Trappists, Cistercians of the Strict Observance特拉普

General Information一般信息

Trappists is the popular name for members of the Roman Catholic order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance, which traces its beginnings back to the reforms introduced (1664) by Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rance (1626 - 1700) at the monastery of La Trappe near Seez, France.熙笃是遵守,严格名成员流行罗马天主教命令其起源可追溯回介绍的改革(1664))由阿尔芒让勒布蒂利耶去兰斯(1626至1700年在特雷普寺院附近的La塞茨,法国。 He stressed the penitential aspect of monasticism - little food, no meat, hard manual labor, and strict silence.他强调,修道悔罪方面-小食品,没有肉,硬体力劳动和严格的沉默。Eventually these measures were adopted by other Cistercian monasteries.这些措施最终通过了其他修道院寺庙。Expelled from France during the French Revolution, the La Trappe community survived as exiles under Dom Augustine de Lestrange.从被开除出法国在法国大革命期间,幸存下来的La特雷普社区作为莱斯特兰奇流亡者根据奥古斯丁大教堂去。They returned to La Trappe in 1815.他们回到1815年香格里拉霉。

In the mid 20th century the Trappists increased in membership, particularly in the United States.在20世纪中叶的熙笃增加成员,特别是在美国。One influential member was the writer Thomas Merton.一个有影响力的成员,是作家托马斯默顿。The Trappist monks and nuns, who wear a white habit with black scapular, now have about 70 abbeys worldwide.本笃会僧侣和尼姑,谁穿白色的习惯与世界各地的修道院黑色肩胛骨,现在有大约70。

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Bibliography 书目
AJ Krailsheimer, Armand - Jean de Rance: Abbot of La Trappe (1974); L Lekai, Cistercians: Ideals and Reality (1977); T Merton, The Silent Life (1957); MB Pennington, The Monastic Way (1990).欧塞尔Krailsheimer,阿尔芒-兰斯让德:艾博特的香格里拉大霉(1974年)的L乐凯,熙:理想与现实(1977年); Ť默顿,沉默的生命(1957年); MB的彭宁顿,寺院的路(1990)。


Catholic Information天主教信息

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de Rancé (b. 1626; d. 1700) in the Abbey of La Trappe, were known; and often now applied to the entire Order of Reformed Cistercians.共同的名字,其中熙谁跟随湾1626(改革揭幕的住持德朗斯; 1700特雷普四)在洛杉矶修道院,都是众所周知的;现在,经常应用到整个改革熙订购。Thus it cannot be said that there is an Order of Trappists; though if one were to speak of Trappist monks, he would be understood to refer to monks of the Order of Reformed Cistercians, as distinguished from the Order of Cistercians of the common Observance (see Cistercians and La Trappe).因此,不能说有一个熙笃订购;但如果一个人讲特拉普和尚,他将被理解为是指熙和尚革新的订购,如遵守有别于普通的订单的Cistercians的(见熙和La特雷普)。 The primitive austerities of the cistercians had fallen into desuetude in practically the entire order principally through the introduction of commendatory abbots, political disturbances, and human inconstancy; and though many and very praiseworthy attempts at their restoration had been made in France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, etc., yet these were but local or at most national in extent.在熙的原始苦行已落入废止几乎在整个秩序的干扰主要是通过引进褒义词住持,政治,和人的无常,以及他们虽然很多,非常值得称赞的企图恢复了德国在法国,西班牙,意大利,葡萄牙等,但这些人,但在本地或最大程度的国家研究。 That of de Rancé, however, was destined by Divine Providence to be more enduring and of wider scope than any other.该撤销朗斯然而,注定了神圣的普罗维登斯更持久和更广泛的范围比其他任何。Although the Abbey of La Trappe flourished exceedingly, even after the death of its venerated reformer, as evidenced by more than 300 professions between the years 1714 and 1790, yet the spirit of materialism and sensualism rampant in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, did not permit the rapid extension of the reform outside its walls; it did not even allow the entire severity of ancient Cîteaux to be introduced at La Trappe, though this reform was the most thorough and perfect of the many attempts that had then been made.虽然特雷普修道院的La蓬勃发展极,甚至死亡后,改革者的崇敬,就证明了300多个专业和1714年之间的1790年,但几个世纪的唯物主义精神和第十八届感觉派在17和猖獗,不容许它的墙壁的迅速扩展的改革外,它甚至没有让古莱西托整个严重程度是特雷普介绍了镧,虽然这是最彻底的改革和完善作出了许多尝试,然后说了。 Consequently it founded but a small number of monasteries; these were: Buon-Solazzo, hear Florence (1705), and St. Vito at Rome (1709); Casamari, in the Papal States, was obliged to adopt the Constitutions of de Rancé (1717), but for nearly a century there was no further expansion.因此它的成立,而是少数的寺庙,这些是:奔-索拉佐,听到佛罗伦萨(1705),和圣威霆在罗马(1709年); Casamari,在教皇国,不得不采取代朗斯宪法的( 1717),但近一个世纪以来,没有进一步扩大。It was from the time of these earliest foundations that they who embraced de Rancés reform were called Trappists.正是从这些基础的时间最早,他们谁拥护德兰切斯改革被称为熙笃。Too much credit cannot be given to these noble bands of monks, who by their lives demonstrated to a corrupt world that man could have a higher ambition than the gratification of the mere natural instincts of this ephemeral life.太多的信贷不能给这个短暂的生命这些崇高级别的和尚,谁证明了他们的生活世界,人的腐败本能可以自然的更高的野心比仅仅满足。

At the time of the Revolution, when the monastery of La Trappe, in common with all others, was ordered to be confiscated by the Government, the people of the neighbourhood petitioned that an exception be made in their favour, and the Trappists themselves, encouraged by this, addressed a memorial to the National Assembly and the king considered the matter for nearly a year, but finally decided that they should be despoiled like the others.在点菜时间革命,当寺院的香格里拉霉所有,共同他人,将被没收由政府,有利于人民的邻里请愿是一个例外,在和熙笃自己的鼓励,这个讲话纪念向国民议会和国王审议了近一年的事,但最后决定,他们应该像其他被掠夺。 com augustine de Lestrange (b. 1754; d. 1827, see Lestrange), vicar-general of the Archdiocese of Vienna, had entered La Trappe (1780) in order to escape the burden of the episcopate.奥古斯丁的COM德莱斯特兰奇(生于1754年,1827年四,见莱斯特兰奇),副主教,维也纳总教区,已进入香格里拉霉(1780),以逃避主教负担的。 He it was whom God had raised up to preserve the Trappists when so direly threatened with extinction; he resolved, therefore, to expatriate himself for the welfare of his order.他是上帝的人提出了高达维护灭绝熙笃如此direly威胁时,他解决,因此,为了自己对他的外籍人士的福利。Having been elected superior of those who were of the same mind, and with the permission of his higher superiors, he left La Trappe 26 april, 1791, with twenty-four religious, and established a monastery at Val-Sainte, Canton of Fribourg, Switzerland.在被选出的头脑优于谁是相同的,并与上级批准他高,他离开了1791年,与2004年4月26日宗教香格里拉霉,并建立了一个修道院在弗里堡缬沙坦圣的,广州,瑞士。 Here they had much to suffer besides the rigour of their rule, for their monastery (which had formerly belonged to the Carthusians) was an unroofed ruin; they were in want of the very necessities of life, not even having the meagre requirements they were accustomed to.在这里,他们遭受了很大的严格的规则,除了他们,为他们的修道院(其中有原属于Carthusians)是一个无顶绝路,希望他们在生活中的必需品非常,甚至不具备习惯于他们微薄的要求到。

In France the Revolution was taking its course.在法国革命正在继续进行。On 3 June, 1792, the commissioners of the Government arrived at La Trappe, took the sacred vessels and vestments, as well as everything moveable, and obliged the eighty-nine religious yet remaining to abandon their abbey and find a home as best they could; some in other monasteries, and others in charitable families of the neighbourhood. 6月3日1792年,香格里拉特雷普的政府专员抵达的,采取了神圣的船只和法衣,以及一切动产,并迫使89宗教但是依然放弃自己的修道院,并找到最好的,他们可以回家有的在其他寺庙,和其他人在附近慈善家庭。 At Val-Sainte, whilst celebrating the feast of St. Stephen, the religious resolved to put into practice the exact and literal observance of the Rule of St. Benedict, and three days afterwards, 19 July, they began the new reform; establishing the order of exercises prescribed by the holy patriarch, as well as all the primitive fasts, together with the first usages of Cîteaux; even making their rule still more severe in many points.在缬沙坦圣,而庆祝,节日的宗教圣斯蒂芬决心落实到具体规则的圣本笃和字面遵守,三天之后,7月19日,他们开始了新的改革,建立为了神圣的族长所规定的演习,以及所有的原始斋戒,连同第一次的Cîteaux用法,甚至使他们的统治更加严重的问题很多。 They entered upon their new mode of life with a fervour that exceeded discretion and had soon to be moderated.他们进入,并很快将放缓后,其新模式的生活和热情超出自由裁量权。Even in their exile many subjects were attracted to them, so that they were enabled to send religious to found several new monasteries: one in Spain (1793), a second in England at Lulworth the same year, a third at Westmalle, Belgium (1794), and a fourth at Mont-Brac, in Piedmont (1794).即使在他们的流亡很多科目被吸引到他们,使他们能够派宗教来发现了一些新的寺庙:西班牙之一(1793年),第二次在英国一个卢尔沃思在同一年,韦斯特马勒第三位,比利时(1794年),并在蒙曼布拉克第四皮埃蒙特(1794)。 On 31 July, 1794, Pius VI encouraged these religious by a special Brief, and authorized the erection of Val-Sainte into an abbey and mother-house of the congregation of Trappists. 7月31日1794年,庇护六世鼓励特别简讯这些宗教所,并授权熙笃架设缬沙坦圣成一个修道院和母亲所聚集的。Dom Augustine was elected abbot, 27 Nov. of this year, and given supreme authority over the abbey and congregation.奥古斯丁大教堂被选为住持,今年11月27日,并给予了最高权威和教会修道院。This state of quiet and prosperity lasted but six years.这一点,但状态的宁静和繁荣持续了6年。When the French invaded Switzerland (1798) they compelled the Trappists to find a refuge elsewhere; thus they were obliged to roam from country to country, even Russia and America being visited by the indomitable abbot and some of his companions, with the hope of finding a permanent home, until after almost incredible sufferings the fall of Napoleon permitted them to return to France.当法国入侵瑞士(1798年),他们迫使熙笃找到其他地方避难,因此他们不得不从漫游各国,甚至俄罗斯和美国正在同伴访问了不屈不挠的住持,他和一些,以寻找希望一个永久的家,几乎令人难以置信的苦难,直到今年秋天批准的拿破仑后他们返回法国。 The monasteries of La Trappe and Aiguebelle came into the possess ion of Dom Augustine, who divided the community of Val-Sainte between them.和艾格贝勒的寺院的香格里拉大霉走进拥有它们离子奥古斯丁大教堂,谁社区之间的缬沙坦圣分裂了。Other monasteries were re-established from time to time, as the number of religious increased and as they were able to purchase the buildings.其他寺庙被重新建立从时间到时间,因为宗教的人数增加,因为他们能够购买楼宇。

From 1813 N.-D.从1813年 l'Eternite, near Darfeld, Westphalia (founded 16 Oct., 1795, from the Abbey of Val-Sainte), which had been exempted some years previous from the authority of Dom Augustine, followed the Regulations of de Rancé, which differed from those of Dom Augustine principally in the hour for dinner, and the length of time devoted to manual labour; their order of exercises was naturally followed by the houses founded by them, thus instituting a new observance and the nucleus of a congregation.德l'埃泰尼泰近达费尔德,威斯特伐利亚(创建于修道院缬沙坦的圣10月16日,1795年,从),已被免除一些年以前从奥古斯丁大教堂的权威,其次从条例撤销兰斯,其中差异奥古斯丁大教堂那些主要在晚餐1小时,并专门到长的时间手工劳动,他们的练习次序自然其次是他们的房子成立,从而建立一个新的遵守和众核的一个。 In 1834 the Holy See erected all the monasteries of France into the "Congregation of the Cistercian Monks of Notre-Dame de la Trappe".在1834年罗马教廷竖立修道院僧侣的所有的“众到寺庙法国圣母院香格里拉特雷普”。 The Abbot of La Trappe was by right the vicar-general of the congregation as soon as his election was confirmed by the president-general of the Order of Cîteaux.镧的特雷普住持是由权利的副主教,一般聚集在他尽快选举莱西托证实了总统的命令的。They were to hold a general chapter each year; were to follow the Rule of St. Benedict and the Constitutions of de Rancé, except for a few points, and retain the liturgical books of the Cistercian Order.他们举行每年一般章,并提出要遵循宪法撤销了兰斯,除少数人的圣本笃规则,并保留修道院秩序的礼仪书籍。 Divergences of opinion on several matters concerning regular observance induced the abbots of the various monasteries to believe that this union could not be productive of that peace so much desired, and so at their solicitation the Holy See issued a new Decree, deciding that "All the monasteries of Trappists in France shall form two congregations, of which the former will be termed 'the Ancient Reform of Our Lady of La Trappe', and the second the 'New Reform of Our Lady of La Trappe'. Each shall be a congregation of the Cistercian Monks. The Ancient Reform is to follow the Constitutions of de Rancé, whilst the New Reform is not to follow the Constitutions of the Abbot de Lestrange, which it abandoned in 1834, but the Rule of St. Benedict, with the ancient Constitution of Cîteaux, as approved by the Holy See excepting the prescriptions contained in this Decree. The Moderator General of the Cistercian Order shall be at the head of both congregations and will confirm the election of all abbots. In France each congregation shall have its vicar-general with full authority for its administration" (Apostolic Decree, 25 Feb., 1847).对各种不同意见的若干事项定期寺院的住持遵守诱导相信,这个工会不能生产的,和平需要这么多,所以在他们的邀约教廷颁布了一项新法令,决定,“所有的法国在熙笃会修道院形成两个教区,其中前者被称为'古夫人改革我们的圣母香格里拉霉',第二个'新改革的香格里拉大霉'。各方应成为众该修道院的僧侣。古代的改革是按照德兰斯的宪法改革,虽然是新的不按照1834年宪法的住持德莱斯特兰奇,放弃它,但规则的圣本笃,与古老的宪法对莱西托,如见批准的除外圣本法令所载的药方。秩序的修道院的总主持人应在教会的头,并确认双方的住持选举所有。在法国每个教会应有其副主教,一般与管理全权为“(使徒的法令,1847年2月25日)。

After this the congregations began to flourish.在此之后的教会开始蓬勃发展。The Ancient Reform made fourteen foundations, some of them in China and Natal; the New Reform was even more fruitful, establishing twenty monasteries as far as the United States, Canada, Syria, etc. The Belgian congregation of Westmalle also prospered, forming five new filiations.古代改革取得14个基金会,其中一些和纳塔尔在中国,在新的改革更加丰硕的成果,建立20寺庙据美国,加拿大,叙利亚,比利时等聚集的韦斯特马勒也蓬勃发展,形成5个新亲子关系。 As the combined strength of the three congregations thus became greater than the Old Cistercian Order, the earnest desire soon developed amongst all to establish a permanent bond of union between them, with one head and a uniform observance; this was effected in 1892.随着综合实力的三个教区,成为更大的比旧修道院令,真诚希望所有发达国家之间很快建立它们之间的永久债券的联盟,一个头部和一个统一的遵守,这是1892年实施研究。 Dom Sebastian Wyart (b. 1839; d. 1904), Abbot of Sept-Fons and Vicar-General of the Ancient Reform, was elected first abbot-general.DOM的塞巴斯蒂安wyart(生于1839年; 4,1904年),改革住持2008年9月,过雷德和牧师的古代,被选为第一住持,一般。After twelve years of zealous labour, the most worthy monument of which was the purchase of the cradle of the Order, Cîteaux, and making it again the mother-house, he passed to his reward, and was succeeded as abbot-general by Mgr Augustin Marre, then Abbot of Igny (a monastery which he had governed since 1881), titular Bishop of Constance and auxiliary to Cardinal Langénieux of Reims; he is still ruling the order (1911), with the greatest zeal and prudence.经过12多年的热心莱西托劳动,最值得纪念碑的是,采购订单的摇篮,并使其再次母亲家,他通过他的奖励,并于奥古斯丁继任住持,一般由经理马尔,然后住持伊尼(一修道院,他1881年以来已治理),名义上兰斯康斯坦茨主教和红衣主教的辅助朗热尼厄,他仍是执政党的最大的热情和审慎的命令(1911年)。

The name under which the order was reorganized is "Order of Reformed Cistercians" and while its members no longer bear the name of "Trappists", yet they are heirs to the old traditions, and even the name will continue to be connected with them in the popular mind.重组后的名称,根据该命令是“熙订购改革”,虽然其成员不再承担“名称”熙笃,但他们是传统的老继承人,甚至名字将继续与他们联系流行的想法。 The present Constitutions (approved 13 Aug. 1894) under which the order is governed and upon which all the usages and regulations are based, is derived from the Rule of St. Benedict, the "Charta Charitatis" and ancient usages and definitions of the general chapters of Cîteaux, and the Apostolic Letters and Constitutions.目前的宪法(1894年8月13日批准)根据该命令,并呼吁所有管辖的惯例和规则的基础,是来自定义规则的圣本笃,在“查尔塔Charitatis”与古代和用法一般莱西托章节,和使徒信及宪法。 It is divided into three parts.它分为三个部分。The first part regards the government of the order; the supreme power residing in the general chapter, which is composed of all the abbots (actually in office), titular priors and superiors of houses, and meets each year under the presidency of the abbot-general, who is elected by themselves for life. During the time the general chapter is not in session the order is directed, in urgent cases, by the abbot-general with the assistance of a council composed of five definitors, also elected by the general chapter, but for a term of five years.第一部分关于秩序的政府;的最高权力(居住在一般章,这是由住持所有实际在办公室),名义上的先验和上级的房屋,并每年举行会议的主持下的住持,一般情况下,谁是他们自己选出的生活。在当时的会议一般章是不是在命令指示,在紧急情况下的,由住持5秘书长与安理会组成的definitors一般的协助下,还选出了一般章,但对一个5年任期。 The abbot-general is titular Abbot of Cîteaux, and must reside at Rome. The order is not divided into provinces, nor is there an officer similar to a provincial.住持,一般是名义上的莱西托住持,必须居住在罗马。顺序并不省份分成,也没有类似的官员一个省。Each monastery is autonomous and maintains its own novitiate; its abbot or titular prior appointing all local subordinate superiors, and having full administration in both spiritual and temporal affairs.每个修道院是自主和保持自己的见习,其住持或挂名任命之前所有本地下属的上司,并具有充分的管理世俗事务的精神和。 Nevertheless each monastery has the duty of visiting all the houses it has founded, either once each year, or once every two years, according to distance, and then rendering a report of its material and spiritual well-being to the next subsequent general-chapter.然而每个寺院有责任成立的访问都有它的房子,无论是每年一次或每两年一次,根据距离,然后绘制一章申报其物质和精神福祉后来到下一个普通。 The abbot of such a monastery is called the father-immediate, and the houses thus subject are termed "daughter-houses" or filiations.寺院的住持这种被称为父亲立即,房子因此受到被称为“女儿,房子”或亲子关系。It is especially prescribed that all houses be dedicated to the Blessed Virgin.这是特别规定,所有房屋被奉献给圣母。

The second part is concerned with monastic observances; which must be uniform in all the monasteries of the order.第二部分是有关寺院的纪念活动;必须以统一的所有寺院的。The Divine Office must be sung or recited in choir according to the directions of the Breviary, Missal, Ritual and Martyrology, no matter how few may be the number of religious in a particular house; the canonical Office is always preceded (except at Compline, when it is followed) by the Office of the Blessed Virgin; and on all ferial days throughout the year Vespers and Lauds are followed by the Office of the Dead.神圣的办公室必须背诵的合唱团演唱或者按照指示和Martyrology的breviary,米索尔,仪式,无论多么数门牌号码可能是在一个特定的宗教;规范办公室总是先Compline(除外,当它的情况下)由维尔京办事处的祝福,以及年晚祷和赞扬所有费里亚尔天之后,整个是死海办公室。 Mass and the day Offices are always sung with the Gregorian Chant; Matins and Lauds also are sung on Sundays and the more solemn feasts.质量和办事处的一天总是唱与阳历咏;晨祷和赞扬也有唱,星期日和更庄严的节日。Mental prayer, one half-hour in the morning, and fifteen minutes in the evening, is of obligation, but of counsel much more frequently.心理祈祷,一个半小时在早上和晚上在15分钟,是义务,但律师更为频繁。Confession must be made once each week, and daily Holy Communion is strongly commended.供认必须每星期一次,并每天圣餐强烈赞扬。Out of the time of Divine Office, before which nothing is to be preferred, and when not engaged in manual labour, the monks devote themselves to prayer, study, or pious reading, for there is never any time granted for recreation; these exercises always take place in common, never in private rooms.离开办公室的时间是神圣的,在它面前,没有什么是首选,并在不从事手工劳动,僧侣们奉献祷告,学习,或虔诚阅读那里,是从来没有获得任何的休闲时间,这些演习总是在采取共同的地方,从来没有在私人房间。 The hour for rising is at 2 am on weekdays, 1:30 on Sundays, and 1 on the more solemn feasts; whilst the hour for retiring is at 7 pm in winter, and 8 in summer; in this latter season there is a siesta given after dinner, so that the religious have seven hours' sleeping the course of the day; about seven hours also are devoted to the Divine Office and Mass, one hour to meals, four hours to study and private prayers and five hours to manual labour; in winter there are only about four hours devoted to manual labour, the extra hour thus deducted being given to study. 2小时的上涨是在周日上午,周日下午1:30开,一对更庄严的节日,而对于退休的时间为7时,在冬季和夏季8,在本赛季后有一个午睡由于晚饭后,使宗教有七个小时的睡眠过程中的一天,约7个小时也致力于神圣的办公室和质量,一小时吃饭,四个小时,研究和私人祈祷和5小时的体力劳动,在冬季只有大约4个小时的劳动投入为手动,因此扣除额外的时间正在考虑研究。

The monks are obliged to live by the labour of their hands, so the task appointed for manual labour is seriously undertaken, and is of such a nature as to render them self-supporting; such as cultivation of the land, cattle-raising, etc.僧侣是不得不住在自己手中的劳动,使劳动委任的任务是认真开展人工和大自然是如此,以使他们自给自足,如种植的土地,牲畜饲养,等。 Dinner is partaken of at 11 am in summer, at 11:30 in winter, and at 12 on fast days, with supper or collation in the evening.晚餐是尝过上午11时在夏季,冬季11时30分,在12快速天,吃晚饭或晚上整理中。Food consists of bread, vegetables, and fruits; milk and cheese may also be given except in Advent, Lent, and all Fridays out of Paschal time.食品包括面包,蔬菜,水果,奶和奶酪也可以考虑除了在降临时,出借,星期五和复活节都出。flesh-meat, fish, and eggs are forbidden at all times, except to the sick.肉,肉,鱼,蛋,禁止在任何时候,除非病人。 All sleep in a common dormitory, the beds being divided from each other only by a partition and curtain, the bed to consist of mattress and pillow stuffed with straw, and sufficient covering.所有的宿舍睡在一个共同的,床是从每个其他分裂只有一个分区和窗帘,床,其组成床垫和枕头塞满了稻草,和足够的覆盖。 The monks are obliged to sleep in their regular clothing; which consists of ordinary underwear, a habit of white, and a scapular of black wool, with a leathern cincture; the cowl, of the same material as the habit, is worn over all.僧侣们有责任在其经常睡觉的衣物;其中包括普通羊毛内衣,白色的习惯,和黑色的一个肩胛骨,一个皮带带;整流罩的习惯,物质作为一样,是对所有穿。

Enclosure, according to canon law, is perpetual in all houses.圈地,根据教会法,在所有的房屋永久的。It is never allowed for the religious to speak amongst themselves, though the one in charge of a work or employment may give necessary directions; and all have the right of conversing with the superiors at any time except during the night hours, called the "great silence".这是决不允许的宗教彼此之间说话,但其中一个方向,需要负责的工作或就业,可能会,一切都在正确的时间晚交谈期间与except的上司在任何时候,被称为“伟大的沉默“。


Before ordination to the priesthood (and all choir religious are destined for that) the monk must pass a satisfactory examination before the abbot, in the curriculum prescribed by the order and the Decrees of the Holy See; and afterwards all are obliged to participate in conferences on theology and Sacred Scriptures at least once each month.前协调的神职人员(和所有宗教都是注定合唱团为该)和尚之前必须通过考试合格的住持一见,圣中规定的课程的秩序和法令,以及事后都必须参加会议关于神学和神圣的经文,每月至少一次。 Students preparing for ordination are granted extra time, during the hours of work, for the prosecution of their studies.学生的协调准备工作,被授予额外的时间,小时期间,为研究其起诉。

The third part deals with the reception of subjects.随着学科接待第三部分涉及。The greatest care is insisted on to see that the postulants are of good character, honest birth, and without encumbrances of any kind; also that they have pursued the course of studies prescribed by the Holy See; they must have attained at least their fifteenth year.最大的服务是坚持看到postulants性质是良好的,诚实的诞生,没有任何一种负担,他们也有追求的神圣的过程中,通过研究订明见,他们必须达到至少15年的。 The novitiate is of two years' duration, during which time the novice is formed to the religious life, but he can leave, or the superior may send him away, if he is unable or unwilling to conform to the spirit of his vocation.在见习是两年时间,在此期间,新手组成的宗教生活,但他可以离开,或者上级可派他去,如果他不能或不愿以符合他的职业精神。 The time of probation completed, the subject is voted for, and if accepted, makes simple, but perpetual vows; these are followed by solemn vows at the end of three, or in special cases, five years.试用时间完成的,主题是赞成的,如果接受,使简单的,但永恒的誓言,这是庄严的誓言,在随后的3月底,或在特殊情况下,五年。 Besides choir religious there are lay brothers.合唱团除了有宗教奠定兄弟。These must be at least seventeen years of age when received; they are then postulants for two years, novices for two more, after which they may be admitted to simple, though perpetual vows, then after six years more they may make solemn vows.这些必须得到至少17岁的时候,他们是那么简单postulants两年,新手多等两年,之后他们可能会承认,虽然永远的誓言,再经过6年多,他们可能作出的庄严誓言。 They do not recite the Divine Office, but have special prayers appointed to be said at the same hours throughout the day.他们不念了神圣的办公室,但任命的特别祈祷会时说,在同在一天。They are not obliged to follow special studies, but are engaged in manual labour for a somewhat longer time than the choir religious; their habit is nearly the same as that of those in the choir, but brown in colour.他们不是必须遵守的特别研究,但劳工从事体力劳动的合唱团为一宗教较长时间比,他们的习惯是几乎相同的合唱团在说这些,但褐色研究。 They are religious in the full sense of the word, and participate in all the graces and privileges of the order, except that they have neither active nor passive voice in the management of the affairs of the order.他们是宗教在完整意义上的字,并参与所有的青睐和秩序特权的命令,但他们的事务的管理既没有积极参与,也不被动语态。

It may be well to deny a few customs that have been attributed, by ignorance, to the order.这可能是很好地否认一些习俗已被归咎于无知,直接到该命令。The monks do not salute one another by the "memento mori", nor do they dig a part of their grave each day; in meeting each other they salute by an inclination of the head, and graves are dug only after a brother is ready to be placed in it.僧侣们不互相致意纪念品家蚕的“”,也不挖一天其严重的每一个部分,在会议上互相致意,他们领导的一个倾角,并挖坟墓后,才兄弟是准备放在它。 (For statistics see Cistercians.)(见统计熙)。

Publication information Written by Edmond M. Obrecht.出版信息奥布雷得勒支撰稿爱德蒙米。Transcribed by Lois Tesluk. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.转录由洛伊丝Tesluk。天主教百科全书,卷十五。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新


Gaillardin, Les trappistes ou l'order de Cîteaux au XIXe.加亚尔丹,莱斯trappistes欧l'德莱西托金XIXe秩序。(siecle Paris, 1844); Hist. (末世巴黎,1844年);组织胺。populaire de N.-D.人民报德 la Grande Trappe (Paris, 1895); La Trappe , by a Trappist of Sept-Fons (Paris, 1870); VErite, Cîteaux, La Trappe et Bellefontaine (Paris, 1883); The Cistercian Order, its Object; its Rule (Cambridge, 1895); La Trappe, congregation de moines de l'ordre benedictino-cistercien (Rome 1864); MPP, La Trappe mieux connue (Paris, 1834); Reglements de la Maison Dieu de No.-D.德拉格兰德特雷普(巴黎,1895年);香格里拉霉,由1870年特拉普2008年9月,过雷德(巴黎);真理报,莱西托,香格里拉霉等贝尔方丹(巴黎,1883年);,令它的对象的修道院,它的规则(剑桥,1895年);香格里拉霉,众德梅因勋章benedictino - cistercien(罗马1864年); MPP的,喇特雷普更好的办法connue(巴黎,1834年); Reglements德拉迈松迪尤德 la Trappe mis en nouvel order et augmentes des usages particuliers de la Val-Sainte (2 vols., Fribourg, 1794); Hist.德拉特雷普误恩努维尔秩序等augmentes德惯例particuliers德拉缬沙坦圣(2卷。,弗里堡,1794年);组织胺。 abregee de l'order de Cîteaux by a monk of Thymadeuse (St-Brieue, 1897); Us des cisterciens reformes de la congregation de la Grande Trappe, with the Charta Charitatis and Decretum Apostolicum quo institutae sunt dua congregationes BM de Trappa in Gallia, 1847 (Toulouse, 1876); Us de l'ordre des cisterciens reformes precedes de la regle de S. Benoit et des constitutions, published by the general chapter of 1894 (Westmalle, 1895); Reglement de la Trappe du Rev. Pere Dom Armand-Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé, revu par le chapitre general de la congregation (Paris, 1878). abregee德l'秩序由德莱西托)和尚的Thymadeuse(圣- Brieue,1897年,我们德cisterciens reformes德拉众德拉格兰德特雷普,与查尔塔Charitatis和Decretum Apostolicum现状institutae必须遵守娃congregationes骨髓德特拉帕在加利亚, 1847年(图卢兹,1876年);我们勋章德cisterciens reformes之前德拉雷格莱去南贝努瓦等德宪法,出版由1894年的一般章(韦斯特马勒,1895年); Reglement德拉特雷普杜致佩尔大教堂阿尔芒,让勒布蒂利耶德兰斯,票面接受一家乐chapitre一般德拉众(巴黎,1878年)。

Also, see:此外,见:
Religious Orders宗教命令
Jesuits 耶稣会士
Benedictines benedictines
Cistercians 熙笃会
Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
Marist Brothersmarist兄弟

Nuns 修女
Friars friars
Convent 修道院
Major Orders主要的订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单

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