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Ultramontanism (from Latin, meaning "beyond the mountains"; specifically, beyond the Alps, in Rome) refers to the position of those Roman Catholics who historically have emphasized the importance of centralized papal authority over the authority of kings and regional ecclesiastical hierarchies .至上主义(来自拉丁文,意思是“”超越山;具体而言,在罗马以外的阿尔卑斯山) 等级地位的罗马天主教徒谁有权教会历史上的国王和区域强调了其重要性集中在教皇的权威It was often used in opposition to such nationalist positions as Gallicanism (France), Josephinism (Austria), or Febronianism (Germany), which favored strong national churches, and to Conciliarism, which subordinated the pope's authority to that of a council of bishops.这是经常),使用在反对民族主义的立场,以这种Gallicanism(法国,Josephinism(奥地利),或Febronianism(德国),这有利于强烈的民族教会,并Conciliarism,而服从的一个议会主教的教宗的权威。

From the 17th century, ultramontanism became closely associated with the attitude of the Society of Jesus as elucidated by theologians such as Francisco Suarez.从17世纪,教皇至上成为密切联系与旧金山苏亚雷斯的态度社会中所阐明耶稣是由神学家,如。Among the basic tenets of ultramontanism were the superiority of popes over councils and kings, even in temporal questions, the primacy of the popes over all other bishops, and, in some cases, papal infallibility in matters of faith and morals.其中的至上主义的基本原理是国王的优越性和教皇在议会的问题,即使在时间,其他所有的主教至高无上的教皇结束,和案件,在一些信仰和道德教皇犯错误的事项。 The ultramontanists attained their greatest triumph in the late 19th century with the formal proclamation (1870) of papal primacy and Infallibility.该ultramontanists首要地位和infallibility他们取得胜利的最伟大的教皇在19世纪后期与正式公告(1870年)。

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Ultramontanism means literally "beyond the mountains" (Alps), the term usually refers to a movement within the Roman Catholic Church in the nineteenth century that opposed conciliar and nationalist decentralization and advocated centralization of power in the papacy in order to restore the spiritual vigor of the church.至上主义的字面意思是“超越山”(阿尔卑斯山),这个词通常指的是教会内的罗马天主教运动在19世纪,民族主义反对conciliar和教皇权力下放,主张在集中的权力,以恢复精神活力教堂。 The concept itself actually dates from the Middle Ages, when the papacy sought increased power in order to free itself from secular control, as in the investiture controversy of the eleventh century, a movement which some call "old ultramontanism."其实这个概念本身,日期从中世纪时,教皇要求增加权力,以自由控制自己从世俗的,因为在11世纪investiture争议的,一个运动,有人称之为“老至上主义。” Coined as a term of derision in the seventeenth century, "ultramontanism" was resurrected in the post - Napoleonic era to refer to an attempt spearheaded by French Catholic romantics to terminate the influence of Enlightenment rationalism and secular governments in church affairs and to restore papal power, a movement which some call "new ultramontanism."作为17世纪的称谓起源嘲笑一个长期的,“至上主义”的复活后在-拿破仑时代是指教皇的权力,企图带领法国天主教浪漫主义的影响,以恢复终止世俗政府启蒙理性主义和宗教事务,并,一个运动,有人称之为“新至上主义。”

However, it was in Germany that the movement became political and eventually touched off the Kulturkampf, literally the "struggle for civilization", between the papacy and the German government led by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck.然而,正是在德国的政治运动,并最终成为引发的文化斗争,从字面上的文明“,”斗争政府之间的教皇和德国总理俾斯麦领导的奥托冯。 The conflict was brief but bitter, beginning in the 1860s and ending by 1890.这场冲突是短暂的,但痛苦的开始,在19世纪60年代和1890年结束了。Diplomatic relations between Germany and the Vatican were restored in 1880, and most of the laws passed against Catholics during the period were repealed by 1886.德国外交关系和梵蒂冈在1880年得到恢复,并在大部分时间通过对法律的规定是1886年废除了天主教徒。

The movement aided and abetted the growing administrative authority of the popes and the tightening of the hierachical structure of the church under their direction.该运动协助及教唆他人权威的教皇和收紧的方向分层结构根据其教会的成长管理。Ultramontanists everywhere applauded such unilateral papal acts as the declaration of the immaculate conception in 1854 and the promulgation of the Syllabus of Errors in 1864. Ultramontanists到处称赞这种单方面行为的概念在1864年罗马教皇为完美无暇的声明中误差颁布的教学大纲和1854年。The movement culminated with Vatican I in 1869 - 70 and its decree of papal infallibility.高潮与梵蒂冈的运动我在1869年至1870年,其犯错误的教皇的法令。

Even though Vatican II (1962 - 65) reaffirmed papal infallibility, it also weakened ultramontanism with its approval of an increased role in ecclesiastical affairs for the college of bishops and a greater voice for the laity in congregational life.尽管梵蒂冈第二(1962 - 65)重申教皇犯错误,它也削弱了它的生命至上主义与公理批准俗人的作用,增加对教会事务学院的主教和更大的发言权。On the other hand, the tone of the papacy since John Paul II took office in 1978 has been one of reassertion of the ultramontane principles of centralization of power and strong papal leadership.在另一方面,二音保罗教皇约翰参加了1978年以来一直领导办公室,一个强大的罗马教皇的权力和重新实现了集中的ultramontane原则。 It remains to be seen if a revitalized ultramontanism will emerge in Catholicism at large.这还有待观察,如果一个振兴至上主义天主教会出现在逃。

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Bibliography 书目
EEY Hales, Pio Nono: A Study in European Politics and Religion in the Nineteenth Century and Papacy and Revolution, 1769 - 1846; AR Vidler, The Church in an Age of Revolution; AMJ Kloosterman, Contemporary Catholicism; DJ Holmes, The Triumph of the Holy See; P Hebblethwaite, The New Inquisition? EEY阿莱斯,皮奥诺诺:甲,研究欧洲政治和宗教在十九世纪和教皇与革命1769年至1846年,铁维德勒,革命教会在一个时代; AMJ Kloosterman,当代天主教;霍姆斯的DJ,在凯旋的罗马教廷; P吉百利,新宗教裁判所?

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