Syncretism合一

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Syncretism is the process by which elements of one religion are assimilated into another religion resulting in a change in the fundamental tenets or nature of those religions .宗教是合一的过程,哪些要素之一是对宗教的自然吸收到另一个或宗教信条导致在一个变化的根本It is the union of two or more opposite beliefs, so that the synthesized form is a new thing.这是信仰联盟两个或两个以上相反,这样合成的形式是一个新事物。It is not always a total fusion, but may be a combination of separate segments that remain identifiable compartments.这并不总是一个总的融合,但可能是一个车厢的组合仍然可以识别单独的细分市场。Originally a political term, "syncretism" was used to describe the joining together of rival Greek forces on the Isle of Crete in opposition to a common enemy.原本是一个政治术语,“融合”是用来描述加入岛克里特共同的敌人,在反对共同的对手希腊部队。

Syncretism is usually associated with the process of communication. It can originate with either the sender or the receptor of the message.合一是通常与沟通过程。源于它可以与任何发件人或邮件的受体。The sender may introduce syncretistic elements in a conscious attempt for relevance or by the presentation of a limited and distorted part of the message.发件人可能会引入融分子在企图为自觉或相关的信息介绍扭曲的一部分,是有限和。It may happen unconsciously as the result of an inadequate or faulty grasp of the message.它可能发生不自觉地作为消息结果错误把握不足或。The receptor will interpret the message within the framework of his world view.该受体将演绎他的世界观消息的框架内。This may distort the data but fit his values.这可能扭曲的数据,但符合他的价值观。

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Specifically we are faced with a problem of meaning. What is actually understood by words, symbols, or actions as expressed in creeds, or application to certain needs, is the test of the presence of syncretism. 具体来说,我们正面临着一个问题的意义。什么是真正的理解用文字,符号,或需要行动中所表达的信仰,或适用于某些,是融合测试的存在。 The receptor is the one who assigns meaning.该受体是一个谁赋予的意义。It is therefore essential that the sender communicate with words or symbols that are not merely approximate equivalents, but dynamic equivalents, of meaning.因此,至关重要的是,发件人沟通与文字或符号,不只是近似的等同,而是动态等值意义,。

Syncretism of the Christian gospel occurs when critical or basic elements of the gospel are replaced by religious elements from the host culture. It often results from a tendency or attempt to undermine the uniqueness of the gospel as found in the Scriptures or the incarnate Son of God. 合一的基督教福音时发生的关键要素,福音是上帝或基本取代了宗教文化的元素从主机。它从一个结果往往倾向或企图破坏儿子的独特性体现在福音的发现或圣经。 The communication of the gospel involves the transmission of a message with supra - cultural elements between a variety of cultures.福音通信传输的涉及前与一个讯息-各种文化之间的文化元素。This includes the disembodiment of the message from one cultural context and the reembodiment of it in a different cultural context.这包括的范围内reembodiment的形体的消息从一个文化方面,它在不同的文化。

Cross - cultural communication of the gospel always involves at least three cultural contexts. The gospel message was originally given in a specific context.-跨文化交际的福音始终至少涉及三个文化背景。福音消息最初是在一个特定的范围内作出的。The receiver / sender assigns meaning to that message in terms of his own context.接收器/发送者指定的意思过程中对自己的这一信息在以下方面。The receptor seeks to understand the message within a third context.该受体的目的,是了解第三方面的信息在。The problem of syncretism will be encountered with each new outreach of the church and also as the culture changes around an established church.该融合会遇到的问题与各教会的新拓展,也是一个既定的教堂周围的文化变迁。

The Bible reveals syncretism as a long - standing tool of Satan to separate God from his people. It strikes at the heart of the first commandment. 撒旦圣经揭示融合作为一项长期的工具-站在神的人从他分开。这诫命罢工最初的心脏。Beyerhaus notes a threefold answer in the OT to the challenge of external syncretism: segregation, eradication, and adaptation.Beyerhaus注意到一个城市旅游局的回答三倍融合外部挑战:隔离,消除和适应。Pressures from early Canaanite practices with Baal and Asherah were followed by the demands of the national gods of Assur and Babylon.亚舍拉从早期的压力和迦南人的做法与巴力其次是巴比伦和亚述神的要求的国民。 Internally the prophets of Israel sought to enforce the obligatory nature of Israel's holy traditions, to apply the revealed will of God to actual situations, and to forcefully present the eschatological vision of God's continuing control, justice, and promises.以色列的先知国内申请执行的神圣传统的义务性质以色列的,适用透露将神的实际情况,大力目前,司法末世论的眼光,上帝的持续控制,和承诺。

The NT was born in a melee as rulers sought to blend cultures through syncretistic monotheism, all forms of the same God. All the gods of Egypt, Persia, and Babylon became Greek. 新台币是出生在混战作为统治者试图通过混合一神教文化融,所有上帝的形式相同。波斯神所有的埃及,巴比伦和希腊成了。The influence of Mani spread from Africa to China.来自非洲的嘛呢蔓延影响到中国。Esoteric knowledge vied with unique, historical revelation.深奥的知识争先恐后独特,历史启示。Rome harbored all cults and mystery religions.罗马窝藏所有邪教和神秘的宗教。Antioch, Ephesus, and Corinth each boasted syncretistic gods seeking to absorb the church.安提阿,以弗所,科林斯和每个吹嘘融神的教会寻求吸收。NT confrontations include Simon Magus, the Jerusalem Council, the Epistle to the Colossians, combating Jewish thought mixed with early Gnosticism, and the rebuke of the church at Pergamum.新台币对抗包括西蒙贤者,耶路撒冷委员会,书信向歌罗西书,打击犹太人的思想诺斯替主义混合早期和帕加马责备的教堂。 Against these forces the church developed its creeds, canon, and celebrations.反对这些势力的教会制定了信条,佳能,和庆祝活动。The Christmas celebration date was set over against the festival of the birth of the sun god, Sol Invictus, in protest against a major attempt to create a syncretistic imperial religion.圣诞庆祝活动日期定在反对宗教节日在出生的太阳神,抗议索尔一个重大尝试创建一个融帝国。

Visser't Hooft discusses the many syncretistic pressures of the NT times exerted by Judaism, Gnosticism, emperor worship, and the mystery cults. Visser't夫特讨论了许多神秘的邪教崇拜,皇帝融压力的新台币时代所施加犹太教,诺斯替主义。It is helpful to study the books of Hebrews, 1 John, and the Revelation from the perspective of defending against syncretism. The NT canon and the recognized creed became the church's two greatest weapons against the growth and transmission of syncretism. Church history is filled with the struggle against syncretism from political, social, religious, and economic sources. Syncretistic pressure can be seen today.它有助于研究针对合一的书籍的希伯来人,约翰一,捍卫和启示录的角度从。 新台币佳能和公认的信条,成为教会的两个最大的融合武器对生长和传播。教会的历史充满了来源斗争的经济融合对从政治,社会,宗教和。融压力可以看到今天。 In our global - village context secular humanism seems to be the common ground for solving shared problems.在我们的全球-村中世俗人文主义似乎是共同点解决共同的问题。The values of this world view strive for a place in the church's response to both the demands for conformity and the cries for liberation confronting it.世界观的值这个争取一个符合其放置在教堂的反应都为它的要求和呼声面临的解放。

In the striving by missionaries for an indigenous national church with a contextualized gospel, the danger of syncretism is ever present in attempts at accommodation, adjustment, and adaptation. Tippett reminds us that while striving for relevance we must remember that in communication only message is transmitted, not meaning. 在传教士奋斗,为土著语境福音教会与国家的融合危险不断尝试在目前的住宿,调整和适应。蒂皮特提醒我们,虽然相关的努力,因为我们必须记住,只有在沟通信息的传播,而不是意义。 Beyerhaus points out three steps in biblical adaptation:Beyerhaus指出圣经适应三个步骤:

  1. Discriminating selection of words, symbols, and rites, eg, "Logos."判别的符号选择的话,和仪式,如“逻各斯”。

  2. Rejection of that which is clearly incompatible with biblical truth.拒绝这种做法显然是不符合圣经的真理。

  3. Reinterpretation by a complete refilling of the selected rite or symbol with a truly Christian meaning.由符号解读仪式或一个完整的加气选定一个真正的基督徒的意义。

The supracultural teachings of Scripture must be judge of both culture and meaning as God works through men using various forms to bring all creation under his lordship.教导圣经的supracultural必须洛德希普判断双方的文化和意义的作品,通过神人以各种形式在他把所有的创造。

In the history of theology the term "syncretism" is used specifically to define two movements aimed at unification.在神学历史上对“融合”是专门用于界定旨在统一两个运动。In the Lutheran tradition, George Calixtus (1586 - 1656) attempted to reconcile Lutheran thought with Roman Catholicism on the basis of the Apostles' Creed.在路德会的传统,乔治卡利克斯图斯(1586年至1656年)试图调和路德教义思想与'罗马天主教使徒在此基础上的。 This precipitated a syncretistic controversy that was to last for many years.这触发了一场融争议,是过去多年。In Roman Catholicism "syncretism" refers to the attempt to reconcile Molinist and Thomist theology.在罗马天主教“融合”指的是试图调和Molinist和阿奎那的神学。

SR Imbach简因巴赫
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
WA Visser't Hooft, No Other Name; H Kraemer, Religion and the Christian Faith; T Yamamori and CR Taber, eds., Christopaganism or Indigenous Christianity; H Lietzmann, The Beginnings of the Church Universal.西澳Visser't夫特外,无其他名称; Ĥ克拉伊默,宗教和基督教的信仰; Ŧ山盛和CR塔伯,合编。,Christopaganism或土著基督教; Ĥ利茨曼,教会的开端通用。


Syncretism合一

Catholic Information天主教信息

From sygkretizein (not from sygkerannynai.)从sygkretizein(从sygkerannynai没有。)

An explanation is given by Plutarch in a small work on brotherly love ("Opera Moralia", ed. Reiske, VII, 910).一种解释是给予普鲁塔克在兄弟般的爱小的工作(“歌剧Moralia”,编辑。赖斯克,第七章,910)。He there tells how the Cretans were often engaged in quarrels among themselves, but became immediately reconciled when an external enemy approached.他没有告诉如何克里特往往从事彼此争吵,但立即变得不甘心当一个外部敌人接触。"And that is their so-called Syncretism."“这就是他们所谓的大融合。”In the sixteenth century the term became known through the "Adagia" of Erasmus, and came into use to designate the coherence of dissenters in spite of their difference of opinions, especially with reference to theological divisions. Later, when the term came to be referred to sygkerannynai, it was inaccurately employed to designate the mixture of dissimilar or incompatible things or ideas. This inexact use continues to some extent even today.在16世纪的长期分裂成了闻名通过“Adagia的”伊拉斯谟,进入和利用来对他们分别指定尽管持不同政见的一致性在神学的意见,特别是参考。后来,这个词后来被称为到sygkerannynai,这是不正确的思想采用指定的混合物或不兼容的东西或不同。这种不确切的使用继续在一定程度上什至今天。

(1) Syncretism is sometimes used to designate the fusion of pagan religions. (1)合一有时用于指定的异教的宗教融合。In the East the intermixture of the civilizations of different nations began at a very early period.在东方各民族混杂的不同文明开始在一个非常早期阶段。When the East was hellenized under Alexander the Great and the Diadochi in the fourth century BC, the Grecian and Oriental civilizations were brought into contact, and a compromise to a large extent effected.当东方的希腊化下的亚历山大大帝和第四世纪继业者在公元前的希腊和东方文明被带入接触,并在相当大程度上妥协的影响。 The foreign deities were identified with the native (eg Serapis = Zeus, Dionysus) and a fusion of the cults succeeded.外国的习俗,与当地狄奥尼索斯确定(如塞拉皮斯=宙斯)和邪教融合的成功。After the Romans had conquered the Greeks, the victors, as is known, succumbed to the culture of the vanquished, and the ancient Roman religion became completely hellenized.之后,罗马人征服了希腊人,胜利,众所周知,屈服于希腊化文化的征服,与古代罗马宗教成为完全。Later the Romans gradually received all the religions of the peoples whom they subdued, so that Rome became the "temple of the whole world".后来,罗马人逐渐接受他们所征服所有人民的宗教,使罗马成为全世界“庙”。Syncretism reached its culmination in the third century AD under the emperors Caracalla, Heliogabalus, and Alexander Severus (211-35).合一达到了高潮公元皇帝下世纪在第三卡拉卡拉,黑利阿迦巴鲁斯和亚历山大塞维鲁(211-35)。 The countless cults of the Roman Empire were regarded as unessential forms of the same thing-a view which doubtless strengthened the tendency towards Monotheism.罗马帝国的无数被视为邪教的非本质的形式向一神教同样的事情,而这无疑倾向加强。Heliogabalus even sought to combine Christianity and Judaism with his religion, the cult of the sun-god.黑利阿迦巴鲁斯甚至试图结合他的宗教基督教和犹太教,神崇拜的太阳。Julia Mamæa, the mother of Alexander Severus, attended in Alexandria the lectures of Origen, and Alexander placed in his lararium the images of Abraham and Christ.朱莉娅Mamæa,塞维鲁母亲的亚历山大,在亚历山大出席讲座的渊源,和亚历山大基督放在他的亚伯拉罕和lararium的形象。

(2) A modern tendency in the history of religions sees in the Biblical revealed religion a product of syncretism, the fusion of various religious forms and views. (2)宗教在现代历史的趋势看圣经中揭示宗教的融合产品的意见,融合各宗教的形式和。As regards the Old Testament, the Chanaanite myth, the Egyptian, Old Babylonian, and Persian religions are regarded as the sources of Israelitic religion, the latter itself having developed from Fetichism and Animism into Henotheism and Monotheism.至于旧约,Chanaanite神话,埃及,古巴比伦和波斯宗教被视为Israelitic宗教的来源,后者本身有万物有灵发达国家从Fetichism并Henotheism和一神教。 It is sought to explain the origin of Christianity from the continuation and development of Jewish ideas and the influx of Brahmanistic, Buddhist, Græco-Roman, and Egyptian religious notions, and from the Stoic and Philonic philosophy; it is held to have received its development and explanation especially.它是试图解释和埃及宗教观念的基督教的起源和发展的延续,犹太人的思想和涌入Brahmanistic,佛教,希腊罗马,从斯多葛和Philonic哲学,它已收到持有其发展并特别说明。 from the neo-Platonic philosophy.由新柏拉图哲学。That Judaism and Christianity agree with other religions in many of their external forms and ideas, is true ; many religious ideas are common to all mankind.犹太教和基督教的同意和其他形式的宗教思想在许多的外部,是真;许多宗教思想是全人类共同的。The points of agreement between the Babylonian religions and the Jewish.犹太人的协议,并指出宗教之间的巴比伦。faith, which provoked a lively discussion some years ago after the appearance of Friedrich Delitzsch's "Babel und Bibel", maybe explained in so far as they exist (eg) as due to an original revelation, of which traces, albeit tainted with Polytheism, appear among the Babylonians.信仰,这引起了北达科他比贝尔“热烈讨论的一些年后,以前的外观弗里德里希德里的”巴别塔,也许解释只要它们存在的多神教,出现(例如)作为由于原始的启示,其中虽然痕迹,沾染其中巴比伦人。 In many cases the agreement can be shown to be merely in form, not in content; in others it is doubtful which religion contained the original and which borrowed.在许多情况下,协议可以被证明仅仅在形式,内容没有,在别人怀疑,这是宗教中的原始并借来的。As to the special doctrines of the Bible search has been vainly made for sources from which they might have been derived.至于圣经教义的搜索特别为已妄图从他们所得的来源可能是。Catholic theology holds firmly to revelation and to the foundation of Christianity by Jesus of Nazareth.天主教神学认为坚定的启示和基督教基础的拿撒勒耶稣。

(3) The Syncretistic Strife is the name given to the theological quarrel provoked by the efforts of Georg Calixt and his supporters to secure a basis on which the Lutherans could make overtures to the Catholic and the Reformed Churches. (3)融争是归正的名字赋予的神学乔格Calixt挑起争吵的努力和他的支持者,以确保这基础上,路德会可以作出姿态,天主教和。It lasted from 1640 to 1686.它持续了1640年至1686年。Calixt, a professor in Helmstedt, had through his travels in England, Holland, Italy, and France, through his acquaintance with the different Churches and their representatives, and through his extensiVe study, acquired a more friendly attitude towards the different religious bodies than was then usual among the majority of Lutheran theologians. While the latter firmly adhered to the "pure doctrine", Calixt was not disposed to regard doctrine as the one thing necessary in order to be a Christian, while in doctrine itself he did not regard everything as equally certain and important. Calixt,一黑尔姆施泰特教授,英国已经在通过他的旅行,荷兰,意大利,法国,熟人,通过他的代表与不同的教会和他们,并通过其广泛的研究,获得了更友好的宗教团体比对不同的态度然后通常大多数神学家之间的信义。尽管后者牢牢坚持“纯理论”,Calixt并不倾向于把订单学说作为必要的一件事是一个基督徒,而理论本身,他不认为一切,同样可以肯定和重要的。 Consequently, he advocated unity between those who were in agreement concerning the fundamental minimum, with liberty as to all less fundamental points.因此,他主张统一的最低者之间的协议,关于谁是根本,以点自由,以所有较低的根本性。In regard to Catholicism, he was prepared (as Melanchthon once was) to concede to the pope a primacy human in origin, and he also admitted that the Mass might be called a sacrifice.关于天主教,他准备(如梅兰希曾经是),以承认一个至高无上的教皇在人类起源,他也承认,由于地下可称为一种牺牲。 On the side of Calixt stood the theological faculties of Helmstedt, Rinteln, and Königsberg; opposed to him were those of Leipzig, Jena, Strasburg, Giessen, Marburg, and Greifswald.在Calixt一边站着,柯尼斯堡的神学系的黑尔姆施泰特,林特尔恩;反对他的人格赖夫斯瓦尔德的莱比锡,耶拿,斯特拉斯堡,吉森,马尔堡和。 His chief opponent was Abraham Calov.他的主要对手是亚伯拉罕卡洛夫。The Elector of Saxony was for political reasons an opponent of the Reformed Church, because the other two secular electors (Palatine and Brandenburg) were "reformed", and were getting more and more the advantage of him.在萨克森州的选民是为教会的,政治的原因是对手的改革,因为其他两个勃兰登堡)世俗选民(帕拉丁,被“改造”,并越来越多的利用他。 In 1649 he sent to the three dukes of Brunswick, who maintained Helmstedt as their common university, a communication in which he voices all the objections of his Lutheran professors, and complains that Calixt wished to extract the elements of truth from all religions, fuse all into an entirely new religion, and so provoke a violent schism.在1649年他给他的三个路德教授不伦瑞克公爵的,谁保持黑尔姆施泰特作为普通高校,一个沟通的反对,他所有的声音,并抱怨说,Calixt希望所有宗教中提取,融合的元素从所有的真理进入一个全新的宗教,所以挑起暴力分裂。 In 1650 Calov was called to Wittenberg as professor, and he signalized his entrance into office with a vehement attack on the Syncretists in Helmstedt.在1650年卡洛夫被称为维滕贝格作为教授,他在黑尔姆施泰特灯号入口进入他的办公室Syncretists与攻击一激烈。 An outburst of polemical writings followed.一个突出的论战性著作之后。In 1650 the dukes of Brunswick answered the Elector of Saxony that the discord should not be allowed to increase, and proposed a meeting of the political councillors. 1650年不伦瑞克公爵回答选民的萨克森州的分歧不应该被允许增加,并提出了会议的议员的政治。Saxony, however, did not favour this suggestion.萨克森州,但是,不赞成这项建议。An attempt to convene a meeting of theologians was not more successful.试图召开一个神学会议是不是更成功。The theologians of Wittenberg and Leipzig now elaborated a new formula, in which ninety-eight heresies of the Helmstedt theologians were condemned.维滕贝格神学家和莱比锡现在制定了一个新的公式,其中98神学异端的黑尔姆施泰特被谴责。This formula (consensus) was to be signed by everyone who wished to remain in the Lutheran Church.这个公式(共识)是被教会签署大家谁愿意留在路德。Outside Wittenberg and Leipzig, however, it was not accepted, and Calixt's death in 1656 was followed by five years of almost undisturbed peace. The strife was renewed in Hesse-Cassel, where Landgrave Wilhelm VI sought to effect a union between his Lutheran and Reformed subjects, or at least to lessen their mutual hatred.外维滕贝格和莱比锡,但是,它不被接受,并Calixt的1656年去世之后由五个和平年几乎不受干扰。纷争进行了改革再次在黑塞卡塞尔,其中兰格雷夫威廉六世寻求效果和工会之间的信义科目,或至少是减轻他们的相互仇恨。 In 1661 he had a colloquy held in Cassel between the Lutheran theologians of the University of Rinteln and the Reformed theologians of the University of Marburg.他在1661年举行了讨论会在卡塞尔大学林特尔恩之间的路德的神学家和马尔堡大学的归正神学家的。Enraged at this revival of the Syncretism of Calixt, the Wittenberg theologians in vehement terms called on the Rimteln professors to make their submission, whereupon the latter answered with a detailed defence. Calixt愤怒在这复兴之融合的,详细的国防方面的回答维滕贝格在激烈的神学家呼吁Rimteln教授后者于是让他们提交。Another long series of polemical treatises followed.争论的另一个长期的一系列论述之后。In Brandenburg-Prussia the Great Elector (Frederick William I) forbade (1663) preachers to speak of the disputes between the Evangelical bodies.在勃兰登堡,普鲁士大选(弗雷德里克威廉一世)禁止(1663年)基督教传教士可言机构之间的纠纷。A long colloquy in Berlin (Sept., 1662-May, 1663) led only to fresh discord.阿长在柏林讨论会(9月,1662年5月,1663年)只会导致新的不和谐。In 1664 the elector repeated his command that preachers of both parties should abstain from mutual abuse, and should attribute to the other party no doctrine which was not actually held by such party.在1664年的选民反复宣讲他的指挥下,各方都应该放弃互相虐待,并应属性给对方任何一方的学说实际上是不是这样举行。 Whoever refused to sign the form declaring his intention to observe this regulation, was deprived of his position (eg Paul Gerhardt, writer of religious songs).凡是拒绝签署表格,申报他打算遵守这个规定,是剥夺了他的宗教歌曲位置(如保杰哈特,作家)。This arrangement was later modified, in that the forms were withdrawn, and action was taken only against those who disturbed the peace.这项安排后来又修改,在这种形式被撤销,并采取和平的唯一行动是对那些谁干扰。The attempts of the Wittenberg theologians to declare Calixt and his school un-Lutheran and heretical were now met by Calixt's son, Friedrich Ulrich Calixt, The latter defended the theology of his father, but also tried to show that his doctrine did not so very much differ from that of his opponents.神学家试图在维滕贝格申报Calixt和他的学校取消路德和邪教是现在后者满足Calixt的儿子,弗里德里希乌尔里希Calixt,在捍卫父亲神学他,而且还试图表明,他的学说没有这么多不同的对手,他的。 Wittenberg found its new champion in Ægidius Strauch, who attacked Calixt with all the resources of learning, polemics, sophistry, wit, cynicism, and abuse.维滕贝格找到了新的冠军和滥用埃吉迪乌斯斯特拉赫,机智谁袭击Calixt,所有资源的学习,争论,诡辩,玩世不恭。 The Helmnstedt side was defended by the celebrated scholar and statesman, Hermann Conring.该Helmnstedt方辩护的著名学者和政治家,赫尔曼Conring。The Saxon princes now recognized the danger that the attempt to carry through the "Consensus" as a formula of belief might lead to a fresh schism in the Lutheran Church, and might thus render its position difficult in the face of the Catholics.萨克森王子现在认识到的危险,试图贯彻“共识”作为一种信念公式可能导致新的分裂路德教会中,并可能因此使自己的立场的天主教徒在面对困难。 The proposals of Calov and his party to continue the refutation and to compel the Brunswick theologians to bind themselves under obligation to the old Lutheran confession, were therefore not carried into effect.提案的卡洛夫和他的党继续反驳,迫使不伦瑞克神学束缚供认自己有义务为旧信义,因此不会影响带入。 On the contrary the Saxon theologians were forbidden to continue the strife in writing.在写作反而撒克逊神学家被禁止在继续争斗。Negotiations for peace then resulted, Duke Ernst the Pious of Saxe-Gotha being especially active towards this end, and the project of establishing a permanent college of theologians to decide theological disputes was entertained.当时和平谈判的结果,哥达公爵恩斯特虔诚萨克森福祉,特别是积极朝着这个月底,以及纠纷的项目建立一个常设学院神学的神学家,决定受理。 However, the negotiations with the courts of Brunswick, Mecklenburg, Denmark, and Sweden were as fruitless as those with the theological faculties, except that peace was maintained until 1675.然而,丹麦的谈判梅克伦堡,与法院的不伦瑞克,学院和瑞典分别为神学那些徒劳无功的,除了维持和平是直到1675年。Calov then renewed hostilities.卡洛夫然后战火重燃。Besides Calixt, his attack was now directed particularly against the moderate John Musæus of Jena.此外Calixt,他的攻击,现在特别针对温和的约翰Musæus耶拿。Calov succeeded in having the whole University of Jena (and after a long resistance Musæus himself) compelled to renounce Syncretism.卡洛夫成功地使整个的耶拿大学(后长期抵抗Musæus本人)被迫放弃合一。But this was his last victory.但是,这是他最后一次胜利。The elector renewed his prohibition against polemical writings.他的著作的选民再次禁止论战。Calov seemed to give way, since in 1683 he asked whether, in the view of the danger which France then constituted for Germany, a Calixtinic Syncretism with "Papists" and the Reformed were still condemnable, and whether in deference to the Elector of Brandenburg and the dukes of Brunswick, the strife should not be buried by an amnesty, or whether, on the contrary, the war against Syncretism should be continued.卡洛夫似乎让路,1683年因为在他询问,在德国鉴于造成的危险,法国则构成一个“Papists Calixtinic与合一”与改革仍然受到谴责,以及是否尊重和选民的勃兰登堡不伦瑞克公爵,纷争不应该被埋葬的特赦,还是相反,在中,合一发动战争应该继续下去。 He later returned to his attack on the Syncretists, but died in 1686, and with his death the strife ended.后来他回到他的Syncretists攻击的,但在1686年去世,与他的死亡的冲突结束。The result of the Syncretist Strife was that it lessened religious hatred and promoted mutual forbearance.该争的结果是,它减轻调和论的宗教仇恨和促进相互宽容。Catholicism was thus benefited, as it came to be better understood and appreciated by Protestants.天主教因此受益,因为它来更好地理解和新教徒赞赏。In Protestant theology it prepared the way for the sentimental theology of Pietism as the successor of fossilized orthodoxy.在新教神学它编写僵化的正统继承人的方式为情感的虔诚主义的神学。

(4) Concerning Syncretism in the doctrine of grace, see CONTROVERSIES ON GRACE, VI, 713. (四)关于合一的恩典在理论,见713争议,重力,六,。

Publication information Written by Klemens Löffler.出版信息洛夫勒写克莱门。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.奉献给耶稣圣心天主教百科全书,体积十四。 Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新

Bibliography书目

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