Socinianism, SocinusSocinianism

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Socinianism is the name given to the specific form of anti - trinitarianism or Unitarianism stated by the Italian theologian Socinus (Fausto Paolo Sozzini, 1539 - 1604) and developed during the early 17th century, particularly in Poland. Socinus grew up in Italy under the influence of his uncle Laelius Socinus. Socinianism是反的名称给予特殊形式的-三位一体或单一制,规定由意大利神学家索西奴(福斯托保罗•索奇尼1539至1604年)和世纪发展的17世纪初在波兰,尤其英寸索西奴在意大利长大的影响下,他的叔叔拉埃柳斯索西奴。 When he raised doubts about the divinity of Christ, he came into conflict with the teachings of both Roman Catholicism and the Reformation.当他提出质疑基督的神性,他来到改革的冲突,以及与罗马天主教教义的两个。After a short period in Transylvania, Socinus took refuge in Poland, where he spent the rest of his life in leadership of the antitrinitarian movement there.在特兰西瓦尼亚后短期内,索西奴那里避难了在波兰,在那里他度过antitrinitarian其余的生活在他的领导运动。 In 1598 he was forced to flee from Krakow, and he spent the rest of his life in the village of Luclawice.在1598年他被迫逃离克拉科夫,他花了Luclawice村,其余的他的生活。

Socinus prepared drafts for the Racovian Catechism , the first formal statement of Socinian beliefs, which was published at Rakow, in southern Poland, in 1605.索西奴编写的草案为Racovian问答 ,波兰南部的第一个正式声明Socinian信念,发表于在拉科,在1605年。It set forth a moderate form of unitarianism that stated that Christ was a man who received divine power as a result of his blameless life and miraculous resurrection.它提出了一个温和的形式,单一制说,基督是一个人谁收到神奇的复活神权,结果他的无辜生命。The movement was suppressed in Poland after 1658, but Socinian groups survived in Transylvania, England, and elsewhere.这场运动被镇压后,1658年在波兰,但Socinian集团在其他地方存活特兰西瓦尼亚,英国和。John Biddle, the founder of English unitarianism, was influenced by Socinianism.约翰比德尔,创始人是单一制的英国,是影响Socinianism。

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Bibliography 书目
S Kot, Socinianism in Poland (1957); EM Wilbur, A History of Unitarianism: Socinianism and Its Antecedents (1945); GH Williams, The Radical Reformation (1962). S果德,波兰Socinianism在(1957年);电磁威尔伯史Unitarianism的:Socinianism及其影响因素(1945年);生长激素威廉姆斯,激进改革(1962年)。


SocinianismSocinianism

Catholic Information天主教信息

The body of doctrine held by one of the numerous Antitrinitarian sects to which the Reformation gave birth.该教派的身体Antitrinitarian众多的学说之一,以持有该改造诞生了。 The Socinians derive their name from two natives of Siena, Lelio Sozzini (1525-62) and his nephew Fausto Sozzini (1539-1604).该苏西尼获得1639至04年)的名称(从两个当地人的锡耶纳,Lelio•索奇尼(1525年至1562年)和他的侄子福斯托•索奇尼。 The surname is variously given, but its Latin form, Socinus, is that currently used. It is to Fausto, or Faustus Socinus, that the sect owes its individuality, but it arose before he came into contact with it.给予不同程度的姓是,但是它的拉丁文形式,索西奴,是目前使用的。它是福斯托,或浮士德索西奴,该教派欠它的个性,但它出现之前,他与它接触过。 In 1546 a secret society held meetings at Vicenza in the Diocese of Venice to discuss, among other points, the doctrine of the Trinity.在1546年1维琴察举行会议,秘密会社在威尼斯教区讨论点,除其他外,三位一体的教义。Among the members of this society were Blandrata, a well-known physician, Alciatus, Gentilis, and Lelio, or Laelius Socinus.在这个社会的成员都布兰德拉塔,著名的医生,Alciatus,Gentilis和Lelio,或拉埃柳斯索西奴。 The last-named, a priest of Siena, was the intimate friend of Bullinger, Calvin, and Melanchthon.最后的命名,锡耶纳祭司,是亲密的朋友和梅兰希布凌格,卡尔文。The object of the society was the advocacy not precisely of what were afterwards known as Socinian principles, but of Antitrinitarianism.该协会的目的是倡导什么样的不正是后来被称为Socinian原则,但Antitrinitarianism。 The Nominalists, represented by Abelard, were the real progenitors of the Antitrinitarians of the Reformation period, but while many of the Nominalists ultimately became Tritheists, the term Antitrinitarian means expressly one who denies the distinction of persons in the Godhead.该Nominalists,阿贝拉尔代表,是改革时期的真正祖先的Antitrinitarians,但在Nominalists的许多最终成为Tritheists,术语Antitrinitarian手段明确一个谁否认人在神体的区分。 The Antitrinitarians are thus the later representatives of the Sabellians, Macedonians, and Arians of an earlier period.该Antitrinitarians因此萨姆奈特人,马其顿人代表的后期,和周期阿里安斯较早。The secret society which met at Vicenza was broken up, and most of its members fled to Poland.这个秘密的社会,维琴察下午被打破了,而其大部分成员逃往波兰。Laelius, indeed, seems to have lived most at Zurich, but he was the mainspring of the society, which continued to hold meetings at Cracow for the discussion of religious questions.拉埃柳斯,的确,似乎大多数生活在苏黎世,但他的问题主要动力的社会,继续讨论宗教在克拉科夫举行会议的。He died in 1562 and a stormy period began for the members of the party.他死于1562年一开始的暴风雨时期党的成员。

The inevitable effect of the principles of the Reformation was soon felt, and schism made its appearance in the ranks of the Antitrinitarians--for so we must call them all indiscriminately at this time.这是改革的必然原则的效果很快就感受到了,并出现了其分裂的Antitrinitarians队伍的时间-所以我们必须为他们呼吁所有这一切滥。 In 1570 the Socinians separated, and, through the influence of the Antitrinitarian John Sigismund, established themselves at Racow.在1570年的苏西尼分离,并通过西吉斯蒙德影响的Antitrinitarian约翰,在建立Racow自己。Meanwhile, Faustus Socinus had obtained possession of his uncle's papers and in 1579 came to Poland.同时,浮士德索西奴已获得的文件拥有他的叔叔的,并于1579年来到波兰。He found the various bodies of the sect divided, and he was at first refused admission because he refused to submit to a second baptism.他发现该教派划分的各种机构,并承认他起初拒绝,因为他拒绝向第二洗礼。In 1574 the Socinians had issued a "Catechism of the Unitarians", in which, while much was said about the nature and perfection of the Godhead, silence was observed regarding those Divine attributes which are mysterious.在1574年的苏西尼已发出的Unitarians“的问答”,其中大部分是神性说,而对自然的和完善的,默哀,对于那些神圣的属性是神秘的。 Christ was the Promised Man; He was the Mediator of Creation, ie, of Regeneration.基督是许曼,他是再生调解员的创作,IE的。 It was shortly after the appearance of this catechism that Faustus arrived on the scene and, in spite of initial opposition, he succeeded in attaching all parties to himself and thus securing for them a degree of unity which they had not hitherto enjoyed.这是反对后不久出现这种教义的浮士德抵达现场初步和,尽管如此,他成功地重视各方自己,从而保证了他们享有的团结程度,他们至今还没有。 Once in possession of power, his action was high-handed.一旦拥有权力,他的行动是霸道。He had been invited to Siebenburg in order to counteract the influence of the Antitrinitarian bishop Francis David (1510-79).他曾应邀Siebenburg,以抵消)影响的Antitrinitarian主教弗朗西斯大卫(1510年至1579年。 David, having refused to accept the peculiarly Socinian tenet that Christ, though not God, was to be adored, was thrown into prison, where he died.大卫,在拒绝接受独有Socinian宗旨是基督,虽然不是上帝,是要被崇拜,被扔进监狱去世,他在那里。Budnaeus, who adhered to David's views, was degraded and excommunicated in 1584. Budnaeus,谁坚持到大卫的意见,是退化和1584驱逐研究。The old catechism was not suppressed and a new one published under the title of the "Catechism of Racow".旧的教义不是压制,一个新的标题下发表的“Racow问答的”。Though drawn up by Socinus, it was not published until 1605, a year after his death; it first appeared in Polish, then in Latin in 1609.虽然制定索西奴增长,但没有公布,直到1605年,他去世一年后,它最早出现在波兰,拉丁美洲则在1609年。

Meanwhile the Socinians had flourished; they had established colleges, they held synods, and they had a printing press whence they issued an immense amount of religious literature in support of their views; this was collected, under the title "Bibliotheca Antitrinitarianorum", by Sandius.与此同时,苏西尼亦非常活跃,他们建立了大学,他们举行的主教会议,他们有一台印刷机从那里发出了他们的意见,他们支持的数额巨大的宗教文献,这是收集,题目是“藏书Antitrinitarianorum”Sandius,由。 In 1638 the Catholics in Poland insisted on the banishment of the Socinians, who were in consequence dispersed.在1638年在波兰的天主教徒因此坚持在被放逐的苏西尼,谁驱散。It is evident from the pages of Bayle that the sect was dreaded in Europe; many of the princes were said to favour it secretly, and it was predicted that Socinianism would overrun Europe.这是显而易见的,从欧洲的网页,该教派在培尔是可怕的,王子的许多人说,它有利于秘密,它是预测,Socinianism会溢出欧洲。 Bayle, however, endeavours to dispel these fears by dwelling upon the vigorous measures taken to prevent its spread in Holland.拜尔,然而,努力消除其在荷兰的传播这些措施,防止恐惧住宅有力措施后。Thus, in 1639, at the suggestion of the British Ambassador, all the states of Holland were advised of the probable arrival of the Socinians after their expulsion from Poland; while in 1653 very stringent decrees were passed against them.因此,在1639年,在英国大使的建议,所有的荷兰国家的人提醒的苏西尼可能到达后从波兰驱逐,而在1653年非常严格的法令,他们通过了反对。 The sect never had a great vogue in England; it was distasteful to Protestants who, less logical, perhaps, but more conservative in their views, were not prepared to go to the lengths of the Continental Reformers.该教派在英国从未有过伟大的流行,它是反感新教徒谁,少逻辑,也许,更在他们的观念太保守,不准备去大陆改革者的长度的。 In 1612 we find the names of Leggatt and Wightman mentioned as condemned to death for denying the Divinity of Christ.1612年我们发现莱格特名称和怀特曼提到谴责死刑的基督神性否定。Under the Commonwealth, John Biddle was prominent as an upholder of Socinian principles; Cromwell banished him to the Scilly Isles, but he returned under a writ of habeas corpus and became minister of an Independent church in London.在英联邦,约翰比德尔是作为一个突出的原则维护者的Socinian;克伦威尔流放他到锡利群岛,但他语料库人身保护令状下产生的,并成为伦敦部长在一个独立的教会。 After the Restoration, however, Biddle was cast again into prison, where he died in 1662.后恢复,但是,比德尔是演员再次进监狱,在那里他1662年死去。The Unitarians are frequently identified with the Socinians, but there are fundamental differences between their doctrines.经常的Unitarians确定与苏西尼,但也有他们的学说之间的根本分歧。

Fundamental Doctrines基本教义

These may be gathered from the "Catechism of Racow", mentioned above and from the writings of Socinus himself, which are collected in the "Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum".这些可能是搜集到的“问答的Racow”,并从上述收集的索西奴自己的著作,这是“藏书Fratrum Polonorum”。The basis was, of course, private judgment; the Socinians rejected authority and insisted on the free use of reason, but they did not reject revelation.的基础是,当然,私人的判断;的苏西尼否决的权力和理由坚持使用免费的,但他们没有拒绝的启示。Socinus, in his work "De Auctoritate Scripturae Sacrae", went so far as to reject all purely natural religion.索西奴,在他的作品“德Auctoritate Scripturae Sacrae”,竟然拒绝所有的纯粹的自然宗教。 Thus for him the Bible was everything, but it had to be interpreted by the light of reason.因此,他的圣经是一切,但它必须解释原因的光。Hence he and his followers thrust aside all mysteries; as the Socinian John Crell (d. 1633) says in his "De Deo et ejus Attributis", "Mysteries are indeed exalted above reason, but they do not overturn it; they by no means extinguish its light, but only perfect it". This would be quite true for a Catholic, but in the mouth of Socinian it meant that only those mysteries which reason can grasp are to be accepted.因此,他和他的追随者推力放下所有奥秘;作为Socinian约翰克雷尔(草1633)理由说,在他的“德迪奥等ejus Attributis”,“奥秘高于确实崇高的,但他们不推翻它,他们绝不熄灭它的光,但它只有完美的“。这将是一个相当真实的天主教,但在Socinian嘴里这意味着,只有那些神秘的原因可以掌握将被接受。 Thus both in the Racovian Catechism and in Socinus's "Institutiones Religionis Christianae", only the unity, eternity, omnipotence, justice, and wisdom of God are insisted on, since we could be convinced of these; His immensity, infinity, and omnipresence are regarded as beyond human comprehension, and therefore unnecessary for salvation.因此,无论是在Racovian问答和索西奴的的“institutiones Religionis Christianae”,只有团结,永恒,全能,正义和智慧的上帝是坚持,因为我们可以这些信服,他的浩瀚,无限,无处不被视为作为人类所能理解的,因此不必要的救恩。 Original justice meant for Socinus merely that Adam was free from sin as a fact, not that he was endowed with peculiar gifts; hence Socinus denied the doctrine of original sin entirely.原司法讲给索西奴只不过是亚当是从罪的事实作为一个自由,并不是说他赋予了特殊的礼物,因此索西奴否认罪恶的教义完全原创。 Since, too, faith was for him but trust in God, he was obliged to deny the doctrine of justification in the Catholic sense; it was nothing but a judicial act on the part of God.因为,也为他的信念是相信上帝,但他不得不否认在天主教的教义意义上的理由,认为这是上帝的一部分,对司法的行为。There were only two sacraments, and, as these were held to be mere incentives to faith, they had no intrinsic efficacy.只有两个圣礼,并举行了向因为这些是纯粹的信仰激励,他们没有内在的疗效。Infant baptism was of course rejected. There was no hell; the wicked were annihilated.婴儿洗礼当然是拒绝。没有地狱,恶人被歼灭。

Christology基督

This point was particularly interesting, as on it the whole of Socinianism turns.这一点特别有趣,因为它的Socinianism整个转。God, the Socinians maintained, and rightly, is absolutely simple; but distinction of persons is destructive of such simplicity; therefore, they concluded the doctrine of the Trinity is unsound.上帝,苏西尼保持,这是正确,是绝对简单的,但人的区别是简单的破坏性等,因此,他们得出结论的三位一体学说是站不住脚的。 Further, there can be no proportion between the finite and the infinite, hence there can be no incarnation, of the Deity, since that would demand some such proportion.此外,就不可能有无限的比例之间的有限和,因此不可能有化身,是神,因为这将需要一些这样的比例。But if, by an impossibility, there were distinction of persons in the Deity, no Divine person could be united to a human person, since there can by no unity between two individualities.但是,如果由一个不可能的,有区别的人在神,没有神的人可以团结起来,一个人在那里,既可以由两个没有个性的统一。 These arguments are of course puerile and nothing but ignorance of Catholic teaching can explain the hold which such views obtained in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.当然,这些论点是幼稚无知和教学无关,但天主教可以解释17世纪持有这种看法,并取得了16。As against the first argument, see St. Thomas, (Summa I:12:1, ad 4); for the solution of the others see Petavius.作为对第一个参数,见圣托马斯(总结一:12:1,广告4),为别人解决了看Petavius。But the Socinians did not become Arians, as did Campanus and Gentilis.但是,苏西尼没有成为白羊座一样,Campanus和Gentilis。The latter was one of the original society which held its meetings at Vicenza; he was beheaded at Berne in 1566.后者是维琴察1原始的社会,在举行会议,他是在1566年伯尔尼斩首。They did not become Tritheists, as Gentilis himself was supposed by some to be.他们没有成为Tritheists,作为Gentilis本人也有人认为这样的会。Nor did they become Unitarians, as might have been expected.他们也没有成为时代宗教,因为可能已经预期。Socinus had indeed many affinities with Paul of Samosata and Sabellius; with them he regarded the Holy Spirit as merely an operation of God, a power for sanctification.索西奴已萨莫萨塔和撒伯流确实有许多相似之处,保罗,他认为与他们的圣灵只是上帝的运作,一个神圣权力。 But his teaching concerning the person of Christ differed in some respects from theirs.但他的教学关于基督的人在某些方面与他们不同。For Socinus, Christ was the Logos, but he denied His pre-existence; He was the Word of God as being His interpreter (interpres divinae voluntatis).对于索西奴,基督是理性的,但他否认他预先存在;他divinae自主选择上帝的话语是他的翻译(interpres)。 The passages from St. John which present the Word as the medium of creation were explained by Socinus of regeneration only. At the same time Christ was miraculously begotten: He was a perfect man, He was the appointed mediator, but He was not God, only deified man.创作的通道,从圣约翰目前的培养基作为Word的解释再生索西奴只。与此同时基督是造物主奇迹:他是一个完美的人,他被委任调解员,但他不是神,只有神化的人。 In this sense He was to be adored; and it is here precisely that we have the dividing line between Socinianism and Unitarianism, for the latter system denied the miraculous birth of Christ and refused Him adoration.在这个意义上说,他是被崇拜,而且恰恰是在这里,我们有单一制和分界线之间Socinianism制度,后者否认基督的奇迹般的诞生,并拒绝他的敬重。 It must be confessed that, on their principles, the Unitarians were much more logical.必须承认,根据他们的原则,论派是更合理的。

Redemption and Sacraments赎回和圣礼

Socinus's views regarding the person of Christ necessarily affected his teaching on the office of Christ as Redeemer, and consequently on the efficacy of the sacraments.索西奴的看法是基督的人必然受到影响救世主基督对他的教学办公室,并因此对圣礼的功效。Being purely man, Christ did not work out our redemption in the sense of satisfying for our sins; and consequently we cannot regard the sacraments as instruments whereby the fruits of that redemption are applied to man.作为纯粹的人,基督没有工作,我们的罪孽我们在满足赎回意识;,因此我们不能把圣事作为该文书的人,即赎回的成果应用到。 Hence Socinus taught that the Passion of Christ was merely an example to us and a pledge of our forgiveness.因此索西奴告诉我们,基督受难的只是一个例子,我们和宽恕我们的承诺。All this teaching is syncretized in the Socinian doctrine regarding the Last Supper; it was not even commemorative of Christ's Passion, it was rather an act of thanksgiving for it.所有这一切教学是多方融合在Socinian主义关于最后的晚餐,它甚至没有纪念基督受难的,它是一种行为,而为感恩节。

The Church and Socianism教会和Socianism

Needless to say, the tenets of the Socinians have been repeatedly condemned by the Church.不用我多说,苏西尼的信条的教会已多次谴责。As antitrinitarianists, they are opposed to the express teaching of the first six councils; their view of the person of Christ is in contradiction to the same councils, especially that of Chalcedon and the famous "Tome" (Ep. xxviii) of St. Leo the Great (cf. Denzinger, no. 143).由于antitrinitarianists,他们反对的六个议会表达教学的第一,他们的基督鉴于该人是在同议会的矛盾,特别是卡尔西和著名的“汤姆”(插曲二十八)圣里奥大(参见登青格,没有。143)。 For its peculiar views regarding the adoration of Christ, cf.对于它的,比照独特的看法就崇拜基督。can.可以。ix of the fifth Ecumenical Synod (Denz., 221).第九第五基督教主教(Denz.,221)。It is opposed, too, to the various creeds, more especially to that of St. Athanasius.这是反对,也以各种信条,更特别是他那修的圣。It has also many affinities with the Adoptionist heresy condemned in the Plenary Council of Frankfort, in 794, and in the second letter of Pope Hadrian I to the bishops of Spain (cf. Denz., 309-314).它已在794也理事会全体会议法兰克福有许多相似之处Adoptionist异端与谴责的,在教皇哈德良的第二个字母I至西班牙主教(见Denz。,309-314)。 Its denial of the Atonement is in opposition to the decrees against Gotteschalk promulgated in 849 (cf. Denz., 319), and also to the definition of the Fourth Lateran Council against the Albigensians (Denz., 428; cf. also Conc. Trid., Sess. xxii., cap. i. de Sacrificio Missae, in Denz., 938).它否定了Gotteschalk赎罪是反对对法令的颁布,849(参见Denz。,319),还向428定义的第四次拉特兰安理会对Albigensians(Denz.;比照。亦浓。论坛报。,塞斯。22。,帽。岛Sacrificio弥撒程序Denz,英寸,938)。 The condemned propositions of Abelard (1140) might equally well stand for those of the Socinians (cf. Denz., 368 sqq.).命题阿贝拉尔的谴责(1140),可能同样也主张Denz那些的苏西尼(参见。,368时12 sqq。)。The same must be said of the Waldensian heresy: the Profession of Faith drawn up against them by Innocent III might be taken as a summary of Socinian errors.同样必须指出的的Waldensian异端:职业信仰的制订诺森三世对他们所采取的错误可能是由于Socinian一个总结。 The formal condemnation of Socinianism appeared first in the Constitution of Paul IV, "Cum quorundam:, 1555 (Denz., 993); this was confirmed in 1603 by Clement VIII, or "Dominici gregis", but it is to be noted that both of these condemnations appeared before the publication of the "Catechism of Racow" in 1605, hence they do not adequately reflect the formal doctrines of Socinianism. At the same time it is to be remarked, that according to many, this catechism itself does not reflect the doctrines really held by the leaders of the party; it was intended for the laity alone. From the decree it would appear that in 1555 and again in 1603 the Socinians held:在正式谴责Socinianism第一次出现在第四节宪法保罗,“射精quorundam:,1555(Denz.,993),这是证实或”在1603年由克莱门特八,多米尼奇gregis“,但应当指出,无论出现这些谴责前出版的“教义问答的Racow”1605年,因此他们在没有充分反映学说的Socinianism正规。在同时要表示说,根据许多,这教义本身并不能反映党的学说的领导人真的举行,它是孤独的旨在为俗人法令。从这样看来,在1555年和1603年再次举行的苏西尼:

that there was no Trinity,有没有三一,

that Christ was not consubstantial with the Father and Holy Spirit,基督不与父亲和圣灵同质,

that He was not conceived of the Holy Spirit, but begotten by St. Joseph, that His Death and Passion were not undergone to bring about our redemption,他没有设想圣灵,但造物主圣若瑟,他的死与激情都没有经历,使我们的赎回,

that finally the Blessed Virgin was not the Mother of God, neither did she retain her virginity.最后由圣母不是上帝之母,她也没有留住她的贞操。

It would seem from the Catechism that the Socinians of 1605 held that Christ was at least miraculously conceived, though in what sense they held this is not clear.这似乎从,问答,该苏西尼1605认为基督是奇迹般的构想,但至少在何种意义上举行,这是他们并不清楚。

Publication information Written by Hugh T. Pope.出版信息撰稿休吨教皇。Transcribed by Janet Grayson. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.转录由珍格雷森。天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新


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