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Unitarianism is a form of Christianity that asserts that God is one person, the Father, rather than three persons in one, as the doctrine of the Trinity holds. A number of religious groups in Transylvania, Poland, Great Britain, and North America have been designated as unitarian because of this belief. 单一制是一种基督教形式这一断言,上帝是一个人,父亲,而不是三一人,作为三位一体学说的成立。号码和一个美国北宗教团体在特兰西瓦尼亚,波兰,英国,已指定为一神信仰,因为这个。 It has not been their only distinguishing mark, however, and at times not even the most important one.它不是唯一的区别是他们的标志,然而,有时甚至不是最重要的。As significant has been their confidence in the reasoning and moral abilities of people - in contrast to traditions that emphasize original sin and human depravity - as well as an avoidance of dogma.作为重要的一直是他们的人的信心,推理能力和道德-相对于传统的,强调人的原罪与堕落-以及作为教条避免。

Modern Unitarianism dates to the period of the Protestant Reformation.现代Unitarianism日期宗教改革时期的新教。A Unitarian movement has existed in Transylvania since the 1560s, when the leader was Francis David (1510 - 79). In Poland, Unitarianism flourished for a hundred years as the Minor Reformed Church until persecution forced (1660) its adherents into exile.一个统一的运动已经在特兰西瓦尼亚自16世纪60年代,当领导人弗朗西斯大卫(1510 - 79)。在波兰,单一制教会蓬勃发展小额改革作为一个百年,直到迫害被迫(1660)及其追随者流亡。The key figure in the Polish movement was Faustus Socinus (1539 - 1604).波兰运动中的关键人物是浮士德索西奴(1539年至1604年)。 Isolated individual unitarians lived in England in the 1600s, most notably John Biddle, but Unitarianism developed as a formal movement in the 1700s, partly within the Church of England but mainly in dissenting circles.孤立的个人时代宗教英国居住在17世纪,最显着约翰比德尔,但单一制发展为一个正式的运动在18世纪,英国教会内的部分,但主要是在不同的圈子。

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In America the religious liberalism that came to be known as Unitarianism appeared within the congregational churches in Massachusetts as a reaction against the revivalism of the Great Awakening (1740 - 43).在美国的宗教自由主义后来被称为单一制出现1740至1743年)在公理教会(在马萨诸塞州的觉醒反应对复古大。The election (1805) of Henry Ware as Hollis Professor of Divinity at Harvard University touched off a controversy, as a result of which the liberals became a separate denomination.选举(1805年)教授亨利霍利斯窑神学院于哈佛大学引发了一场争论的结果,其中一个,作为一个单独的自由派成为面额。 William Ellery Channing's sermon entitled "Unitarian Christianity" (1819) was an influential statement of their beliefs.威廉埃勒里钱宁的布道题为“寻道基督教”(1819年)是一个有影响的信仰声明。

In 1838, Ralph Waldo Emerson's divinity school address declared that religious truth should be based on the authority of inner consciousness, not on external historical proofs.1838年,爱默生的神学院地址宣布,宗教真理应根据权威的意识内,不依靠外部的历史证明。More conservative Unitarians were critical of Emerson and his followers, known as transcendentalists, fearing that such subjectivism would destroy the claim of Christianity to be a divinely revealed religion.较为保守的时代宗教的超验主义批评的埃莫森和他的追随者的,众所周知,由于担心会破坏这种主观主义的基督教声称是一个神圣启示宗教。 Since the controversy over Transcendentalism, some within the denomination have always felt it important to maintain continuity with the Christian tradition, whereas others have found Christianity to be intellectually limited and emotionally restrictive.由于超验主义的争论,一些教派内一直觉得它重要的是保持连续性的基督教传统,而另一些则发现基督教是有限的理智和情感上的限制。

In 1961 the Unitarians merged with the Universalists in the Unitarian Universalist Association, uniting two denominations with roughly parallel histories and a similar tradition of religious liberalism.在1961年的Unitarians合并与该协会在统一世界宗教学院,团结两个教派的宗教自由主义大致平行的历史传统和相似的。

Bibliography 书目
DW Howe, The Unitarian Conscience (1970); EM Wilbur, A History of Unitarianism (1945); C Wright, The Beginnings of Unitarianism in America (1955) and, as ed., A Stream of Light (1975)德国之声豪,良心的寻道(1970年);电磁威尔伯,一个单一制的历史(1945年);三赖特在美国开端单一制(1955年),作为版。,甲光流(1975)

Unitarian Universalist AssociationUU协会

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The Unitarian Universalist Association was formed in 1961 by consolidation of the American Unitarian Association (1825) and the Universalist Church of America (1793).统一世界主义协会成立于1961年)巩固了美国的UU协会(1825年)和教会的普遍性美(1793。At continental headquarters in Boston, the association carries on common activities, such as church extension, ministerial settlement, and preparation of educational materials, but it does not exercise hierarchical control.总部设在波士顿的大陆,该协会进行的共同活动的解决,如教堂扩建,部长,教育和材料准备,但它不行使分层控制。Its philosophy is one of religious liberalism, stressing the value of human freedom and rejecting dogmatic formulations.它的哲学是自由主义的一个宗教,强调自由价值的人,拒绝教条配方。Humanitarian concerns are entrusted to a related organization, the Unitarian Universalist Service Committee.人道主义关切是委托给有关组织,统一世界服务委员会。The denomination is connected with similar groups abroad through the International Association for Religious Freedom.该教派是与国外类似团体通过宗教的自由的国际协会。It has 1,019 churches and lay - led fellowships in North America, with 145,250 adult members and 1,200 ordained clergy (1990).它有1,019教堂和奠定-北美为首的研究金,以14.525万成年成员和1200受戒神职人员(1990年)。


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The origin of this ancient heresy, sometimes called antitrinitarianism, is to be found in the Arian controversy of the early fourth century when Arius, presbyter in the church at Alexandria, set forth the system of thought which bears his name. He denied the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity and asserted that there was a time when God was not the Father and Jesus Christ was not the Son.在这个古老的异端起源,有时被称为antitrinitarianism,是要以他的名字找到的阿里安争议的第四世纪初时阿里乌斯中,长老教会在亚历山德里亚,其中提出了系统的思想。他否认了正统的学说三位一体,并声称有一段时间没有父上帝和耶稣基督是不是儿子。 Because God foresaw the merit of Jesus the man, Christ was accorded a kind of divinity, but he was never of the same substance as the Father although he is worthy of worship.因为上帝预见到了耶稣的价值,该名男子,基督是神给予1种,但他父亲从来不为同一物质的崇拜,尽管他是值得的。This early and rather high form of Unitarianism was condemned by the Council of Nicaea in 325 and by the Council of Constantinople in 381. Throughout the Middle Ages, Unitarianism in any form was regarded as heretical.这种早期的和相当高的单一制的形式谴责了尼西亚会在325和安理会的君士坦丁堡在381表格。整个中世纪的,单一制中被视为异端邪说。 It reappeared in a somewhat different guise in the writings of Michael Servetus and was accepted by some of the more radical of the Anabaptist groups.它再次出现在了迈克尔的著作塞尔维特有所不同幌子并接受了再洗礼派团体由一些更激进的。

It received a new impetus and theological foundation in the Socinianism of Laelius and Faustus Socinus and in the Racovian Catechism of 1605.它接受了Racovian问答1605年新的和神学的基础和动力在Socinianism的浮士德索西奴拉埃柳斯和。Although they rejected the deity of Christ and the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity, the Socinians held to a kind of supernaturalism and even insisted on the worship of Jesus Christ as a divine person, believing in his resurrection from the dead and his ascension.虽然他们拒绝了神的基督和三位一体的正统学说,该苏西尼举行一个超自然种,甚至人坚持神圣的崇拜耶稣基督作为,相信在他的复活从死和他的阿森松。 But his divine nature was the result of his perfect obedience.但他的神性是服从他的完美的结果。They denied the orthodox position on the fall of man and held that man still possesses a full freedom of the will.他们否定了人的正统地位的下降,并认为人的意志仍拥有充分的自由。Thus the redeeming work of Christ is to be found in his life and teachings rather than in his vicarious death upon the cross.因此,基督救赎的工作是要发现在他的生活和教义,而不是在他去世后,替代的十字架。

With the coming of the Enlightenment and the appearance of deism, Unitarianism in the hands of Joseph Priestly and others became more rationalistic and less supernaturalistic in its outlook.随着未来的启蒙运动和自然神论外观,单一制的约瑟夫普里斯特利和其他人的手中变得更加理性,少在其前景supernaturalistic。 Nature and right reason replaced the NT as the primary sources of religious authority, and what authority the Scriptures retained was the result of their agreement with the findings of reason.自然和正确理性取代了宗教权威的主要来源为新台币,并保留什么权威圣经结果的原因是对他们的调查结果一致意见。

Unitarianism came to New England as early as 1710, and by 1750 most of the Congregational ministers in and around Boston had ceased to regard the doctrine of the Trinity as an essential Christian belief. In 1788 King's Chapel, the first Anglican church in New England, became definitely Unitarian when its rector, with the consent of the congregation, deleted from the liturgy all mention of the Trinity. The triumph of Unitarianism in New England Congregationalism seemed complete with the election of Henry Ware, an avowed opponent of the Trinitarian position, to the Hollis chair of divinity at Harvard.单一制来到新英格兰早在1710年和1750年最公理们在靠近波士顿已不再把信仰教义的基督教三位一体作为一项必不可少的。在1788年国王礼拜堂,第一圣公会教堂在新英格兰,当它成为绝对寻道校长聚集,与同意的,三位一体删除了所有提及的礼仪。单一制的公理的胜利似乎在新英格兰地区完成的,选举亨利洁具,三位一体的一自称对手的位置,椅子的霍利斯神在哈佛。

In the nineteenth century, under the impact of transcendentalism, Unitarianism became steadily more radical.在19世纪,在超验的影响,单一制变得更激进的稳定。Its later leaders such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Theodore Parker rejected those remaining supernatural elements which William Ellery Channing had seen fit to retain.其后来的领导人,爱默生和西奥多帕克拒绝接受这种人适合保留其余超自然元素威廉埃勒里钱宁看到。Modern Unitarianism has become increasingly humanistic.现代Unitarianism已变得越来越人性化。Many members of the American Unitarian Association, founded in 1825, have come to the conclusion that their movement is not a part of the Christian church.许多委员在1825年在美国成立,寻道会,得出的结论是,他们的行动不是一个基督教教堂的一部分。In 1961 they merged with the Universalists.在1961年并入了宗教学院。

CG Singer企业管治歌手
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
SH Fritchman, Together we Advance; J Orr, English Deism: Its Roots and Fruits; EM Wilbur, History of Unitarianism,; C Wright, Beginnings of Unitarianism in America.上海弗里奇曼,我们共同进步; J奥尔,英国自然神论:它的根和果实;电磁威尔伯,单一制的历史; ç赖特,在美国开端单一制。

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