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Synergism, or synergistic effect, refers to the action of two different effects acting together to create a greater effect than the sum of the actions produced by each acting independently.协同作用,或协同效应,指的是共同行动的两个不同的影响作用,创造一个行动产生更大的影响比总和每个独立行事。

Synergism (Gr. synergos, working together)增效(Gr.联盟,Synergos,工作在一起)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Synergism is reference to the doctrine of divine and human cooperation in conversion .增效是参照转换学说神和人的合作Synergism seeks to reconcile two paradoxical truths: the sovereignty of God and man's moral responsibility.增效的目的,是协调两个矛盾的真理:就是上帝的主权和人的道德责任。Nowhere do these two truths so intersect as in the theology of conversion.任何地方做这两个相交的真理,以便在转换神学的。 One tradition within Christianity, the Augustinian, emphasizes the sovereignty of God in conversion (monergism or divine monergism). Calvin and Luther stood within this heritage.一,在基督教传统中,奥古斯丁强调上帝主权的转换(monergism或神圣monergism)。加尔文和路德主张在这个遗产。 In the Small Catechism Martin Luther wrote: "I believe that by my own reason or strength I cannot believe in Jesus Christ, my Lord, or come to him. But the Holy Spirit has called me through the Gospel, enlightened me with his gifts, and sanctified and preserved me in true faith."在小问答马丁路德说:“我相信,通过我自己的原因或力量,我不能相信耶稣基督,我的上帝,或到他。但圣灵呼吁福音我通过,开明礼物我与他,和神圣的信仰和维护我在真实的。“

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The other tradition, the Pelagian, emphasizes man's moral responsibility.其他传统,伯拉纠,强调人的道德责任。Modified by such Roman Catholics as Erasmus of Rotterdam and such Protestants as James Arminius and John Wesley, this position stresses the freedom of the will.罗马天主教徒改性等作为新教徒伊拉斯谟的鹿特丹和亚米纽斯如詹姆斯和约翰卫斯理,这一立场强调自由意志的。Erasmus said, "Free will is the power of applying oneself to grace."伊拉斯谟说,“自由意志是恩典权力运用到自己。”During the Lutheran Reformation the synergistic controversy occurred.在路德宗教改革的协同争议发生。Scholars debate whether or not Philip Melanchthon was a synergist.学者辩论是否菲利普梅兰希是增效剂。Certainly he wrote that "man is wholly incapable of doing good" and that in "external things" (secular matters) there is free will, but not in "internal things" (spiritual matters).当然,他写道:“人是完全”不能这样做很好,在“外物”(世俗事务)有自由意志,但不是在“内部事物”(精神)的事宜。 In the second edition of his Loci, however (published in 1535), Melanchthon wrote that in conversion "Three causes are conjoined: The Word, the Holy Spirit and the Will not wholly inactive, but resisting its own weakness. God draws, but draws him who is willing. . . and the will is not a statue, and that spiritual emotion is not impressed upon it as though it were a statue."在他的位点第二版,但是,(1535出版),梅兰希写道,在转换“的原因有三连体:单词,圣灵和意志不是完全无效,但抵制自己的弱点 上帝提请,但谁愿意吸引他。。。和意志是不是一个雕像,那是不是精神情感的印象时,就好像是一尊雕像。“

His followers were called Philippists.他的追随者被称为Philippists。His opponents were called Gnesio - or Genuine Lutherans.他的对手被称为Gnesio -或正版路德会。Melanchthon's position was embodied in the Leipzig Interim (1548).梅兰希的立场体现在莱比锡中期(1548)。John Pfeffinger (1493 - 1573), the first Lutheran superintendent of Leipzig, sought to expound the Philippist position in De liberatate voluntaris humanae and De libero arbitrio in 1555, ascribing conversion's active concurrent causes to "the Holy Spirit moving through the Word of God, the mind in the act of thinking, and the will not resisting, but complying whenever moved by the Holy Spirit."约翰Pfeffinger(1493年至1573年),第一次路德莱比锡警,试图阐述的立场在1555年在德liberatate voluntaris humanae和代自由人阿尔比特里奥的Philippist,指称转化的积极共同原因,以“圣灵神移动通过Word中,头脑中的思想,行为和意志,不抵制,但只要遵守神圣的精神感动了。“ Nicholas von Amsdorf, friend of Luther, called the "Secret Bishop of the Lutheran Church," attacked Pfeffinger in 1558 for teaching synergism.尼古拉斯冯阿姆斯多夫,路德的朋友,被称为“秘密的路德教会主教,”在1558年袭击协同Pfeffinger教学。 Victorinus Strigel (1524 - 69), professor at Jena, and John Stoltz (c. 1514 - 56), court preacher at Weimar, became involved.维多利纳斯Strigel(1524年至1569年),耶拿教授,约翰施托尔茨(公元前1514年至1556年),法院在魏玛牧师,成为参与。

Matthias Flacius, professor at Jena, became the major adversary of the Philippists.马蒂亚斯弗拉齐乌斯,耶拿教授,成为主要对手的Philippists的。He taught that the "natural man" is comparable to a block of wood or a piece of stone and is hostile toward the work of God.他教导说,“自然的人”媲美的石头块木头或一块,是上帝敌视的工作。Due to his influence John Frederick II drafted the Weimar Book of Confutations (1558 - 59), causing Strigel to be imprisoned for opposing it.由于他的影响力约翰腓特烈二世起草了Confutations魏玛书(1558年至1559年),导致Strigel将它关押反对。 Enforced strictly by the clergy, John Frederick in 1561 deprived ministers the right to uphold it, vesting that power in the consistory at Weimar.执行严格的神职人员,1561年约翰冯部长在剥夺的权利,维护它,这种权力归属于魏玛康西斯托在。Flacius opposed this change and was expelled from Jena in 1561, while Strigel was reinstated in his professorship, signing an ambiguous document. John Stossel (1524 - 78), striving to justify Strigel's position, merely fueled the controversy.弗拉齐乌斯反对这项改革是从1561年耶拿驱逐,而Strigel是教授在他的恢复,文件签署暧昧。约翰斯托塞尔(1524年至1578年),努力辩解Strigel的立场,只是助长了争论。 John William succeeded John Frederick in 1567.威廉在1567年接替约翰约翰冯检基。Desiring to resolve the controversy, he issued an edict on January 16, 1568, causing the Philippists to leave Jena, and the Flacianists (but not Flacius) to return.希望为解决争议,他1月16日发布一项法令上,1568年,使Philippists离开耶拿,以及Flacianists(但不弗拉齐乌斯)返回。

An Altenburg Colloquy (1568 - 69) failed to solve the controversy. By 1571, however, the Final Report and Declaration of the Theologians of Both Universities, Leipzig and Wittenberg, affirmed "consideration and reception of God's Word and voluntary beginning of obedience in the heart arises out of that which God has begun graciously to work in us."一个阿尔滕堡讨论会(1568年至1569年)未能解决争议1571年。通过,但是最后的报告和维滕贝格宣言和神学家的两所大学,莱比锡,肯定和接待神的话语和自愿服从的开端“的考虑心脏产生于神的工作已经开始慷慨地在我们。“ The Formula of Concord (1577) rejected synergism, endorsed Augustinianism, avoided the rhetoric of Flacianism and the tendencies of Philippianism, teaching "through the preaching and the hearing of his Word, God is active, breaks our hearts, and draws man, so that through the preaching of the law man learns to know his sins and experiences genuine terror, contrition and sorrow and through the preaching of the holy Gospel there is kindled in him a spark of faith which accepts the forgiveness of sins for Christ's sake."该公式的康科德(1577)拒绝协同作用,赞同奥古斯丁,避免了Flacianism修辞和Philippianism的倾向,教学“通过 的说教和Word听他的,上帝是积极的,打破我们的心,并提请人,所以,通过宣讲法律的人知道他的学习和经验的罪过 真正的恐怖,忏悔和悲哀。。。,并通过宣扬福音的圣 那里是他在火花点燃信仰是为了接受宽恕的罪孽为基督。“

CG Fry企业管治弗莱
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
TG Tappert, ed., The Book of Concord; C Manschreck, Melanchthon: The Quiet Reformer; HLJ Heppe, Geschichte der lutherischen Concordienformel und Concordie and Geschichte des deutschen Protestantismus in den Jahren 1555 - 1581; GF Schott, The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, III.甘油三酯appert,版。,鸿书;三Manschreck,梅兰希:安静的改革者; HLJ的埃珀,历史馆明镜lutherischen Concordienformel北达科他的Concordie和历史馆万在Den deutschen Protestantismus Jahren 1555年至1581年,绿肖特,教会的路德百科全书,三。

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